Enoch - Hanokh

One of the most important apocryphic works of the Second Temple Period is Enoch. According to the biblical narrative (Genesis 5:21-24), Enoch lived only 365 years (far less than the other patriarchs in the period before the Flood). Enoch "walked with God; then he was no more for God took him."

The original language of most of this work was, in all likelihood, Aramaic (an early Semitic language). Although the original version was lost in antiquity, portions of a Greek translation were discovered in Egypt and quotations were known from the Church Fathers. The discovery of the texts from Qumran Cave 4 has finally provided parts of the Aramaic original. In the fragment exhibited here, humankind is called on to observe how unchanging nature follows God's will.


Milik, Jazef. T., ed. The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave 4 (Oxford, 1976) Printed book. General Collections, Library of Congress.

English Translation of Enoch (Hanokh)

4Q201(En ara)

Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority (11)

Ena I ii

12. ...But you have changed your works,

13. [and have not done according to his command, and tran]sgressed against him; (and have spoken) haughty and harsh words, with your impure mouths,

14. [against his majesty, for your heart is hard]. You will have no peace.

Ena I iii

13. [They (the leaders) and all ... of them took for themselves]

14. wives from all that they chose and [they began to cohabit with them and to defile themselves with them];

15. and to teach them sorcery and [spells and the cutting of roots; and to acquaint them with herbs.]

16. And they become pregnant by them and bo[re (great) giants three thousand cubits high ...]

Transcription by J. T. Milik, amended by J. C. Greenfield; translation by J. C. Greenfield

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