World History of the Stone-Campbell Movement

A Preview and a caution

Disciples of Christ enlisting "Church of Christ" scholars to further their movement of world unity which would certainly give encouragement to Churches of Christ when Jesus asks "Will He find faith when He returns?"  No, almost none.

Funding for this project has been provided principally by Disciples of Christ Historical Society and Chalice Press.

A World History of the Stone-Campbell Movement
Scott D. Seay, Managing Editor Chalice Press (Wine Cup?)
Fourteen historians are collaborating to produce the new history of the Stone-Campbell Movement." Doug Foster, Newell Williams, and Paul Blowers; Lawrence Burnley, Loretta Long Hunnicutt, and Carmelo Alvarez; Scott Seay, Tim Lee, John Mark Hicks, Edward Robinson, Stan Granberg, Mark Toulouse, David Thompson, and Glenn Zuber.

Disciples History Student Responds: Not entirely true

Ken, you stated above "The Church of Christ scholars do NOT understand that the Church of Christ was never part of the Disciples Denomination -- including the later secting of the Christian Church -- when they refused to be COUNTED in the 1906 census."

Truth of the matter is the Church of Christ and Disciples of Christ and Independent Christian Churches were all originally part of the Stone-Campbell movement that began in 1832. While you are close to being correct some of the Church of Christ did not want to be counted in the census after 1907. The actual event that began the split was not music. It was in 1895 at the Texas State Convention in Gainesville, Tx where the Missionary Society threw a black tie party and the some of the southern churches were upset at the lack of support and funds to their churches and how the missionary society could throw extravagant parties.

There are many history books out on this subject and you are completely misinformed. I am not here to argue theology or ideologies with you, but it would help if you knew actual history if you are going to use it in your arguments.

I am not writing this to make you upset or look bad, I just want to help inform you.
Remember: in Essentials unity, in non-essentials, liberty and in all things charity!

Church HIstorian in Training [Disciple]
No offense, "Historian in Training."

"The Stone-Campbell Movement"
is history no older than Leroy Garrett.  Restoration movements happened all over the world long before either man.  At the time of the fraternal agreement on the Bible as Sole authority, there was not a single additional fundamental of Stone that Campbell accepted. It was and is used as psychological violence to try to paint churches of Christ as sectarian sowers of discord when they refused to affirm, attend and support churches having stolen the church houses of widows as Scribes and Pharisees whom Jesus marked as Hypocrites and Christ named as slick preachers, singers and instrument players (Ezekiel 33)

Churches named Church of Christ have existed from the Church in the Wilderness ordained by Christ the ROCK and have have known that "vocal or instrumental rejoicing including rhetoric or elevated speaking" was outlawed when the whole assembly was GATHERED or synagogued for Instructions from God only.  That never changed as the Church was quarantined from the Jacob-Cursed and God-burdened sacrificial system when the evil group fell into musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. God separated the groups and the demand for a king was the final straw: God gave them kings in His anger and took them away in His anger. They got their demand and the Bible and history knows that their religion was Sabazianism.

The use of Instruments are always connected with God's impending judgment as by Christ in Isaiah 30 where the wind, string and percussion instruments are the MARKS in sight and sound of God driving His enemies into "hell."

In Revelation no one PLAYS instruments:
they Apprehend or hold the Word of God. When you hear the SOUNDS LIKE filling the air in your congregation it is a WARNING of mortal danger. The other angel theologians never not commands thost STILL LIVING to Preach the Gospel. There is not a command, example or inference that God's righteous people ever assembled for congregational singing with or without instruments.  The Church of England which was a defacto Catholic church voted both to reject the high-church source of self-will and the use of the organ (only) in the very few large churches.  Queen Elizabeth vetoed the removal as Head of the church because she needed the pomp during STATE religious rituals.  This was exactly based on the not-commanded temple where everyone but Civil-Military-Clergy was not a worshiping communiity.

The Stoneites: Disciples and Christian Churches do not need to read that Biblical source which was taught by all of the historic Fathers and all of the founders of denominations.


The Anglican-Catholic rooted Disciples and Christians [Okelly] imposed instruments knowing that they would sow discord and by lying and cheating planning to steal the church houses of widows.  Anyone working to build promote both instrumental and non-iinstrumental Christian churches knows for a fact that they are flying a pirate's flag.

Anyone who can say "The Stone-Campbell Movement" is lying to further the agenda of hate against those who never used instruments at any time in recorded history, and REFUSED to begin doing what they had never done. The purpose is to claim that Churches of Christ sected out of the Disciples / Christian churches just becuse they were legalistic sectarians. This is purpose driven psychologial violence which has been pretty effective among the preacher guilds trained in preachercraft for which there is no role and no dole in ceremonial legalism or "theology" which ranks with phrenology as an art..  Of course, there are many differences between the present day Christian Church and Churches of Christ.  And why would Christian Churches want "unity" with the Disciples from whom they fled from from 1927 to 1971 at which time the Stone-Campbell began their well-funded attack on churches of Christ.

Again since within the Disciples of Christ ministers almost totally rejection of instruments; gradualism works wonders.
When a few liberals IMPOSED the organ (only) by force at Midway Ky.  By definition they became herects or a SECT within the disciples because they added something NOT REQUIRED against the views held "en toto" before their usurpation.

John Locke was born in 1632
proves that the Disciples who use "imagination" and "tradition" as two of the ways to find inspiration are NOT the same group as those who take the Bible to define faith and practices.

The Papists and Lutherans, though both of them profess faith in Christ and are therefore called Christians, yet are not both of the same religion, because
these acknowledge nothing but the Holy Scriptures to be the rule and foundation of their religion,
those take in also traditions and the decrees of Popes and of these together make the rule of their religion;  and thus the Christians of St. John (as they are called) and the Christians of Geneva are of different religions, because 
these also take only the Scriptures, and
those I know not what traditions, for the rule of their religion.
This being settled, it follows,
first, that heresy is a separation made in ecclesiastical communion between men of the same religion for some opinions no way contained in the rule itself; and,

, that amongst those who acknowledge nothing but the Holy Scriptures to be their rule of faith,
heresy is a separation made in their Christian communion for opinions not contained in the express words of Scripture. [there is no command, example or remote inference that God's people ever assembled for congregational singing with an instrument]

1. When the greater part, or by the magistrate's patronage the stronger part, of the Church separates itself from others

by excluding them out of her communion because they will not profess their belief of certain opinions which are not the express words of the Scripture.

The instrumentalists then and now said "get with it or get out" even to J.W.McGarvey

For it is not the paucity of those that are separated, nor the authority of the magistrate,
that can make any man guilty of heresy,

but he only is a heretic who divides the Church into parts,

introduces names and marks of distinction,
and voluntarily makes a separation because of such

Nor does it signify anything for them to say that their confessions and symbols

are agreeable to Scripture and to the analogy of faith;for if they be conceived in the express words of Scripture, there can be no question about them, because those things are acknowledged by all Christians to be of divine inspiration and therefore fundamental.

Even on the edges of the heresy (defection from the general views) Alexander Campbell refused to preach in any church until they sat down the organ and organist.  You need to read many of the attacks against instruments from the time they were introduced.

It would just as logical for the Baptist to mount a hostile attack against churches of Christ because during the Pseudo-Unity period Alexander Campbell was a Reformed Baptist.

FIRST, THE CHURCH OF CHRIST HAD IT'S ORIGIN IN THE WILDERNESS: it Received its power when God made Jesus of Nazareth to be both Lord and Christ to shut down the "wholly erroneous or SKIA covenant with death" and empowered the only spiritual Covenant God in Christ made with Abraham--a Gentile.

Christ, the Rock ordained the Church in the Wilderness: Stephen calls it the ekklesia so we might suggest that it was the Church of Christ.  The role of the Church of Christ has nothing to do with any Restoration Movement.  The Bible exclusion is proven by the fact that no one dared to introduce singing as an ACT until Constantine began paying pagans.

Those out of Presbyterian roots continued to do what they had always done or NOT done.  The best literature against instruments are from the Reformed groups contemporaneous with Thomas and Alexander Campbell.  None of the denominations used instruments although the Black Free Methodists found it to be a good fund raiser.  Therefore, what you define as the Instrumental Disciples or Christian Churches did not exist until THEIR congregations were confiscated to introduce instruments.  This was in response to the huge debt from the building wars which were no longer funded from Carpet Baggs.
Instrumental Music in Worship Wrong R. L. Dabney Presbyterian
My Index of Religious Music from Clay Tablets onward.
Every so slowly as we will note up to what you call the "split" none of the Disciples approved of instruments.  That means that those who added instruments became the INSTRUMENTAL SECT.

I am afraid that your historians quoting historians quoting historians with a hidden agenda just didn't get the point. For instance, you don't know a "scholar" or preacher who can tell you the Purpose of a Christ Driven Church of Christ. Christ, the Rock, defined the Qahal, synagogue, ekklesia or Church of Christ in the wilderness both inclusively and exclusively. Of course, the Church of Christ has no Roles and no Doles as the Jerusalem Council showed the past, present and future role of the assembly which Paul calls "synagogue."
Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time
        hath in every city them that preach him,
        being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

2Corinthians 3:13 And not as Moses, which put a vail over his face, t
        hat the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished:
2Corinthians 3:14 But their minds were blinded:
        for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away
        in the reading of the old testament;
        which vail is done away in Christ.
2Corinthians 3:15 But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart.
2Corinthians 3:16 Nevertheless when it shall turn to the Lord,
        the vail shall be taken away.

Jesus used the example of being CONVERTED and BORN AGAIN like a child
Luke recorded the example of BAPTISM to be SAVED and CONVERTED meaning the same thing.

Until you are CONVERTED you will not be able to read WHOLE THOUGHT PATTERNS written in BLACK INK on WHITE paper.
Epi-strephô , pf.
c. Philos., cause to return to the source of Being, tinas eis ta enantia kai ta prôta
       Proteros and prôtos    II. of Time, former, earlier, children by the first or a former marriage,
       Prosthhen in front, before, formerly, of place and of time;
                            to gennêthen phusei pros to gennêsan
Genn-aô beget, bring forth, engender, call into existence
Phuo 1 Act.:--bring forth, produce, put forth, 2. beget, engender, get understanding,
Pros in the direction of
Genn-aô beget, bring forth, engender, call into existence
Deut XXX WEB. It shall happen, when all these things are come on you, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before you, and you shall call them to mind among all the nations, where Yahweh your God has driven you,

[2]  and shall RETURN to Yahweh your God, and shall OBEY his voice according to all that I command you this day, you and your children, with all your heart, and with all your soul;

[3]  that then Yahweh your God will turn your captivity, and have compassion on you, and will return and gather you from all the peoples, where Yahweh your God has scattered you.
That has the same meaning as BAPTISM.
2Corinthians 3:17 Now the Lord is that Spirit:
        and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
2Corinthians 3:18 But we all, with open face beholding
        as in a glass the glory of the Lord,
        are changed into the same image from glory to glory,
         even as by the Spirit of the Lord.


Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee: Be thou for the people to God-ward, that thou mayest bring the causes unto God: Exod 18:19

And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt show them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do. Exod 18:20

Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens: Exod 18:21


Specially the day that thou stoodest before the Lord thy God in Horeb, when the Lord said unto me, Gather me the people together, and I will make them hear my words, that they may learn to fear me all the days that they shall live upon the earth, and that they may teach their children. Deut 4:10

Qahal (h6950) kaw-hal'; a prim. root; to convoke: - assemble (selves) (together), gather (selves) together).

Gather the people together, men, and women, and children, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the Lord your God, and observe to do all the words of this law: De.31:12

This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us: Ac.7:38

Ekklesia (g1577) ek-klay-see'-ah; from a comp. of 1537 and a der. of 2564; a calling out, i.e. (concr.) a popular meeting, espec. a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Chr. community of members on earth or saints in heaven or both): - assembly, church.

Thomas Campbell got His views of assembly: ekklesia--synagogue from the Spirit of Christ: Stone contributed nothing.

Of the Yarn Spinners (revisionists) who, at the same time are ignorant of, and even averse to, the religion it inculcates; and whilst others profess to embrace it as a system of religion,

without imbibing the spirit, realizing the truth, and experiencing the power of its religious institutions; but merely superstruct to themselves, rest in, and are satisfied with, a form (acts) of godliness; and that, very often, a deficient, imperfect form, or such as their own imagination has devised;

See Why Thomas Paine was a Deist.

"let us, with an open bible before us, distinguish and contemplate that religion which it enjoins and exhibits--I mean the religion of christianity, for it also exhibits the religion of Judaism;
...but with this, in the mean time,
...we christians have nothing directly to do--
...we derive our religion immediately from the New Testament. TC

After Baptism:

"But that this may be the case, the next immediate ordinance of the christian religion, namely,

the reading, I mean the musing upon, or studying the Holy Scriptures;
taking them up in their connexion, and
meditating upon the subjects they propose to our consideration, with a fixed contemplation of the various and important objects which they present.

This dutiful and religious use of the bible, (that most precious, sacred record of the wonderful works of God,

the only authentic source of all religious information,) is inseparably connected with, and indispensably necessary to, the blissful and all-important exercises of prayer and praise.

"And again, 'Be you filled with the Spirit; speaking to yourselves, in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; giving thanks always to God and the Father, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Eph. v. 18-20.

"Hence it is evident, that if we would be spiritually minded, spiritually exercised in this delightful and heavenly employment,

we must be filled with the Spirit;
and if we would be filled with the Spirit,
we must be filled with the word;
the word of Christ must dwell in us richly;
for we have no access to the Spirit but in and by the word.


Isaiah 50 has Christ clearly defining the Pluckers and Smiters restored by the Disciples/Christians.

Isaiah 55 clearly defines both inclusively and exclusively of His Words which provide spirit and life.  Peter uses many of the same concepts to dare anyone to teach beyond the written memory of the Apostles who were eye and ear witnesses. This is a quick study for today. If that awas not enough authority He defines the true Rest for the future church to exclude personal pleasure or even speaking your own words.  "Teach that which has been taught" should be warning enough.

Isaiah 58 has Christ urging a restoration and, as in the church in the wilderness, and Paul for the assembly forbidding seeking our own pleasure or even speaking our own words.

Therefore, the ekklesia or synagogue is the same as Qahal because both relate to the same event. The Holy Convocation which began each each First and Seventh day of festivals (for draft age males) was extended to each Sabbath or REST day. This quarantined the godly people from the Jacob-Curst tribe of Levi whom God turned over to worship the starry host.  The Disciples--Christian churches follow the "patternism" of the not-commanded monarchy and the not commanded sacrificial system. The Levites were Soothsayers with instrumental noise to warn any godly person that if they came near they would execute them as they had at Mount Sinai because of musical idolatry.


God only authorized the two silver trumpets: these were reserved for sending important signals.  However, many people had their own flutes or shofars, tambourines and sistrums: Miriam had here sistrum as a priestess or prophetess in Egypt.  The women especially were prone to parade around singing, clapping, dancing and beating on instruments.  Therefore, the command:

Num. 10:5 When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward.
Num. 10:6 When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys.
Numbers 10:7 But when the congregation is to be gathered together,
        ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm.

The "alarm" is reserved in Psalm 41 to identify the "familiar friend" or Judas whose Judas Bag was for carrying the mouthpieces of wind instruments.

Miqra (h4744) mik-raw'; from 7121; something called out, i. e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal: - assembly, calling, convocation, reading.

So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading. Ne.8:8

Isaiah 4: 4 When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

And the Lord will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be a defence. Is.4:5

Dwelling: 168. ohel, o´-hel; from 166; a tent (as clearly conspicuous from a distance):—covering, (dwelling)(place), home, tabernacle, tent.

Assembly: 4744. miqra, mik-raw´; from 7121; something called out, i.e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal:  assembly, calling, convocation, reading.


"Despite the differences between the Mosaic and the Egyptian cults, it can hardly be denied that Egyptian influence on Jewish musical practices were quite significant. They would stand to reason because of the high quality of egyptian cultic music.

The tambourine or timbrel, a hoop of bells over which a white skin was stretched, came from Egypt. Miriam used this instrument to accompany the singing and dancing on the shores of the Red Sea (Ex. 15).

The trumpet blown for decampment, at the gathering of the people and on different cultic occasions, especially during sacrifices (2 Chron. 30:21; 35:15; Num 10:2), was the signaling instrument of the Egyptian army.

The sistrum, according to 2 Sam 6:5, was used by the Israelites and bore the name mena'aneim. It was the same as the Egyptian kemkem which was employed in the cult of Isis.

The solemnity celebrated on the occasion of the transferring of the Ark to Sion, as well as the dances of the daughters of Israel at the annual feast of the Lord of Shiloh (Judg 21:21), were similar in thier musical embellishments to Egyptian customs in the liturgy and at parades. As Herodotus reports,

women sang the praises of Osiris [APIS at Sinai] while likenesses of the gods were born about and, during the festival of Diana at Bubastis, choirs of men and women sang and danced to the beating of drums and the playing of flutes." (Quasten, Johannes, Music and Worship in Pagan and Christian Antiquity, p. 65)

Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female, Deut 4:16

And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the Lord thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven. Deut 4:19

Jesus identified the Scribes and Pharisees as hypocrites: He refers to Isaiah 29 and Ezekiel 33 which marks speakers, singers and instrument players as PROOFS that the people had no intention of listening to God.


Numbers 10.[7]  [7] quando autem congregandus est populus simplex tubarum clangor erit et non concise ululabunt

Academia congregation. Collect into a flock,  where plato taught, scholars are called Academici, and his doctrine Philosophia Philosophia Academica,
in distinction from Stoica, Cynica, etc., Cic. de Or. 1, 21, 98; id. Or. 3, 12; id. Fin. 5, 1, 1 al.— ..
Cic. de Orat. 1.  [21] Neque vero ego hoc tantum oneris imponam nostris praesertim oratoribus in hactanta occupatione urbis ac vitae, nihil ut eis putem licere nescire, quamquam vis oratoris professioqueipsa bene dicendi hoc suscipere ac polliceri videtur, ut omni de re, quaecumque sit proposita, ornate abeo copioseque dicatur.
ē-lŏquor  I. v. dep. a., to speak out, speak plainly, to utter; to pronounce, declare, state, express: Rhetorical, Eloquent, 
When the Disciples or others such as Tom Burgess collects all of the PSALLO words they fail to read the context. When an older male (Alexander the Great) plucks a lyre he is intending to seduce a young man whose hairs have been plucked. Paul EXCLUDES them as Dogs and  Concision.
The philosophy of the Acadamy, A. For The philosophy of the Academy: “instaret academia, quae quidquid dixisses,
Dixisses: to say, speak, utter, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state, assert
Matthew 26.30 When they had 'hymned" they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Matthew 26.30  et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Oliveti
Hymnus , i, m., = humnos, I. a song of praise, a hymn: “hymnus cantus est cum laude Dei,Aug. Enarr. in Psa. 148, 17; Ambros. Expos. Psa. 118, prol. § 3; Lucil. ap. Non. 330, 9; Prud. Cath. 37 praef.; 4, 75: “divinorum scriptor hymnorum, Lact. 4, 8, 14; Vulg. Psa. 60 tit.; id. Matt. 26, 30.

Psalm 60 A teaching poem by David, when he fought with Aram Naharaim and with Aram Zobah, and Joab returned, and killed twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt.

There is no SINGING TUNEFULLY involved in hymning:
Dīcoto say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor stands for the Gr. eipein pros tina,
Ontōs , Adv. part. of eimi A. (sum), really, actually, verily, with Verb
Alēth-ēs a^, Dor. ala_thēs , es, (lēthō,
I. Hom., Opposite. pseudēs, in phrases alēthea muthēsasthai, eipein, agoreuein, alēthes enispein
3. of oracles, true, unerring, “alathea mantiōn thōkonPi. P.11.6, cf. S.Ph.993, E.Ion1537; of dreams, A.Th.710. “alēthei logō khrasthaiHdt. 1.14
        Opposite Epos
1. song or lay accompanied by music, 8.91,17.519. b. generally, poetry, even lyrics 5. celebrate, of poets, “Aiantos bian
1Peter 4:11 If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.


Cyrenaica pleasure is the only good. Good in a pleasing agitation of the mind or in active enjoyment. hedone. Nothing is just or unjust by nature, but by custom and law. 
Cynics Diogenes, in particular, was referred to as the Dog.. a distinction he seems to have revelled in, stating that "other dogs bite their enemies, I bite my friends to save them."  Later Cynics also sought to turn the word to their advantage, as a later commentator explained:
        There are four reasons why the Cynics are so named. First because of the indifference of their way of life, for they make a cult of indifference and, like dogs, eat and make love in public, go barefoot, and sleep in tubs and at crossroads. The second reason is that the dog is a shameless animal, and they make a cult of shamelessness, not as being beneath modesty, but as superior to it. The third reason is that the dog is a good guard, and they guard the tenets of their philosophy. The fourth reason is that the dog is a discriminating animal which can distinguish between its friends and enemies. So do they recognize as friends those who are suited to philosophy, and receive them kindly, while those unfitted they drive away, like dogs, by barking at them.

He once masturbated in the Agora; when rebuked for doing so, he replied, "If only it was as easy to soothe my hunger by rubbing my belly."

stating that they had, "in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs." De Civitate Dei 14.20.

From the city of God
Human nature, then, is without doubt ashamed of this lust; and justly so, for the insubordination of these members, and their defiance of the will, are the clear testimony of the punishment of man’s first sin. And it was fitting that this should appear specially in those parts by which is generated that nature which has been altered for the worse by that first and great sin,—that sin from whose evil connection no one can escape, unless God’s grace expiate in him individually that which was perpetrated to the destruction of all in common, when all were in one man, and which was avenged by God’s justice.

Phil. 3:2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.
Phil. 3:3 For we are the circumcision,
        which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus,
        and have no confidence in the flesh.
Argumentum I. A..The means by which an assertion or assumption may be made clear, proved, an argument, evidence, proof

Presented to the Infirmus to those less nourishing, weak in mind in character, superstitious, pusillanimous, inconstant, light-minded. no weight or consequence

Romans XV. 1 debemus autem nos firmiores imbecillitates infirmorum sustinere et non nobis placere

Sustinere A. In gen., to uphold, sustain, maintain, preserve with dignity.
Imbecillitas Caes. B. G. 7, 77, 9 (and in particular, that which rests upon facts, while ratio is that which depends upon reasoning


The Necessity of Reforming the Church (1543) John Calvin 1
  1. The Stoneites wanted "union" under one grand organization and doctrine (the teachings of Christ) could just be ignored in the interest of organization.
  2. The Campbells understood the goal and ways to RESTORE the church: Just stop doing what is not commanded.
Calvin's Proposal for the Restoration of The Church of Christ

Congregational singing began after the Reformation when the Psalms were recomposed to meter.  Instruments were removed primarily because they were most often used for secular purposes and not playing an "accompanying" role under the Catholics.

At the request of Bucer Calvin utilized the occasion of the fourth Diet of Speyer assembled by Charles V in February, 1544, to address to the Emperor a "Supplicatory Remonstrance" in reference to a General Council of the Church after the manner of the Early Church. It was also a powerful justification of the Reformation, and it met with considerable success in its impact upon the Diet and in confirming the Emperor in his tolerance toward the movement for reform.



For where can I exert myself to better purpose or more honestly, where, too, in a matter at this time more necessary, than in attempting, according to my ability, to aid the Church of Christ, whose claims it is unlawful in any instance to deny, and which is now in grievous distress, and in extreme danger?

But there is no occasion for a long preface concerning myself. Receive what I say as you would do if it were pronounced by the united voice

of all those who either have already taken care to restore the Church,
or are desirous that it
should be restored to true order.

I come now to ceremonies, which, while they ought to be grave attestations of divine worship, are rather a mere mockery of God. A new Judaism, as a substitute for that which God had distinctly abrogated, has again been reared up by means of numerous puerile extravagancies, collected from different quarters; and with these have been mixed up certain impious rites, partly borrowed from the heathen, and more adapted to some theatrical show than to the dignity of our religion.

The first evil here is, that an immense number of ceremonies, which God had by his authority abrogated, once for all have been again revived.

The next evil is, that while ceremonies ought to be living exercises of piety, men are vainly occupied with numbers of them that are both frivolous and useless.

But by far the most deadly evil of all is, that after men have thus mocked God with ceremonies of one kind or other, they think they have fulfilled their duty as admirably as if these ceremonies included in them the whole essence of piety and divine worship.

Having observed that the Word of God is the test which discriminates between his true worship and that which is false and vitiated, we thence readily infer that the whole form of olivine worship in general use in the present day is nothing but mere corruption.

For men pay no regard to what God has commanded, or to what he approved, in order that they may serve him in a becoming manner,

but assume to themselves a licence of devising modes of worship,
afterwards obtruding them upon him as a substitute for obedience.

By this self-abasement we are trained to obedience and devotedness to his will, so that his fear reigns in our hearts, and regulates all the actions of our lives.

That in these things consists the true and sincere worship which alone God approves, and in which alone He delights,

is both taught by the Holy Spirit throughout the Scriptures, and is also, antecedent to discussion, the obvious dictate of piety.

Nor from the beginning was there any other method of worshipping God, the only difference being, that this spiritual truth, which with us is naked and simple, was under the former dispensation wrapt up in figures.

See our review of the common view that God commanded instrumental music as worship under the Monarchy.  If we miss the fact that God had abandoned them BECAUSE of musical idolatry we will fall for those imposing instruments.

The Restoration Movement well under way in England and Scotland was a result of instruments being added to the Church of Scotland.   As a NATIONAL worship they needed the same pomp as had Queen Elizabeth when she rejected the vote to remove instruments.  The Campbells were influenced by John Calvin and not James O'kelly of the Christian church which devolved from the chain of Methodists-Church of England-Roman Catholic church. No surprise that the radical rewriters of Reformation history are PAID by the Disciples of Christ which has moved much closer to the Catholic Church. 


Campbell repudiated what when on.

There was never "fellowship" which means I endorse you, I assemble with you and I support you. The 1832 handshake was a few handshakes where John Smith recorded the "agreement" which would permit agreement on an intellectual level. The "contract" the few preachers with no denominational authority signed was a statement perfectly in agreement with what became Churches of Christ. The ink was not dry before the Disciples began violating it.

This arrogance by a few preachers was divisive for the masses of preachers who resented the claim--as Campbell resented-- of Stone's boasting that "the Reformers have come over to us."

Those who became The Church of Christ repudiated the agreement and by 1837 Alexander Campbell ridiculed any kind of unity based on a handshake when the Stoneites had absolutely nothing in common with the Campbellites: Stone repudiated the Atonement, and did not believe that baptism was necessary at that time.


See Martin Luther (if the Bible is not clear enough)

No one ever said "baptism does not save" who did not quickly add "without faith." This was ONLY to refute infant baptism
Alexander Campbell, on the other hand pointed to John Calvin's view of RESTORATION on baptism.  Campbell derived the demand for BAPTISM when he was convinced that no unity could prevail outside of "teaching that which is written for our learning."  Both Calvin and Luther defined baptism for ADULTS old enough to believe. See the Whole Institutes on Baptism
Alexander Campbell John Calvin on Baptism.

  MY attention was this morning called to the 15th chapter and 4th book of Calvin's Institutes. From this section I may have given some extracts on baptism in my former numbers; but I think the following remarks of this great reformer have not been presented in this work. To those who think that we are extravagantly fanatical, enthusiastic, or egregiously astray on this subject, we would recommend the perusal of the whole of this 15th chapter of book 4; not, indeed, as [543] altogether orthodox in our view,
        but as containing so much clear and unequivocal testimony in favor of the true intent and meaning of Peter's opening speech in Jerusalem some 1800 years ago. I say testimony, for John Calvin's opinions are of the force of semi-apostolic testimony with many very worthy citizens who may happen to see the following excerpts.

He uses the same argument in another place--that we are circumcised, putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, after we have been buried with Christ in baptism; and in this sense, in the passage already quoted, he calls it the washing of regeneration and renewing.
        Thus we are promised, first, the gratuitous remission of sins and imputation of righteousness;
         and, secondly, the grace of the Holy Spirit to reform us to newness of life."

      Now let me ask the candid reader of this essay from the pen of John Calvin himself, how much more orthodox than ourselves was this celebrated reformer? We have heard him explain himself fully on these great items, and may we not say that the chief difference between him and us, is, that we practise what we teach. "There is," says the reformer Calvin, "one other advantage received from baptism--this is the certain testimony it affords us that we are not only [546] engrafted into the life and death of Christ, but are so united as to be partakers of all his benefits"--"All the gifts of God which are presented in baptism, are found in Christ alone."

      We leave it to the good sense of the reader, whether John Calvin ought not to be called a Campbellite as well as the Apostle Peter.


This is the "pre fabled union" in 1831: the denial of any kind of "union" in the Lunenburg quote was in 1837. Without passing judgment one way or another, the Reformers saw the Disciples as just another denomination, and saw Barton W. Stone bent on forming a NEW INCLUSIVE denomination. Garrison proposed to include ALL OF CHRISTENDOM. That is why the Disciples have reached a dead end.
Does he mean a formal confederation of all preachers and people called "Christians," with all those whom he calls Reformed Baptists? (rather reforming, than reformed;) or (as he represents them as prefering for a sectarianwhat shall be the articles of confederation, and in what form shall they be ministered or adopted? Shall it be in one general convention of messengers from all the societies of "christians" and "disciples," or one general assembly of the whole aggregate of both people? Shall the articles of agreement be drawn up in writing like the articles of the "General Union" amongst the different sects of Baptists in Kentucky? purpose the name) disciples. If so,

We discover, or think we discover, a squinting at some sort of precedency or priority in the claims of the writer of the above article, which are perhaps only in appearance, and not in reality; but if in appearance only, he will prevent us or any reader from concluding unfavorably by explaining himself more in detail than he has done. He says, "The reformed Baptists have received the doctrine taught by us many years ago." "For nearly thirty years ago we taught," &c. &c. From what source or principle these sayings proceeded, we do not pronounce sentence; but if they are mere words of course, and he intended to plead nothing from them, we would suggest the propriety of qualifying them in such a way as to prevent mistake.

I am, as at present advised, far from thinking that the present advocates of reformation are only pleading, or at all pleading, for what was plead in Kentucky thirty years ago, after the dissolution of the Springfield Presbytery. If such be the conceptions of brother Stone, I am greatly mistaken. That he, with others, did at that time opposeauthoritative creeds, and some articles in them as terms of communion, and some other abuses, we are not uninformed; but so did some others who set out with him.

Our eagle-eyed opponents plainly see the difference between the radical and differential attributes of this reformation, which they ignorantly call a deformation, and any other cause, however unpopular, plead in the land. 

"The Christians" in some places, nay, in many places, are quite respectable in the eyes of those who contemn "the disciples" as unfit for good society. And I think the amiable editor of the Christian Messenger himself told me last winter,
        that even he and some of his brethren were considered by the orthodox as degrading themselves because they associated with us most "unworthy disciples?' 

Indeed, it was no mean proof of his christian spirit to see him so condescending to persons of such low degree in the estimation of the noble christians of the land. His willingness to fraternize with us in despite of the odium theologicum attached to our ancient gospel, I must ever regard as an additional proof of his unfeigned regard to the authority of Jesus as Lord, and his love to all them who esteem the reproach of the Messiah greater riches than all the treasures of Egypt.

Historians should understand the difference between Mythological History and True History.
Among the Greeks it was widely taught that rhetoricians, poets and music must not be permitted to write about true history. It was ok to lie about history when entertaining (only) but never in the schools or called assemblies (ekklesia).

THE 1832 UNITY MEETING J.F.BURNETT Stone and the Disciples of Christ (Reformers then)

Morrill, in "History of the Christian Denomination," says: [6]

"The 'union' itself was consummated on New Year's day, 1832, in Hill Street Christian Church, at Lexington, Kentucky, where representatives of both parties pledged themselves 'to one another before God, to abandon all speculation, especially on the Trinity, and kindred subjects, and to be content with the plain declaration of Scripture on those subjects on which there had been so much worse than useless controversy.'

The plain meaning is that they found common ground to occupy, threw away their divisive teachings and opinions, and acted as one. The men who at Lexington pledged themselves there and then gave one another the hand of fellowship,

speaking for themselves, and the churches they came from,
but not for all the churches or the denominations in Kentucky or the United States.

There was no voting, and no attempt at formal union, but merely a 'flowing together' of those like-minded. In token of that union Elder John Smith, of the Disciples of Christ, and Elder John Rogers, of the Christians, 'were appointed evangelists by the churches' to promote that simple unsectarian Christian work, which was adhered to by thousands; and Stone took Elder J. T. Johnson, a Disciple, as co-editor of The Christian Messenger.

"This 'union' did not change the status of any name or church or minister or piece of property.
At a later time Campbell made some public invidious remarks
about the Christians, and it began to be claimed that they had joined or united with the Disciples. John [7]  Rogers says on this point:

'No one ever thought (at the first) that the Reformers, so-called, had come over to us, or that we had gone over to them; that they were required to relinquish their opinions, or we ours.

We found ourselves contending for the same great principles, and we resolved to unite our energies to harmonize the church and save the world. Such are the simple facts in the case."

The Christian Messenger (1832) says:

"It is common for the Christians to say, the Reformers have joined us--and no less common is it for the Reformers to say, the Christians have joined us.

One will say, the Christians have given up all their former opinions of many doctrines, and have received ours;  another will say, the Reformers have relinquished their views on many points, and embraced ours. 

These things are doing mischief to the cause of Christian union, and well calculated to excite jealousy, and to give offense. They can do no good--in fact they are not true. We have met together on the Bible, being drawn together there by the cords of truth--we agreed to walk together according to this rule, and to be united by the spirit of truth.

Neither the Christians nor Reformers professed to give up any sentiments or opinions previous to our union, nor were any required to be given up in order to effect it. We all determined to learn of Jesus, and to speak and do whatsoever He says to us in His Word. We all profess to be [8]  called Christians, being the followers and disciples of Jesus."

The Campbells and most people at that time defined church as a Society for study of the Word:

  1. Church as defined by Christ in the wilderness and as Ekklesia or Synagogue was A School of Christ.
  2. Worship was reading and musing the Word as is clearly defined by Paul, Peter and the pre-Constantine periood were singing as an ACT was imposed in c 373 and split the west church from the east.
Any additions would, as definitons demand, mark the imposers as heretics or sectarians.


It is reasonable to say that all of the so-called Stone-Campbell Movement are liars about this issue: especially about the Lunenburg letters.  the lady from Lunenburg to write the editor of the Harbinger is in an article entitled "Letters to England-No. 1," which was published in the June, 1837.  We use the word liars because people pick what they want to write their own history and the goal most often is to driven non-instrumental churches into a guilt complex for NOT beginning to do what they had NEVER done.

They have never read the Lunenburg correspondence. To Campbell a "c"hristian was one who lived according to Christian principles. We speak of a "c"hristian nation. However, a "C"hristian is ONLY one who has obeyed the gospel.
I. With all despatch, then, I hasten to show that I have neither conceded nor surrendered any thing for which I ever contended; but that on the contrary, the opinion now expressed, whether true or false, is one that I have always avowed.

(Footnote in original reads: It is with us as old as baptism for the remission of sins,
and this is at least as old as the "Christian Baptist." Read the first two numbers of that work.)

1. Let me ask, in the first place, what could mean all that we have written upon the union of Christians on apostolic grounds,
        had we taught that all Christians in the world
        were already united in our own community?

2. And in the second place, why should we so often have quoted and applied to apostate Christendom what the Spirit saith to saints in
        Babylon--"Come out of her, my people, that you partake not of her sins,
        and that you receive not of her plagues"--
        had we imagined that the Lord had no people beyond the pale of our communion!

3. But let him that yet doubts, read the following passages from the Christian Baptist, April, 1825:--

"I have no idea of seeing, nor wish to see, the sects unite in one grand army.
This would be dangerous to our liberties and laws. For this the Saviour did not pray.
        It is only the disciples dispersed among them
        that reason and benevolence would call out of them,
            "&c. &c. This looks very like our present opinion of Christians
            among the sects!!!
2d ed. Bethany, p. 85.

4. Again, speaking of purity of speech in order to the union of Christians, we say,

"None of you [Christians] have ever yet attempted to show
how Christians can be united on your principles.

You have often showed how they may be divided, and how each party may hold its own,
        but while you pray for the visible unity of the Disciples,
        and advocate their visible disunity, we cannot understand you." March, 1837, vol. 4.

THE MILLERITE CONNECTION: The Society was  to make it POSSIBLE for Jesus to return!
William J. Nottingham Global Ministries.

"My point here is that the first missionary society was the product of a long and intense process which generated considerable soul-searching. There were shared biblical principles and at the same time fundamental differences in theological opinion. Disagreement grew
      concerning congregational ecclesiology,
      commonality in mission with other Christians,
      and also perhaps communion of the Holy Spirit.

This tension would eventuate in separate bodies and institutions of the 20th and 21st centuries.  [Disciples and NACC] A full appreciation is probably hidden from us in the distance from ante-bellum times. But the nature of the Bible's authority,
      the relatively new idea of the autonomy of the local congregation,
      and the centrality of millennialist eschatology for these men and women,

with men doing most of the writing which is left to us, seem to me to be mysteries that can only be observed from different angles and rarely entered into existentially by later generations like our own.

This is evidenced in the decisions concerning missionaries growing out of this fervor leading up to the Cincinnati convention: Dr. and Mrs. James T. Barclay were the first. It was in their parlor in Washington, D.C., 1843, that the congregation had been organized which became the Vermont Avenue Church and in 1930 the National City Christian Church.

They went to Jerusalem, not because of Acts 1:8 "beginning with Jerusalem" as a popular Disciples legend has it, but because it was taken for granted by Alexander Campbell and his followers that the Jews were to be converted before the return of Christ.


That was a false assumption: the Millenial Harbinger's major thrust was not to SUPPORT Millerism but to defeat it.  Campbell denies that Jesus will return to Canaan.  Because the Church of Christ did not believe in William E. Miller [Ellen G. White].  You will notice that it was the Disciples who were tilted by Miller.

The title of Campbell's journal proclaimed clearly the eschatology of the pre-Civil War spirituality, so neglected in our denominational memory by scholars and theologians since then.

Notice that Campbell spoke of THE PROTESTANT THEORY: not his because he speaks where the Bible speaks and insists on a NEW HEAVEN and a NEW EARTH and that you could not convert people after the literal earth was burned up.

In the Millennial Harbinger of 1841,
       we read in what is called The Protestant Theory:
      "The Millennium, so far as the triumphs of Christianity is concerned, will be a state of greatly enlarged and continuous prosperity, in which the Lord will be exalted and his divine spirit enjoyed in an unprecedented measure. All the conditions of society will be vastly improved; wars shall cease, and peace and good will among men will generally abound. The Jews will be converted, and the fullness of the Gentiles will be brought into the kingdom of the Messiah."


The founding of the American Christian Missionary Society cannot be separated from the millennialist eschatology of the period

See Alexander Campbell on the Second Coming to prove that you never believe "the doctors of the Law."  This takes careful reading to grasp that Campbell REPUDIATES any speculation.

The Disciples followed the Millerites: not Campbell.

nor from the pragmatism which required a foreign dimension to keep pace with other denominations or to outgrow them! D.S. Burnet's book The Jerusalem Mission and Dr. Barclay's book The City of the Great King make this clear, along with speeches and articles by various leaders like Isaac Errett. Barclay wrote in a journal The Christian Age:

"The ACMS...resolved...
     to make the first offer of salvation to Israel. . .
     for the salvation of the Jews...
     for upon the conversion and resumption of Israel


In 1849, the first major departure was made. David S. Burnet was the father of the Missionary Society; it was organized in 1849. David S. Burnet was a convert from the Baptist Church and he brought the idea of the Missionary Society with him from the Baptist Church. "He was brought up as a Presbyterian but at sixteen years of age, after careful study of the New Testament, was baptized into the Baptist Church." ("The Story of the Churches." by Errett Gates, p. 190.) He said, "I was born into the missionary spirit, and did not relinquish it when I associated myself with my present brethren." (Christian Magazine, Vol. 3, p. 173.

Notice Nottingham's reason why these groups were never "unioned" because you cannot "union" congregational churches. This also shows that Hughes lies about the "apocylptic" claim for Alexander Campbell. That is because he did not care enough to read the original documents. Historians daisy chain and quoting A BOOK is never scholarship. Of course they are all defined by John as ANTICHRIST by their neo-trinity dogma.

Church "scholars" are really a laughing stock and they write only for other "scholars" totally missing Jesus who said that "doctors of the law take away the key to knowledge."

I don't write history: I post the actual documents the RECONSTRUCTIONISTS lie about seing godliness as a means of financial gain--occupation. Don't be a cultist: never trust anyone who quotes Mark 1.1 and does not post the text in context.


7. "Well, the churches generally are going into it, and it is 'a foregone conclusion that they will have and use the organ,' and it is useless to stand against it."
        No "the churches generally" are not gone into it, nor are they going that way.
        We do not know the number of churches in the United States;
        but doubt not that six thousand would be a low enough estimate.

How many of them use the organ in worship? We do not know this with certainty, but probably not more than from [431]  one hundred and fifty to two hundred, and certainly not five hundred. [1877]

The organ party is yet small, and would amount to but little, had it not found way into a few places of note and prominence. There are still whole States that have not an organ in the Church.

We think there is not one in use in Canada, not one in Virginia, Tennessee, nor Texas, that we have heard of; scarcely any in Kentucky, West Virginia, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and many other States. The organ is still the exception, not the rule; and the party is small. The main body are true to the great principles of reformation--to the divine purpose of returning to and maintaining, the original practice in all things.

1883 Nashville

Choate/Woodson note that like David Lipscomb, E. G. Sewell worked for the Gospel Advocate to earn a living

and preached for the Woodland Street Church in Nashville. He received little for his preaching. A new building was constructed in 1880 and Sewell was asked to preach there longer and devote more time.

As well funded by the Standard

"From the North, where the Society system was deeply imbedded in the churches, people moved into Nashville and many filled the Woodland Street church. By the end of 1882, a woman from Kentucky asked Sewell about forming an auxiliary society to the Christian Woman's Board of Missions. Sewel objected, and gave his reasons.

But as always, when a group in a congregation wants something, and the preacher stands in their way, there is only one thing to do: dismiss the preacher. Sewell was ousted and at the beginning of 1883, W. J. Loos, son of C. L. Loos, president of the Foreign Society, was hired. In the fall of that year young Loos attended the annual convention at Cincinatti, telling them with some embarassment that he was ashamed to admit he was from Tennessee for the churches of his state were doing nothing."

When he returned, Sewell refuted the false charges about Tennessee churches. Loos was check-mated and was replaced later by R. M. Giddens who "fanned the flames of Societyism." 

"The women were soon busily at work to form an auxiliary society. Sewell's pleas to Giddens went unheeded. During the following summer,

the women wrote letters to the churches of the state
asking funds be
sent to them
they could hire a State Evangelist. Before long, plans were laid
        to secure the services of A. I. Myhr.

"Lipscomb had agreed to publish information in the Advocate after being assured that evangelism was the goal. However, Giddens failed to get the work under the Woodland Street elders. J. C. McQuiddy who had helped raise the money and Sewell who was an elder were not consulted about Myhr.

Myhr made his goals clear about promoting the Society and Instrumental music
even though it would divide the churches. Myhr's goal, Lipscome believed, was to
"ostracize, boycott, and starve every preacher that does not APPROVE the society."

In 1890 the first convention was called at Chattanooga to organize the state society. The only churches in the state of Tennessee were those who had already adopted the organ in their worship. The Christian Standard pumped up the news and "it is reported that the brethren in Nashville, Tennessee are desirous of entertaining our National Convention next year."

This of course was just two congregations. A survey showed that out of 2500 members in Nashville, less than one hundred wanted the society.
Lipscomb noted that among the Society people "the Bible is as popular as last year's almanac."

"The supporters of the missionary society organized the Tennessee State Missionary Convention on October 6, 1890, with one purpose in mind, as stated by J. H. Garrison. He said at that time:

        "We will take Tennessee for organized mission work...within five years."

A. I. Myhr was dispatched to Tennessee to head the new state society despite the protestation of David Lipscomb that Tennessee was not a destitute mission territory. Myhr and his supporters moved resolutely ahead to accomplish their mission.

"Their efforts met with some success and the intent was clear. Myhr was aggressive and abrasive in his operations. His actions were of such a nature, in promoting the missionary society, that he came under the direct attack of E. G. Sewel and David Lipscomb. And as later event proved, Myhr was no match for Lipscomb and the Gospel Advocate.

Notice that the use of the organ affected only a few Christian Churches.  That did not prevent the Disciples leadership , prompted by the Standard, to IMPOSE instruments into the Christian churches. This is proof that Churches of Christ had no organs.

"As early as 1882, Sewell and Harding were urging that a separation be brought about to identify that part of the Christian Church fellowship which supported the organ and the society. Lipscomb, at the time, rebuffed his brethren who called for such division. He sought no compromise, but hoped that the church would not suffer division."

That, of Course, proves that they saw the Christian Church Fellowship as not the same as The Church of Christ.

Not until 1878 did anyone in history MISuse psallo to justify the massive discord they had already sown by using the ORGAN and Life Members of even children of the Missionary Society. This has a foundation beginning in heaven where Lucifer began to TRAFFICK in some spiritual world we do not understand. Being CAST AS PROFANE (a musical term) out of heaven he or most often showed up in the garden of Eden as the serpent meaning a MUSICAL ENCHANTER.

"By 1897, Lipscomb was reconciled to the fact that division had already occurred and the supporters of the innovations would be satisfied with nothing less than a complete take-over of the churches... (Adron Doran, J.E.Choate, The Christian Scholar, p. 59


In 1902 the church at Newbern was taken over by society and organ people. The church, against Lipscomb's advice, sued to retain the property. Of course the society could muster a majority and won the lawsuit. The decision was handed down in 1905 that the trouble did not warrant the intrusion of the courts:

"The pro-organ party had said during the trial that
        when the organ was used as a part of the worship, it was sinful;
        but they defended it on the ground that it was an AID to worship.

Lipscomb, on the other hand, had insisted that it was a distinct service,
and when persisted in always supersedes and destroys congregational singing.

"The court, passing on this phase of the question,
        said that the claim that the organ was not a part of the worship was untenable
        and it could not be considered as merely an aid to worship."

There is no command, example or remote inference that any of God's people assembled for congregational singing with instruments.  Of course it comes as no surprise that Doctors of the Law who take away the key to knowledge do not care enough to grasp that SPEAK is the direct command for teaching the written LOGOS of the Living Word.  Bringing in an organ as an AID was grasped by Churches of Christ as a weapon of violent invasion.

The the Logos.Mythos or Word.Music proof that when people move away from the Logos.Word of Jesus Christ they have fallen into an effeminate or perverse trap and will never get out.
Logos , Opposite. kata pathos, Arist.EN1169a5 or personal experiences
Logos, verbal noun of lego
        Opposite kata pathos
        Opposite music, poetry or rhetoric
        Opposite human reasoning
        Opposite Epagoge bringint in to one's aid, introduction
                Alurement, enticement, incantation, spell

Epagōg-ē , , 2. bringing in to one's aid, introduction, 3. invasion, attack,
5. process of reasoning, Aristox.Harm.pp.4,53M.
b. esp. in the Logic of Aristotle, argument by induction (cf. “epagō
7. leading away into captivity, captivity, LXX Is.14.17: generally, distress, misery, ib.Si.23.14 (pl.), cf. Hsch.


The fact that they had almost no success in their hostile takeover of Churches of Christ, the Disciples of Christ-Christian churches tried to COUNT the Churches of Christ as their members--all of them.

The Churches of Christ did absolutely nothing sectarian: by definition the Sectarians or Heretics are those who IMPOSE something not required over the views held entoto.  En toto included almost 100% of the churches in Tennessee in 1906.  Therefore, the Disciples/ Christian churches financed by their denominatal money extorted from the congregations were not even COUNTABLE in the state and the Society could not tolerate such a census.

The 1906 Census which was, I believe, the first, saw the Disciples / Christian Churches attempting to do a body count including the Churches of Christ in Nashville. The Census taker knew this was utterly false and consulted Lipscomb who just said NO to the body snatchers.

The Disciples-Christian churches already had a Denominational Movement underway and needed the body count to send them vast sums of money.

As far as the PRESENT CLAIM by the Christian Churches you have to grasp that they did not begin to hold separate denominational meetings until 1927 and were still counted as Disciples unto THEY were removed from the census as late as 1971. That was the time when Garrett etal began to "cut out" Churches of Christ where "unity" meant you AFFIRM instruments or you CONFORM and then we can have unity.

Now why would people fall for the NACC effort at "unity" and claiming that Churches of Christ were legalistic sectarians when the Christian Church did not BEGIN to SECT out of the Disciples until 1927?

When Churches of Christ denied that they had ever been "joined" even fraternally since the introduction of instruments among the Disciples which split that group. At that time the Disciples/Christian Churches issued a Centennial edition of the Declaration and Address which should prove to anyone that Churches of Christ could not be counted on.

[linked image]


I knew people who attended Christian Churches who changed the name to The Church of Christ because they rejected instruments proving that not even Christian Churches (with OKelly input) they were not UNIONED with the Society-Christian church.
The increase from about 150,000 members in 1906: Ten years later in 1916 the number of members of churches of Christ would rise to about 317,000. That, of course, is an increase of more that 100%. By 1926, a decade beyond that, the numbers in churches of Christ had grown to over 433,000. This represents an additional 50% growth over the previous census.

... Well, by the 1960s, total membership had grown to possibly as high as 2 ½ million.
This shows that the masses of people rejected instruments and undoubtedly defected from the Society-Organ "party" as they called themselves.

You should grasp that what became the NACC was on its way to secting out of the Disciples for some of the same reasons that Churches of Christ were never "unioned" with the Disciples of Christ other than fraternally prior to the move toward becoming another denomitation (culr).

I have posted the REAL writings between Stone and Campbell.

I showed you that Campbell showed in 1831 there there was nothing in common to unite. He held Stone in some disdain as a "denomination" builder.

A few men shook hands in 1932 and the agreement went no further than the people who met with no authority. The document they all signed would NOT PERMIT what the Disciples of Christ (Methodist-Anglican-Catholic derived) did because they got spooked by Miller and thus are carriers of SDA dogma.

I showed you that in 1937 that Campbell ridiculed the notion of unity among those with nothing in common

In 1943 or so the name MILLENNIAL HARBINGER was adopted to REPUDIATED the Hughes-claimed apocalyptic views of the Disciples.

The Christian Church gradually secting out of the Disciples always promoted "unity" by twisting all of the instrumental passages. H. Leo. Boles attended one of them in 1939 and in no uncertain terms the Disciples/Christian churches had destroyed any "fraternal" fellowship by introducing music and the society which all Bible students know is radically outlawed for the Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ in the wilderness.

And I believe that is especially true about those tasked to REwrite the history of groups always known as The Church of Christ in every period. The Catholics thought of them as universal (the one true church) but they called themselves The Church of Christ because Jesus of Nazareth "whom God made to be both Lord and Christ" purchased it and is the head of His own kingdom. That kingdom has no other task but to "use one mind and one mouth" to teach "that which is written for our learning." The Laded Burden outlaws all "spiritual anxiety created by religious ceremonialism." Paul used the Greek ARESKOS or Self-pleasure or Latin Placeo which outlaws the same thing clearly defined in the literature as "rhetoric, singing, instruments or drama." Jesus would call them hypocritic arts by pointing to Isaial 6 and Ezekiel 33.

The modern writers of Encyclopedias (smile) and text books have never read the original resources but as in ALL scholarly settings rest on the textbooks YOU must follow if YOU intend to get a passing grade. We will show yoou that Richard Hughes has led many simpletons down the path by false teaching about Alexander Campbell and the "apocalyptic tradition." The name MH in fact was to repudiate ALL millennial speculations and to refute the Disciples organization to "save all of the Jews to make it possible for Jesus to return." They fell for the Millerite (SDA) predictions: the Jews didn't want to get saved--thank you very much--and Jesus didn't return. However, it proved the radical separation of the Disciples and Reformers whose churches called themselves churches of Christ. At one time the Stone people called themselves CHRISTIANS and the Campbell disciples called themselves DISCIPLES. Of course a baptized believer is a DISCIPLE and is called a CHRISTIAN but the body bears the name of Christ. Disciples don't DO worship services: they go to BIBLE CLASS.

I have made it my way-past-retirement task to make these ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS from Clay Tablets onward available for anyone wanting to get TRUE HISTORY from the writers mouth--and not get fleeced so you can get a still-bleeding sheep skin. I don't DO dogma and don't join the ANTICHRISTS in their trinitarian worship.

Funding for this project has been provided principally by Disciples of Christ Historical Society and Chalice Press.
I am sorry that you don't completely understand how history works. Here is a link to a website about the most recent work of the history of the Stone Campbell movement. It involves scholars from all traditions of the Stone Campbell movement. I hope you look into this work with an open mind. Read carefully, order the book, read some more, then repost your findings. I will do the same with your posts and websites. I will also pass these along to the authors of this World History of the Stone Campbell Movement.

Blessings in your journey!
THIS EFFORT IS FUNDED BY THE DISCIPLES OF CHRIST.  Of course, not even the NACC could agree with the total departure of the Disciples from the need for Biblical authority.

THE FINAL DEPARTURE being promoted while being paid by Churches of Christ. Of authority: it is a fact that the Disciples-Christian churches INVENTED the Law of Silence and "traditionalism."

Richard L. Hamm: The first is Scripture, which for Christians means, of course, the Holy Bible (which is to say the whole Bible: the Hebrew and Christian testaments).

The second is reason and the third is experience. We Disciples are quite appreciative of these sources. Our movement was born within the philosophical context of

John Locke who said that truth can be known through reason tempered with experience.
In this
secular age in which we live, I'm afraid that many of us have increasingly depended on these two sources alone, but reason and experience are two valuable sources for understanding God.

No, John Locke never said that. What he said was that Christianity was reasonable once it was revealed but the best of human reasoning could never discover or aid the discover of truth.

John Locke denied that REASON had ever contributed anything to spiritual religion. However, when God reveals, then it seems reasonable to the mind which God created. Locke speaks of HUMAN REASON and concluded that:

1. In this state of darkness and error, in reference to the "true God" Our Saviour found the world.

But the clear revelation he brought with him, dissipated this darkness;
made the
one invisible true God known to the world:
and that with such
evidence and energy,
that polytheism [trinity] and idolatry hath
no where been able to withstand it.

But wherever the preaching of the truth he delivered, and the light of the gospel hath come, those mists have been dispelled.

Sense and lust blinded their minds in some, and a careless inadvertency in others, and fearful apprehensions in most

(who either believed there were, or could not but suspect there might be, superior unknown beings) gave them up into the hands of their priests to fill their heads with false notions of the deity, and their worship with foolish rites, as they pleased; and what dread or craft once began, devotion soon made sacred, and religion immutable.
Perhaps both Locke and the Thomas and Alexander Campbell are hated with a purple passion and slandered because Alexander Campbell wrote:

"Give money to make poor pious youths learned clergy, or vain pretenders to erudition; and they pray that they may preach to you; yes, and pay them too. Was there ever such a craft as priestcraft? No, it is the craftiest of all crafts. It is so crafty that it obtains by its craft the means to make craftsmen, and then it makes the deluded support them!" (Campbell, Alexander, Christian Baptist, Dec. 1, 1823, Vol. 1, p. 91).

"Money is of vital consequence in the kingdom of the clergy. Without it a clergyman could not be made, nor a congregation supplied with a 'faithful pastor.' O Mammon, thou wonder-working god!" (Ibid., p. 124).

In The Reasonableness of Christianity, John Locke put the focus on revealed truth and not on any other thing. Anything which we can EXPERIENCE or our HUMAN REASON are the products of a fallible human which is USUALLY WRONG. If human reason suggests something like the trinity or pagan music as worship do we trust the Bible or do we trust our own feelings.

Richard L. Hamm: The fourth is tradition. The Church has learned some things in the past two thousand years (that's right, the Church learned some things even before Alexander Campbell!). By looking to the Church's tradition (its history, its declarations, its collective wisdom) one can learn much about the nature of God and the nature of humankind. As the sage has said, one who does not learn history is doomed to repeat it. Studying the church's tradition is a way for us to learn some things the easy way!

The Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Living God, uses these four sources of revelation to teach us who God is and who we are.


John 14:15 If ye love me, keep my commandments.
1John 2:1 My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not.
John 14:16 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter [parakletos], that he may abide with you for ever; And if any man sin, we havean advocate [parakletos] with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous
John 14:17 Even the Spirit OF truth; whom the worldfor he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; 1John 2:2 And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.
John 14:20 At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you 1John 2:3 And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments.
John 14:21 He that hath my commandments, and keepeth
them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of
my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him.
1John 2:4 He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar 
John 14:22 Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? and the truth is not in him.  
John 14:23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words  1John 2:5 But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby  we that we are inhim.
and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. 1John 4:8 He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love.
1John 4:16 And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him.

John 14:24 He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Fathers which sent me. 1John 2:6 He that saith he abideth in him ought himself also so to walk, even as he walked.
John 14:25 These things have I spoken unto you,
1John 2:7 Brethren, I write no new commandment unto you, but an old
commandment which ye had from the beginning.  
being yet present with you. The old commandment is the
word which ye have heard from the beginning.
John 14:26 But the Comforter, which is the HolyGhost , whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.
1John 2:8 Again, a new commandment I write unto you, which thing is
true in him and in you: because the darkness is past, and the true
light now shineth
The Spirit's Name will be Jesus Christ 1John 2:10 He that loveth his brother abideth in the light, and there is none occasion of stumbling in him. [trap or snare laid for an enemy]
John 14:17 Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be IN you.
1John 2:20 But ye have an unction from the Holy One,

khrisma spiritual grace, Isous khristos
and ye know all things
holy spirit or
A good conscience, consiousness.

John 14:9 Jesus
saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and
yet hast thou not known me, Philip?
1John 2:22 Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ?
Which is the same as: Which
is the same as
he that
hath seen me hath seen the

and HOW sayest thou then, Shew us the Father?
He is antichrist, that denieth the
      the Son.
14:10 Believest thou not that I am IN the Father, and the Father
IN me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but
the Father that dwelleth
IN me, he doeth the works.
1 John
2:23 Whosoever denieth the Son

that acknowledgeth the Son 
the same
hath not the Father:

hath the Father also

 Notice that as the Disciples and the REWRITERS of history move closer to the Catholic Church that they have adopted the CUP.
[linked image]

Babylonian background to the huge cup of wine. It is true that a few dupes being led by agents of the NACC have confessed that it takes about a decade to slowly condition the "frogs" to accept instruments.  Even so, among those facilitated by the REwriters of history have caused up to 1/2 of the owners to cast themselves out of their own synagogue.  No matter! you can make up the difference quickly.
Now, as the Babylon of the Apocalypse is characterised by the name of "MYSTERY," so the grand distinguishing feature of the ancient Babylonian system was the Chaldean "MYSTERIES," that formed so essential a part of that system. And to these mysteries, the very language of the Hebrew prophet, symbolical though of course it is, distinctly alludes, when he speaks of Babylon as a "golden CUP." To drink of "mysterious beverages," says Salverte, was indispensable on the part of all who sought initiation in these Mysteries.

From the ingredients avowedly used, and from the nature of others not avowed, but certainly used, there can be no doubt that they were of an intoxicating nature;

and till the aspirants had come under their power,
till their understandings had been dimmed,
and their passions excited by the medicated draught,
they were not duly prepared for what they were either to hear or to see.

If it be inquired what was the object and design of these ancient "Mysteries," it will be found that there was a wonderful analogy between them and that "Mystery of iniquity" which is embodied in the Church of Rome.

Their primary object was to introduce privately, by little and little, under the seal of secrecy and the sanction of an oath, what it would not have been safe all at once and openly to propound.

The time at which they were instituted proved that this must have been the case. The Chaldean Mysteries can be traced up to the days of Semiramis, who lived only a few centuries after the flood, and who is known to have impressed upon them the image of her own depraved and polluted mind. *
* AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS compared with JUSTINUS, Historia and EUSEBIUS' Chronicle. Eusebius says that Ninus and Semiramis reigned in the time of Abraham.
That beautiful but abandoned queen of Babylon was not only herself a paragon of unbridled lust and licentiousness, but in the Mysteries which she had a chief hand in forming,

Thus was this Chaldean queen a fit and remarkable prototype of the "Woman" in the Apocalypse, with the golden cup in her hand, and the name on her forehead, "Mystery, Babylon the Great, the MOTHER of harlots and abominations of the earth."
[linked image]
In Revelation 18 John speaks of the "lusted after fruits" (same as the baskets of summer fruits in Amos) would be destroyed.

Rev 18:14 And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.

Tillô , 2. with acc. of that from which the hair or feathers are plucked, so of the cuckoo, ib.618a29 (Pass.); as a description of an idle fellow Ar.Pax 546, as a punishment of adulterers, Id.Nu.1083; v. paratillô, tephra.

also, pluck live sheep, instead of shearing, toistillousintahupodiphthera
4. t. melê pluck the harp-strings, play harp-tunes, Cratin.256 (lyr.). II. since tearing the hair was a usual expression of sorrow, tillesthai tina tear one's hair in sorrow for any one
III. metaph., pluck, vex, annoy,
Ar.Pax 546 Aristophanes, Peace

[520] Ah! venerated goddess, who givest us our grapes, where am I to find the ten-thousand-gallon words wherewith to greet thee? I have none such at home. Oh! hail to thee, Opora, and thee, Theoria! How beautiful is thy face! [525] How sweet thy breath! What gentle fragrance comes from thy bosom, gentle as freedom from military duty, as the most dainty perfumes!


Is it then a smell like a soldier's knapsack?

Oh! hateful soldier! your hideous satchel makes me sick! it stinks like the belching of onions, [530] whereas this lovable deity has the odor of sweet fruits, of festivals, of the Dionysia, of the harmony of flutes, of the tragic poets, of the verses of Sophocles, of the phrases of Euripides--
[545] Do you see that poor crest-maker, tearing at his hair?
Revelation 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters,
        shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be,
        shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
Revelation 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee;
        and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride [heiro gamos-sacred sex] shall be heard no more at all in thee:
        for thy merchants were the great men of the earth;
         for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.
Revelation 18:24 And in her was found the blood of prophets,
        and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.
Revelation 18.22 et vox citharoedorum et musicorum et tibia canentium et tuba non audietur in teamplius et omnis artifex omnis artis non invenietur in te amplius et vox molae non audietur in teamplius

Revelation 18:23] et lux lucernae non lucebit tibi amplius et vox sponsi et sponsae non audieturadhuc in te quia mercatores tui erant principes terrae quia in veneficiis tuis erraverunt omnes genteset lux lucernae non lucebit tibi amplius et vox sponsi et sponsae non audietur adhuc in te quiamercatores tui erant principes terrae quia in veneficiis tuis erraverunt omnes gentes
lūcĕo , xi, 2, v. n. Sanscr. ruk, to be bright; Gr. lukhnos, leukos, amphilukē; Lat. lux, lumen, lucidus, luna; O. H.-Germ. liŏht; Germ. Licht; cf. also illustris, I. to be light or clear, to shine, beam, glitter (syn.: splendeo, fulgeo)
I. Trop., to shine forth, to be conspicuous, apparent, clear, evident: “nunc imperii nostri splendor illis gentibus lucet,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14, 41: “mea officia et studia, quae parum antea luxerunt,id. Att. 3, 15, 4: “cum res ipsa tot, tam claris argumentis luceat,id. Mil. 23, 61: “virtus lucet in tenebris,id. Sest. 28, 60: tota oratio lucet,Quint. 8, 5, 29; 9, 1, 19.—Hence, lūcens , entis, P. a., shining, bright, conspicuous: lucentior usus, Mall. Theod. de Metr. 9, 7. “sedebat In solio Phoebus claris lucente smaragdis,
Phoebus , i, m., = Phoibos (the radiant), I. a poetical appellation of Apollo as the god of light:
B. Phoe-bēus , a, um, adj., Phœbean, Apollinean: carmina,Lucr. 2, 504: “lampas,the sun, Verg. A. 4, 6: “virgo,Daphne, Ov. P. 2, 2, 82: “laurus,id. Tr. 4, 2, 51: “Rhodos,where the worship of Apollo prevailed, id. M. 7, 365: “lyra,id. H. 16, 180: “sortes,oracle, id. M. 3, 130: “tripodes,id. A. A. 3, 789: “Phoebeā morbos pellere arte,id. F. 3, 827.—
C. Phoebas , ădis, f., a priestess of Apollo; hence the inspired one, the prophetess, Ov. Am. 2, 8, 12; id. Tr. 2, 400; Luc. 5, 128; 165.

Revelation 9:11 And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.

Halal h1984 [Praise was under the KING and COMMANDERS of the Army and NEVER under the priests.

cHalal h2490 [the same basic word] The "c" may indicate an Aramic root where Halal means KOSHER MEAT. You are paying TOO MUCH with all of the strange boys around.

  1. to shine
    1. (Qal) to shine [seeking God's favor]
    2. (Hiphil) to flash forth light
  2. to praise, boast, be boastful
    1. (Qal)
      1. to be boastful
      2. boastful ones, boasters (participle)
    2. (Piel)
      1. to praise
      2. to boast, make a boast
    3. (Pual)
      1. to be praised, be made praiseworthy, be commended, be worthy of praise
    4. (Hithpael) to boast, glory, make one's boast
    5. (Poel) to make a fool of, make into a fool
    6. (Hithpoel) to act madly, act like a madman

Used for: NAS (165) - acted insanely, 1; arrogant, 1; boast, 9; boasted, 1; boastful, 3; boasts, 3; boasts boast, 1; deride, 1; drive madly, 1; flash forth, 2; give praise, 1; giving praise, 1; glory, 8; go mad, 1; going mad, 1; mad, 1; madness, 1; make its boast, 1; makes a mad, 1; makes fools, 1; making fools, 1; offers praises, 1; praise, 90; praised, 20; praises, 1; praising, 5; race madly, 1; renowned, 1; sang praises, 1; shone, 2; sing praises, 1; wedding songs, 1;

  1. to profane, defile, pollute, desecrate, begin
  2. (Niphal)
    1. to profane oneself, defile oneself, pollute oneself 1a
  3. ritually 1a
  4. sexually
    1. to be polluted, be defiled
  5. (Piel)
    1. to profane, make common, defile, pollute
    2. to violate the honour of, dishonour
    3. to violate (a covenant)
    4. to treat as common
  6. (Pual) to profane (name of God)
  7. (Hiphil)
    1. to let be profaned
    2. to begin
  8. (Hophal) to be begun
  9. to wound (fatally), bore through, pierce, bore
  10. (Qal) to pierce
  11. (Pual) to be slain
  12. (Poel) to wound, pierce
  13. (Poal) to be wounded
  14. (Piel) to play the flute or pipe

God abandoned Israel's Musical Idolatry sect to worship the STARRY HOST.

He ordained the assembly or "church in the wildernes" to REST, READ or REHEARSE. Loud singing was excluded. This was the synagogue or EKKLESIA for SPIRITUAL PEOPLE.

Later, God granted the KINGS to MAKE MERCHANDISE of the people and use the BOYS to make musical instruments and run before the ORIENTIAL POTENTATE'S CHARIOTS.

"The ritual observances at the Hebrew and at the a Canaanite sanctuary were so similar that to the mass of the people Jehovah worship and Baal worship were not separated by any well-marked line... A sacrifice was a public ceremony of a township or clan... Then the crowds streamed into the sanctuary from all sides, dressed in their gayest attire, marching joyfully to the sound of music, and bearing with them not only the victims appointed for sacrifice, but store of bread and wine set forth the feast...Universal hilarity prevailed." (Gurney, O.R., Some Aspects of Hittite Religion, Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 37).

Heylel (h1966) hay-lale'; from h1984 (in the sense of brightness); the morning-star: - lucifer.

Lucifer is identical to ZOE in many respects and SHE is engaged in trafficing and merchandising: the Temples were "houses of merchandise, den of thieves." Go thou and do likewise.

Merchandise is:

Rekullah (h7404) rek-ool-law'; fem. pass. part. of 7402; trade (as peddled): - merchandise, traffic.

Nophek (h5306) no'-fek; from an unused root mean. to glisten; shining; a gem, prob. the garnet: - emerald.

Thou hast BEEN in EDEN the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy TABRETS and of thy PIPES was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Ezekiel 28:13

By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane [cHalal] out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. Eze.28:16

As the king/queen of Babylon she was cast into Sheol with her harps and still breathing harpists. In Revelation 18, the PRESENT musicators work for the same HARLOT and perform SORCERY to decieve and MARKET your flesh. Hee Haw. "War is Hell: so help me I LOVE IT."

The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament, by Spiros Zodhiates, gives us a start:
“Strong’s #5331, pharmakeia, from pharmakon, a drug, which in the Gr. writers is used both for a curative or medicinal drug, and also as a poisonous one. Pharmakeia means the occult, sorcery, witchcraft, illicit pharmaceuticals, trance, magical incantation with drugs (Gal. 5:20; Rev. 9:21; 18:23; Sept.: Ex. 7:22; Is. 47:9, 12). (pp. 1437, 1438)

“Strong’s #5332, pharmakeus; gen. pharmakeos, from pharmakeuo, to administer a drug. An enchanter with drugs, a sorcerer ([i]Rev. 21:8 [TR]) (Ibid., p. 1438)

“Strong’s #5333, pharmakos, gen. pharmakou. A magician, sorcerer, enchanter (Rev. 21:8 [UBS]; 22:15; Sept.: Ex. 7:11; 9:11; Deut. 18:10; Dan. 2:2). The same as pharmakeus (5332). The noun pharmakeia (5331) means the preparing and giving of medicine, and in the NT, sorcery, enchantment.” (Ibid.)
Dem. 25 79  No; I am wrong. He has a brother, who is present here in court and who brought that precious action against him. What need to say anything about him? He is own brother to the defendant, born of the same father and mother, and, to add to his misfortunes, he is his twin. It was this brother—I pass over the other facts—who got possession of the drugs and charms from the servant of Theoris of Lemnos, the filthy sorceress whom you put to death on that account with all her family.
Theōr-is , idos, , II. pl.,= Bakkhai, Id., cf. Plb.30.25.12; of attendants of Apollo, Nonn.D.9.261.

pharma^k-is , idos, fem. of pharmakeus,
A. sorceress, witch, D.25.79, Arist.HA577a13, A. R.4.53:— as Adj., “gunē ph.Ar.Nu.749; irreg. Sup., “pharmakistotatai gunaikōnJ.AJ17.4.1, cf. Suid. s.v. Mēdeia.
II. fem. Adj., poisonous, venomous,sauraNic.Al.538.
“The word translated in the AV ‘witchcraft’ in Gal 5:20 (pharmakeia) is the ordinary Greek one for ‘sorcery,’ and is so rendered in the RV, though it means literally the act of administering drugs and then of magical potions. It naturally comes then to stand for the magician’s art, as in the present passage and also in . . . the LXX of Isa 47:9 . . . translated ‘sorceries’.” (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, James Orr, Ed., Vol. 5, p. 3097.)

Therefore hear now this, thou that art given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children: Isa 47:8

But these two things shall come to thee in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood: they shall come upon thee in their perfection for the multitude of thy sorceries, and for the great abundance of thine enchantments. Isa 47:9

In-canto , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. and n. *
I.  To sing in, To consecrate with charms or spells: “incantata vincula,

mălĕfĭcĭum , ĭi, n. maleficus,
I. an evil deed, misdeed, wickedness, offence, crime.
2. Enchantment, sorcery, Tac. A. 2, 69 Orell. N. cr.; App. M. 9, p. 230, 24; 231, 28; cf. “magica,id. Mag. p. 278, 21; Schol. Juv. 6, 595.—
Tac. Ann. 2.69 The terrible intensity of the malady was increased by the belief that he had been poisoned by Piso. And certainly there were found hidden in the floor and in the walls disinterred remains of human bodies, incantations and spells, and the name of Germanicus inscribed on leaden tablets, half-burnt cinders smeared with blood, and other horrors by which in popular belief souls are devoted so the infernal deities.
dēvōtĭo  III. Sorcery, enchantment; and concr., a magical formula, incantation, spell, Suet. Calig. 3: “carmina et devotiones,

carmen , ĭnis, n. (old form cas-men , Varr. L. L. p. 86 Bip.) [Sanscr. çasto declaim, praise; cf.: camilla, censeo], I. a tune, song; poem, verse; an oracular response, a prophecy; a form of incantation
II. Esp., a composition in verse, a poem; poetry, verse, song, whether in a broader sense, of every kind of poetic production, epic, dramatic, lyric (opp. to prose and to cantus, the melody),

For thou hast trusted in thy wickedness: thou hast said, None seeth me. Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it hath perverted thee; and thou hast said in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me. Isa 47:10

Stand now with thine enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth; if so be thou shalt be able to profit, if so be thou mayest prevail. Isa 47:12

With regard to pharmakeiaBAGD 2nd Edition says, that in Rev 18:23 the meaning is “sorcery, magic”, and in Rev 9:21, “magic arts”. It also gives usages in many other classical and LXX readings, but for brevity I’ll limit it to the NT usage, and will in the following citations also.
Eph. 4:22 That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man,
        which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;

Phtheirō 3. corrupt, bribe, tina D.S.4.73; lure, entice, trap,kēmoisi plektois porphuras phtheirei genosS.Fr.504 (s. v. l.); “phtheirei gar pronoia tēn aboulianentices to its ruin, entraps   akouō se lurōdou gunaikos
b. seduce a woman, “hupo tēs thugatros adikoumenon kai Dionusiou tou phtheirantos autēn kinaidou” (Dog, Cynic, Catamite)pharmakōn
II b. with a Prep., phtheiresthai pros tous plousious, of hangers-on and flatterers, D.21.139, cf. Plu.Phoc.21, Eum. 14, Ant.24; “eis hēdonas apo . . ponōn” “phthora8), “poson khronon pontou 'pi nōtois halion ephtheirou planon;E.Hel.774;
planos 1. Act., leading astray, deceiving, p. kateseion edōdan the bait, Theoc.21.43, cf. AP7.702 (Apollonid.); p. dōra, agra, Mosch.1.29, Fr.1.10; “pneumata1 Ep.Ti.4.1.
III. of persons, planos, ho, vagabond, impostor, Nicostr.Com.24, Dionys.Com. 4, D.S.34/5.2.14, Ev.Matt.27.63.
1 Timothy 4.1 But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons,
CORRUPT includes Listening to a female Lyre Player

(or rather luraoidos Hdn.Gr.1.229), o(, h(, A. one who sings to the lyre, AP7.612 (Agath.), APl.4.279:—contr. lurōdos , AP6.118 (Antip.), Plu.Sull.33: Adj. -“ōdos harmoniaCallistr.Stat.7.
Plut. Sull. 33 [2] He conducted the sales of confiscated estates in such arrogant and imperious fashion, from the tribunal where he sat,
        that his gifts excited more odium than his robberies.
        He bestowed on handsome women, musicians, comic actors,
        and the lowest of freedmen, the territories of nations
        and the revenues of cities, and women were married against their will
        to some of his favourites
Aōdos , o( (and in Paus.10.5.12, h(), contr. for aoidos,
A. singer,khrēsmōn” (A. oracular response, oracle) E.Heracl.488, cf. Phld.Mus.p.20 K., etc.; meta Lesbion ōdon, prov. of a second-rate musician, Cratin.243, cf. Arist.Fr.545; “hoi tou Dionusou ō.Pl.Lg.812b; khorous tinas . . ōdous ib.800e; of cicadae,[Locust] “hoi huper kephalēs ō.Id.Phdr.262d, cf. AP6.54 (Paul.Sil.); “ton alektruona ton ōdon apopnixasa mouPl.Com.14D.; hupo ton ōdon ornitha about cockcrow,  
II. the cup passed round when a scolion was sung,
Plat. Phaedrus 262d the two discourses contain an example of the way in which one who knows the truth may lead his hearers on with   words; and I, Phaedrus, think the divinities of the place are the cause thereof; and perhaps too, the prophets of the Muses, who are singing above our heads, may have granted this boon to us by inspiration; at any rate, I possess no art of speaking.

Mousa , ēs, , Aeol. Moisa
Mouso-ō , A. furnish with power of song, hosa phusis memousōke,
2. to be set to music, “ta di' ōdēs . . mousōthenta kroumataD.H.Dem.40, cf. Cat.Cod.Astr.8(3).188; to be filled with melody, “memousōtai ta peri tēn thalattan hup' ōdēs tōn petrōnPhilostr.Her.10.7.

A.  one who speaks for a god and interprets his will to man, Dios p. interpreter, expounder of the will of Zeus, of Tiresias, Pi.N.1.60; Bakkhou p., perh. of Orpheus, E.Rh.972; [Dionusou p., of the Bacchae, Id.Ba.551 (lyr.); Nēreōs p., of Glaucus, Id.Or.364; esp. of the Delphic Apollo, “Dios p. esti Loxias patrosA.Eu.19; of the minister and interpreter at Delphi, Hdt.8.36,37;
3.   interpreter, expounder of the utterances of the mantis (q.v.), Pl.Ti.72a: hence, of Poets, “Pieridōn p.Pi.Pae.6.6; “Mousan p.B.8.3, cf. Pl.Phdr.262d.
b. metaph., proclaimer, harbinger, kōmou prophatas, of the wine-bowl, Pi.N.9.50; “deipnou p. limosAntiph.217.23; “phthoēs p.Pl.Com.184.4; “tettix . . thereos glukus p.Anacreont.32.11.

The LOCUSTS in Revelation is the Musical Worship Team of Apollo, Abaddon, Apollyon

Tettix Plato calls them hoi Mousōn prophētai, Phdr.262d; but they also became a prov. for garrulity, “lalein tettixAristopho10.7: “t. polloi ginomenoi nosōdes to etos sēmainousiThphr.Sign.54. They were thought to sing continually without food or drink, Ar.Nu. 1360, Pl.Phdr.259c; or on a diet of air and dew,

sēmainō , Il.10.58, etc.; sa_mainō
3. of the Delphic oracle, “oute legei oute kruptei alla sēmaineiHeraclit.93; so of omens, X.Mem.1.1.2,
2. in war or battle, give the signal of attack, etc., Th.2.84, etc.; in full, “s. salpiggiAnd.1.45, X.An. 4.2.1,
II. provide with a sign or mark, seal, sēmainesthai bublō (sc. boun), i.e. by sealing a strip of byblus round his horn, Hdt.2.38, cf. Pl.Lg.954c, X.Cyr.8.2.17, Is. 7.1,2, Hyp.Ath.8:

The Eucharistic Presence from a BIBLICAL PERSPECTIVE  
                                    Fr. Abbot Denis

John 6:58 This is that bread which came down from heaven:
         not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever.

Deut. 8:1 All the commandments which I command thee this day
            shall ye observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply,
        and go in and possess the land which the LORD sware unto your fathers.

Deut. 8:2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness,
        to humble thee, and to prove thee, to know what was in thine heart,
        whether thou wouldest keep his commandments, or no.

And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger,
fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know;
        that he might make thee know that
man doth not live by bread only,
        but by every
word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live. Deut 8:3

John 6:62 What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?
John 6:63 It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing:
        the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.
SCRIPTURE CALLS IT THE LORD'S SUPPER: We Preach the Death of Jesus Christ. That means that we consider our flesh dead so that we can can do RATIONAL worship which is ONLY in the human spirit giving heed to the Words of Christ.

Kenneth Sublett
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