Psallo and Harp TwangingPsallo and Harp Twanging: Carnal Weapons are Musical Instruments: we use the Sword of the Spirit to defeat Satan. Psallo. Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon) is the god of music and the twanging bow.
See Patrick Mead who suggests that God loves LOUD NOISE even when it is not music!
Twanging ain't strumming. Twanging is when you pull the string and let it strike the sounding board. You psallo or strike the strings. You can psallo an enemy's beard by plucking it out: it first stretches, twangs and twap. You can take a sword and psallo a fellow's head off.
"In the next state, still a very early one, appeared many primitive instruments which show magic connotation, by which the sounds produced from natural substances by the hand or breath of man are used for communication with the spirit world in rites of every kind. These include seed-gourd rattles; scrapers, in which the sound is produced from serrated or corrugated surface; the bull-roarer, a piece of wood whirled on a cord to spin and thereby produce a roaring vibration of the free air; and whistles made from bone." (Britannica, Musical Instruments, p. 1083)
"Blow into the windpipe of a newly killed duck or at their death dances they pound the earth with pairs of thick, long poles or drum on a rigid rolled piece of hide. Men bellow into the hollow of their hands placed against the earth,
knock sticks or branches against the frame of the festival hut for rhythm or simply beat the floor of the hut with bare fists." Brittanica 1965, Music, p. 1077
"With the invention of the bow, man succeeded in concentrating and controlling energy. To a 20th-century person it may be plausible that this must have been for shooting an arrow; to Neolithic man it may have been equally plausible to use the energy of the bow for communicating with the super-natural by making sounds. A prehistoric cave painting... shows the bow thus used in ritual." (Britannica, Music, Primitive , p. 1078)
"Of some musical devices, "Their most primitive use is simply as voice disguisers in the uttering of spells and commands... By this stage primitive stringed instruments had appeared, notably the widespread "musical bow," which may be either an ordinary hunting bow or one specially constructed; among its playing techniques, one is to hold one end of the bow to the mouth and by altering the mouth cavity so that it acts as a selective resonator." (Britannica, 1965, p. 1084)
But you really cannot "make music" by twanging or psalloing something. "Music" is never used in relationship to God and worship.
The operative word in the NT (Rom 15; Eph 5 and Col 3) is "teach." You can teach and "make music" but you cannot do both at the same time. Especially if the "songs" are not even those prescribed by these passages.
External melody in the New Testament was precluded by insisting that the Christian's "melody" is in the heart. Melody is related to "grinding into a fine powder" which was the goal of panic music in battle. Melody is also related to the word SOP which was a symbol that Judas would betray Jesus. Why was this? It was because Psalm 41 predicted that Judas would attempt to triumph over Messiah. Triumph means to blow wind instruments and "make a loud, rejoicing sound before the Lord" to grind the enemy into cowardice.
The Essenes translated Psalm 41 to include stringed instruments which were part of the "sound of rushing water" when tens of thousands of warriors twanged their bowstrings while the trumpets of war blew panic sounds.
If these methods sound suspiciously like the paramilitary Jubilee movements, the German critics take note of where these movements will work:
"Douglass, who has developed the most successful Willow Creek-based church service in Germany, even maintained, "I think this approach is most applicable to the state churches. We have the people, even if they don't attend. We enjoy an incredible edge in confidence vis-Óvis the free churches." He cautioned,
"The cost of this approach is hard work and loads of strife with church insiders." Christianity Today
Almost all musical terms in the Bible are related to the panic of war, prostitution, commercial slight of hand or some other act which abrades, seduces or grinds one to bits to gain an advantage. This is why Paul insisted that the "melody" or breaking to bits take place in each individual heart. Ancient paganism was aware that:
Heraclitus: "All things come into being by conflict of opposites, and the sum of things flows like a stream. This order, the same for all things, no one of gods or men has made, but it always was, and is, and ever shall be, an ever-living fire, kindling according to fixed measure, and extinguished according to fixed measure. Justice meant a balance of opposites, and hence could be defined as strife.
Heraclitus cited as an example the tension between the string and the frame in a bow or a musical instrument. 'Harmony lies in the bending back, as for instance of the bow or of the lyre... Opposition unites. From what draws apart results the most beautiful harmony. All things take place by strife'." (Parkes, Henry Bamford, Gods and Men The Origins of Western Culture, p. 188, Knopf)
Plato Cratylus connects musical harmony with these occupation of the witches in worshiping the the god Harmony and the
goddess of the air (1 Cor 14:9):
Hermogenes: How is that?
Socrates: I will try to tell you what I think about it; for no single name could more aptly indicate
Hermogenes: Go on; you seem to imply that it is a remarkable name.
Socrates: His name and nature are in harmony;
Pharmakeia (g5331) far-mak-i'-ah; from 5332; medication ("pharmacy"), i.e. (by extens.) magic (lit. or fig.): - sorcery, witchcraft.
Pharmakeus (g5332) far-mak-yoos'; from pharmakňn , (a drug, i.e. spell- giving potion); a druggist ("pharmacist") or poisoner, i.e. (by extens.) a magician: - sorcerer
Socrates explains further:
Soc. Then in reference to his ablutions and absolutions, as being the physician who orders them, he may be rightly called Apolouon (purifier); or
as in the Thessalian dialect, for all the Thessalians call him Aplos; also he is Ballon (always shooting), because he is a master archer who never misses; or again, the name may refer to his musical attributes, and then, as in akolouthos, and akoitis, and in many other words the a is supposed to mean "together,"
so the meaning of the name Apollo will be "moving together," whether in the poles of heaven as they are called,
And he is the God who presides over harmony, and makes all things move together, both among Gods and among men. And as in the words akolouthos and akoitis the a is substituted for an o, so the name
Apollyon or Abbadon destroyes by his "twanging" archery and his musical "melody" to force all things on heaven and earth.
"Now the suspicion of this destructive power still haunts the minds of some who do not consider the true value of the name, which, as I was saying just now, has reference to all the powers of the God, who is the single one, the everdarting, the purifier, the mover together (aplous, aei Ballon, apolouon, omopolon).
The name of the Muses and of music would seem to be derived from their making philosophical enquiries (mosthai); and Leto is called by this name, because she is such a gentle Goddess, and so willing (ethelemon) to grant our requests; or her name may be Letho, as she is often called by strangers- they seem to imply by it her amiability, and her smooth and easy-going way of behaving. Artemis is named from her healthy (artemes), well-ordered nature, and because of her love of virginity, perhaps because she is a proficient in virtue (arete), and perhaps also as hating intercourse of the sexes (ton aroton miseasa). He who gave the Goddess her name may have had any or all of these reasons.
182-206 - Leto"s (mother of Apollo) - all-glorious son goes to rocky Pytho, playing upon his hollow lyre, clad in divine, perfumed garments; and at the touch of the golden key his lyre sings sweet.
First, let's note that the word "music" is not used in the entire Bible in connection with worship by the people. Music has no relationship to worship which even under the law was individual, personal and "in the heart" as people bowed to God. Animal sacrifice was paying for sins to remain physically, ceremonially pure: it was not worship.
Music is used of secular feasts and in the classics includes dancing and singing. Music is also used of the end-time Babylonian whore worship.
Second, as far as we know without exception, "musical" terms or the names of musical instruments are derived from very negative terms. In fact, scholars note that music is the gift of Satan. Modern apologists claim that God saw how powerful music was and decided to use it for Himself. Even today, so called christians see how powerful music and stroking of the human nerve endings is and decides to quit playing "Christian church" and decide to begin playing musical theater: certainly pays more.
Notes from the Books of Ysrael. From Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis By Robert Graves and Raphael Patai. Chapter 18 p. 100-107
(o) Many Sethites took celibate vows, following Enoch's example, and led the lives of anchorites.
By way of contrast, the Cainites practised unbridled debauchery, each keeping at least two wives: the first to bear children, the second to gratify his lust.
The child-bearer lived in poverty and neglect, as thougn a widow;
the other was forced to drink a potion that made her barren - after which, decked out like a harlot, she entertained her husband luxuriously.
The first mention of musical instruments groups them with carnal weapons. Of the first polygamist:
And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle. Gen 4:20 [Collected and sold people their own cattle]
And his brothers name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle (handle means "without authority") the harp and organ (obscene image). Gen 4: 21
And Zillah, she also bare Tubal-cain, an instructor of every artificer (koresh) in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah. Gen 4: 22
And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. Gen 4: 23
In tradition, blind Lamech had a small boy tell him where to shoot and the twanging arrow ended up killing Cain bringing on a seven-fold curse.
The working of brass and invention of musical instruments led to the practice of music to control others. This is a picture of a brass instrument called the trumpet. It looks much like the brass-throated cobra. We have added some words connecting the whispering of the serpent, soothsaying and brass which was clanged to make people believe the demons were speaking from within. The invention of ringing brass was more powerful than an atom bomb.
Under the heading of: That the Inventors of Other Arts Were Mostly Barbarians, Clement helps explain Paul to the Corinthians. You will remember that he equated SOUNDING BRASS to words meaning sorcery, warfare or the theater:
When the Jews in the wilderness complained to Moses, "the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died" (Num 21:6); wherefore "Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent has bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived" (21:9).
As the Hebrew words for serpent and brass are the same when the Massoretic points are omitted (N H SH), some have sought for an interpretation by referring to the Evil One, called by the later Jews the Deprived (Nahash), but the fiery serpents "were the Seraphim, each one of which, as Isaiah shows (6:2), 'had six wings.'
Just as the serpent is connected with knowledge, wisdom, and magic, so likewise has copper or brass since immemorial time in all mystic schools been a metallic compound supposed to be under the particular governance of the planet Venus, (Lucifer, Zoe) which is the ruler or controller of the human higher manas -- manas being at once the savior as well as the tempter of mankind,
for it is in the mind (nous) where temptation and sin or evildoing ultimately arise.
Nahash and Lahash make a close connection between the tempter in the garden of Eden, the offspring of Lamech (reincarnated as Ea) and the musical enchanters of Mesopotamis.
"The Etruscans invented the trumpet, and the Phrygians the flute... In music, Olympus th Mysian practised the Lydian harmony; and the people called Troglodytes invented the sambuca, a musical instrument. It is said that the crooked pipe was invented by Satyrus the Phrygian; likewise the diatonic harmony by Hyagnis, a Phrygian too; and notes by Olympus, a Phrygian; as also the Phrygian harmony, and the half-Phrygian and the half-Lydian, by Marsyas, who belonged to the same region as those mentioned above." --(Clement, Stromata, Ante-Nicene, II, p. 317).
The Serpent or Nachash is related to the "ringing bell metal" by which men like Jubal discovered that he could control people. Nachash is quite similar to Lachash or speaking in tongues. The Naga serpent is of Indian or Persian origin but the serpent is clearly related to the Assyrians as "the tallest tree in Eden." The brass-throated Africal Cobra which hisses, hypnotizes and spits venum
Nechosheth (h5178) nekh-o'-sheth; for 5154; copper; hence, something made of that metal, i. e. coin, a fetter; fig. base (as compared with gold or silver): - brasen, brass, chain, copper, fetter (of brass), filthiness, steel.
Nechuwshah (h5154) nekh-oo-shaw'; or n chushah nekh-oo-shaw'; fem. of 5153; copper: - brass, steel. Comp. 517
- 1. Nachuwsh (h5153) naw-khoosh'; appar. pass. part. of 5172
(perh. in the sense of ringing,
- I. e. bell-metal; or from the red color of the
- throat of a serpent [5175, as denom.]
- when hissing); coppery, i. e.
Figurative: hard - of brass. Sir Jam
Nachash (h5175) naw-khawsh'; from 5172; a snake (from its hiss): - serpent.Nachash (h5172) naw-khash'; a prim. root; prop. to hiss, i. e. whisper a (magic) spell; gen. to prognosticate: - * certainly, divine, enchanter, (use) * enchantment, learn by experience, * indeed, diligently observe.
Nechusthan (h5180) nekh-oosh-tawn'; from 5178; something made of copper, i. e. the copper serpent of the Desert: - Nehushtan.
Notes from the Books of Ysrael. From Hebrew Myths: The Book of Genesis By Robert Graves and Raphael Patai. Chapter 18 p. 100-107
(p) It was the Cainite's punishment to have a hundred daughters borne them for each son; and this led to such husband-hunger that their women began to raid houses and carry off men.
One day it pleased them to seduce them Sethites, after daubing their faces with rouge and powder, their eyes with antimony, and the soles of their feet with scarlet, dyeing their hair, putting on golden earrings, golden anklets, bracelets, and many-colored garments.
In their ascent of the holy mountain, they twanged harps, blew trumpets, beat drums, sang, danced, clapped hands; then, having addressed the five hundred and twenty anchorites in cheerful voices,
each caught hold of her victim and seduced him. These Sethites, after once succumbing to the Cainite women's blandishments,
became more unclean than dogs, and utterly forgot God's laws.
And the children of Benjamin did so, and took them wives, according to their number, of them that danced, whom they caught (robbed): and they went and returned unto their inheritance, and repaired the cities, and dwelt in them. Judges 21:23
(r) Genun the Canaanite, son of Lamech the Blind, living in the Land of the Slime Pits,
was ruled by Azael from his earliest youth,
and invented all sorts of musical instruments.
When he played these, Azael entered into them too,
so that they gave forth seductive tunes entrancing the hearts of all listeners.
Genun would assemble companies of musicians, who inflamed one another with music until their lust burned bright like fire,
and they lay together promiscuously. He also brewed beer, gathered great crowds in taverns, gave them to drink,
and taught them to forge iron swords and spear-points, with which to do murder at random when they were drunk. See The Book of Enoch.
Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it. Hab 2:19
But the Lord is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him. Hab 2:20
Awake up, my glory; awake, psaltery and harp: I myself will awake early (the dawn) Ps.57:8
Specificially for this reason, God will come with ten thousand of His Host to execute judgement upon those
But these speak evil of those things which they know not: but what they know naturally, as brute beasts, in those things they corrupt themselves. Jude 1:10
Woe unto them for they have gone in the way of Cain, and ran greedily after the error of Balaam for reward, and perished in the gainsaying of Core. Jude 1:11
These are spots in your feasts of charity, when they feast with you, feeding themselves without fear: clouds they are without water, carried about of winds; trees whose fruit withereth, without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots; Jude 1:12
Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering Jude 1:13 stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.
And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, Jude 1:14
To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. Ju.1:15
These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having mens persons in admiration because of advantage. Jude 1:16
God gave the two silver trumpet, not to make music but to make war and to signal movements:
And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the Lord your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies. Numbers 10:9
The alarm meant to triumph over as prophesied of Jesus in Psalm 41 speaking of Judas.
Ruwa (h7321) roo-ah'; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears (with sound), i. e. shout (for alarm or joy): - blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout (for joy), sound an alarm, triumph.
However, when the people were to be gathered or "synagogued"
But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. Numbers 10:7
These were carnal instruments which were also great weapons to panic the enemy. A class of humans which made ordinary men look like grasshopers are those in all of the ancient traditions who taught mankind how to use musical instruments to destroy spiritual connections to the Word.
There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown. Gen 6:4
And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. Gen 6:5
Therefore, we have no evidence that musical instruments were anything but carnal weapons.
Keliy (h3627) kel-ee'; from 3615; something prepared, i. e. any apparatus (as an implement, utensil, dress, vessel or weapon): - armour ([-bearee]), artillery, bag, carriage, / furnish, furniture, instrument, jewel, that is made of, * one from another, that which
And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar. And when the burnt offering began, the song of the Lord began also with the trumpets, and with the instruments ordained by David king of Israel. 2 Chron 29:27
David was king. Therefore, his part in animal sacrifices was as military leader just as in all other "like the nation's" temples:
David, together with the commanders of the army, set apart some of the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun for the ministry of prophesying, accompanied by harps, lyres and cymbals. Here is the list of the men who performed this service: 1Chron 25:1
Their "service" was not spiritual worship but:
Abodah (h5656) ab-o-daw'; or abowdah ab-o-daw'; from 5647; work of any kind: - act, bondage, / bondservant, effect, labour, ministering (-try), office, service (-ile, -itude), tillage, use, work, * wrough
Abad (h5647) aw-bad'; a prim. root; to work (in any sense); by impl. to serve, till, (caus.) enslave, etc.: - * be, keep in bondage, be bondmen, bond-service, compel, do, dress, ear, execute, / husbandman, keep, labour (-ing man), bring to pass, (cause to, make to) serve (-ing, self), (be, become) servant (-s), do (use) service, till (-er), transgress [from margin], (set a) work, be wrought, worshipper.
Third, a word which was resurrected in the late 19th century to prove that God commanded worship with instruments is "psallo" translated melody, and "psalmos" translated as psalm or song.
Melody is directly related to terms meaning "to grind one into powder." This spoke of the use of the bowstring of tens of thousands of warriors twanging at the same time. Along with the trumpets and "making a joyful noise" science knows that you can turn hardened warriors into cowards.
Melody is also related to the "sop" Jesus fed Judas. Interestingly, the "bag" Judas carried stolen money in was "a bag for carrying the mouthpieces of wind instruments." This makes sense because it was prophesied in Psalm 41 that Judas would try to triumph over Jeus where "triumph over" is to blow wind instruments and make a joyful noise.
Melody, therefore, had its beginning in the bowstring. When twanged the bow became a zither or musical instrument. By connecting it to the teeth it can be somewhat tuned.
Melody is also related to what happens when you pluck a hair out of someone's head: it stretches, snaps, abrades and makes a tiny musical note. Another discovery was stretching horse hairs or gut across a plank. When you pulled the string out and let it go it made a "twanging" sound. However, it also scratched or abraded the plank into bits.
In the Bible, the word "melody" never includes a musical instrument unless one is specified. For instance, two rare uses of the word are:
The king/queen of Tyre came equiped with musical instruments. He had been cast out of the garden of Eden:
And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot. Isaiah 23:15
Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Isaiah 23:16
And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years, that the Lord will visit Tyre, and she shall turn to her hire, and shall commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth. Isaiah 23:17
Israel had been turned over to worship the starry host. In the pagan worship defined by Amos, the star was Molech, Saturn or Chiun, etc.
Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. Am.5:23
Psallo or twanging in the New Testament
CONEYBEARE AND HOWSON:
"Throughout the whole passage there is a contrast implied between the Heathen and the Christian practice, q.d. When you meet, let your enjoyment consist, not in fulness of wine, but fulness of the Spirit; let your songs be, not the drinking-songs of heathen feasts, but psalms and hymns; and their accompaniment, not the music of the lyre, but the melody of the heart; while you sing them to the praise. not of Bacchus or Venus, but of the Lord Jesus Christ." (P.775, n. 5.)
NOTE: Ephesians 5:19 enjoins: (1) Speaking TO ONE ANOTHER in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs; (2) singing (adontes) and making melody (psallontes, psalming) with your heart TO THE LORD. (One is done with voice and lips, the other with the heart.)
PSALLO: From psao, to rub, to wipe; to handle, to touch (Thayer): Liddell and Scott.- I. To touch sharply, to pluck, pull. twitch;
to twang the bow-string; to send a shaft twanging from the bow; so, schoinos miltophures psallomene a carpenter's red line,
which is twitched and then let suddenly go, so as to leave a mark. II.
1. To play a stringed instrument with the fingers, not with the plectron.
2. Later, to sing to the harp,
3. sing, N.T.
Thayer: a. To pluck off, pull out: the hair. b. To cause to vibrate by touching, to twang; spec. to touch or strike the chord, to touch the strings of a musical instrument, to play the harp, etc.; Sept. for zamar and much oftener for nagan; to sing to the music of the harp;
In the N.T. to sing a hymn, to celebrate the praise of God in song, Jas.5:13; Eph.5:13; Rom.15:9; 1 Cor.14:15 .
> Revello, velli, vulsum or volsum, 3, v. a., to pluck or pull away, to pull or tear out, to tear off or away (freq. and class.).
I. Lit. be torn away, remove,
II. Trop., to tear away, send away injurias honorificis verbis,
Signum: A sign, signal; a watchword, password, given by a wind-instrument.
> blituri , to, twang of a harp-string: hence of a meaningless sound, Perseus
If even lifeless instruments, such as the flute or the harp, do not give distinct notes, how will any one know what is played? 1 Cor 14:7RSV
> klang-ŕ [klaz˘] ):--any sharp sound, e.g. twang of the bow, scream of birds, esp. cranes,
to which are compared confused cries of a throng
grunting of swine, later,
howling of wolves and lions, h.Hom.
hissing of serpents,
baying of dogs,
also, of musical instruments, of song, aŕdoneios, of Cassandra's prophecies
of the scream of the Harpies, A.R.2.269. Perseus
> klangŕ (klaz˘): scream, properly of birds, Od. 11.605; of animals,
as the squealing of pigs,
and of the loud cry of warriors,
the sharp twang of a bowstring, Perseus
For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh: 2Co.10:3
(For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds;) 2Co.10:4
The carnal weapon could included trumpets and other "musical" instruments. The word HOPLON defines both a weapon and a musical instrument as does one Hebrew word.
> klaz˘ Pan.
3. of things, as of arrows in the quiver, clash, rattle, whistl of the whistle, klazousi k˘d˘nes phobon ring forth terror, salpinx . . aoidan; of the sea, roar, of the musician, kitharai of Pan on his pipes, (of the tettix) klaz˘n sounding loudly the song of victory in honour of Zeus [The triumph-over musical attack on Je-Zeus (as the preachers now say]
Phoebe is another name for Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon. The tettix are the LOCUSTS in Revelation or the muses or musicians of Revelation 18:22. The musical sounds were always known to induce panic (FROM PAN) and this was peddled as a spiritual feeling. Pan is the BEAST of Revelation and his "horns" are defined as literal musical instruments. Pan speaks of the homosexual component of pagan worship which was a synonym for MUSICIAN or FLUTE-PERSON.
"Among Apollo's principle functions was
that of the god of music.
Also, he was linked to poetry since he liked to prophesy in verse and was invoked by poets.
But, he also was a terrifying god as a pitiless archer
he could inflict instant death; he inflicted epidemics as was as indicated at the beginning of the Iliad when he put an epidemic on the Achaean army; and along with his twin sister Artemis partook in murdering the children of Niobe. Certain animals, such as the wolf, squirrel, and doe, were specially dedicated to Apollo; also certain birds, such as the swan, kite, and crow, as well as the dolphin, whose name in Greek, delphis, recalls the sanctuary of Delphi. A.G.H. Grimal, Pierre, Larousse World Mythology, Secaucus, New Jersey, Chartwell Books, 1965, pp. 121-125 Cotterell, Arthur, A Dictionary of World Mythology, New York, G. P. Putman's Sons, 1980, p. 132
Socrates. I will endeavour to explain, for I do not believe that any single name could have been better adapted to express the attributes of the God, embracing and in a manner signifying all four of them,- music, and prophecy, and medicine, and archery.
Her. That must be a strange name, and I should like to hear the explanation.
Soc. Say rather an harmonious name, as beseems the God of Harmony.
In the first place, the purgations and purifications which doctors and diviners use,
and their fumigations with drugs magical or medicinal, as well as their washings and lustral sprinklings,
have all one and the same object, which is to make a man pure both in body and soul.
Socrates: His name and nature are in harmony;
you see he is a musical god. For in the first place, purification and purgations used in medicine and in soothsaying, and fumigations with medicinal and magic drugs, and the baths and sprinklings connected with that sort of thing all have the single function of making a man pure in body and soul, do they not?
Paul said make melody IN YOUR HEART. That is in contrast to making MELODY in another's heart with the MEANING of Psallo
to twang the bow-string; to send a shaft twanging from the bow; so, schoinos miltophures psallomene a carpenter's red line,
which is twitched and then let suddenly go, so as to leave a mark. II.
........1. To play a stringed instrument with the fingers, not with the plectron.
........ 2. Later, to sing to the harp,
........ 3. sing, N.T.
Can you see the connection between INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC as making warfare for APOLLYON OR ABADDON? Can you see that the MUSES or musicians are LOCUSTS used by Apollo? Can you see that the Greek resources are absolute: rhetoricians, sOPHISts (serpents in Revelation), singers, musicians and techne or craftsmen (theater builders and stage managers) practiced the art of SORCERY? Can you grasp the other fact, that like the LOCUSTS, all of these performers were called PARASITES?
Again, no one suggests that the "heart" is a musical instrument because Paul didn't speak about "making music." Rather than having the body "abraded into powder" by the same panic one might feels when he hears the "twang" of a bow string and looks down to find the arrow in his chest, Paul's goal is to have our "hearts broken" or made sensitive to the Spirit by "giving attendance" to His Words.
Therefore thus saith the Lord concerning the king of Assyria, He shall not come into this city, nor shoot an arrow there, nor come before it with shields, nor cast a bank against it. Isaiah 37:33
An arrow twanging in your direction is:
Berowsh (h1265) ber-osh'; of uncert. der.; a cypress tree; hence a lance or a musical instrument (as made of that wood): - fir (tree).
Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us. Is.14:8
Chec (h2671) khayts; from 2686; prop, a piercer, i. e. an arrow; by impl. a wound; fig. (of God) thunder-bolt; (by interchange for 6086) the shaft of a spear: - / archer, arrow, dart, shaft, staff, wound.
Chacac (h2686) khaw-tsats'; a prim. root [comp. 2673]; prop. to chop into, pierce or server; hence to curtail, to distribute (into ranks); as denom. from 2671, to shoot an arrow: - archer, * bands, cut off in the midst.
They that are delivered from the noise of archers in the places of drawing water, there shall they rehearse the righteous acts of the Lord, even the righteous acts toward the inhabitants of his villages in Israel: then shall the people of the Lord go down to the gates. Judges 5:11KJV
the voice of the singers at the watering places. They recite the righteous acts of the LORD, the righteous acts of his warriors in Israel. "Then the people of the LORD went down to the city gates. Judges 5:11NIV
"At the sound of those who divide flocks among the watering places, There they shall recount the righteous deeds of the Lord, The righteous deeds for His peasantry in Israel. Then the people of the Lord went down to the gates. Judges 5:11NAS
h6086 is used of God's judgment against Assyrian (the tallest tree in Eden."
For through the voice of the Lord shall the Assyrian be beaten down, which smote with a rod. Isaiah 30:31
And in every place where the grounded staff shall pass, which the Lord shall lay upon him, it shall be with tabrets and harps: and in battles of shaking will he fight with it. Isaiah 30:32
For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it. Isaiah 30:33
Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms (maggots) cover thee. Is.14:11
In the Greek world, singing and external melody was a pagan or secular activity. The civilized way was to pluck a string and tune the voice to it. There was no melody. However, among the lower class and prostitutes and even children, it was very "bumpkin" to recite a poem and strum the harp at the same time. How insulting to the writer of the material.!
Therefore, if Paul had defending "singing and playing instruments" his instructions would have been no different than the pagan temples just down the street where "uncovered prophesying" by the women was permitted (1 Cor 11:5) but outlawed for the assembly:
In Acts 1:20 psalmos is the book of Psalms and in Rom. 15: sing is psallo.
- "Psallo is best translated by chant,
- not sing.
- The Greeks sharply distinguish chanting (psalmodia)
- from singing (tragoudi).
- The first is a sacred activity;
- the second, a secular one. In English, unfortunately,
- the distinction is not sharp.. Constantine Cavarnos
Psalmos (g5568) psal-mos'; from 5567; a set piece of music, i.e. a sacred ode
- with the voice,
- or other instrument;
a "psalm"); collect. the book of the Psalms: - psalm. Comp. 5603.
We have noted that "psallo" does not initially derive from "making a musical sound." For instance, when someone yanks out a hair from your head it "twangs" and makes a sound which the superstitious believed to be the "gods." Pythagoras developed that idea from studying in Babylonia.
I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting. Isaiah 50:6
For, lo, the wicked bend their bow, they make ready their arrow upon the string, that they may privily shoot at the upright in heart. Psalm 11:2
Bend: Darak (h1869) daw-rak'; a prim. root; to tread; by impl. to walk; also to string a bow (by treading on it in bending): - archer, bend, come, draw, go (over), guide, lead (forth), thresh, tread (down), walk.
Not even David dared to lead "congregational singing with instrumental accompaniment."
If we care about the knowledge of God we won't look for figures of speech. The DIRECT COMMAND OF PAUL WAS TO TEACH OR PREACH. There is no connection between "music" as a legalistic act of worship with or without instruments.
No, Paul didn't say "play upon a harp HEARTILY." Paul repudiated pagan music because it was idolatrous. He did not have to repudiate Jewish SOUNDING because it was never connected to the common people: when the temple and animal sacrifices then the Levitical Overseers "under the king and commanders of the army" came to an end. Paul wouldn't have had to explain that even to a ten year old boy.
Jesus said that worship is "in spirit" and that means the believer's new "holy place." Now, someone needs to tell the instrumentalists that "not walking in the flesh" does not mean that we do not still walk around in our body:
For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh: 2 Cor 10:3
(For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds (figurative of arguments) 2 Cor 10:4
Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ; 2 Cor 10:5
We "play our" God-given instrument (lips as double-edged sword) when we "teach and admonish one another." And Paul to Titus told him how to do it: "Give attendance to reading." At Mount Sinai when they "rose up to play" they exhaled themselves above the Word of God and were sentenced to "hard bondage" and were turned over to the worship of the stars: Molech or Baal with instrumental music.
Those who "set forward" the work of the temple excelled or rose up to have the music played so that they could make the slaves (even Jews) build the temple. After Solomon died civil war the 'youth" movement warned that rather than the whip they would be beaten with the scorpion. The "chief musician was":
Nacach (h5329) naw-tsakh'; to glitter from afar, to be eminent as a superintendent, especially of the Temple services and its music; also to be permanent, to excel, chief musician, singer, overseer, set forward. (The Worship team or Minister of Music is the overseer or anxiety inducer).
Those who play instruments exalt themselves against the knowledge (spirit) of God. However, Paul said that you cannot make warfare with musical instruments as David did. The "weapon" is an instrument:
Hoplon (g3696) hop'-lon; prob. from a prim. (to be busy about); an implement or utensil or tool (lit. or fig., espec. offensive for war): - armour, instrument, weapon
"the watchmen, who patrolled the streets for the repression of common crime, were charged with the additional duty of exorcizing the dreaded powers of the air and of darkness, which went about like roaring lions seeking what they might devour.
To accomplish this object the night watchman wielded spiritual weapons of two different sorts but of equal power; he range a bell, and he chanted a blessing." (Frazer, James George, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 423, 1923)
The Hebrew also uses a military weapon word for David's musical instruments:
And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar. And when the burnt offering began,
the song of the Lord began also with the trumpets,
and with the instruments ordained by David king of Israel. 2 Chron 29:27
These musical instruments were "carnal weapons" used by the army and the king:
Keliy (h3627) kel-ee'; from 3615; something prepared, i. e. any apparatus (as an implement, utensil, dress, vessel or weapon): - armour ([-bearee]), artillery, bag, carriage, / furnish, furniture, instrument, jewel, that is made of, * one from another, that which pertaineth, pot, / psaltery, sack, stuff, thing, tool, vessel, ware, weapon, / whatsoever.
While the command is to "teach" or preach, Paul claimed that if this teaching does not flow from love then it BECOMES like playing the musical instruments of warfare (David) or of soothsaying (the witch of Endor used a sounding, empty, old wineskin."
THOUGH I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 1 Co.13:1
Playing and singing or praising was a warrior's practice.
The bow, bow string and arrow "twangs." When, you hear this it is not "music" but you look down to see where the arrow "made melody right into your bleeding heart."
All honour to that king of the Scythians, whoever Anacharsis was, who shot with an arrow one of his subjects who imitated among the Scythians the mystery of the Mother of the gods, as practised by the inhabitants of Cyzicus,
beating a drum and sounding a cymbal strung from his neck like a priest of Cybele,
condemning him as having become effeminate among the Greeks, and a teacher of the disease of effeminacy to the rest of the Cythians. AnteClHeresVolII.html
- She said, and from her quiver chose with speed
- The winged shaft, predestin'd for the deed;
- Then to the stubborn yew her strength applied,
- Till the far distant horns approach'd on either side.
- The bowstring touch'd her breast, so strong she drew;
- Whizzing in air the fatal arrow flew.
- At once the twanging bow and sounding dart
- The traitor heard, and felt the point within his heart.
- Him, beating with his heels in pangs of death,
- His flying friends to foreign fields bequeath.
- The conqu'ring damsel, with expanded wings,
- The welcome message to her mistress brings.
"The Roman scabella, derived from their Greek counterparts kroupezai, or kroupala, were wooden sandals used for beating time.
Auloi player with phorbeia, and dancer with krotala, detail from kylix signed by Epictetus, found at Vulci, Italy, c. 520-510 BC. The Greeks characteristically used double reeds of cane that were held in the pipes by bulbous sockets. A leather strap (phorbeia; Latin: capistrum) was often tied across the cheeks to support them in the powerful blowing necessary to sound the pipes
"The time-beating foot clappers of chorus leaders, attached to the right foot like a sandal, were known in Greece as kroupezai, or kroupala, and adopted by Rome as the scabella. Other idiophones included bells, cymbals, the unidentified echeion, and an instrument simply called "the bronze" (chalkos), probably a metal percussion disk. When the cult of Isis spread to Greece and Rome, her sistrum followed, always in the hands of a priest or--rarely--priestess.
This is the sounding brass of 1 Cor. 13.
- As wretched as my case doth seeme, yet have I left me mo
- Than thou for all thy happinesse canst of thine owne account.
- Even after all these corses yet I still doe thee surmount.
- Upon the ende of these same wordes the twanging of the string
- In letting of the Arrow flie was clearly heard: which thing
- Made every one save Niobe afraide. Hir heart was so
- With sorrowe hardned, that she grew more bolde. Hir daughters tho
- Were standing all with mourning weede and hanging haire before
- Their brothers coffins. One of them in pulling from the sore
- An Arrow sticking in his heart, sanke downe upon hir brotherYet it is strange, and sad, alas! That one who through this middle earth should pass Most like a sojourning demi-god,
and leave His name upon the harp-string,
should achieve No higher bard than simple maidenhood, Singing alone, and fearfully,--how the blood Left his young cheek; and how he used to stray He knew not where; and how he would say, nay, 730 If any said 'twas love: and yet 'twas love; What could it be but love? How a ring-dove Let fall a sprig of yew tree in his path; And how he died: and then, that love doth scathe, The gentle heart, as northern blasts do roses; And then the ballad of his sad life closes With sighs, and an alas!--Endymion!
Amphitryon: Gently raise your dirge of woe, old friends; or he will wake, and, bursting his bonds, destroy the city, rend his father, and dash his house to pieces.
Chorus: I cannot, cannot!
Amphitryon: Hush! let me note his breathing; come, let me put my ear close.
Chorus: Is he sleeping?
Amphitryon: Yes, he is sleeping, a deadly sleepless sleep, having slain wife and children with the arrows of his twanging bow.
Already, look you! the presumption of these Bacchantes is upon us, swift as fire, a sad disgrace in the eyes of all Hellas. No time for hesitation now! away to the Electra gate! order a muster of all my men-at-arms, of those that mount fleet steeds, of all who brandish light bucklers,
of archers too that make the bowstring twang; for I will march against the Bacchanals.
By Heaven this passes all, if we are to be thus treated by women.
DIONYSUS (Don't question God's annointed!)
Still obdurate, O Pentheus, after hearing my words!
In spite of all the evil treatment I am enduring from thee,
still I warn thee of the sin of bearing arms against a god, and bid thee cease; for Bromius will not endure thy driving his votaries from the mountains where they revel.
A truce to thy preaching to me! thou hast escaped thy bonds, preserve thy liberty; else will I renew thy punishment.
I would rather do him sacrifice than in a fury kick against the pricks; thou a mortal, he a god.
with the lion-headed weapon made from nir stone, which never turns back before the highlands, with dagger blades, with nine standards, with the "strength of heroism",
with his bow which twangs like a mes forest, with his angry arrows which whizz like lightning flashes in battle and with his quiver, which is a like a lion, a pirij lion, or a fierce snake sticking out its tongue - strengths of battle endued with the power of kingship.
Along with copper, tin, slabs of lapis lazuli, refined silver and pure Meluha cornelian, he set up (?) huge copper cauldrons, huge ...... of copper, shining copper goblets and shining copper jars worthy of An , for laying (?) a holy table in the open air ...... at the place of regular offerings (?). Nin-jirsu gave his city, Lagac ....... He set up his bed within the bedchamber, the house┤s resting place; and everyone (?) rested like birds in the streets with the son of Enlil.
James Whitcomb Riley
The same old story told again--
- The maiden droops her head,
- The ripening glow of her crimson cheek Is answering in her stead.
- The pleading tone of a trembling voice Is telling her the way
- He loved her when his heart was young In Youth's sunshiny day:
- The trembling tongue, the longing tone,
- Imploringly ask why
- They can not be as happy now
- As in the days gone by.
- And two more hearts, tumultuous
- With overflowing joy,
- Are dancing to the music
- Which that dear, provoking boy
- Is twanging on his bowstring,
- As, fluttering his wings,
- He sends his love-charged arrows
- While merrily be sings:
- "Ho! ho! my dainty maiden,
- It surely can not be
- You are thinking you are master
- Of your heart, when it is me."
- And another gleaming arrow
- Does the little god's behest,
- And the dainty little maiden
- Falls upon her lover's breast.
- "The same old story told again,"
- And listened o'er and o'er,
- Will still be new, and pleasing, too,
- Till "Time shall be no more."
All of these forms have relevance to Achilles, who was placed upon a fire to remove his mortal impurities, who was a renowned singer and harpist, and who was skilled with a bow. (Ironically, he was killed by a bolt directed by Apollo from the bow of Alexander.) The twanging of the bowstring suggests the sound of the harp string and the singing of the clear, high pitched voice of the youth.
It should also be pointed out that Achilles was mere days old when he was taken to Chiron and renamed, so that only Peleus, Thetis, and Chiron would have known the child's birth name. It is likely that Chiron changed Ligyron's name in an attempt to turn aside the fate that had been predicted for him. At any rate, none who knew the original name would have disclosed it after the new name had been given. There can be no other conclusion:
In light of this evidence, making melody externally with a "harp" speaks of defeating the enemy. This was the practice in Ephesus and Colosse and other places which Paul warned.
By speaking external and allowing the melody to be in the "heart" we pluck the heart and do not intend to damage our brothers and sisters with literal melody.
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