Tom Olbricht Hearing Gods Voice

Tom Olbricht Stone-Campbell Group Google. Tom will not let the Bible Speak.  He is a major leader of the Stone-Campbell Movement.  This movement began even before the Disciples removed the Christian Church or NACC in 1971. The great tribulation began when the "Society and Organ Party" began even before the Christian Church Denomination formed a SECTING-OUT Party in 1927.

Olbricht will not Allow discussion that defines Jesus saying that "trinity" is Blasphemy and John marking it as Antichrist

Leonard Allen The Spirit Poured out.  God's Spirit is His BREATH it produces WORDS but not after the time of Jesus

Leonard Allen Poured out NECESSARY to enable the Mission of Jesus Christ. 
A deep psychological and spiritual wound will not let the instrumental sectarians rest until they have burned up their time and resources trying to seduce people to join them or have their property. This does not speak for the people but is the weeping sore of theologians 

Stone-Campbell is intended as psychological violence against what became Churches of Christ.  The "unity" fallacy began in 1832 with the Stoneites being dismantles momentarily by Campbell who was preaching with the Reformed Baptists and convincing most of the preachers that Acts 2:38 meant what it said.

The Christian Churches began in 1927 with UNITY meetings.  That Meant WE intend to steal your congregation for the Society and Organ Sect and THEN we have have "fellowship."

A World History of the Stone-Campbell Movement

Thomas Olbricht and all MERCHANDISING theologians pick what they need out of the literature.

Rev 4.25.13 Stone Campbell Hermeneutics John Mark Hicks

The the Stone Campbell Movement as a new SECTARIAN DIVISION AND DIVIDER

"Charles H. Lucas (right) helped build "discipling" churched which grew repidly in the 1980's, but by decade's end few ties remained with the mainstream.

"In the world of ideas, leaders such as Tom Olbricht, Rubel Shelly, Harold Hazelip and Max Lucado began to speak to broad audiences

as they freshened understanding of biblical texts.
addition of a doctoral degree program in Bible at Abilene Christian University was part of a wave of graduate Bible programs at Christian Universities.

"Lynn Anderson, then at the Highland church in Abilene, Texas, began to mentor a young generation of ministers. Reuel Lemmons' enthusiasm for world evangelism and unorthodox concepts continued to dominate the Firm Foundation and energize thinking.

See the Creed of Max Lucado
See Shepherding or Discipling at Oak Hills
See Lynn Anderson's Discipling or Shepherding ministry.
Lynn Anderson holy entertainment and the pagan connection.

More Neo-Pagan Parallels

I The Reformed Context  
Tom Olbricht: Campbell commenced the address by declaring the need to "take all our measures directly and immediately from the Divine standard." (Note 1) 

To be avoided, however, is a human interpretation of that standard.
He therefore immediately implied the
desirability of setting out guidelines which avoided human construals.

Note 1: Thomas Campbell, Declaration and Address, in Historical Documents Advocating Christian Union, ed. Charles Alexander Young, ed. (Chicago: The Christian Century Company, 1904) 71.

A review of discussion by the Campbells and others indicates that the chief goal was RESTORATION OF HUMAN FREEDOM. That did not give theologians a new TOOL to DO church but a weapon for individual believers to fend off those ever ready to bundle them into some form of human institution. By repudiating the notion of ordained clergy they freed everyone to become a student of the word.

A human interpretation would be the work of "doctors of the Law" who, according to Jesus, took away the keys to knowledge. Campbell did not remotely hint that the Bible could not be interpreted IF you left out theology which is anti-Biblical.

Paul said that the way to avoid human "construals" is for the elders as the only pastor-teachers of the congregation to "Teach that which has been taught."

Campbell said:

We are also of opinion that as the Divine word is equally binding upon all, so all lie under an equal obligation to be bound by it, and it alone; and not by any human interpretation of it;

and that, therefore, no man has a right to judge his brother,
except in so far as he manifestly violates the express letter of the law.
That every such judgment is an express violation of the law of Christ, a
daring usurpation of his throne, and a gross intrusion upon the rights and liberties of his subjects.

The Declaration and Address, like John Locke's writings, were a Declaration of Freedom FROM theologians. Judging is not just having an opinion which the NEW HERMENEUTS want to outlaw but judging is inflicting or imposing some penalty or burden on others. In the case of instrumental music, the same German liberal thought imposed instruments on most of the denominational people who CAME OUT OF BABYLON as they were freed to think for themselves.

Peter warned about hermeneuts, exegetes, rheroricians, sOPHISts, singers and musicians by putting a SEAL on the written word. This was in part to be a TRAP to identified those who made a profession out of further expounding the free Word:

2Pet. 1:4 Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises:
        that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature,
        having escaped the corruption [connects to musical sounds] that is in the world through lust.
2 Pet 1:15 Moreover I will endeavour that ye may be able after my decease 
        to have these things alway in remembrance.

2Pet. 1:16  For we have not followed cunningly [sophizo]  devised fables,                   
Fables are myths from MUO [to shut the mouth: music forces the lambs to be silent before the slaughter]
Muthos   2. fiction (Opposite. logos, historic truth)
Pind. 0. 1 From there glorious song enfolds the wisdom of poets,1 so that they loudly sing [10] the son of Cronus, when they arrive at the rich and blessed hearth of Hieron, who wields the scepter of law in Sicily of many flocks, reaping every excellence at its peak, and is glorified [15] by the choicest music, which we men often play around his hospitable table. Come, take the Dorian lyre down from its peg, if the splendor of Pisa and of Pherenicus placed your mind under the influence of sweetest thoughts,

Yes, there are many marvels, and yet I suppose the speech of mortals beyond the true account can be deceptive, stories adorned with embroidered lies; [30] and Grace, who fashions all gentle things for men, confers esteem and often contrives to make believable the unbelievable. But the days to come are the wisest witnesses.

 embroidered lies Poikilos
2. of Art, p. humnos a song of changeful strain or full of diverse art, Pi.O.6.87; “poikilon kitharizōnId.N.4.14; “dedaidalmenoi pseudesi poikilois muthoiId.O.1.29; of style, “lexis poiētikōtera kai p.Isoc.15.47 (Comp.); “skhēmatismoiD.H.Is.3.

 Fables are myths from MUO [to shut the mouth: music forces the lambs to be silent before the slaughter]

Sophis-tês ,A. master of one's craft, adept, expert, of diviners, Hdt.2.49; of poets, “meletan sophistais prosbalonPi.I.5(4).28, cf. Cratin.2; of musicians, “sophistēs . . parapaiōn khelunA.Fr.314, cf. Eup.447, Pl.Com. 140; sophistē Thrēki (sc. Thamyris) E.Rh.924, cf. Ath.14.632c: with modal words added, “hoi s. tōn hierōn melōn

II. from late v B.C., a Sophist, i.e. one who gave lessons in grammar, rhetoric, politics, mathematics, for money,

goēs     A. sorcerer, wizard, Phoronis 2, Hdt.2.33,4.105, Pl.R. 380d, Phld.Ir.p.29 W.; “g. epōdos Ludias apo khthonosE.Ba.234, cf. Hipp.1038; prob. f.l. for boēsi Hdt.7.191.
2. juggler, cheat, “deinos g. kai pharmakeus kai sophistēsPl.Smp.203d; “magos kai g.Aeschin.3.137:
Rev. 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
Rev. 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth;
        for by thy sorceries [Pharmakeia, Pharmakeus], Veneficium Cantio] were all nations deceived.  [Planao ,  
Rev. 18:24 And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.
         when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ,
         but were eyewitnesses of his majesty.

2 Pet 1:17 For HE
received from God the Father honour and glory,
        when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory,
        This is my beloved Son
, in whom I am well pleased.

Jesus as the Word or Son did not speak His own words. Only the Father originates Words: Jesus did not disobey His Father.
The Spirit or "breath" did not, does not originate any words.
The Apostles spoke what THEY heard as eye and ear witnesses.
Your preacher will NOT be obedient and YOU will not attend A Church of Christ.
2 Pet 1:18 And this voice which came from heaven
, when
were with him in the holy mount.  

2 Pet 1:19 
WE have also a more sure word of prophecy;
        whereunto YE
do well that ye take heed,

"Take Heed" is the UNIQUE way to worship God in the PLACE of the human spirit. If you are "taking heed" to the preacher, singers or other functionaries then you CANNOT be taking heed to Christ Who promised to be with two or three. If you are taking heed to "work books" in church you cannot be giving heed to the Word. And if you get a Phd from a peer-declared Phd then you are involved in "intellectual incest" and you will never hear the Word.

No individual can be faithful and attempt to further expound the Word of God by the modern system of sermonizing on a text or singing Twila Paris.

Here is what you CANNOT do: 

Epilusis (g1955)ep-il'-oo-sis; from 1956; explanation, i.e. application: - interpretation.
Epiluo (g1956) ep-ee-loo'-o; from 1909 and 3089; to solve further, i.e. (fig.) to explain, decide: - determine, expound.

Epi-lusis  A. release from, e. phobôn [fear] didou A.Th.134 (lyr.): abs., exemption from banishment, [purgatory?]. The word dissertio also carries the idea of trying to REMOVE fear by explaining away any worry about keeping laws.
2. . solution, “sophismatōnS.E.P.2.246; explanation, 2 Ep.Pet.1.20,
3089 luō loo'-o A primary verb; to “loosen” (literally or figuratively):—break (up), destroy, dissolve, (un-) loose, melt, put off. 


Solution means loosing, unloosing, dissolution

Dan. 4:2 I thought it good to shew the signs and wonders that the high God hath wrought toward me.

captio ,  

II.Trop., a deceiving, deception, fraud, deceit Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 112; 5

Plaut. Ep. 2, 2, 112; EPIDICUS  Then, filly as many of the courtesans as there are in the whole city were going decked out each to meet her lover; they were going to trap them; that's the fact, inasmuch as I gave especial attention to it; several of these had with them nets beneath their garments. When I came to the harbour, forthwith I espied her waiting there, and with her were four music-girls.

Cic. Fat. 13, 30:   omnes istius generis captiones eodem modo refelluntur,”

B. Esp. freq. in dialectics, a fallacious argument, a sophism

Sophisticus    I. sophistic, sophistical; res admodum insidiosa et sophistica, neque ad veritates magis quam ad captiones reperta, Gell. 18, 2, 6: “ostentatio,sophistically: “interpretari legem et cavillari, 

Gel. 18.2.6  

[6] Quaerebantur autem res huiuscemodi: aut sententia poetae veteris lepide obscura, non anxie, aut historiae antiquioris requisitio, aut decreti cuiuspiam ex philosophia perperam invulgati purgatio, aut captionis sophisticae solutio, aut inopinati rariorisque verbi indagatio, aut tempus item in verbo perspicuo obscurissimum. 

Interpret the a law in a mocking manner

Ostentatio  I. In gen., a showing, exhibition, display, A. An idle show, vain display, pomp, parade, ostentationB.A false, deceitful show, pretence, simulation, deception,  Captivus Simulation  under pretence of a divine command

Captīvus , a, um, adj. captus, capio, A. Of men, taken prisoner, captive. Taken by force 

Cavillor I.a. [cavilla], to practise jeering or mocking; or (act.) to censure, criticise; to satirize in jest or earnest, to jest, etc. (syn.: jocari, ludere, illudere).  II. Meton., to reason captiously, to use sophisms, to quibble

Livy 3. Thereupon the tribunes wanted to release the people from their oath by raising a quibble. They argued that Quinctius was not consul when the oath was taken. But the neglect of the gods, which prevails in this age, had not yet appeared, nor did every man interpret oaths and laws in just the sense which suited him best; he preferred to shape his own conduct by their requirements. The tribunes, finding any attempt at obstruction hopeless, set themselves to delay the departure of the army. They were the more anxious to do this as a report had got abroad that the augurs had received instructions to repair to Lake Regillus and set apart with the usual augural formalities a spot where business could be transacted by a properly constituted Assembly
Sophos A. skilled in any handicraft or art, clever, mostly of poets and musicians, Pi.O.1.9, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. E.IT1238 

C. Meton. (causa pro effectu; cf.: fraudi esse), an injury, a disadvantage

Epilusis Release from fear 

Aeschylus Aesch. Seven 128 Pallas, Zeus-born power delighting in battle, prove yourself the savior of the city! [130] And you, lord of steeds, ruler of the deep, Poseidon, with your fish-striking weapon grant us release from our fears, grant us release!

[135] You too, Ares--pity us!--guard the city named for Cadmus and make evident your closeness1 to us! [140] And Cypris, [Eve, Zoe, Mary]  you who are the first mother of our race, defend us who are sprung from your blood. We come to you, crying out in prayers for your divine ears.

[145] And you, Apollo, lord of the Wolf, be a wolf to the enemy force and give them groan for groan!

Note 2: Aesch. Supp. 686 And let no murderous havoc come upon [680] the realm to ravage it, by arming Ares--foe to the dance and lute, parent of tears--and the shout of civil strife. [685] And may the joyless swarm of diseases settle far from the heads of the inhabitants, and to all the young people may Lyceus be graciously disposed.
Note 1 The epithet Lyceus, often applied to Apollo, was commonly connected with the belief that he was the destroyer and protector of wolves (lukoi). As a destructive power he is invoked to ward off enemies (Aesch. Seven 145); as an averter of evil he protects herds, flocks, and the young. According to Pausanias (Paus. 2.19.3) Danaus established a sanctuary in honor of Lyceus at Argos, where, in later times, the most famous of all Apollo's temples was consecrated to him under the title of “Wolf-god.”

Paus. 2.19.3 The most famous building in the city of Argos is the sanctuary of Apollo Lycius (Wolf-god). The modern image was made by the Athenian Attalus, but the original temple and wooden image were the offering of Danaus. I am of opinion that in those days all images, especially Egyptian images, were made of wood. The reason why Danaus founded a sanctuary of Apollo Lycius was this. On coming to Argos he claimed the kingdom against Gelanor, the son of Sthenelas. Many plausible arguments were brought forward by both parties, and those of Sthenelas were considered as fair as those of his opponent; so the people, who were sitting in judgment, put off, they say, the decision to the following day
2. solution, sophismatôn  explanation, 2 Ep.Pet.1.20,  2 Pet 3

Sophisma A.acquired skill, method, stage-trick, claptrap, rhetorikos 2. of persons, skilled in speaking, fit to be an orator Pi.O.13.17 2. in less good sense, sly trick, artifice, dikên dounai s. kakôn E.Ba.489 , cf. Hec.258; eph' hêmas tauta paronta s. Th.6.77, cf. D.35.2; stage-trick, claptrap

Pi.O.13.17 Pindar Ode 0.13 [17] the Seasons rich in flowers have cast ancient inventiveness. But the fame for every work is due to its inventor. Whence did the graces of Dionysus first come to light, with the ox-driving dithyramb? [20] Who invented the bridle for the harness of horses, or placed the double king of birds on top of the temples of gods? And in Corinth the sweet-breathing Muse blossoms, and also Ares, with the deadly spears of young men.


Technê 1 [tiktô]

I. art, skill, craft in work; of a soothsayer, Aesch., Soph.
2. cunning devices, id=Od., etc.
3. the way, manner or means
whereby a thing is gained,

Anan (h6049) aw-nan'; a prim. root; to cover; used only as denom. from 6051, to cloud over; fig. to act covertly, i. e. practise magic: - * bring, enchanter, Meonemin, observe (-r of) times, soothsayer, sorcerer.

There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch, De.18:10

Therefore thou hast forsaken thy people the house of Jacob, because they be replenished from the east, and are soothsayers like the Philistines, and they please them selves in the children of strangers (adulterous women). Isaiah 2:6

Soothsayers: Anan (h6049) aw-nan'; a prim. root; to cover; used only as denom. from 6051, to cloud over; fig. to act covertly, i. e. practise magic: - * bring, enchanter, Meonemin, observer of times, soothsayer, sorcerer.

"In an inscription from Cyprus, in one from Rhodes and in several from around the district of Carthage, there are references to important personages who bear the title Mqm'lm which we can translate as AROUSERS of the god.'" (de Vaux, Roland, The Bible and the Ancient Near East, Doubleday, p. 247).

"We even have a mention at a later date of a similar custom in connection with the cult in Jerusalem, where certain Levites, called me'oreim, 'AROUSERS,' sang (every morning?) this verse from "Ps 44:23: "Awake, O Lord! Why do you sleep? Rouse yourself! Do not reject us forever." The Talmud tells us that John Hyrcanus suppressed the practice because it recalled too readily a pagan custom." (Roland de Vaux, p. 247).

This points to RESPONSIVE SINGING and the worship of ANATH.

Nachash (h5172) naw-khash'; a prim. root; prop. to hiss, i. e. whisper a (magic) spell; gen. to prognosticate: - * certainly, divine, enchanter, (use) * enchantment, learn by experience, * indeed, diligently observe.

Nachash (h5175) naw-khawsh'; from 5172; a snake (from its hiss): - serpent.

Techn-êma , atos, to,

A. that which is cunningly wrought, work of art, handiwork, ekpôma . . , technêmat' andros S.Ph. 36 (where pl. is used of one thing).
2. of a man, panourgias technêma a masterpiece of villainy, ib.928.
II. artful device, trick, kapêla prospherôn t. A.Fr.322; dolia t. E.IT1355; opp. ischus, Hp.Fract.2 (pl.): generally, device, contrivance, Pl.Prt.319a; to mnêmonikon t. Id.Hp.Mi.368d, al., cf

Prospherô   technêmatamêchanas

Mechan-aomai of any work requiring skill or art,

Mechan-e 3. theatrical machine by which gods, etc., were made to appear in the air, airein Arist.Po.1454b1.

Pindar Olympian 13: It is impossible to conceal one's inborn nature. As for you, sons of Aletes, often the Seasons have sent you victorious splendor [15] for your consummate excellence when you won in sacred contests, and often into the hearts of men [17] the Seasons rich in flowers have cast ancient inventiveness. But the fame for every work is due to its inventor. Whence did the Graces of Dionysus first come to light, with the ox-driving dithyramb... And in Corinth the sweet-breathing Muse blossoms,

Aeirô4. take up and bear, as a burden, moron A.Pers.547 ; athlon S.Tr.80 ; algos A.R.4.65 .

Aeschylus, Persians And the Persian wives, indulging in soft wailing through longing to behold their lords and abandoning the daintily wrought coverlets of their couches, the delight of their youth, [545] mourn with complainings that know no end. So I too sustain the truly woeful fate of those who are gone.
II. raise up, exalt, apo smikrou d' an areias megan A.Ch.262 , cf. 791; olbon Dareios êren Id.Pers.164:--esp. of pride and passion, exalt, excite, hupsou ai. thumon grow excited, S.OT914;
2. raise by words, hence, praise, extol, E.Heracl.322, etc.; ai. logôi to exaggerate, D.21.71.
A.Ch.262 Aeschylus, Libation Bearers If you destroy these nestlings of a father who made sacrifice and revered you greatly, [255] from what like hand will you receive the homage of rich feasts? Destroy the brood of the eagle and you cannot again send tokens that mortals will trust; nor, if this royal stock should wither utterly away, will it serve your altars on days when oxen are sacrificed. [260] Oh foster it, and you may raise our house from low estate to great, though now it seems utterly overthrown.
S.OT914; Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus
Princes of the land, I am planning to visit the shrines of the gods, with this wreathed branch and these gifts of incense in my hands. For Oedipus excites his soul excessively with all sorts of grief, [915] as he does not judge the new things from the old, like a man of sense, but is under the control of the speaker, if he speaks of frightful things. Since, then, I can do no good by counsel, to you, Lycean Apollo--for you are nearest-- [920] I have come as a suppliant with these symbols of prayer, that you may find us some escape from uncleanliness. For now we are all afraid, like those who see fear in the helmsman of their ship.

organon , to, ( [ergon, erdô]A.instrument, implement, tool, for making or doing a thing, 3. musical instrument, Poluchorda met' ôidês kai tinôn organôn, of the pipe

Orgănum , i, n., = organon, Of musical instruments, a pipe, Quint. 11, 3, 20; 9, 4, 10; Juv. 6, 3, 80; Vulg. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 et saep.--Of hydraulic engines, an organ, water-organ: organa hydraulica,

organon , to, ( [ergon, erdô]  3.musical instrument, Simon.31, f.l. in A.Fr.57.1 ; homendi'organôn
ekêlei anthrôpous, of Marsyas, Pl.Smp.215c ; aneuorganônpsiloislogois ibid., cf. Plt.268b ; o. poluchordaId.R.399c , al.; met'ôidêskaitinônorganôn Phld.Mus.p.98K. ; of the pipe,

Ergon1. in Il. mostly of works or deeds of war, polemêïa   theskelos , on, Ep. Adj. perh. A.set in motion by God ( [kellô] ), and so marvellous, wondrous, always of things, th. erga deeds or works of wonder, Il.3.130, Od.11.610; theskelaeidôs Call. Fr.anon.385: neut. Adv., eïktodetheskelonautôi it was wondrous like him, Il.23.107; prob. taken by later poets as,= God-inspired ( [keleuô] ), th. Hermês
Ekêlei  kêl-eô, A.charm, bewitch, beguile, esp. by music, korên humnoisi E.Alc.359ôidaisPl.Ly.206b ; kêlôntêiphônêihôsper OrpheusId.Prt.315a , cf.Luc.Ind.12; houtôsekêlei, of Pericles as an orator, Eup.94.6; epaidôn k. charm by incantation, Pl.Phdr.267d; tôimekêlêseistropôi; Achae.17.2; of bribery, Theopomp.Com.30:--Pass., kêleitaiaoidais 
A musical instrument is a "machine for doing hard work mostly in making war and creating the shock and awe" required to prop up false teachers who neither know or care about Scripture. This is what allows the grandest scholars to totally miss and the changelings to TWIST Scripture to increase the Cash Flow knowing they are sowing discord.  
Plato, Cratylus [425d] Socrates Lots more

It will, I imagine, seem ridiculous that things are made manifest through imitation in letters and syllables; nevertheless it cannot be otherwise. For there is no better theory upon which we can base the truth of the earliest names, unless you think we had better follow the example of the tragic poets, who, when they are in a dilemma, have recourse to the introduction of gods on machines. So we may get out of trouble by saying that the gods gave the earliest names, and therefore they are right.

Soc. I will endeavour to explain, for I do not believe that any single name could have been better adapted to express the attributes of the God, embracing and in a manner signifying all four of them,- music, and prophecy, and medicine, and archery.

Her. That must be a strange name, and I should like to hear the explanation.

Soc. Say rather an harmonious name, as beseems the God of Harmony.  
In the first place, the purgations and purifications which doctors and diviners use,
and their fumigations with drugs magical or medicinal, as well as their washings and lustral sprinklings, have all one and the same object, which is to make a man pure both in body and soul.

Her. Very true.

Soc. And is not Apollo the purifier, and the washer, and the absolver from all impurities?

3. present, offer, aethlon, of a triumphal ode, Pi.O.9.108; pharmakon administer poison to oneself,

Pindar. Olympian.9.

[1] The resounding strain of Archilochus, the swelling thrice-repeated song of triumph, sufficed to lead Epharmostus to the hill of Cronus, in victory-procession with his dear companions. [5] But now, from the bow of the Muses who, shooting from afar, send a shower of such arrows of song as these on Zeus of the red lightning-bolt and on the sacred height of Elis, which once the Lydian hero Pelops [10] won as the very fine dowry of Hippodameia. [11] And shoot a winged sweet arrow to Pytho; for your words will not fall to the ground, short of the mark, when you trill the lyre in honor of the wrestling of the man from renowned Opus.

For some roads [105][105] lead farther than others, and a single occupation will not nourish us all. The paths to skill are steep; but, while offering this prize of song, boldly shout aloud [110] that this man, by the blessing of the gods, was born with deftness of hand and litheness of limb, and with valor in his eyes; and at the banquet of Aias son of Oileus he laid his victorious garland on the altar.

Amos 5:[17]WEB In all vineyards there will be wailing; For I will pass through the midst of you," says Yahweh. [18] "Woe to you who desire the day of Yahweh! Why do you long for the day of Yahweh? It is darkness, And not light. [19] As if a man fled from a lion, And a bear met him; Or he went into the house and leaned his hand on the wall, And a snake bit him. [20] Will the day of Yahweh not be darkness, and not light? Even very dark, and no brightness in it? [21] I hate, I despise your feasts, And I can't stand your solemn assemblies. [22] Yes, though you offer me your burnt offerings and meal-offerings, I will not accept them; Neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat animals. [23] Take away from me the noise of your songs! I will not listen to the music of your harps. [24] But let justice roll on like rivers, And righteousness like a mighty stream. [25] "Did you bring to me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, house of Israel? [26] Yes, you have borne the tent of your king and the shrine of your images, the star of your god, which you made for yourselves. [27] Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus," says Yahweh, whose name is the God of hosts.

panourg-ia , hê,

A. knavery, A. Th.603, S.Ph.927, Lys.22.16, Pl.Lg.747c, Arist.EN1144a27: in pl., villainies, S.Ant.300, Ar.Eq.684, etc.

2. of animals, Arist.HA588a23 (pl.), 614a30.

3. adulteration of drugs or honey, Gal.14.27.

Panourgia (g3834) pan-oorg-ee'-ah; from 3835; adroitness, i.e. (in a bad sense) trickery or sophistry: - (cunning) craftiness, subtilty.
Panourg-êma , atos, to, A. knavish TRICK, villainy, S.El.1387 (lyr.), LXX Si.1.6 (v.l.); SOPHISTRY, Gal.5.251; cf. panourgeuma.

Sophos: properly, skilled in any handicraft or art, cunning in his CRAFT,

Sophis-teia, sophistry, mantikê, of Balaam, mantikê means divination, soothsayer
Claims that his own MADNESS is the voice of the Holy Spirit telling him to deliberately SOW DISCORD and TWIST all of the truth by the Spirit OF Christ.  CANNOT help it when you DENY the Word.
Mantikos {ie women in Corinth] 2. technê [Craftsmen Re 18]m. faculty of DIVINITION, prophecy. Having a daimonios heaven-sent, miraculous, marvellous

Tollo I. To lift up, raise up, elevate, exalt,

1. To raise, lift, lift up, elevate, set up, etc.: tollitur in caelum clamor exortus utrimque, Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 422 Vahl.): clamorem in caelum, Verg. A. 11, 745 : clamores ad sidera, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 6, 6 :

Vergilius Maro, Aeneid 11
Cowards incurable, a woman's hand
Drives, breaks, and scatters your ignoble band!
Now cast away the sword, and quit the shield!
What use of weapons which you dare not wield?
Not thus you fly your female foes by night,
Nor shun the feast, when the full bowls invite;
When to fat off'rings the glad augur calls,
And the shrill hornpipe sounds to bacchanals.
These are your studied cares, your lewd delight:
Swift to debauch, but slow to manly fight."
Thus having said, he spurs amid the foes,
Not managing the life he meant to lose. 

Rom. 14:1 Him that is weak in the faith receive ye, but not to doubtful disputations.

1261. dialogismos, dee-al-og-is-mos´; from 1260; discussion, i.e. (internal) consideration (by implication, purpose), or (external) debate: — dispute, doubtful(-ing), imagination, reasoning, thought.

NIDNTT notes that... In the NT dialogizomai (related verb) and dialogismos are always used with a slightly depreciatory connotation. The thoughts of the human heart do not necessarily lead, as the Greeks thought, to a knowledge of the truth (cf. 1 Cor. 1:21-25), but are evil (Mk. 7:21; Matt. 15:19), full of doubt and suspicion (Mk. 2:6, 8; Lk. 5:22; 6:8), moved by the passing moment (Lk. 3:15), full of greed (Lk. 12:17; 20:14), always concerned with the superficial (Mk. 8:16f.; Matt. 16:7f.) and full of sly calculation (Matt. 11:25; Mk. 11:31).

That means that Romans 14 OUTLAWS adding personal opinion to the text.

Disuputations: 1253. diakrisis, dee-ak´-ree-sis; from 1252; judicial estimation:  discern(-ing), disputation. 

A. poisoner, sorcerer, magician, LXXEx.7.11 (masc.), Ma.3.5 (fem.), Apoc.21.8, 22.15.

pharmak-eus , eôs, ho,
poisoner, sorcerer, S.Tr.1140, Pl.Smp.203d, etc.; gnêsioi sophistai kai ph. Jul.Or.6.197d .

Plato, Symposium [203d] rather is he hard and parched, shoeless and homeless; on the bare ground always he lies with no bedding, and takes his rest on doorsteps and waysides in the open air; true to his mother's nature, he ever dwells with want. But he takes after his father in scheming for all that is beautiful and good; for he is brave, strenuous and high-strung, a famous hunter, always weaving some stratagem; desirous and competent of wisdom, throughout life ensuing the truth; a master of jugglery, witchcraft,


Gnêsi-os mêtêr tôn erôtikôn logôn, of Aphrodite, Luc.Am.19; g. aretai real, unfeigned virtues, Pi.O.2.11; g. humnoi inspired song, B.8.83; e. melos a love song mêtêr tôn erôtikôn logôn Mother of erôt-ikos A. of or caused by love, orgê, or Aphrodite:

Aphroditê [i_], hê, ( [aphros] ) Aphrodite, h.Hom.5, Hes.Th.195; dia tên tou aphrou genesin Aphroditê eklêthê Pl.Cra.4c6 c.

II. as Appellat., sexual love, pleasure, Od.22.444; hup' Apollôni psauein Aphroditas

Apollôn  Abaddon, Apollyon and his prostitute Muses Pure Apollo, too, who, though a god, was exiled once from heaven.
4.  spell, Magic:
g4486 rhegnum to sunder by separation of the parts,  a shattering to minute fragments; but not a reduction to the constituent particles, or disrupt, lacerate; by implication to convulse (with spasms); figuratively to give vent to joyful emotions:

Magos [a^], ou, ho, Magian, one of a Median tribe 2. one of the priests and wise men in Persia who interpreted dreams, 3. enchanter, wizard, esp. in bad sense, impostor, charlatan, Heraclit.14, S.OT387, E.Or.1498 (lyr.), Pl.R.572e, Act.Ap.13.6, Vett. Val.74.17: also fem., Luc.Asin.4, AP 5.15 (Marc. Arg.). II. magos, on, as Adj., magical, magps technêi prattein t

Magicus, belonging to magic, magic, magical. superstitiones, vanitates, that were invoked by incantations: linguae= skilled in incantations, cantus, magicae resonant ubi Memnone chordae, mysterious, id. 15, 5 

Superstitioorig a standing still over or by a thing; hence, amazement, wonder, dread, esp. of the divine or supernatural] . I. Excessive fear of the goas, unreasonable religious belief, superstition (different from religio, a proper, reasonable awe of the gods; II. In post-Aug. prose sometimes for religio, religious awe, sanctity; a religious rite. [Lying wonders point directly to music meaning sorcery]

Cantus to produce melodious sounds, utter melodious notes, to sing, sound, play. Sound of war, to give the signal for battle, of the instruments by which, or (poet.) of the places in which, the sounds are produced, to sound, resound:
Rev. 8:13 And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound!

Magice  I.the magic art, magic, sorcery (post-Aug.): pariter utrasque artes effloruisse, medicinam,
Factio  II. (Acc. to facio, II. B.; lit., a taking part or siding with any one; hence concr.) A company of persons associated or acting together, a class, order, sect, faction, party (syn.: pars, partes, causa, rebellio, seditio)
Secta D.  In religion, a sect,  Cod. Just. 1, 9, 3: plurimae sectae et haeresesCynicam
Suetonius Caesars
His lyre to harmony our Nero strings;
His arrows o'er the plain the Parthiah wings:
Ours call the tuneful Paean, famed in war,
The other Phoebus name, the god who shoots afar.4
4 The epithet applied to Apollo, as the god of music,
Resonant to sound or ring again, to resound, re-echo, to the strings theatrum naturā ita resonans,
Corda II. Catgut, a string (of a musical instrument), B.A rope, cord, for binding a slave Horace 4
The songs of Teos are not mute,
And Sappho's love is breathing still:
She told her secret to the lute,
And yet its chords with passion thrill.
Not Sparta's queen alone was fired
By broider'd robe and braided tress,
And all the splendours that attired
Her lover's guilty loveliness:

Old Germ. snara, a snare; a sinew, tendon, nerve.
1. I. q. membrum virile
2. A string of a musical instrument: omnes voces, ut nervi in fidibus, ita sonant
3. A bowstring: b. A bow
5. A thong with which a person was bound, 
6.The cords or wires by which a puppet is moved

Exêgêtês    II. expounder, interpreter, esp. of oracles, dreams, or omens, Hdt.1.78; at Athens, of sacred rites or customs, modes of burial, expiation, etc., spiritual director, of Apollo, Pl.R.427c. b. at Rome, of the pontifices
    The pagan EXEGETE is identical to: Suristikê (sc. technê), hê, the art of piping: used with hythmice, histrionia

Magicus, belonging to magic, magic, magical. superstitiones, vanitates, that were invoked by incantations: linguae= skilled in incantations, cantus, magicae resonant ubi Memnone chordae, mysterious, id. 15, 5 .Bakchebakchon aisai sing the song (to Bacchus) beginning with Bakche Bakche! Ar.Eq.408.

Aulôid-ia , hê, song to the flute

Spiritual THREAD comes only through the prophets

Why you risk your soul if you do:

For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 1 Pet 1: 21

Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify,
        when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. 1 Peter 1:11

The out of context blurb is not Campbell's basis of fellowship in a worshiping body. Later, instrumental music would be added and those who resisted would be charged with sowing discord because they refused to conform. Non instrumentalist were denied the right to hold and express their views held from the first century. Therefore, to pass judgment on non-instrumentalists when there is no law against speaking or teaching rather than "making music" the musical innovators judge their brethren and generally confiscated their property.

Thomas Campbell may never have said the word "hermeneutic" which is named after Hermes or Mercury the Rubel Shelly example for John's adaptation.

Scripture claims for itself giving a holy spirit or the mind of Christ simply by reading and discussing it: there is no PREACHER or PROFESSOR in the spiritually gifted offices.

In fact, Jesus repudiated the DOCTORS OF THE LAW because they "take away the key to knowledge." A HUMAN OPINION is trying to decide what GOD would have said if He had the benefit of our education.

"Our desire, therefore, for ourselves and our brethren would be, that,

rejecting human opinions and the inventions of men as of any authority, or as having any place in the Church of God, we might forever cease from further contentions about such things; returning to and holding fast by the original standard;

taking the Divine word alone for our rule;
the Holy Spirit for our teacher and guide, to lead us into all truth;
and Christ alone, as exhibited in the word, for our salvation;

that, by so doing, we may be at peace among ourselves, follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.

Because using any form of MUSIC is contrary to the explicity Biblical and historical connection to Satan and to sexual and homosexual pagan "worship" in the threskia sense, it is a HUMAN INVENTION. It has no positive attributes in the Bible and in a negative sense it was always the MARK of people who refused to listen to the Word 'as it had been taught."

Clement of Alexandria Pedagogue 1

b. AD 150, Athens
d. between 211 and 215 [B.C. meaning Before Campbell]

        Now, it is incumbent on us to return His love, who lovingly guides us to that life which is best;
........... and to live in accordance with the injunctions of His will, not only fulfilling what is commanded,
........... or guarding against what is forbidden,

but turning away from some examples, and imitating others as much as we can,
        and thus to perform the works of the Master according to His
...... and so fulfil what Scripture says as to our being made in His image and likeness.

Gregory of Nyssa on Scripture as Authority

b. c. 335, Caesarea, in Cappadocia, Asia Minor [now Kayseri, Turkey]
d. c. 394, feast day March 9
And in this assertion they do not go beyond the truth; for we do say so.
But the ground of their complaint is that
        their custom does not admit this,
        and Scripture does not support it. What then is our reply?

We do not think that it is right to make their prevailing custom the law and rule of sound doctrine.

For if custom is to avail for proof of soundness, we too, surely, may advance our prevailing custom;
........and if they reject this, we are surely not bound to follow theirs.

Let the inspired Scripture, then, be our umpire, and
the vote of
truth will surely be given to
whose dogmas are found to agree with the Divine words.

Augustine of Hippo (354-430)

In such a case we ought by all means to adopt it,
especially if it be something in defence of which Scripture can be alleged:

as in the singing of hymns and psalms,
for which we have on record
both the example and the precepts of the Lord and of His apostles.

That means Commands, Examples and Inferences.

John Locke

But since men are so solicitous about the true church, I would only ask them here, by the way, if it be not more agreeable to the Church of Christ

to make the conditions of her communion consist in such things, and such things only,
as the
Holy Spirit has in the Holy Scriptures declared, in express words, to be necessary to salvation;

I ask, I say, whether this be not more agreeable to the Church of Christ

than for men to impose their own inventions and interpretations upon others as if they were of Divine authority,
and to establish by ecclesiastical laws, as absolutely necessary to the profession of Christianity, such things as the Holy Scriptures do either not mention, or at least not expressly command?

Whosoever requires those things in order to ecclesiastical communion, which Christ does not require in order to life eternal, he may, perhaps, indeed constitute a society accommodated to his own opinion and his own advantage;

but how that can be called the Church of Christ which is established upon laws that are not His, and which excludes such persons from its communion as He will one day receive into the Kingdom of Heaven, I understand not.

Schism, then, for the same reasons that have already been alleged,

is nothing else but a separation made in the communion of the Church
upon account of
something in divine worship or ecclesiastical discipline that is not any necessary part of it.

Now, nothing in worship or discipline can be necessary to Christian communion (unity) but what Christ our legislator, or the Apostles by inspiration of the Holy Spirit, have commanded in express words

Campbell was not speaking of a CHURCH:

IV. That this Society by no means considers itself a Church,

nor does at all assume to itself the powers peculiar to such a society;
nor do the members, as such, consider themselves as standing connected in that relation;
nor as at all associated for the peculiar purposes of Church association;

but merely as voluntary advocates for Church reformation; and, as possessing the powers common to all individuals, who may please to associate in a peaceable and orderly manner, for any lawful purpose, namely, the disposal of their time, counsel, and property, as they may see cause.

Tom Olbricht: We are also of opinion that as the Divine word is equally binding upon all, so all lie under an equal obligation to be bound by it and it alone; and not by any human interpretation of it; and that, therefore, no man has a right to judge his brother, except in so far as he manifestly violates the express letter of the law. Note 2.

Note 2: Young, ed., 72.

"Somewhat later Campbell set forth a larger perspective for taking up the Scriptures so as to reject ""human opinions and the inventions of men as of any authority."

First, the Divine word is alone to be the rule.
Second, the
Holy Spirit is to be teacher and guide.
Christ alone, as exhibited in the word is the ground for salvation. Note 3:

John 16:4 But these things have I told you,
        that when the time shall come,
        ye may remember that I told you of them.
        And these things I said not unto you at the beginning,
        because I was WITH you.

John 16:5 But now I go my way to him that sent me; a
        nd none of you asketh me, Whither goest thou?
John 16:6 But because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your heart.
John 16:7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth;
        t is expedient for you that I go away:
        for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you;
        but if I depart, I will send him unto you.

g3875.  parakletos, par-ak´-lay-tos; an intercessor, consoler: — advocate, comforter.

The "promise" of the Holy Spirit is the ROLE or OFFICE in Jesus' glorified state.

1John 2:1 My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not.
        And if any man sin, we have an ADVOCATE [
parakletos] with the Father,
        Jesus Christ the righteous:
1John 2:2 And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only,
        but also for the sins of the whole world.

He is not the Intercessor for those who deny the Word, Logos or Regulative Principle.  They are MARKED as speaking on their own, rhetoric, Hermeneutics, singing, Playing instruments or. Acting.

1John 2:3 And hereby we do know that we know him,
        if we keep his commandments.
1John 2:4 He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his COMMANDMENTS,
        is a liar, and the TRUTH is not in him
1John 2:5 But whoso keepeth his WORD,
        in him verily is the love of God perfected:
        HEREBY know we that we are in him.

John 16:8 And when he is come,
        he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:
John 16:9 Of sin, because they believe not on me;
John 16:10 Of righteousness,
        because I go to my Father, and ye SEE me no more;
John 16:11 Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged.
John 16:12 I have yet many things to say unto you,
         but ye cannot bear them now.
John 16:13 When the Spirit OF truth comes,
        he will
        guide you into all the truth,
        for he will not speak on his own authority,
        but whatever he HEARS he will speak,
        and he will declare to you the things that are to come.
John 16:14 He shall glorify ME: [taught in the flesh]
         for he shall receive of MINE, and shall shew it unto you.
John 16:15 All things that the Father hath are mine:
        therefore said I, that he shall take of mine,
        and shall shew it unto you.

John 6:62 What and if ye shall see the SON OF MAN ascend up where he was before?
John 6:63 It is the SPIRIT that quickeneth;
        the flesh profiteth nothing:
        the WORDS that I speak unto you, they are
SPIRIT, and they are life.

Campbell: Our desire, therefore, for ourselves and our brethren would be, that,

rejecting human opinions and the inventions of men as of any authority, or as having any place in the Church of God, we might forever cease from further contentions about such things; returning to and holding fast by the original standard;

taking the Divine WORD alone for our rule;
Holy SPIRIT for our teacher and guide, to lead us into all TRUTH
Christ ALONE, as exhibited in the WORD, for our salvation;

that, by so doing, we may be at peace among ourselves, follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.


John 3:34 For he whom God hath sent
        SPEAKETH the WORDS of God:
        for God giveth not the SPIRIT by measure [tuneful meter]
        unto him.
John 3:35 The Father loveth the Son,
        and hath given ALL THINGS into his hand.

1Tim. 2:5 For there is ONE GOD,
        and one mediator BETWEEN God and men,
        the MAN Christ Jesus;

Thomas Campbell never believed the H. Leo Boles, Max Lucado, Rubel Shelly tritheism which is polytheism. Thomas Campbell allowed the use of the word "person" because he had no other word. However, he never saw the Holy Spirit as separated from Christ any more than that his spirit is separated from Campbell. Jesus Christ put Spirit and Life in His Words.

Campbell never taught that the Holy Spirit taught beyond the Scriptures.

[Thomas Campbell noted elsewhere that: "I am not to be understood as objecting to the detection and exposure of a false and UNSCRIPTURAL experience, which, from your words, appears to be the thing intended; for, in your foot note, page 141, you assert, that we are taught, that

"since those gifts have CEASED the Holy Spirit now operates upon the minds of men only by the WORD;" and at the close of said note, you further assert, that "we are positive of one point,"

namely, "that the scriptures teach us not the doctrine of physical operations of the Divine Spirit in order to faith."]

Jesus discounted the flesh and said MY WORDS are SPIRIT and they are LIFE. The Words of Christ the Spirit simply will not "stick" or reside in A human spirit which is not HOLY or undefiled. In the Old Testament God promised to give US a NEW, HOLY SPIRIT and the purpose was so that we would keep His commands.

"Again--Some will say, What does the expression Holy Spirit mean? Well, in scripture it stands first for God the Holy Spirit, and secondly for the holy mind or spirit of a believer-- for illustration, take Peter's words to Ananias, "Why has Satan tempted you to lie to the Holy Spirit; you have not lied to men, but to God," (the Holy Spirit.) And the Saviour says, How much more will your heavenly Father give A holy spirit (as it should be translated) to those that ask him. Again--Praying in A holy spirit. Again--Paul says he approved himself God's servant "by knowledge, by long sufferings, by kindness, by a holy spirit'" by a mind innocent of the love of gain, or commerce, or sensuality. Walter Scott

"But an old Hubris tends to bring forth in evil men, sooner or later, at the fated hour of birth, a young Hubris and that irresistible, unconquerable, unholy spirit, Recklessness, and for the household black Curses, which resemble their parents. - John M. Allegro, The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross.

Tom Olbricht: Note 3: 3. Young, ed., 73.

In this program may be recognized the larger agenda of the reformation. The first is the sola scriptura principle of both Luther and Calvin.

Sola Scriptura came directly from God: the Spirit of Christ!

Christ who was the Spirit of the Old Testament did not change His view of His own inspired revelations. In them through Isaiah:

And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits (Old, empty wineskins), and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter: should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead? Isaiah 8:19

To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them. Isaiah 8:20

Isaiah and Hebrews Sola Scripture

If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable; and shalt honour him,
........... not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own
........... pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: Isaiah 58:13

THEREFORE we ought to give the more earnest heed (honor or worship) to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip. Hebrews 2:1

For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward; Hebrews 2:2

How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him; Hebrews 2:3

God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will (pattern)? Hebrews 2:4

Luther's FAITH ONLY was based on SCRIPTURE ONLY. However, he did not originate the view which began in the garden of Eden.

But as our would-be wise, new spirits assert that faith alone saves, and that works and external things avail nothing, we answer:

It is true, indeed, that nothing in us is of any avail but faith, as we shall hear still further. But these blind guides are unwilling to see this, namely,

that faith must have something which it believes, that is, of which it takes hold, and upon which it stands and rests.

Thus faith clings to the water, and believes that it is Baptism, in which there is pure salvation and life;
........... not through the water (as we have sufficiently stated), but through the fact
........... that it is embodied in the Word and institution of God, and the name of God inheres in it.

Now, if I believe this,
........... what else is it than believing in God as in Him
........... who has given and planted His Word into this ordinance,
........... and proposes to us this external thing wherein we may apprehend such a treasure?

Tom Olbricht: The second is the Scripture along WITH the Holy Spirit principle found in both Luther and Calvin.

No. The Campbells had access to more writings than John Calvin. Therefore, being literate, they knew that the Bible FURTHER EXPOUNDS itself to say what most scholars said before the Reformation.

One suspects that the warning was against THE HOLY SPIRIT without the WORD. All history agrees that the SPIRIT of God or the MIND OF CHRIST is ministered when the word is taught without "further hermeneuting." Note that it is the Holy Spirit without the oral word and not the Word which is Spirit and Life PLUS a direct operation of a third member of the God "family."

Martin Luther, Law and Gospel

7. Note further, that it is his ministry to which Paul ascribes the preparation of their heart thereon and the inscription which constitutes them "living epistles of Christ."

He contrasts his ministry with the blind fancies of those fanatics who seek to receive, and dream of having,

the Holy Spirit without the oral word; [see the difference/]
who, perchance, creep into a corner and grasp the Spirit through dreams, directing the people away from the preached Word and visible ministry.

Look again: Scripture along with the Holy Spirit principle found in both Luther and Calvin. Calvin did not speak of SCRIPTURE plus THE HOLY SPIRIT!

The Bible personifies THOUGHT, Truth and Spirit:

For the (1) WORD (Dabar=Logos=Spirit of Christ) of the (2) Lord (Jehovah) is right; and all his works are done in TRUTH. Psa 33:4

By the WORD of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the (3) BREATH (Spirit) of his MOUTH. Psa 33:6

Mouth: Peh (h6310) peh; from 6284; the mouth (as the means of blowing)

Breath is SPIRIT: Ruwach (h7307) roo'-akh, roo'-akh; from 7306; wind; by resemblance breath... by resemblance SPIRIT, but only of a rational being (includ. its EXPRESSION and FUNCTIONS)

First, remember that Jesus said of "spirit"

It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing:
........... the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life. John 6:63

Paul ministered the Holy Spirit by preaching:

O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes
........... Jesus Christ hath been
........... evidently set forth, crucified among you? Galatians 3:1

This only would I learn of you,
........... Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law,
........... or (Received ye the Spirit) by the hearing of faith? Galatians 3:2

Paul MINISTERED the Spirit through preaching: they received the Spirit by listening. Therefore, Paul was not ministering a THIRD PERSON.

"But Paul says that the Spirit, through his preaching, has wrought in the hearts of his Corinthians, to the end that Christ lives and is mighty in them. After such statement he bursts into praise of the ministerial office, comparing the message, or preaching, of Moses with that of himself and the apostles. He says:

"Such confidence have we through Christ to Godward: not that we are sufficient of ourselves, to account anything as from ourselves; but our sufficiency is from God.

8. These words are blows and thrusts for the false apostles [PAGE 227] and preachers. Paul is mortal enemy to the blockheads who make great boast,

pretending to what they do not possess and to what they cannot do;
who boast of having the Spirit in great measure; who are ready to counsel and aid the whole world;
who pride themselves on the ability to invent something new. It is to be a surpassingly precious and heavenly thing they are to spin out of their heads, as the dreams of pope and monks have been in time past.

"We do not so," says Paul. "We rely not upon ourselves or our wisdom and ability. We preach not what we have ourselves invented. But this is our boast and trust in Christ before God,

that we have made of you a divine epistle; have written upon your hearts,
not our thoughts, but the Word of God.

We are not, however, glorifying our own power, but the works and the power of him who has called and equipped us for such an office; from whom proceeds all you have heard and believed.

9. It is a glory which every preacher may claim, to be able to say with full confidence of heart:
........... "This trust have I toward God in Christ, that what I teach and preach is truly the Word of God."

There is a role for PROFESSORS and Rhetoricians and Sophists but we quoted Luther above to say that it WAS NOT of ANY value in the spiritual realm: that is why Jesus repudiated the Doctors of the Law who might go and make a living in Canon Law:

In short, let him who would be wise, who would boast of great skill, talents and power, confine himself to things other than spiritual;

The Super Apostles in Paul's condemnation of the WIDOW RIDERS: they deny that the Spirit and Life is ministered by "teaching that which has been taught."

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon

Huperlian , Adv. beyond measure, exceedingly, sophos Eust.1396.42; to hu. Id.1184.18 ; hoi hu. apostoloi the 'super-Apostles', 2 Ep.Cor. 11.5, 12.11.

I. properly, skilled in any handicraft or art, cunning in his craft, Theogn., etc; of a charioteer, Pind.; of poets and musicians, id=Pind.; of a soothsayer, Soph., etc.

The SOPHIST and rhetorician and musician are the SERPENTS in the end time even as as the CUNNING serpent was the MUSICAL ENCHANTER in the garden of Eden:

Ophis-teia, sophistry, mantikê, of Balaam, mantikê means divination, soothsayer

Any person who makes a profession of helping God make up for his errors: all rhetoricians, Sophists, musicians and singers believed that they were under DIVINE MADNESS. Therefore, they will go back into hell as part of the end-time "harp- playing prostitute" religion.

Playto, Cratylus says "the part of appropriative, coercive, hunting art which hunts animals, land animals, tame animals, man, privately, for pay, is paid in cash, claims to give education, and is a hunt after rich and promising youths, must--so our present argument concludes--be called sophistry.

Sophistês 1 [sophizomai]

I. a master of one's craft or art, an adept, of a diviner, Hdt.; of poets, Pind.; of the Creator, Plat.; metaph., s. pêmatôn an adept in misery, Eur.

2. like phronimos, one who is clever in matters of life, a wise man, in which sense the seven Sages are called sophistai, Hdt.; of Prometheus, Aesch.

II. at Athens, a Sophist, i. e. a professor of grammar, rhetoric, politics, mathematics, such as Prodicus, Gorgias, Protagoras, Thuc., Plat., etc. At first the Sophists were held in honour; but from their loose principles they fell into ill repute, and the word came to mean,

2. a sophist (in bad sense), a quibbler, cheat, Ar., Dem., etc.


Because Jesus Christ died and promised to build MY EKKESIA or SYNAGOGUE or school of the Bible. Any of the human CRAFTSMEN who decided to help God do His work did NO USEFUL WORK, created division and were therefore called PARASITES.

The Rest of the Story: neither Calvin or Luther believed in the neo-Tritheism in churches of Christ under the influence of Max Lucado and Rubel Shelly.

Tom Olbricht: Since Campbell is from a Calvinistic background it is appropriate to quote Calvin: See Campbell below to refute this:

Quotes below:

Note 5: John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Henry Beveridge (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957) I, ix, 3.

Calvin has a before and after in his context.

"There is nothing repugnant here to what was lately said, (chap. 7)

Quoted: that we have no great certainty of the word itself, until it be confirmed by the testimony of the Spirit. For the Lord has so knit together the certainty of his word and his Spirit, that our minds are duly imbued with reverence for the word when the Spirit shining upon it enables us there to behold the face of God; and, on the other hand, we embrace the Spirit with no danger of delusion when we recognise him in his image, that is, in his word.

The Spirit does not testify to us: He has testified in Scripture. Jesus promised ANOTHER COMFORTER and said "I" will come to you. The Spirit has a name: to Paul it was "I am Jesus of Nazareth."

More Campbell below but are you listening?

"since those gifts have ceased, the. Holy Spirit now operates upon the minds of men only by the word;"

Calvin continued: "Thus, indeed, it is. God did not produce his word before men for the sake of sudden display, intending to abolish it the moment the Spirit should arrive;
........... but he employed the SAME SPIRIT,
........... by whose agency he had ADMINISTERED the word,
........... to complete his work by the efficacious CONFIRMATION of the word.

"In this way Christ explained to the two disciples, (Luke 24: 27,) not that they were to reject the Scriptures and trust to their own wisdom,
........... but that they were to UNDERSTAND the Scriptures.

This SPIRIT OF supernatural knowledge is MINISTERED through preaching. Those who have faith and want to become members of Christ's TEAM must be baptized.

This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh. Gal 5:16

"Throughout the rest of the chapter 'spirit' and 'flesh' are contrasted, the new and the old nature. We see their antagonism... Rendal says that through out this section Paul has in mind 'spirit' and not 'Spirit'; Lightfoot says it in regard to v. 17...

"The analogy of Scripture shows that we never use the Spirit as a means, but we do so use our own 'spirit.'

"So Paul here bids the Galatians to use in their walk and conversation what is spirit in its nature, i. e., the reborn, new man... 'Flesh' and the ''Holy Spirit' are not a contrast, but 'flesh' and 'spirit' are." (Lenski, Gal. 5:16)

Hear it again:

Without the Word there is no administration of the Spirit.

As Spirit, Christ completes and confirms.

The gift of A holy spirit or A clear conscience or consiousness means "a co perception." Christ REMOVES sin so that we can see SCRIPTURE but not to reveal NEW SCRIPTURE.

And Calvin heard it from Paul:

O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you? Gal 3:1

This only would I learn of you,
........... Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law,
........... or by the hearing of faith? Gal 3:2

Paul delivered and they received the Spirit by "hearing of faith." The witness is there when you believe the words. The human SPIRIT is the new PLACE for worship or giving heed to the Spirit OF Truth.

Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh? Gal 3:3

Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if it be yet in vain. Gal 3:4

He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? Gal 3:5

If God has the power to incarnate FULL DEITY in Jesus Christ then surely He has the power to put His Spirit into His Words. They were Spirit and Life because the SON (word) spoke only what He heard from the FATHER dwelling in the same person.

It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life. John 6:63

Therefore, John Calvin would never speak of a SEPARATED SPIRIT needed for us to grasp the meaning of the words of God. The spirit, according to Greek usage and Walter Scott meant that we received A holy spirit or in 1 Peter 3:21 a clear conscience or clear conscience. This "holy" personal spirit must be cleared from all sin before we can SEE AFAR.

The HOLY SPIRIT as a Divine Being was always the ONE and ONLY Spirit Who was God. My Word is my spirit (mental disposition) as the expression of MY Thought. The thought is the father of my words.

There was only ONE Lord Jehovah but many ELOHIM. However, God said that I (Jehovah) am the ONLY GOD or Elohim:

> But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. 1 Cor 2:10

For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 1 Cor 2: 11

Paul said that God's Spirit is to God what our spirit is to us: the Holy Spirit was the Mind of Christ.

Here is the dead give away that Paul NEVER speaks of the Holy Spirit as a third member of the family of God. There is a difference between my FLESH nature and my SPIRIT nature but I am not triplets or twins.

> Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. 1 Cor 2: 12

Which things also we speak, not in the words which mans wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 1 Cor 2: 13

For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ. 1 Cor 2: 16

Mind is Spirit: Spirit is Mind.

> Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: Luke 24:25

And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself. Luke 24:27

> Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: 1 Pet 1:10

Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. 1 Peter 1:11

> And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God. Rev 19:9

And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. Rev 19:10

> But their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the old testament; which vail is done away in Christ. 2 Cor 3:14

But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart. 2 Cor 3:15
Nevertheless, when it shall turn
to the Lord, the vail shall be taken away. 2 Cor 3:16
........... Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is,
........... there is liberty. 2 Cor 3:17

The Gift of A holy spirit is not the GIFT of a junior member of the Rubel Shelly Family of God. Rather, a thing is considered HOLY when it has all impurities removed from it. Holy means pure or wholly: a bottle of pure water contains nothing but water.

At baptism we REQUEST a clear conscience which gives us a clear consiousness or co perception. God does not ADD something to us but REMOVES all that is UNholy. Then we can see the Word.

John Calvin continues:

"In like manner, when Paul says to the Thessalonians, "Quench not the SPIRIT," he does not carry them aloft to empty speculation APART from the word; he immediately adds, "Despise not prophesying," (1 Thess. 5: 19, 20.)

"By this, doubtless, he intimates that the LIGHT of the SPIRIT is quenched the moment prophesying (teaching the word) fall into contempt.

How is this answered by those SWELLING ENTUSIASTS, in whose idea the only true illumination consists, in carelessly laying aside, and bidding ADIEU to the WORD of God, while, with no less confidence than folly, they fasten upon any dreaming notion which may have casually SPRUNG up in their MINDS?

"Surely a very different sobriety becomes the children of God. As they feel that without the Spirit of God they are utterly devoid of the light of truth,

so they are not ignorant that the WORD is the INSTRUMENT by which the illumination of the Spirit is DISPENSED.
know of NO OTHER SPIRIT than the one who dwelt and spake in the apostles--
........... the Spirit by whose oracles they are daily invited to the hearing of the word.

Hear it again:

Without the Spirit there is no LIGHT.
The WORD is the instrument of Spirit LIGHT.

John Calvin Wrote:

Does any one object, that music is very useful for awakening the minds of men and moving their hearts? I own it;

but we should always take care that no corruption creep in, which might both defile the pure worship of God and involve men in superstition. Moreover, since the Holy Spirit expressly warns us of this danger by the mouth of Paul,

to proceed beyond what we are there warranted by him is not only, I must say, unadvised zeal, but wicked and perverse obstinacy.

"We know that our Lord Jesus Christ has appeared, and by His advent has abolished these legal shadows.

Instrumental music, we therefore maintain, was only tolerated on account of the times and the people, because they were as boys, as the sacred Scripture speaketh, whose condition required these puerile rudiments.

But in gospel times we must not have recourse to these unless we wish to destroy the evangelical perfection and to obscure the meridian light which we enjoy in Christ our Lord." (Calvin's Commentary on the Thirty-third Psalm, and on 1 Sam. 18:1-9).

> Because MUSIC is one of the primary issues of the new Anti movement, the reader should understand that the Restoration Movement DID NOT even consider such a radical institution in the beginning because there was no instruments in their background.

> Therefore, the church took notice of their so-called PROFANE HISTORY and saw no reason to change.

> It was ONLY when the musical sectarians introduced instruments to compete for the traffick in music that there was any reason to repudiate the innovation.

It was wilfulness and ignorance which caused one muddied stream to flow into musical rituals. The same presumed profane history is turned upside down to FALSELY ACCUSE churches of Christ for NOT rejecting the clear WATER OF THE WORD of God which prescribed the synagogue and utterly reudiated the CHURCH as a PROFANE worship institution.

Calvin Continues: "Profane nations also had their ceremonies, such as auguries, supplications, soothsayings, victims, because natural reason dictated that nothing could be engaged in successfully without Divine assistance;

but God would have His people bound to Him in another way, so that, when called by the sound of the sacred trumpets as by a voice from heaven,

they should assemble to holy and pious deliberations. The circumstance of the place also has the same object.

The door of the Tabernacle was to them, as if they placed themselves in the sight; of God.

We will speak of the word dewm, mogned (synagogue) elsewhere. Although it signifies an appointed time, or place, and also an assembly of the people, I prefer translating it convention, because God there in a solemn manner,

as if before His sacred tribunal, called the people to witness, or, according to appointment, proceeded to make a covenant with them.

But when they frequent their sacred assemblies, musical instruments in celebrating the praises of God would be no more suitable than the burning of incense, the lighting up of lamps, and the restoration of the other shadows of the law.

The Papists, therefore, have foolishly borrowed this, as well as many other things, from the Jews.

When Paul preached the WORD he MINISTERED the Spirit. The Scholars who repudiate the WORD get their light from other scholars and the blind lead the blind.

Tom Olbricht: Campbell clearly believed that the Spirit worked in conjunction with the word in bringing about a proper interpretation of the Scriptures,

unlike some of his descendants who argued that the Spirit did not work separate and apart from the word.

This is quite false!

John 6:62 What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?
John 6:63 It is the SPIRIT that quickeneth;
        the flesh profiteth nothing:  [Theologians]
        the words that I speak unto you,
        they are
SPIRIT, and they are life.
2Pet. 1:3 According as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue:

Thomas Campbell in D & A used the word "interpretation" only once. He called the church "THE SCHOOL OF CHRIST" and the act of worship was READING AND STUDYING THE WORDS OF GOD. He was not concerned with a HERMENEUTIC interpretation because he grasped that he was NOT God.

The neo-trinity or Tritheism taught by Max Lucado and Rubel Shelly and apparently "among the scholars" is that the Godhead consists of a family of PERSONS. They are all separated with their own beings.

Therefore, any student of church history would understand that the leaders meant that the HOLY SPIRIT PERSON did not have to live in your carnal body to enable you to understand the WORD.

Our quoted scholars claimed that the SPIRIT IS DISPENSED when the WORD is studied: Jesus said "My Words are Spirit and Life" (John 6:63)

Therefore, neither the Campbells believed in the direct operation of a PERSONAL SPIRIT in understanding the Word.

Therefore, it is not the DESCENDANTS who are ignorant of the totality of church history which defines as HERESY the notion of three separated members of the Family of God.

Tom Olbricht Again: The second is the Scripture along with the Holy Spirit principle found in both Luther and Calvin.

Again, Tom Campbell: The Holy Spirit works only through the WORD. See how that is reversed?

Jesus said:

It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life. John 6:63

> I am not to be understood as objecting to the detection and exposure of a false and unscriptural experience, which, from your words, appears to be the thing intended; for, in your foot note, page 141, you assert, that we are taught, that

"since those gifts have ceased, the. Holy Spirit now operates upon the minds of men only by the word;"
and at the close of said note, you further assert, that "we are positive of one point," namely,

"that the scriptures teach us not the doctrine of physical operations of the Divine Spirit in order to faith."

With these declarations as I understand them, I am quite satisfied; for, since the sacred canon has been completed, it seems to be the general opinion, at least of

all the most eminent Protestant writers that have adverted to this subject,
that we are not to
look for any new revelations of the Spirit;

>> and that, of course, his saving operations in the production of faith and repentance, and of every other gracious effect by which we are made partakers of a divine nature, (2 Peter i. 4.)

>> is by the word of truth being put into the mind and written upon the heart, (Heb. viii. 10.) f

or this certainly is one of the exceeding great and precious promises above referred to, (2 Peter i. 4.) by which the Lord has graciously engaged to save his people, (Heb. viii. 10.)

> But, instead of such characters, the debased and stupid practisers of horrid cruelties and abominable idolatries, "do service to them who by nature are no gods." This, all may know to be the present as it most certainly was the ancient state of the heathen world, in the days of the apostles and long before.

Nor can it be shown, that since the gospel was first preached to the nations, from the day of Pentecost, (Acts ii. 1,) until this day,

that any portion of the human family were ever reformed from their idolatries and disgraceful immoralities
........... by any supposed physical operations of the Holy Spirit without the word.

> That where the word of the truth of the gospel is not published, the Spirit of Christ has nothing to do, is farther evident from John xvi. 3-14, where his reproving or convincing the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment, is confined to his testifying the things concerning Jesus.

In short, his very character as the spirit of Christ, as the spirit of wisdom and revelation, for enlightening, convincing, comforting and establishing, in the knowledge and belief of the truth, is ascribed to him exclusively as revealing and testifying the things concerning Jesus. Compare John xiv. 26, and xvi. 14, 15, with 1 Cor. xii. 3-13, with Eph. i. 13-18, and 1 Pet. i. 10-12, and ii. 18, 19, with Jude 14, 15.

Campbell alludes to Isaiah 11 where the spirit is the spirit OF some quality of Divine knowledge. These are the SEVEN SPIRITS represented by the light of the Menorah:

AND there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots: Isaiah 11:1

And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord; Isaiah 11: 2

And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord: and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears: Isaiah 11: 3

Thomas Campbell: God as Persons

"It appears to be a query with some who profess to hold this doctrine, whether it be correct to use the term person when speaking of the above distinct characters in the divine essence. As to this, let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind. In the mean time, all that we pretend to say in favor of this application of the term is,

that although the term person (which, in relation to men, signifies a distinct intelligent agency or rational being,

coexisting with others in the same common nature),

is not manifestly applied in the Holy Scriptures to any of the Sacred Three: nor indeed can be so applied in strict propriety, according to its literal and obvious acceptation;
........... for when applied to God, instead of meaning a distinct intelligent being
........... coexisting with others in the same common nature,

we must mean by it, if we think and speak correctly, one and the self-same individual being so existing as to constitute in and to itself

so many distinct or different, real and relative characters, or subsistences, [The church fathers did not use "person" but "personae."]

each of which is but another name for the self-same individual essence or being considered as existing in the specified relation of Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

(Note: Character means an actor representing a distinct group. Thus God reveals Himself in flesh, soul or life and spirit or mind eliminating all other roles. Subsistences means the status of something which exists and proves His total, undivided existence or reality.)

Personae as Father

God is

Personae as Son

Personae as Spirit

Alexander Campbell repudiated John Calvin's Views of the Trinity primarily as to WORDING because Calvin repudiated the idea of THREE PERSONS.

1. In the first place I object to the Calvinistic doctrine of the Trinity for the same reasons they object to the Arians and Socinians.

They object to these, because their views derogate in their judgment from the eternal glory of the Founder of the christian religion.

They will not allow the Saviour to have been a creature, however exalted, because they conceive this character is unbecoming him, and contrary to the scriptural statements concerning him.
........... They wish to give him more glory
........... than they think the Arians are willing to do.

Now I object to their making him and calling him an "Eternal Son" because I think that if he were only the Son of God from all eternity, he is entitled to very little, if any more glory, than what the Arians give him.

I wish to give him more glory than the Calvinists give him. They are as far below his real glory, in my judgment, as the Arians are in their judgment.

2. But in the second place, I have an insuperable objection to the Arian and Calvinistic phraseology--On the doctrine of the first relation existing between the Father and the Saviour of Men,
........... because it confounds things human and divine,
........... and gives new ideas to bible terms unthought of by the inspired writers.

The names Jesus, Christ, or Messiah, Only Begotten Son, Son of God, belong to the Founder of the christian religion, and to none else.

They express not a relation existing before the christian era, but relations which commenced at that time.

To understand the relation betwixt the Saviour and his Father, which existed before time, and that relation which began in time, is impossible on either of these theories.

There was no Jesus, no Messiah, no Christ, no Son of God, no Only Begotten, before the reign of Augustus Caesar.

The relation that was before the christian era,
........... was not that of a son and a father,
........... terms which always imply disparity;

but it was that expressed by John in the sentence under consideration.
........... The relation was that of God,
........... and the "word of God."

This phraseology unfolds a relation quite different from that of a father and a son--a relation perfectly intimate, equal, and glorious.

This naturally leads me to the first sentence of John. And here I must state a few postulata.

1. No relation amongst human beings can perfectly exhibit the relation which the Saviour held to the God and Father of All anterior to his birth. The reason is, that relation is not homogenial, or of the same kind with relations originating from creation.
........... All relations we know any thing of are created,
........... such as that of father and son.

Now I object as much to a created relation as I do to a creature in reference to the original relation of God and the word of God.
........... This relation is an uncreated and unoriginated relation.

2. When in the fulness of time it became necessary in the wisdom of God to exhibit a Saviour, it became expedient to give some view of the original and eternal dignity of this wonderful visitant of the human race.

And as this view must be given in human language, inadequate as it was, the whole vocabulary of human speech must be examined for suitable terms.

3. Of these terms expressive of relations, the most suitable must be, and most unquestionably was, selected.

And as the relation was spiritual and not carnal, such terms only were eligible

which had respect to mental or spiritual relations. Of this sort there is but one in all the archives of human knowledge, and that is the one selected.

4. The Holy Spirit selected the name Word, and therefore we may safely assert that this is the best,

if not the only term, in the whole vocabulary of human speech at all adapted to express that relation which existed "in the beginning," or before time, between our Saviour and his God.

[A Being and His Word]

These postulata being stated, I proceed to inquire what sort of a relation does this term represent? And here every thing is plain and easy of comprehension. I shall state numerically a few things universally admitted by the reflecting part of mankind:

1st. A word is a sign or representative of a thought or an idea, and is the idea in an audible or visible form.
........... It is the exact image of that invisible thought which is a perfect secret
........... to all the world until it is expressed.

2d. All men think or form ideas by means of words or images;
........... so that no man can think without words or symbols of some sort.

3d. Hence it follows that the word and the idea which it represents, are co-etaneous, or of the same age or antiquity.

It is true the word may not be uttered or born for years or ages after the idea exists, but still the word is just as old as the idea.

4th. The idea and the word are nevertheless distinct from each other, though the relation between them is the nearest known on earth.
........... An idea cannot exist without a word, nor a word without an idea.

5th. He that is acquainted with the word, is acquainted with the idea, for the idea is wholly in the word.

Now let it be most attentively observed and remembered, that these remarks are solely intended to exhibit
........... the relation which exists between a word and an idea, and that
........... this relation is of a mental nature,
........... and more akin to the spiritual system than any relation created, of which we know any thing.

It is a relation of the most sublime order; and no doubt the reason why the name Word is adopted by the apostle in this sentence
........... was because of its superior ability to represent to us the divine relation
........... ........... existing between God and the Saviour
........... ........... prior to his becoming the Son of God.

By putting together the above remarks on the term word, we have a full view of what John intended to communicate.
........... As a word is an exact image of an idea,
........... ........... so is "The Word" an exact image of the invisible God.

As a word cannot exist without an idea, nor an idea without a word,
........... so God never was without "The Word," nor "The Word" without God;

or as a word is of equal age, or co-etaneous with its idea,
........... so "The Word" and God are co-eternal.

And as an idea does not create its word nor a word its idea;
........... so God did not create "The Word," nor the "Word" God.

Such a view does the language used by John suggest. And to this do all the scriptures agree.

For "The Word" was made flesh,
Because God is infinite in nature one cannot be
with God without being God. This God Who manifested Himself in flesh was Christ:

Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus: Philippians 2:5

Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, Philippians 2:6

but made himself nothing, taking the very nature [b] of a servant, being made in human likeness. Philippians 2:7

Or: but laid aside his mighty power and glory, taking the disguise of a slave and becoming like men. Philippians 2:7LIV

and in consequence of becoming incarnate,
he is styled the
Son of God, the only Begotten of the Father.
from eternity God was manifest in and by "The Word,"
........... so now God is manifest in the flesh.

As God was always with "The Word,"
........... so when "The Word" becomes flesh, he is Emanuel, God with us.

For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Isaiah 9:6

As God was never manifest but by "The Word,"
........... so the heavens and the earth, and all things were created by "The Word."

And as "The Word" ever was the effulgence or representation of the invisible God, so he will ever be known and adored as "The Word of God."

So much for the divine and eternal relation between the Saviour and God. You will easily perceive that I carry these views no farther than to explain the nature of that relation uncreated and unoriginated which the inspired language inculcates.

These views place us on a lofty eminence whence we look down upon the Calvinistic ideas of "eternal filiation," "eternal Generation," "eternal Son," as midway betwixt us and Arianism. From this sublime and lofty eminence we see the Socinian moving upon a hillock; the Arian upon a hill; and the Calvinist, upon a mountain; all of which lose their disproportion to each other
........... because of the immense height above them to which this view elevates us.

The first sentence of John I paraphrase thus: From eternity was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was, I say, from eternity with God.

By him all things were made, and
became flesh and dwelt among us. He became a child born and a son of man.

As such he is called Emanuel, Jesus, Messiah, Son of God, Only Begotten of the Father.

I can give the above views upon no other authority than my own reasonings. I learned them from nobody--I found them in no book. It is true, indeed, I have held the idea for sixteen years
........... that Jesus is called the Son of God,
........... not because of an "eternal generation," (which I conceive to be nonsense)
........... but because he was born as the angel described to Mary.

This is now pretty generally received by a great many christians.

Nor would I dispute or contend for this as a theory or speculation with any body. I could, indeed, amplify considerably, and perhaps obviate some difficulties by following up farther the hints submitted; but such are my views of the import of the beginning of John's testimony.

You will remember that I make no systems, and although there are some abstract reasonings upon terms (as indeed much of our reasonings about language are) in the preceding,

it is only for the purpose of getting into the sacred import of a style from which we have been proscribed by a speculating philosophy.

I have acceded to our request with more ease than I could have done, had it not been for a few prating bodies who are always striving to undo my influence by the cry of Unitarianism, or Socinianism, or some other obnoxious ism. From all isms may the Lord save us!

Yours truly, Alexander Campbell from the Christian Baptist, May 1827)

Back up to where you clicked

Tom Olbricht: Scripture must be searched to avoid a cheap orthodoxy obtained through "committing to memory a catechism, or professing our approbation of a formula, made ready to out hand, which we may or may not have once read over"" But the right interpretation involves more than a careful reading, important as that is,

A person may, however, by this short and easy method, become as orthodox as the apostle Paul "without ever once consulting the Bible, or so much as putting up a single petition for the Holy Spirit to guide him into all truth, to open his understanding to know the Scriptures".

From the actual Declaration and Address:

"Let it here be carefully observed that the question before us is about human standards designed to be subscribed, or otherwise solemnly acknowledged, for the preservation of ecclesiastical unity and purity,

and therefore, of course, by no means applies to the many excellent performances, for the Scriptural elucidation and defense of Divinely-revealed truths, and other instructive purposes. These, we hope, according to their respective merit, we as highly esteem, and as thankfully receive, as our brethren.

"But further, with respect to unity of sentiment, even suppose it ever so desirable, it appears highly questionable whether such a thing can at all be secured, by any expedient whatsoever, especially if we consider that it necessarily presupposes in so far a unity or sameness of understanding.

"Or, will any say, that from the youth of seventeen to the man of fourscore--from the illiterate peasant, up to the learned prelate--all the legitimate members of the Church entertain the same sentiments under their respective formulas? If not, it is still but a mere verbal agreement, a mere show of unity.

"They say an amen to the same forms of speech, or of sound words, as they are called, without having, at the same time, the same views of the subject; or, it may be, without any determinate views of it at all.

And, what is still worse, this profession is palmed upon the world,
as well as upon the
too credulous professors themselves,
for unity of sentiment
, for soundness in the faith;
when, in a thousand instances, they have, properly speaking,
no faith at all;

that is to say, if faith necessarily presupposes a true and satisfactory conviction of the Scriptural evidence and certainty of the truth of the propositions we profess to believe.

This, not PATTERNISM, was in Campbell's mind. It more properly defined a CURRICULUM where professors CANNOT exist without CONFORMING to the prevailing views. Phds are not EARNED but BESTOWED.

"A cheap and easy orthodoxy this, to which we may attain by committing to memory a catechism, or professing our approbation of a formula, made ready to our hand, which we may or may not have once read over; or even if we have, yet may not have been able to read it so correctly and intelligently as to clearly understand one single paragraph from beginning to end, much less to compare it with, to search and try it by the holy Scriptures, to see if these things be so. [No direct spirit "person" speaking here]

"A cheap and easy orthodoxy this, indeed, to which a person may thus attain, without so much as turning over a single leaf of his Bible,

whereas Christ knew no other way of leading us to the knowledge of himself, at least has prescribed no other, but by searching the Scriptures, with reliance upon HIS Holy Spirit.

A person may, however, by this short and easy method, become as orthodox as the apostle Paul (if such superficial professions, such mere hearsay verbal repetitions can be called orthodoxy) without ever once consulting the Bible, or so much as putting up a single petition for the Holy Spirit to guide him into all truth, to open his understanding to know the Scriptures;

Of course, we call upon God to give us A holy spirit or A clear consience at baptism:

The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of (request for) a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ: 1 Peter 3:21

And you cannot escape the fact that Campbell was speaking of those who MAKE A PROFESSION of Scripture. In the Bible, Jesus condemned the Pharisees, Scribes and Hypocrites. The hypocrites fall under the classification of rhetoricians, sophists, singers, musicians and others who are acting the part of sorcerers. All are classified as PARASITES because they claim to do priestly service for others.

Campbell warned of "too credulous professors themselves who PALM OFF on the world" a pretense for speaking or, for heaven's sake, why would they as sOPHISts charge for teaching what Christ died to give for free? And it is the PROFFESORS who speak with "no faith at all" or even without "putting up a single petition for the Holy Spirit to guide him into all truth."

Campbell, did not say that the SPIRIT must be prayed for to be able to understand the WORD. He wonders why the SELF-SELECTED Professors PALM OFF their revelations of the Spirit without even seeking the guidance of the Spirit.

Asking for the Spirit of Christ which Jesus said is the Words of Christ to guide you does not mean that Campbell believed that one could not understand without the Spirit. Rather, if you are searching the Word as Spirit you ask for discernment. This proves that one is not involved in "easy orthodoxy" by asking the preacher or some scholar. The process is WORD REVEALS SPIRIT and not HOLY SPIRIT REVEALS SCRIPTURE which cannot otherwise be understood.

II. Express Terms and Approved Precedents  
Tom Olbricht: In a note at this point in the Young, edited version of the Declaration and Address is inserted a footnote in which Alexander Campbell stated upon reading the document in proofs stated to his father,

"Then, sir, you must abandon and give up infant baptism, and some other practices for which it seems to me you cannot produce an express precept or an example in any book of the Christians 'scriptures!"

One might conclude from this exclamation of Alexander that the proposed hermeneutic came as a surprise. If it did, however, it is not as if Thomas Campbell was the originator.

We may take Alexander's reaction therefore to be his assertion of the ramifications of a rigorously applied express terms, approved precedent hermeneutic.

I have not been able to discover the explicit roots of this hermeneutic. It may go back as far as the fathers of the church, but its more modern versions lay in the reformation. In determining what specific matters were to be adapted, Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) wrote of both the commands of Christ and Biblical examples. I have not found as yet, however, a statement in which Zwingli brought the two together as a clear hermeneutic principle.

HERE IS SOME HELP: Begin before Lucifer was Cast as Profane out of Heaven or Genesis.


Zwingli was moving but still believed that parts of the Law were in effect.

"In this matter of baptism -- if I may be pardoned for saying it -- I can only conclude that all the doctors have been in error from the time of the apostles. . . . All the doctors have ascribed to the water a power which it does not have and the holy apostles did not teach."[iii]

I. The light of nature showeth that there is a God, who hath lordship and sovereignty over all, is good, and doth good unto all, and is therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and served, with all the heart, and with all the soul, and with all the might.

But the acceptable way of worshiping the true God is instituted by himself,
and so limited by his own revealed will,
that he may not be worshiped according to the
imaginations and devices of men,

or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation,
or any other way
not prescribed in the Holy Scripture.

And Zwingli wanted to get rid of:

"traditional forms or ceremonies (added) simply on the ground that they were not actually forbidden by Scripture Commands Examples

Schaff History of the Christian Church: Zwingli: He arrived in Zurich on the 27th of the month, and received a hearty welcome. He promised to fulfil his duties faithfully, and to begin with the continuous exposition of the Gospel of Matthew, so as to bring the whole life of Christ before the mind of the people. This was a departure from the custom of following the prescribed Gospel and Epistle lessons,

but justified by the example of the ancient Fathers, as Chrysostom and Augustin, who preached on whole books. The Reformed Churches reasserted the freedom of selecting texts; while Luther retained the Catholic system of pericopes.

Zwingli began his duties in Zurich on his thirty-sixth birthday (Jan. 1, 1519) by a sermon on the genealogy of Christ, and announced that on the next day (which was a Sunday) he would begin a series of expository discourses on the first Gospel. From Matthew he proceeded to the Acts, the Pauline and Catholic Epistles; so that in four years he completed the homiletical exposition of the whole New Testament except the Apocalypse (which he did not regard as an apostolic book). In the services during the week he preached on the Psalms. He prepared himself carefully from the original text. He probably used for his first course Chrysostom' famous Homilies on Matthew. With the Greek he was already familiar since his sojourn in Glarus. The Hebrew he learned from a pupil of Reuchlin who had come to Zurich. His copy of Reuchlin' Rudimenta Hebraica is marked with many notes from his hand.

He made it his chief object "to preach Christ from the fountain," and "to insert the pure Christ into the hearts.

He would preach nothing but what he could prove from the Scriptures, as the only rule of Christian faith and practice.

This is a reformatory idea; for the aim of the Reformation was to reopen the fountain of the New Testament to the whole people, and to renew the life of the Church by the power of the primitive gospel. By his method of preaching on entire books he could give his congregation a more complete idea of the life of Christ and the way of salvation than by confining himself to detached sections. He did not at first attack the Roman Church, but only the sins of the human heart; he refuted errors by the statement of truth.

For the classical literature of Greece and Rome, however, Zwingli had more respect than Luther.

It should be remarked also that he was not opposed to images as such any more than to poetry and music,
but only to their idolatrous use in churches.

Tom Olbricht: Whatever the case, an English contemporary of Bullinger, Edward Dering (1540-1576), a Puritan, offered what may be one of the earliest written statements on commands, examples and inferences, in arguing for the theological importance of inferences. He insisted that a conclusion based on Scripture and drawn from "proportion, or deduction, by consequence, as well the Word of God, as that which is an express commandment or example."

Bullinger: By these preparatory measures, public opinion was prepared for the practical application of the new ideas. The old order of worship had to be abolished before the new order could be introduced. The destruction was radical, but orderly. It was effected by the co-operation of the preachers and the civil magistracy, with the consent of the people. It began at Pentecost, and was completed June 20, 1524.

In the presence of a deputation from the authorities of Church and State, accompanied by architects, masons and carpenters, the churches of the city were purged of pictures, relics, crucifixes, altars, candles, and all ornaments, the frescoes effaced, and the walls whitewashed, so that nothing remained but the bare building to be filled by a worshiping congregation. The pictures were broken and burnt, some given to those who had a claim, a few preserved as antiquities. The bones of the saints were buried.

Even the organs were removed, and the Latin singing of the choir abolished, but fortunately afterwards replaced by congregational singing of psalms and hymns in the vernacular (in Basle as early as 1526, in St. Gall 1527, in Zurich in 1598).

"Within thirteen days," says Bullinger, "all the churches of the city were cleared; costly works of painting and sculpture, especially a beautiful table in the Waterchurch, were destroyed. The superstitious lamented; but the true believers rejoiced in it as a great and joyous worship of God." In the following year the magistracy melted, sold, or gave away the rich treasures of the Great Minster and the Frauenminster, chalices, crucifixes, and crosses of gold and silver, precious relics, clerical robes, tapestry, and other ornaments.  In 1533 not a copper' worth was left in the sacristy of the Great Minster. Zwingli justified this vandalism by the practice of a conquering army to spike the guns and to destroy the forts and provisions of the enemy, lest he might be tempted to return.

The same work of destruction took place in the village churches in a less orderly way. Nothing was left but the bare buildings, empty, cold and forbidding. Note 105: Egli, p. 893 (No. 2004, c. 1533). Uetinger declared that between 1524 and 1532 all the treasury of the sacristy was squandered, and nobody knew what had become of it. "Prorsus nihil supererat."

But, this is a clear BIBLICAL statement of DOCTRINE: yea, PATTERNISM.

Thomas Campbell followed the clear Biblical pattern of following the Word of God, the common belief of most of the church Fathers, the founders of denominations and the beliefs of most protestant denominations. The scholarly denial of an earlier formulation is based on a failure to read the Bible and all of the available evidence. See our collection here.

Letter LV. or Book II. of Replies to Questions of Januarius. (a.d. 400.)

In such a case we ought by all means to adopt it,

especially if it be something in defence of which Scripture can be alleged: as in the singing of hymns and psalms,
........... for which we have on record both the example and the precepts of the Lord and of His apostles.

In this religious exercise, so useful for inducing a devotional frame of mind and inflaming the strength of love to God, there is diversity of usage, and in Africa the members of the Church are rather too indifferent in regard to it; on which account the Donstists reproach us with our grave chanting of the divine songs of the prophets in our churches,

while they inflame their passions in their revels by the singing of psalms of human composition, which rouse them like the stirring notes of the trumpet on the battle-field.

But when brethren are assembled in the church, why should not the time be devoted to singing of sacred songs,

excepting of course while reading or preaching (disputatur) is going on, or while the presiding minister prays aloud, or the united prayer of the congregation is led by the deacon's voice? At the other intervals not thus occupied, I do not see what could be a more excellent, useful, and holy exercise for a Christian congregation.

The evidence that the Law of Silence is very ancient. Because the use of MUSIC as worship has it origins in the fall of Lucifer as the King/queen of Tyre, and Paul's direct command to practice INTERNAL MELODY and most of church history, it was the instrumentalists who formed a musical sect based totally upon the premise that "God hath not said, 'thou halt not'."

Thomas Campbell didn't use the word HERMENEUTIC in his Declaration and Address. One could believe about anything and discuss it. He used interpretation only one time and that DENOUNCED human interpretation which would repudiate the WORD to be read and discussed as "church" or rather synagogue. All interpretation, hermeneutics and exegesis is totally HUMAN REASONING which contributes to study but cannot define the Bible "as it has been taught."

We are also of opinion that as the Divine word is equally binding upon all, so all lie under an equal obligation to be bound by it, and it alone; and not by any human interpretation of it;

and that, therefore, no man has a right to judge his brother,
except in so far as he manifestly violates the express letter of the law.

That every such judgment is an express violation of the law of Christ, a daring usurpation of his throne, and a gross intrusion upon the rights and liberties of his subjects. Thomas Campbell Declaration and Address

Jesus repudiated the DOCTORS OF THE LAW because they "take away the key to knowledge." Knowledge sums up the SEVEN SPIRITS which would rest on the BRANCH grown from the STUMP and give spiritual knowledge. Only by rejecting the Word of God can it be exegeted or hermeneuted to death. Why? First, the Word was delivered by the Spirit of Christ in the way He wanted it delivered. This was not to form fodder for hermeneuts or exegetes to be given heed too. Second, Scripture promises that by reading and dialoguing the Word we will see the TRUE Day Star arise in our hearts. Third, this prevents any openings for the MANY false teachers to promote Lucifer, the false day star, the harp- playing prostitute. She cannot get a word in edgewise or musician- wise or rhetorician- wise. Fourth, since the Word has been delivered free of charge (Isa 55) there is no ROLE for the TRAFFICKERS to play:

For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 2 Pet 1:16

For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 2 Pet 1:17

And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. 2 Pet 1:18

Sophizo (g4679) sof-id'-zo; from 4680; to render wise; in a sinister acceptation, to form "sophisms", i.e. continue plausible error: - cunningly devised, make wise.

Sophism identifies the SERPENT in the book of Revelation. Sophism or wise, trained speakers reveals the CUNNING devisers of fables as sOPHISisms.

Therefore, Peter the fisherman rather than Peter the liberal artists or philosopher, was not chosen for his hermeneutical skills. This would have DISQUALIFIED him utterly. Take Heed is one of Paul's unique WORSHIP WORDS. Peter agrees:

We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: 2 Pet 1:19

Why Peter?

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 2 Pet 1:20

For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 2 Pet 1:21 [Which is the Spirit of Christ]

Peter said that the Word has been ASSURED to be followed specificially because false teachers sow discord and create SECTS or HERESIES such as the music heresy.

BUT there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction. 2 Pet 2:1

Seeing godliness as a means of financial gain is almost always the motive for arriving at a different interpretation. This is especially if men like Paul were vocational evangelists. To discredit Paul to the Corinthians would allow the SUPER APOSTLES, rhetoricians, singers, actors, musicians and Sophists to creep into the houses and lead the church astray.

And many shall follow their pernicious (deadly) ways; by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of. 2 Pet 2:2

And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not. 2 Pet 2:3

Merchandise has the definition emporion or phortion. This was the burden laded by the clergy and it meant "spiritual anxiety created through religious ritual." Of course, they cannot TAX you unless they grind you into powder which is the meaning of PSALLO or MELODY.

Look again at the outlawing of private interpreters:

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 2 Pe.1:20

Epilusis (g1955) ep-il'-oo-sis; from 1956; explanation, i.e. application: - interpretation.
Epiluo (g1956) ep-ee-loo'-o; from 1909 and 3089; to solve further, i.e. (fig.) to explain, decide: - determine, expound.

That is why the Campbells were wise enough not to speak of HERMENEUTICS.

The Scriptures speak for themselves and in SCHOOL they should be "taught as they have been taught." There is no handle by which professional scholars, speakers or musicians can get closer access than the non- professional to help God. That is why the Greek world honored the herald because "he delivered the message as it had been delivered to him." However, Jesus fired the DOCTORS OF THE LAW because they "take away the key to knowledge" by presuming superior authority. That is why they are identified as PARASITES.

exêgêsis [from exêgeomai]
........... I. a statement, narrative, Thuc.
........... II. explanation, interpretation, Plat.

hermên-euma , atos, to, interpretation, explanation

epithesis , eôs, hê, setting on its base, tou andriantos

laying or putting on, application
application of epithets, tas e. poieisthai Arist.Rh.1405b22 .
imposition of increased burdens, Cat.Cod.Astr.7.134
setting upon, attack, Antipho 2.2.13; This was imposing an extra tax when the nation was NOT at war.

rhêtorikos , ê, on, oratorical, hê rhêtorikê (sc. technê) rhetoric; of persons, skilled in SPEAKING, fit to be an ORATOR

The techne is the craftsmen who will go back into hell along with the Babylon harlot, her musicians and instrumentalists.

A word with similar meaning:

hupo-kritikos , ê, on, belonging to hupokrisis 11 , skilled therein, esti phuseôs to hu. einai having a good delivery, Arist.Rh.1404a15 .
2. suited for speaking or delivery, (sc.
technê) the art of delivery, (but, the actor's art, .
3. metaph.,
acting a part, pretending to


I. to reply, make answer, answer, Hom., Hdt.
2. to
expound, interpret, explain, Od., Ar.:--the attic word in this sense is apo-krinomai.
of actors, to answer on the stage: hence to play a part, be an actor
2. to represent
dramatically: hence to exaggerate
3. metaph. to
play a part, to feign, pretend, c. inf., id=Dem.

Of those who would DIVERT a non-instrumental church into being an instrumental church and taking pay for it as rhetorician or Sophist, the Greek had a word for it.

parasitus, i, m., = parasitos, lit. one who eats with another; hence,

I. In gen., a guest (pure Lat. conviva): parasiti Jovis, the gods, Varr. ap. Aug. Civ. Dei, 6, 7; App. M. 10, p. 246, 35.--Hence, parasitus Phoebi, a player, actor, Mart. 9, 29, 9.--

II. In partic., in a bad sense, one who, by flattery and buffoonery, manages to live at another's expense, a sponger, toad-eater, parasite

Martin Luther taught what all scholars taught before the Pope declared his HIGH CHURCH right to add or subtract:

16. Now, Paul's thought here is that nothing should be taught and practiced in the Church

but what is unquestionably God's Word.
It will not do to introduce or perform anything whatever

upon the strength of man's judgment. Man's achievements, man's reasoning and power, are of no avail save in so far as they come from God.

As Peter says in his first epistle (ch. 4:11): "If any man speaketh, speaking as it were oracles of God; if any man ministereth, ministering as of the strength which God supplieth."

Human talent has use ONLY in ministering. However, the total Word outlaws those who exegete or hermeneut assuming that God had some very costly oversights.

In short, let him who would be wise, who would boast of great skill, talents and power, confine himself to things other than spiritual;

with respect to spiritual matters, let him keep his place and [PAGE 230] refrain from boasting and pretense. For it is of no moment that men observe your greatness and ability; the important thing is that poor souls may rest assured of being presented with God's Word and works, whereby they may be saved.

"Who also made us sufficient as ministers of a new covenant; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life."

It was not outrageous for the Campbells to say what had always been said long before the Reformation.

"Our desire, therefore, for ourselves and our brethren would be, that,

rejecting human opinions and the inventions of men as of any authority, or as having any place in the Church of God, we might forever cease from further contentions about such things; returning to and holding fast by the original standard;

taking the Divine word alone for our rule;
the Holy Spirit for our teacher and guide, to lead us into all truth;
and Christ alone, as exhibited in the word, for our salvation;

that, by so doing, we may be at peace among ourselves, follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.

[Thomas Campbell noted elsewhere that: "I am not to be understood as objecting to the detection and exposure of a false and unscriptural experience, which, from your words, appears to be the thing intended; for, in your foot note, page 141, you assert, that we are taught, that

"since those gifts have ceased, the Holy Spirit now operates upon the minds of men only by the word;" and at the close of said note, you further assert, that "we are positive of one point,"

namely, "that the scriptures teach us not the doctrine of physical operations of the Divine Spirit in order to faith."]

The Holy Spirit is the Mind of Christ (1 Cor 2) and the ANOTHER COMFORTER would be the same Jesus Christ in Spirit form (John 14: 16-8)

"With a direct reference to this state of things, and, as we humbly think, in a perfect consistency with the foregoing explanations, have we expressed ourselves in the thirty-ninth page,

wherein we declare ourselves ready to relinquish
........... whatever we have hitherto received as matter of faith or practice,
........... not expressly taught and enjoined in the word of God,
........... so that we and our brethren might, by this mutual concession,

return together to the original constitutional unity of the Christian Church, and dwell together in peace and charity. By this proposed relinquishment we are to be understood, in the first instance, of our manner of holding those things, and not simply of the things themselves;

for no man can relinquish his opinions or practices till once convinced that they are wrong; and this he may not be immediately, even supposing they were so. One thing, however, he may do:

when not bound by an express command, he need not impose them upon others, by anywise requiring their approbation; and when this is done, the things, to them, are as good as dead, yea, as good as buried, too, being thus removed out of the way.

This is consistent with the Greek thought that rhetoricians, sophists, singers and musicians pretended to be soothsayers or sorcerers or, as in Revelation 18, craftsmen or TECHNE. Because Jesus modeled and Paul commanded that we "teach that which we have been taught" there is no room for hermeneuts or exegetes. These were identified as PARASITES.

Tom Olbricht: This implicit hermeneutic drew upon rules characteristic of the backgrounds out of which Campbell came,

but which he tailored to be even more serviceable to the undertaking at hand. In this regard Campbell was not unique in that hermeneutics are always advanced and modified in regard to the motivating drives of the individuals and groups who utilize them.

The Necessity of Reforming the Church (1543) Calvin
John Knox defended the need for direct command.
Reasonableness of Christianity John Locke
Letter Concerning Toleration. John Locke
The Bible DIRECT COMMANDS and EXAMPLES defended by most.
Milton Jones Views on Authority
III. The Old and New Testaments
Campbell also launched upon a major hermeneutical move in specifying the New Testament rather than the Old as the basis for unity.

This decision has precedents, but is a departure from basic Reform doctrine. Campbell declared that all the Scriptures are normative, but the Old for the Old Testament church and the New for the New Testament Church.

In fact, this relegation of the Old Testament to a non-authorial status for Christians, though not extreme,
........... ran counter to the reformed positions of Calvin, Zwingli, Knox, and the Puritans.

Luther, in contrast, found employment for the Old Testament, but as a counterpoint to the gospel. [We all do that: Types and Anti-types]

Alexander Campbell rejected Luther's proposal, commenting pointedly, "There is no necessity for preaching the law in order to prepare men for receiving the gospel."

Rarely has any early scholar advocated using the Law as authority for faith and practice. That is because they grasp that the "law was added because of transgression." Therefore, the "laws were not good" but were imposed to regulate and finally lead Israel into captivity and death. The Apostolic Constitutions in about the year 205 of those who called themselves the church of Christ.

But Luther wrote:

One is that of the Old Testament, the other of the New; in other words, the office of Moses, or the Law, and the office of the Gospel of Christ. He contrasts the glory and power of the latter with those of the former, which, it is true, is also the Word of God. In this manner he endeavors to defeat the teachings and pretensions of those seductive spirits who, as he but lately foretold,
........... pervert God"s Word, in that they greatly extol the Law of God, yet at best do not teach its right use,
........... but, instead of making it tributary to faith in Christ, misuse it to teach work-righteousness.

36. No seditious spirit, it is certain, ever carries out its own precepts, nor will he ever be capable of doing so,

though he may loudly boast the Spirit alone as his guide.
Of this fact you may rest assured. For such individuals know nothing more than the doctrine of works--nor can they rise higher and point you to anything else.

We have looked at some of the historical views that the Old Testament is not authority for Christian Faith and Practice here 

Dialogue of Justin Martyr with Trypho, a Jew

b. c. 100,, Flavia Neapolis, Palestine [now Nabulus]
d. c. 165,, Rome [Italy]; feast day June 1

Chapter XI.-The Law Abrogated; The New Testament Promised and Given by God.

But now -(for I have read that there shall be a final law, and a covenant, the chiefest of all, which it is now incumbent on all men to observe, as many as are seeking after the inheritance of God.
........... For the law promulgated on Horeb is now old, and belongs to yourselves alone;
........... but this is for all universally.

Now, law placed against law has abrogated that which is before it, and a covenant which comes after in like manner has put an end to the previous one;

and an eternal and final law-namely, Christ-has been given to us, and the covenant is trustworthy, after which there shall be no law, no commandment, no ordinance.

Have you not read this which Isaiah says: `Hearken unto Me, hearken unto Me, my people; and, ye kings, give ear unto Me:

for a law shall go forth from Me, and My judgment shall be for a light to the nations.
My righteousness approaches swiftly, and My salvation shall go forth, and nations shall trust in Mine arm? LXX, Isa. li. 4, 5. '

See especially Chapter XVIII.-Christians Would Observe the Law, If They Did Not Know Why It Was Instituted.

Augustine of Hippo (354-430)

Chapter 8.-The Jews Liberated from Their Bondage in One Way, the Gentiles in Another.

26. We must also be on our guard against supposing that what in the Old Testament, making allowance for the condition of those times, is not a crime or a vice even if we take it literally and not figuratively,
........... can be transferred to the present time as a habit of life.

Martin Luther on Law and Gospel

b. Nov. 10, 1483, Eisleben, Saxony [Germany]
d. Feb. 18, 1546, Eisleben

"For we hold that a man is justified by faith apart from works of law" (Rom. 3:28) because he felt it was demanded by the German. The word alone or only was retained by the Reformers after him because it seemed to safeguard this important doctrine against such perversions as might seem to make salvation dependent on human achievement or a reward for human merit.

"This difference between the Law and the Gospel is the height of knowledge in Christendom. Every person and all persons who assume or glory in the name of Christian should know and be able to state this difference.

If this ability is lacking, one cannot tell a Christian from a heathen or a Jew; of such supreme importance is this differentiation.

This is why St. Paul so strongly insists on a clean-cut and proper differentiating of these two doctrines. (Sermon on Galatians 1532)

Paul "found that, especially in the Church at Corinth, which he had converted by the words of his own lips and brought to faith in Christ, soon after his departure the devil introduced his heresies whereby the people were turned from the truth and betrayed into other ways....

And this is how it is he comes to speak in high terms of praise of the ministration of the Gospel and to contrast and compare the twofold ministration or message which may be proclaimed in the Church, provided, of course, that God's Word is to be preached and not the nonsense of human falsehood and the doctrine of the devil.

One is that of the Old Testament, the other of the New;

in other words, the office of Moses, or the Law,
and the office of the Gospel of Christ.
He contrasts the glory and power of the latter with those of the former, which, it is true, is also the Word of God.

In this manner he endeavors to defeat the teachings and pretensions of those seductive spirits who, as he but lately foretold, pervert God"s Word,

in that they greatly extol the Law of God, yet at best do not teach its right use,
but, instead of making it tributary to faith in Christ, misuse it to teach work-righteousness. Sermon by by Martin Luther (1483-1546)

John Calvin

b. July 10, 1509, Noyon, Picardy, France
d. May 27, 1564, Geneva, Switz.

Perhaps it was John Calvin rather than John Locke who "misled" Thomas Campbell into Dispensational Distinction

"There is then no other argument needed to condemn superstitions, than that they are not commanded by God:
........... or when men allow themselves to worship God according to their own fancies,
........... and attend not to His commands,
........... they pervert true religion." Calvin's Commentaries, 9:414.

He continues:

"Hebrews 9:1. "Then verily the first", &c. After having spoken generally of the abrogation of the old covenant, he now refers specially to the ceremonies. His object is to show that
........... there was nothing practiced then to which Christ's coming has not put an end.

They, while condemning superstition, left untouched a multitude of ceremonies

which God had enjoined, and which were useful and appropriate to an age of tutelage; our business has been to correct numerous rites which had either crept in through oversight, or been turned to abuse and which, moreover, by no means accorded with the time.

For, if we would not throw everything into confusion,
we must never lose sight of the distinction between the old and the new dispensations, and of the fact that ceremonies, the observance of which was useful under the law, are now not only superfluous, but vicious and absurd.

But in regard to the former, it is plain that
........... they are destitute of authority from the scriptures,
........... as well as of any approved example of such intercession; while, as to the latter,

The Formula of Concord, 1576

We believe, teach, and confess that the distinction of the Law and of the Gospel, as a most excellently clear light, is to be retained with special diligence in the Church of God,
........... in order that the Word of God, agreeably to the admonition of St. Paul, may be rightly divided.

It should be obvious that while scholars are made or unmade by their peers, the use of human reasoning to define the Bible, and the use of false quotations to prove the scholarly replacement for God's Word, may have its role in a circle of scholarship which might include phrenology. However, to attempt to destroy a body of believers and inculcate a new postmodern view based on false quotations and poor reasoning validates Jesus' firing the doctors of the Law, Paul's teachings and the almost 100% view of church theologians that rhetoricians, sophists, singers and musicians are the SORCERERS of John's Revelation and are defined in the Greek world as parasites.

There simply is no stirrups on the church by which those who do not "teach the Word as it has been taught" can ride on the backs of widows and the "audience" who are quite capable of reading the Word.

Ken Sublett

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