David Young-Michael Strickland. Jesus used RHETORIC.  Rhetoric and Music was the way to DECEIVE people beginning with Clay Tablets before Moses  posted Genesis.  The pulpit in the Synagogue was to hold up the Scriptures. Jesus stood up to READ, applied it to him and decently and in order sat down.  Most preachers stand quietly behind the pulpit and follow the pattern from the wilderness onward: READ that which is written for our learning.  No performance person will ever grasp that the SILENCE and AUTHORITY was outlawed for both male and female.  The purpose was "so that we might ALL be SAFE and come to a knowledge of THE TRUTH. Men were to be silent when the Word was PREACHED by being READ because they loved to bring on WRATH or an ORGY.  Any kind of arousing body and voice expressions was outlawed as the "Laded Burden." Women were to be silent because they believed and sold themselves as speaking for the "gods" under the influence of wine, drugs or music.

All of the "silence" passages claimed to be mediators in song or sermon.  Paul corrected them:

1Tim. 2:5 For there is ONE GOD,
        and one mediator between God and men,
        the MAN Christ Jesus;

Serv. Ecl. 6.11
dicitur autem ingenti favore a Vergilio esse recitata, adeo ut, cum eam postea Cytheris meretrix cantasset in theatro, quam in fine Lycoridem vocat, stupefactus Cicero

mĕrē^trix , she who earns moncy; hence, a prostitute, harlot, courtesan:
Corrupting the WORD is "selling your learning at retail" the same word defines adultery.


A deeper-reaching attempt to explain the significance of the castrato age has been made by Moses (1960) in an interesting paper on the psychology of the castrato voice. He interprets the emergence of this vocal fashion as the fulfillment of an age-old dream wish of bisexual hermaphroditism. Even if one does not follow Moses in some of his somewhat overdrawn conclusions, there is left enough of a solid basis for his theory. Hermaphroditic mythology plays an important part in cultural history. In collections of primitive art one sometimes see sculptures of idols each with female breasts and a penis

Voices mirror not only individual characters but the spirit of a period as well. In this sense the voice of the castrato personifies the bisexual ideal with its unity of a female voice in a man's body. In the mythological atmosphere of the baroque opera the castrato portrayed gods and mythological persons who presented male and female characteristics in a vocal hermaphroditic combination.

In an unfinished book that Paul Moses left at his death he predicted, over ten years ago, quite correctly the approach of another age of crossover of the sexes. The young generation of today favors fashions that obliterate the differences between the sexes. Girls wear pants, and young men sport girlish long hair and wear necklaces and bracelets. The classical love song of the nineteenth century, the love-centered operettas, and the popular songs of the "June-moon" variety of the first half of this century have given way to the harsh rhythms of rock and roll of the unisex generation. And the phoniatrist sees among his patients an increasing number of young adult males who do not use the deep masculine voice that the pubertal growth of the larynx offers but continue to speak in an artificial high pitch of almost female sound. Friedrich S. Brodnitz, M.D.

Jesus said that He spoke ONLY what God the Father told Him to say. READING the message of a "god" was demanded.  The Jews added marks to the Scriptures to PREVENT anyone added even the inflection of the HUMAN reader.

APPARENTLY no one who "sees godliness as a means of financial gain" can READ BLACK text on BROWN paper (2 Cor. 3) can read the following.
Eph. 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise,
        BUT understanding what the WILL OF THE LORD is.
Eph. 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess;
BUT be filled with the Spirit;
Eph. 5:19 SPEAKING to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
[BUT] singing [ode] and making melody [psallo]
        IN [En=Place] your heart TO the Lord;
Eph. 5:20 Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father
        in the NAME of our Lord Jesus Christ;

All forms of SINGING or INSTRUMENTS include INCANTATIONS or SORCERY as a means of "making the lambs dumb before the slaughter" so that they will--even in their created anxiety (laded burden) accept even the most outrageous RHETORIC.

Ode and Psallo is IN THE PLACE of the Human Heart or SILENT because LEXIS is the OPPOSITE or Oide.

The EXTERNAL Psallo  I. In gen., to play upon a stringed instrument; esp., to play upon the cithara, to sing to the cithara: “psallere saltare elegantius,Sall. C. 25, 2  canituri,”  SING and cantare marked as SORCERY.    saltare et cantare; Cic. Catil. 2.10.23   Suet. Tit. 3

The Evil Psallo psallere saltare   ēlĕgans   I. In the ante-class. period in a bad sense, luxurious, effeminate, fastidious, nice: elegans homo non dicebatur cum laude “mulier (Phrynewith formo

The Evil Psallo includes: Phrȳ , ēs, f., = Phrunē   I. A celebrated hetœra in Athens, so wealthy that she offered to rebuild the city of Thebes after it had been destroyed by Alexander: “nec quae deletas potuit componere Thebas B,Prop. 2, 6, 6; cf. Quint. 2, 15, 9; Val. Max. 4, 3, ext. 3  II. A Roman COURTESAN, Hor. Epod. 14, 16.—

Quint. Inst. 2 15.9] So also according to general opinion Phryne was saved not by the eloquence of Hyperides, admirable as it was, but by the sight of her exquisite body, which she further revealed by drawing aside her tunic. And if all these have power to persuade, the end of oratory, which we are discussing, cannot adequately be defined as persuasion.[idoneos rhetor].....In that work the end of rhetoric is defined as the leading of men by the power of speech to the conclusion desired by the orator.

"If any man do not give heed to wholesome words, but is puffed up by a kind of teaching, knowing nothing, but doting (noseo g3552 sick, diseased) about questions and strifes of words, whereof cometh contention, envy, railings, evil surmisings, perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, destitute of the truth." 89

Note 89: 1 Tim. vi. 3-5. [He treats the sophists with Platonic scorn, but adopts St. Paul's enlarged idea of sophistry.])

You see how he is moved against them, calling their art of logic-on which, those to whom this garrulous mischievous art is dear, whether Greeks or barbarians, plume themselves-a disease (nosoj). Very beautifully, therefore, the tragic poet Euripides says in the Phoenissae,-

"But a wrongful speech Is diseased in itself, and needs skilful medicines." 90
For the saving Word 91 is called "wholesome," He being the truth; and what is wholesome (healthful) remains ever deathless

"And so the lyre-player [psaltees] not rudely nor inelegantly put the curb on Phillip when he tried to dispute with him about the way to strike [psalles] the lyre [psalteerion]. -Moralia, p. 67F.

Again, Phrynichus says in The Phoenician Women, '
        With [1] plucking [
        of the
[2] strings they [3] sing [aeidontes]
        their lays in answering strains." -The
Deiphnosphists, XIV. 635,
        Translated by Gulick, Vol. 6, p. 427.
  Likewise the Lydian and the Bactrian maids
      Who dwell beside the Halys, loudly worship
      The Tmolian goddess Artemis, who loves
      The laurel shade of the thick leafy grove,
      Striking the clear three-cornered pectis, and
      Raising responsive tunes upon the magadis,
      While flutes in Persian manner neatly joined
      Accompany the chorus.

gunaikas ex andrōn psogos psallei, kenon toxeumaE.Fr.499.

1. Women and Men
, ho, (psegō) A.blamable fault, blemish, flaw,aneu psogou tetugmenos
        II. blame, censure,oneidea kai ps.Xenoph.11.2; “skoteinos ps. lampoon

MAKING poetry of Poets, compose, write, p. dithurambon, epea, Hdt.1.23, 4.14; “p. theogoniēn HellēsiId.2.53; p. Phaidran, Saturous, Ar.Th.153, 157; p. kōmōdian, tragōdian,
Quintillian.Oratoria.1.8.2 In this portion of my work I will give but one golden rule:
        to do all these things, he must understand what he READS.
But above all his reading must be MANLY, combining dignity and charm;
        it must be different from the reading of prose,
        for poetry is song and poets claim to be singers.
But this fact does not justify degeneration into sing-song
        or the effeminate modulations now in vogue: 

Aristot. Rh. 1404a

But since the whole business [phortikon] of Rhetoric is to influence opinion,
        we must pay attention to it,
                not as being right, but necessary;
        for, as a matter of right, one should aim at nothing more in a speech
        than how to avoid exciting pain or pleasure.
For justice should consist in fighting the case with the facts alone,
        so that everything else that is beside demonstration is superfluous;
[9] And as the poets, although their utterances were devoid of sense,
       appeared to have gained their reputation through their style,
It was a poetical style that first came into being, as that of Gorgias.
        Even now the majority of the uneducated
        think that such persons express themselves most beautifully,
        whereas this is not the case,
for the style of prose is not the same as that of poetry. And the result proves

Performing the Book: The Recital of Epic in First-Century C.E. Rome

Donka D. Markus

Tragedy is associated with the stage, lyric with the convivium, but except for the early carmina in epulis cantitata mentioned by Cicero (Brutus 75--76), there is no event in Rome designated for the performance of epic similar to the festivals and the rhapsodic culture in Greece.

11 Hence, I argue first that the representation of the epic recital is highly dependent upon the representation of other public performances and, second, that epic's social image is attacked and reclaimed via its public performance.

In fact, behind the criticisms of the epic recital often lie issues about the performance of gender and social status.

In that regard, epic's position is parallel to that of rhetoric. Beginning with Aristotle's Rhetorica (1404a), critics of rhetorical performance have ascribed to lively delivery the same effect as that of acting. There is a persistent association between theatrics, bad rhetoric and effeminacy.

hupo-kri^tikos    Actors Art. acting a part, pretending to,hu. tou beltionosLuc.Alex.4,


And they shall make a spoil of thy riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise: and they shall break down thy walls, and destroy thy pleasant houses: and they shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the midst of the water. Ezek 26:12

And I will cause the noise of thy songs to cease; and the sound of thy harps shall be no more heard. Ezek 26:13

quiescere both male and female in 1 Timothy 2.

And I will make thee like the top of a rock: thou shalt be a place to spread nets uponthou shalt be built no more: for I the Lord have spoken it, saith the Lord God. Ezek 26:14

Thus saith the Lord God to Tyrus; Shall not the isles shake at the sound of thy fall,  when the wounded cry, when the slaughter is made in the midst of thee? Ezek 26:15

Then all the princes of the sea shall come down from their thrones, they shall clothe themselves with trembling; they shall sit upon the ground,  and shall tremble at every moment, and be astonished at thee. Ezek 26:16
Ezek. 33:30 Also, thou son of man, the children of thy people still are talking against thee by the walls and in the doors of the houses, and speak one to another, every one to his brother, saying, Come, I pray you, and hear what is the word that cometh forth from the Lord.

Ezek. 33:31 And they come unto thee AS the people cometh,
      and they sit before thee
AS my people,
      and they hear thy WORDS,
           but they will not do them:
for with their MOUTH they shew much love,
          BUT their heart goeth after their covetousness.


Ezek. 33:32 And, lo, THOU art UNTO them
         as a very lovely SONG
         of one that hath a pleasant VOICE,
         and can PLAY WELL on an INSTRUMENT:
                 for they hear thy words,
                 but they do them not.
Ezek. 33:33 And when this cometh to pass, (lo, it will come,) then shall they know that a PROPHET hath been among them.
Deut. 18:15 The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a PROPHET from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;
Deut. 18:16 According to all that thou desiredst of the Lord thy God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not hear again the voice of the Lord my God, neither let me see this great fire any more, that I die not.
Deut. 18:17 And the Lord said unto me, They have well spoken that which they have spoken.
Deut. 18:18 I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him.
Deut. 18:19 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my WORDS which he shall SPEAK in my name, I will require it of him.
Deut. 18:20 But the
PROPHET, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, even that PROPHET shall die.
Deut. 18:21 And if thou say in thine heart, How shall we know the word which the Lord hath not spoken?

Acts 3:20 And he shall send Jesus Christ, which BEFORE was preached unto you:
Acts 3:21 Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hat
Acts 3:22 For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A PROPHET shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you.
Acts 3:23 And it shall come to pass, that every soul, which will not hear that prophet, shall be destroyed from among the people.
Acts 3:24 Yea, and all the prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days.
Acts 3:25 Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed.
Acts 3:26 Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities

Scripture teaches SPEAK or READ the Word because the Imagination of Man is only EVIL CONTINUALLY says God
In Isaiah 4 Paul outlawed preachers as the House of God is the LAOS opposite of Priests or Levites. He rejects the Cunning Craftsmen or Sophists meaning speakers, singers or instrument players.  Fleecing widows and honest workers to make MERCHANDISE is the Lucifer Principle.
First assault from Scripture and REAL ORIGINAL historic scholars.

Review Young and Strickland:
Young and Strickland analyze the four largest discourses of Jesus in Mark
in the context of Greco-Roman rhetoric in an attempt to HEAR them as a first-century audience WOULD
have HEARD them.

Mark says that God speaks in PARABLES to prevent the rhetoricians, singers and instrument players from READING BLACK text on BROWN paper (2 Corinthians 3)

Their analysis UNCOVERS
        how the discourses are CONSTRUCTED;
        what ISSUES each discourse seeks to treat; how the

                ARRANGEMENT, and
                STYLE of each discourse
  to its overall purpose;
              and how the
              DISCOURSE fits into the overall narrative context of THE GOSPEL
The authors demonstrate that,
        contrary to what some historical critics have suggested,
        first-century audiences of Mark would have found
                The discourses of Jesus unified, well-integrated, and PERSUASIVE
They also show how these SPEECHES of the Markan Jesus
        CONTRIBUTE to Mark’s overall narrative ACCOMPLISHMENTS
JESUS AND MARK SAID THAT PARABLES ARE TO HID THE TRUTH.  The wise from whom  Orator-Rhetorician:

JESUS AND MARK SAID THAT PARABLES ARE TO HIDE THE TRUTH.  The wise from whom God HIDES were-are SOPHISTS speakers, singers, instrument players especially those who SOLD the free water of the Word

Jesus defined Holy Scripture as the Prophets and other prophecies concerning ME.

The Exodus mixed crowd rose up to PLAN in Instrumental, Trinitarian and Perverted Idolatry. God turned them over to worship the starry host.  Apollon or Apollyon was well established in Egypt devoted to the Black religion.  He Apollon was worshipped in the SERVICE ordained for the Jacob-Cursed and God Abandoned Levites..
God spoke to the SPIRITUAL people who were not OF the World by the singular PATTERN of teaching the LAW to make life save and the PROPHETS in the Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness.

The Jews would be blind and deaf until they turned to Jesus (2 Corinthians3) by being baptized.

Prophesying of another PROPHET Moses wrote.  The ABOMINATION includes any human effort to ENHANCE God's Word beyond the sacred pages.

Deut. 18:10 There shall not be found among you any one that
        maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire,
        or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch,

hărĭŏlus  soothsayer, prophet, prophetess khord-ē  ESPECIALLY string of a lyre or harp g hat which is made from guts: b. musical note, Pl.Phlb.56a.
haruspices Mitte omnes: quae futura et quae facta,[
Plaut. Am. 5, 2,
  conjectores laut. Am. 5, 2, 2
Phaedr. 3, 3, 6
HH 4 51 Then he cut off its limbs and scooped out the marrow of the mountain-tortoise with a scoop of grey iron. As a swift thought darts through the heart of a man when thronging cares haunt him, [45] or as bright glances flash from the eye, so glorious Hermes planned both thought and deed at once. He cut stalks of reed to measure and fixed them, fastening their ends across the back and through the shell of the tortoise, and then stretched ox hide all over it by his skill. [50] Also he put in the horns and fitted a cross-piece upon the two of them, and stretched seven strings of sheep-gut. But when he had made it he proved each string in turn with the key, as he held the lovely thing. [55] At the touch of his hand it sounded marvelously; and, as he tried it, the god sang sweet random snatches, even as youths bandy taunts at festivals

Miriam and the Levites "Prophesied" with musical instruments: that is translated as Soothsaying or Sorcery.
eloquar II. In partic., to speak in an ORATORICAL or ELOQUENT manner (only absol.): et Graece ab eloquendo rhētōr et Latine eloquens dictus: “composite, ornate, copiose eloqui,
conjector , ōris, m. conicio, I. B. 1.,
I.he who interprets, explains, or divines something, an interpreter.
I. In gen.:conjectore Oedipo [Orator-Rhetorician:]orationi opus est,Plaut. Poen. 1, 3, 34.—
ōrātĭo   2. Speech, language, utterance; OPPOSITE to FACT, sermone    (fabulae) tenui oratione et scripturā levi,Ter. Phorm. prol. 5:
II. In partic., formal language, artificial discourse, set speech 
B. A set speech, harangue, discourse, oration:
mollĭo B. To soften, render effeminate or unmanly: “legionem,Cic. Phil. 12, 3, 8: “animos,id. Tusc. 2, 11, 27: vocem, to make soft or womanish, Quint. 11, 3, 24
somnĭo , to dream; to dream of or see in a dream, to dream, i. e. to think idly or vainly, to talk foolishly:
psaltrĭapsaltria, . a female player on the cithara, a lutist,ineptias,Col. 1, 8, 2: “ah stulte! tu de Psaltriā me somnias Agere,Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 6; Plaut. Pers. 2, 3, 5.—Absol.: “vigilans somniatportenta non
[Orator-Rhetorician:] disserentium philosophorum sed somniantium,Cic. N. D. 1, 8, 18.
Deut. 18:11 Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer [Miriam and the Levites "prophesying" were called soothsayers-sorcerers=

A Charmer is an Abomination
incantātor , ōris, m. incanto, I. an enchanter, wizard (post-class.), Tert. Idol. 9; Isid. 8, 9, 15; Mos. et Rom. Leg. Coll. 15, 1, 2. pythones
Pȳtho   Pythian, Delphic, Apollonian: Delphis prognatus Pythius Apollo the priestess who uttered the responses of the Delphic Apollo, the Pythoness, Pythia celebrated games with qui Pythia cantat Tibicen,
Antiquity set Apollo as their leader, Apollon Mousagetēs ("Apollo Muse-leader").[9] Not only are the Muses explicitly used in modern English to refer to an artistic inspiration, as when one cites one's own artistic muse, but they also are implicit in words and phrases such as "amuse", "museum" (Latinised from mouseion—a place where the muses were worshipped), "music", and "musing upon".[10]

Is. 19:3 And the spirit of Egypt shall fail in the midst thereof; and I will destroy the counsel thereof: and they shall seek to the idols, and to the charmers, and to them that have familiar spirits, and to the wizards.
pythones   hărĭŏlus

dīvīnus  — most worthy of a deity, Cic. Leg. 2, 18: re divina facta, i. e., religious exercise, divine worship, sacrifice, [defines a lying wonder] Subst.: dīvīnus , of poets: “vates,Hor. A. P. 400; cf.: “divini pectoris carmina,Lucr. 1, 731.—i, m., a soothsayer, prophet = vates, Cic. Div. 1, 58; 2, 3; id. Fat. 8; Liv. 1, 36; Hor. S. 1, 6, 114; Vulg. Deut. 18, 11 al.—In the fem.: dīvīna , ae, a prophetess, Petr. 7, 2.—
carmen, I.a tune, song; poem, verse; an oracular response, a prophecy; a form of incantation (cf.: cano, cantus, and canto).
I. In gen., a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumental
and instrumental (mostly poet.; in prose, instead of it, cantus; cf. “also versus, numeri, modi): carmen tuba ista peregit ( = sonus),Enn. Ann. 508 Vahl.: “carmine vocali clarus citharāque Philammon,Ov. M. 11, 317; cf. “vocum,id. ib. 12, 157: “per me (sc. Apollinem) concordant carmina nervis,
Plin. 28, 2, 3, § 10: carmina vel caelo possunt deducere LUNAM; “Carminibus Circe socios mutavit Ulixi,” [CHURCH or the holy harlot of John's Revelation.

conjector , ōris, m. conicio, I. B. 1., I.he who interprets, explains, or divines something, an interpreter.
I. [Orator-Rhetorician:]In gen.: “conjectore Oedipo orationi opus est,Plaut. Poen. 1, 3, 34.—
II. In partic., a diviner, interpreter of dreams, a seer, soothsaye

Deut. 18:12 For all that do these things are an ABOMINATION unto the Lord:
        and because of these abominations the Lord thy God doth drive them out from before thee.

Deut. 18:15 The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a PROPHET from the midst of thee,
        of THY BRETHREN
        like unto me;
        unto him ye shall hearken;
Deut. 18:18 I will raise them up a
PROPHET from among their brethren, like unto thee,
        and will put my WORDS in his mouth; and he shall SPEAK unto them all that I shall COMMAND him.

SPIRIT is a PARABLE to blind those with no need to know: those of THE WORLD and therefore with a NONChristian World view.

Acts 3:22 For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A
        shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren,
        like unto me; him shall ye HEAR in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you.
Acts 7:37 This is that Moses, which said unto the children of Israel,
PROPHET shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear.

OF is a preposition: the Spirit OF God is not another God.  There is never a The Holy Spirit needed to mane the Father-Son communication INTELLIGIBLE


1Pet. 1:10 Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently,
        who PROPHESIED of the grace that should come unto you:
1Pet. 1:11 Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify,
        when IT testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow.
1Pet. 1:12 Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves,
        but unto us they did minister the things,
        which are now reported unto you by them that have PREACHED the gospel unto you
        with the Holy SPIRIT sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.

SPIRIT is never a god or person: To fool the Rhetoricians, Spirit is the BREATH of God which carries the "MENTAL DISPOSITION OF GOD."

John 6:63 It is the SPIRIT that quickeneth;
        the flesh profiteth nothing:  [songs or sermons]
        the WORDS that I speak unto you, they are
SPIRIT, and they are life.

1Pet. 1:23 Being born AGAIN, not of corruptible SEED, but of incorruptible, by the WORD of God, which liveth and abideth for ever.


SCRIBES RECORDED AND SOLE EYE-WITNESS ACCOUNTS OF MOST LARGE GATHERINGS: These eye-witness accounts were to MARK those who tried to describe what they never new

ANYTHING "NOISED ABOUT" AT ANY PLACE ATTRACTED SCRIBES WHO RECORDED, HAD COPIED AND SOLD WHILE THE CROWD WAS STILL A "MARKET."  The Feast of Tabernacles was one such gathering where men came to COMPETE in rhetoric, singing, dancing, playing instruments or magic.  The brother's of Jesus wanted Him to go and maybe win a prize.

Plutarch of Chaeronea held that the God of the Jews was none other than Dionysos. "First the time and character of the greatest, most sacred holiday of the Jews clearly befit Dionysos. When they celebrate their so-called Fast, at the height of the vintage, they set out tables of all sorts of fruit under tents and huts plaited for the most part of vines and ivy. They call the first of the two days Tabernacles.

A few days later they celebrate another festival, this time identified with Bacchos not through obscure hints but plainly called by his name, a festival that is a sort of 'Procession of Branches' or 'Thyrsos Procession' in which they enter the Temple each carrying a thyrsos.

What they do after entering we do not know, but it is probable that the rite is a Bacchic revelry, for in fact they use little trumpets to invoke their God as do the Argives at their Dionysia.

Others of them advance playing harps; these players are called in their language Levites, either from 'Lysios' or better, from 'Euois.'

Plut. De Pyth. 27
And this may be farther said, that  POETRY brings no other advantage to the answer than this,
        that the sentence being comprised and confined within a certain number of words and syllables
        bounded by poetic measure is more easily carried away and retained in memory.
Therefore it behooved those that formerly lived to have extraordinary memories,
        to retain the marks of places,
        the times of such and such transactions,
        the ceremonies of deities beyond the sea,
        the hidden monuments of heroes,
        hard to be found in countries far from Greece.


Luke 1:1 Forasmuch as MANY have taken in hand
        to set forth in order a declaration of those things
        which are most surely believed among us,
Luke 1:2 Even as they delivered them unto us,
        which from the beginning were EYEWITNESSES, and ministers of the WORD;
The Word or Logos is a QUALITY OF GOD; it is His Regulative Principle. It outlaws personal opinions, RHETORIC, singing or POETRY.

Luke 1:3 It seemed good to me b,
        having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first,
        to WRITE unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus,
Luke 1:4 That thou mightest KNOW the certainty of those things,
        wherein thou hast BEEN instructed.


Acts 1:1 The former TREATISE have I made, O Theophilus,
        of all that Jesus began both to do and teach,
Acts 1:2 Until the day in which he was taken up,
        after that he through the Holy SPIRIT.             [SPIRIT produces WORDS]
        had given COMMANDMENTS
        Unto the APOSTLES whom he had CHOSEN: [Disciples WILL NOT tamper with that]
Acts 1:3 To WHOM also he shewed himself alive
        after his passion by many infallible proofs,
        being seen of them forty days,
        and SPEAKING of the things pertaining to the KINGDOM of God:

Luke 24:44 And he said unto them,
        These are the WORDS which I SPAKE unto you,
        while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled,
        which were WRITTEN in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, CONCERNING ME.

John 20:30 And many other SIGNS truly did Jesus
        In the PRESENCE of his disciples, which are not written in this book:
John 20:31 But these are WRITTEN,
        that ye might believe that Jesus is the CHRIST,
        the SON OF GOD; and that believing ye might have LIFE through his name.

John also recorded Jesus to say that they BLASPHEMED when they said that He "made himself God."



2 Pet 1:12 Wherefore I will not be negligent to put you always in remembrance of these things, 
        though ye know them, and be established in the present truth.

2 Pet 1:13 Yea, I think it meet, as long as I am in this tabernacle, to stir you up by putting you in remembrance;

G5280 hupomnēsis hoop-om'-nay-sis From G5279 ; a reminding or (reflexively) recollection:—remembrance.

G5279 hupomimnēskō hoop-om-im-nace'-ko From G5259 and G3403 ; to remind quietly, that is, suggest to the (middle voice, one’s own) memory:—put in mind, remember, bring to (put in) remembrance.

Is. 8:20 To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word,
        it is because there is no light in them.

John 8:44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

Hos. 4:1 Hear the word of the LORD, ye children of Israel: for the LORD hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, because there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God in the land.
2Pet. 1:4 Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises:
        that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature,
        having escaped the corruption [connects to musical sounds] that is in the world through lust.
2 Pet 1:15 Moreover I will endeavour that ye may be able after my decease 
        to have these things alway in remembrance.

2Pet. 1:16  For we have not followed cunningly [sophizo]  devised FABLES,


Acts 12:11 And when Peter was come to himself, he said,
        Now I know of a surety, that the Lord hath sent his angel,
        and hath delivered me out of the hand of Herod,
        and from all the expectation of the people of the Jews.
Acts 12:12 And when he had considered the thing,
        he came to the house of Mary the mother of John,
        whose surname was Mark; where many were gathered together praying.


MARK, JOHN (Μάρκος, ̓Ιωάννης). Son of Mary, cousin of Barnabas, assistant to Paul and Barnabas and traditionally the author of the second gospel.
However, judging from the fact that Peter was welcomed at the house of Mary and from information in the first epistle which bears that apostle’s name (1 Pet 5:13), one may say that Mark had a particularly close relationship with Peter, prob. dating from the early days of the church in Jerusalem. Later traditions likewise bear out a close association between Peter and Mark. The young man who fled naked from the betrayal scene in Gethsemane often is thought to have been John Mark (see Mark 14:51, 52). None of the known facts are against this suggestion and it was certainly the custom for an author not to mention his own name in his writings (cf. John 21:24).
     Mark now drops out of the account of Acts, it being wholly concerned with the further activities of Paul. The Pauline correspondence indicates that within a decade or so of the rift over Mark, the relationship between Paul and Mark had improved greatly. In Colossians 4:10 Paul includes Mark among the few of the circumcision who labored with him and provided him with some little comfort. Indeed, Mark appears to have been chosen by the great apostle to make some representation to Colossae. Paul makes further mention of Mark as his fellow worker in Philemon 24. By the time of the writing of Timothy, Mark and Timothy are together, prob. in Asia Minor, and Paul expresses his final, gratifying tribute for the young man: “he is very useful in serving me” (2 Tim 4:11).

Acts 12:23 And immediately the angel of the Lord smote him,
        because he gave not God the glory: and he was eaten of worms, and gave up the ghost.
Acts 12:24 But the WORD of God grew and multiplied.
Acts 12:25 And Barnabas and Saul returned from Jerusalem, when they had fulfilled their ministry,
        and took with them John, whose surname was Mark.

Acts 15:36 And some days after Paul said unto Barnabas,
        Let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do.
Acts 15:37 And Barnabas determined to take with them John, whose surname was Mark.
Acts 15:38 But Paul thought not good to take him with them, who departed from them from Pamphylia, and went not with them to the work.

1Pet. 5:13 The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.


Sumphonia the only time MUSIC is used in the New Testament
unison of sound,tēn en ōdē harmonian

In Ancient Greek Theatre, there is an interesting similarity among the plays written during that time: there is always a chorus included. Nowadays most people would associate a chorus with musicals, but playwrights like Aeschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles included a chorus in their regular plays. The chorus consisted of a group of 12 to 50 players who spoke or sang their lines in unison, wore masks, and functioned as one actor rather than a large group of many performers.

Hilary (A.D.. 355) says:

"In the songs of Zion, both old and young, men and women, bore a part; their psalmody was the joint act of the whole assembly in unison." Chrysostom says: "It was the ancient custom, as it is still the custom with us, for all to come together and unitedly join in singing. The young and old, rich and poor, male and female bond and free all join in the song." Jerome says: "Go where you will, the plowman at his plow sings his joyful hallelujahs, the busy mower regales himself with his psalms, and the vinedresser is singing one of the psalms of David." 

David Young says:

They also show how these SPEECHES of the Markan JESUS
        CONTRIBUTE to Mark’s overall narrative ACCOMPLISHMENTS



1. The Discourses of Jesus since Form Criticism

Form Criticism is Criticism of the SPIRIT which is a figurative or Parable word showing how God always puts His WORD directly into the MOUTH of a Moses, the Prophets and LASTLY the Man Jesus of Nazareth Who made the WORD both Visible and Audible.

Form Criticism tries to go back further than identifying sources. ... Form Critics argue that before the Gospels were written down, there was an 'oral period' where stories about Jesus and sayings (logia) attributed to him were passed around by believers

The term logia (Greek: λόγια), plural of logion (Greek: λόγιον), is used variously in ancient writings and modern scholarship in reference to communications of divine origin. In pagan contexts, the principal meaning was "oracles", while Jewish and Christian writings used logia in reference especially to "the divinely inspired Scriptures".

g3051.  logion, log´-ee-on; neuter of 3052; an utterance (of God): — oracle.
g3052. logios, log´-ee-os; from 3056; fluent, i.e. an orator: — eloquen
g3056 Logos OUTLAWS RHETORIC, personal opinions, personal experiences, singing, playing instruments or acting.

Heb. 5:12 For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again
        which be the first principles of the oracles of God;
        and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat.


1Pet. 4:11 If any man SPEAK, let him speak as the ORACLES of God;
        if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth:
        that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ,
        to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

There is no problem if MARK is the collected LECTIONS which were Read in the Synagogue and the Church each rest day. This was  ONE PIECE PATTERN. Neither Young Nor Strickland intend to just follow that practice and not try to TRASH God's Spirit by which He put the word or LOGOS into the Mouth of Jesus.


Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time
        hath in every city them that PREACH him,
        being READ in the synagogues every sabbath [REST] day.


Acts 13:27 For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their RULERS,
        because they knew him not,
        nor yet the VOICES of the prophets
        which are READ every sabbath day,
        they have fulfilled them in condemning him


Luke 4:16 And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up:
        and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day,
        and stood up for to READ.


Acts 13:15 And after the reading of the law and the prophets
        the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them,
        saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word of  for the people, say on.

g3874. p  paraklesis, par-ak´-lay-sis; from 3870; imploration, hortation, solace: — comfort, consolation, exhortation, intreaty.


After the Instrumental-Trinitarian-Perverted Idolatry at Mount Sinai Moses defined the original Babylon Mother of Harlots and Apollon the Sun God, God abandoned the cursed Civil-Military-Clergy by "giving them kings in His anger" and carrying them into captivity and death.

In Genesis 49 Jacob curses Levi and commands that the people not attend their synagogues nor enter into their Covenant.  The Church of Christ (the Rock) in the Wilderness established the pattern until SHILOH comes. The godly people gathered to hold a Holy Convocation which was a Reading of the Word PATTERN.  This pattern never changed. God put His words into the mouth of the Prophets to define Jesus and His REST both inclusively and exclusively.  This PROCESS uses Breath or Spirit as a PARABLE.

Matt. 17:4 Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here:
        if thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles;
                one for thee,
                and one for Moses,
                and one for Elias.
Matt. 17:5 While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them:
        and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said,
        This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; HEAR ye HIM.

Luke 16:29 Abraham saith unto him,
        They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.
Luke 16:30 And he said, Nay, father Abraham:
        but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent.
Luke 16:31 And he said unto him,
        If they hear not Moses and the prophets,
        neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.

Luke 24:44 And he said unto them,
        These are the WORDS which I spake unto you,
        while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled,
        which were WRITTEN  in the law of Moses, and in the prophets,
        and in the psalms, concerning me.
John 12:46 I am come a light into the world,
        that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in darkness.
John 12:47 And if any man hear MY WORDS, and believe not, I judge him not:
        for I came not to judge the WORDS, but to save the world.
John 12:48 He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not MY WORDS,
        hath one that judgeth him: the WORDS that I have SPOKEN
        the same shall judge him in the last day.


John 12:49 For I have NOT spoken of myself;
        but the Father which sent me,
        he gave me a commandment,
        what I should SAY,
        and what I should speak.
John 12:50 And I know that his commandment is life everlasting:
        whatsoever I speak therefore,
        even as the Father said unto me, so I speak.

2Pet. 1:19 We have also a more sure WORDS of PROPHECY;
        whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, (The only worship word)
                as unto a light that shineth in a dark place,
                until the day dawn,
                and the day star arise in your hearts:
2Pet. 1:20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture
        is of any private interpretation. (further expounding)
2Pet. 1:21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man:
        but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost

John 12:47 And if any man hear MY WORDS, and believe not, I judge him not:
        for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.
John 12:48 He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not MY WORDS,
        hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken,
        the same shall judge him in the last day.

Matt. 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
        All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matt. 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations,
        baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: (Jesus Christ)
Matt. 28:20 Teaching them to observe
        all things whatsoever I have commanded you:

         and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

2. The Discourses of Jesus as Rhetoric




Aristotle's Rhetorica (1404a), In that regard, epic's position is parallel to that of RHETORIC. Beginning with Aristotle's Rhetorica (1404a),
        critics of rhetorical performance have ascribed to lively delivery the same effect as that of acting.
        There is a persistent association between theatrics, bad RHETOIC and EFFEMINANCY

Rhetoric was forever at pains to disentangle itself from unwanted associations
        with female deception and histrionic art,
        because it was viewed as the art of socially weak women and slaves,
        and rhetoricians
of all ages have assiduously
        fought against any trace of bodily and vocal practice associated with these groups.

However, from the examples that I have just used, it is evident,
        I believe, which
art of music I consider appropriate in the training of the orator and to what extent.

Nevertheless, I think that I need to be more explicit in stating that the music
        which I prescribe is not the modern music which
        has been emasculated by the lascivious melodies [Effeminate Vibrato] of the effeminate stage
has to no small extent destroyed the amount of MANLY vigor that we still possessed.

It is both blasphemy and ignorance to think that Jesus resorted to something OF the WORLD, The Kosmos, The Ecumenical or the kingdom of Satan. EACH passage in Mark can stand on it's own and a DISCIPLE by definition will "read or speak that which is written for our learning." Because nothing of the Kingdom comes with observation meaning RELIGIOUS observations, operations which are Lying Wonders.  If you have four foods on your plate they do not have to be connected.

John 10:24 Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt?
         If thou be the CHRIST, tell us plainly.
John 10:25 Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not:
        the works that I DO IN MY FATHER'S NAME,
        they bear witness of me.

Simple Simon Zez: That proves that Jesus whom God MADE to be Lord and Christ is NOT MY FATHER.

John 10:26 But ye believe not, because ye are NOT of my sheep, as I said unto you.
John 10:27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
John 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life;
and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.

IF YOU READ: John wrote decades later to correct the Greek and Synagogue of Satan heresies.

John 10:25 Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not:
        the works that I DO IN MY FATHER'S NAME,
        they bear witness of ME.
        is GREATER than all; and no man is able to pluck them

John 10:33 The Jews answered him, saying,
        For a good work we stone thee not;
        but for BLASPHEMY;
        and because that thou, being a MAN MAKEST THYSELF GOD
John 10:36 Say ye of HIM,
        whom the Father hath SANCTIFIED,
        and SENT into the world,
        Thou BLASPHEMEST ; because I said, I AM THE SON OF GOD?
John 10:37 If I do not the works of MY Father, believe me not.

        is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of MY FATHERS HAND


Jude 3  Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation,
        it was needful for me to write unto you,
        and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith [The Word, Logos or Regulative Principle]
        which was once delivered unto the saints.
Jude 4 For there are certain men crept in unawares,
        who were before of old ordained to this condemnation,
        ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness,
        and denying the
                only Lord God, [Theos]                 |
                and                                                 these are trinitarians John called ANTICHRISTS.
                our Lord  [Kurios] Jesus Christ.    |
Jude 5 I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this,
        how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt,
        afterward destroyed them that believed not.  [They engaged in instrumental-trinitarian-perverted idolatry Romans 1
Jude 6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation,
        he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness
        unto the judgment of the great day.
Jude 7 Even as Sodom [JERUSALEM] and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner,
         giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh,
         are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire


3. Satan Cannot Cast Out Satan (Mark 3:22–30)


The first discourse of Jesus in Mark's Gospel of significance lengthy is found in 3:20-35. ... This study of the section, however, revealsits thorough integration: the discourse and its narrative setting would have been heard by the first-century audience as a unified[iece.

John Chrysostom Homily Musical Worship of Satan.

It is not meet that he who has the advantage of such hearing be partaker of the table of devils.

"For what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness?" (2 Cor. vi. 14.)
Thou standest listening to John, and learning the things of the Spirit by him;
and dost thou after this depart to listen to harlots speaking vile things, and acting viler, and to effeminates cuffing one another? How wilt thou be able to be fairly cleansed, if thou wallowest in such mire? Why need I reckon in detail all the indecency that is there?

All there is laughter, all is shame, all disgrace, revilings and mockings, all abandonment, all destruction, See, I forewarn and charge you all. Let none of those who enjoy the blessings of this table destroy his own soul by those pernicious spectacles. All that is said and done there is a pageant of Satan.

But ye who have been initiated know what manner of covenants ye made with us, or rather ye made with Christ when He guided you into His mysteries, what ye spoke to Him, what speech ye had with Himconcerning Satan's pageant; how with Satan and his angels ye renounced this also, and promised that you would not so much as cast a glance that way.

There is then no slight ground for fear, lest, by becoming careless of such promises, one should render himself unworthy of these mysteries.

[7.] Seest thou not how in king's palaces it is not those who have offended, but those who have been honorably distinguished, that are called to share especial favor, and are numbered among the king's friends.

A messenger has come to us from heaven, sent by God Himself, to speak with us on certain necessary matters, and you leave hearing His will, and the message He sends to you,and sit listening to stage-players. What thunderings, what bolts from heaven, does not this conduct deserve!
For as it is not meet to partake of the table of devils, so neither is it of the listening to devils;

Now will he appear before us,

not acting a part, (for with him there is nothing counterfeit, nor fiction, nor fable,) but with unmasked head he proclaims to us the truth unmasked (Note: without hypocrisy);

not making the audience believe him other than he is by carriage, by look, by voice,
needing for the delivery of his message no instruments of music, as harp, lyre, or any other the like,
for he effects all with his tongue, uttering a voice which is sweeter and more profitable than that of any harper or any music.

Mark 3:19 And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him: and they went into an house.
Mark 3:20 And the MULTITUDE cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread.
Mark 3:21 And when his friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside himself.

Mark 3:22 And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said,
        He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils.
Mark 3:23 And he called them unto him,
        and said unto them in PARABLES, How can Satan cast out Satan?
Mark 3:24 And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand.
Mark 3:25 And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand.
Mark 3:26 And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end.
Mark 3:27 No man can enter into a strong man’s house, and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house.
Mark 3:28 Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men,
        and BLASPHEMES wherewith soever they shall BLASPHEME:
Mark 3:29 But he that shall BLASPHEME against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation:
Mark 3:30 Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit.

ohn 3:31 He that cometh from above is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all.
John 3:32 And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth; and no man receiveth his testimony.
John 3:33 He that hath received his testimony hath set to his seal that God is true.
John 3:34 For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.
John 3:35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.
John 3:36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.

John 10

4. Whoever Has Ears Had Better Listen! (Mark 4:1–34)

RHETORIC intends to use personal persona, movement, and usually deception to "infiltrate and steal the church house of widows."parables to HIDE to anyone who corrupted the Word by selling their own songs and sermons.


Mark 4:1 And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there
        as gathered unto him a great
MULTITUDE, so that he entered into a ship,
         and sat in the sea; and the whole MULTITUDE was by the sea on the land.

MISSED VERSE ONE: Mark 4:2 And he taught them many things by PARABLES, and said unto them in his doctrine,

Matthew 13:34 All these things spake Jesus unto the MULTITUDES in parables;
         and without a parable spake he NOT unto them:

Matthew 13:35 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet,
        saying, I will open my mouth in parables;
        I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.
Psa. 78:2 I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old:
Psa. 78:3 Which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us.
Psa. 78:4 We will not hide them from their children, shewing to the generation to come the praises of the Lord, and his strength, and his wonderful works that he hath done.
Psa. 78:5 For he established a testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which he commanded our fathers, that they should make them known to their children:
Psa. 78:6 That the generation to come might know them, even the children which should be born; who should arise and declare them to their children:

Prov. 26:7 The legs of the lame are not equal: so is a parable in the mouth of fools.
Matthew 13:36 Then Jesus sent the MULTITUDE away,
        and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, asaying,
        Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field.
Matthew 13:37 He answered and said unto them,
        He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man;
Matthew 13:38 The field is the world;
        the good SEED are the children of the kingdom;
        but the TARES are the CHILDREN of the WICKED ONE
Matthew 13:39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil;
        the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels.

SOWED: speirō  2. engender, beget offspring (cf. 11.2), S.Aj.1293, Tr.33, E.Ion 49, etc.; hoi speirantes the parents, spermata

Matthew 13:40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world.

Luke 10:21 In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee,
        O Father, Lord of heaven and earth,
        that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent,
        and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight.

God HIDES g613. apokrupto, ap-ok-roop´-to; from 575 and 2928; to conceal away (i.e. fully); figuratively, to keep secret: — hide.
From the Wise:

Sophis-tēs , ou, ho, A. master of one's craft, adept, expert, of diviners, Hdt.2.49; of poets, “meletan sophistais prosbalonPi.I.5(4).28, cf. Cratin.2; of musicians,
of poets, “meletan sophistais prosbalonPi.I.5(4).28,
of musicians, “sophistēs . . parapaiōn khelun
with modal words added, “hoi s. tōn hierōn melōn
        rhētores, Professors of Rhetoric, and prose writers of the Empire, such as Philostratus and Libanius, Suid.; Apollōnidē sophistē
        A.public speaker, “muthōn rhētores

Melos sp. musical member, phrase: hence, song, strain
2. music to which a song is set, tune, Arist.Po.1450a14; opposite rhuthmos, metron, Pl.Grg. 502c; opp. rhuthmos, rhēma, Id.Lg.656c;
melody of an instrument, “phormigx d' au phtheggoith' hieron m. ēde kai aulos
3. later of the rhētores, Professors of Rhetoric, and prose writers of the Empire

PARABLE: NOT RHETORIC A preacher or kerusso is a HERALD who GOES into all of the world.  He is not the judge.  Seed which falls into the heart of the LITTLE FLOCK it will take rood and grown.

Mark 4:3 Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow:
Mark 4:4 And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up.
Mark 4:5 And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:
Mark 4:6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away.
Mark 4:7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.
Mark 4:8 And other fell on good ground,   g2570 good (literally or morally), i.e. valuable or virtuous
        and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.

Mark 4:9 And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
        he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.


Mark 4:10 And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the PARABLE.
Mark 4:11 And he said unto them,
        Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God:
        but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:
Mark 4:12 That seeing they may see, and not perceive;
        and hearing they may hear, and not understand;
        lest at any time they should be converted,  [aptized]
        and their sins should be forgiven them.      [given A holy spirit]
Mark 4:13 And he said unto them, Know ye not PARABLE? and how then will ye know all parables?
Mark 4:14 The sower soweth the WORD.

Luke 8:11 Now the parable is this: The SEED is the word of God.

Mark 4:15 And these are they by the way side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard,
        Satan cometh immediately,
        and taketh away the WORD that was sown in their hearts.


Mark 4:16 And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground;
        who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness;
Mark 4:17 And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward,
        when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word’s sake, immediately they are offended.
Mark 4:18 And these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,
Mark 4:19 And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches,
        and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.

Mark 4:20 And these are they which are sown on good ground;
        such as HEAR the WORD, and RECEIVE it, and bring forth fruit, some thirtyfold, some sixty, and some an hundred.
Mark 4:21 ¶ And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick?
Mark 4:22 For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad.
Mark 4:23 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.
Mark 4:24 And he said unto them,
        Take heed what ye hear: with what measure ye mete,
        it shall be measured to you:
        and unto you that hear shall more be given.
Mark 4:25 For he that hath, to him shall be given:
        and he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he hath.

Mark 4:26 And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground;
Mark 4:27 And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how.
Mark 4:28 For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear.
Mark 4:29 But when the fruit is brought forth, i
        mmediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come.

Mark 4:30 And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it?
Mark 4:31 It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sown in the earth,
        is less than all the seeds that be in the earth:
Mark 4:32 But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs,
        and shooteth out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it.
Mark 4:33 And with many such PARABLE spake he the WORD unto them, as they were ABLE to hear it.
Mark 4:34 But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples.

5. What Defiles a Person? (Mark 6:53–7:23)

Mark 6:9 But be shod with sandals; and not put on two coats.
Mark 6:10 And he said unto them, In what place soever ye enter into an house, there abide till ye depart from that place.
Mark 6:11 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony against them. Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that city.
Mark 6:12 And they went out, and preached that men should repent.

Mark 6:51 And he went up unto them into the ship; and the wind ceased: and they were sore amazed in themselves beyond measure, and wondered.
Mark 6:52 For they considered not the miracle of the loaves: for their heart was hardened.
Mark 6:53 And when they had passed over, they came into the land of Gennesaret, and drew to the shore.
Mark 6:54 And when they were come out of the ship, straightway they knew him,
Mark 6:55 And ran through that whole region round about, and began to carry about in beds those that were sick, where they heard he was.
Mark 6:56 And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole.

Mark 7:1 Then came together unto him the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, which came from Jerusalem.
Mark 7:2 And when they saw some of his disciples eat bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashen, hands, they found fault.
Mark 7:3 For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders.
Mark 7:4 And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, brasen vessels, and of tables.
Mark 7:5 Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?
Mark 7:6 He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.
Mark 7:7 Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.
Mark 7:8 For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do.
Mark 7:9 And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition.
Mark 7:10 For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, Whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death:
Mark 7:11 But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free.
Mark 7:12 And ye suffer him no more to do ought for his father or his mother;
Mark 7:13 Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye.
Mark 7:14 And when he had called all the people unto him, he said unto them, Hearken unto me every one of you, and understand:
Mark 7:15 There is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him: but the things which come out of him, those are they that defile the man.
Mark 7:16 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.
Mark 7:17 And when he was entered into the house from the people, his disciples asked him concerning the parable.
Mark 7:18 And he saith unto them, Are ye so without understanding also? Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without entereth into the man, it cannot defile him;
Mark 7:19 Because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all meats?
Mark 7:20 And he said, That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man.
Mark 7:21 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders,
Mark 7:22 Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness:
Mark 7:23 All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.
Mark 7:24 ¶ And from thence he arose, and went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and entered into an house, and would have no man know it: but he could not be hid.

6. The Marvel of the Coming Son of Man (Mark 11:27–13:37)

Mark 11:1 And when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage and Bethany,
        at the mount of Olives, he sendeth forth two of his disciples,
Mark 11:2 And saith unto them, Go your way into the village over against you:
         and as soon as ye be entered into it, ye shall find a colt tied,
         whereon never man sat; loose him, and bring him.
Mark 11:3 And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this? say ye that the Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send him hither.
Mark 11:4 And they went their way, and found the colt tied by the door without in a place where two ways met; and they loose him.

Mark 11:5 And certain of them that stood there said unto them, What do ye, loosing the colt?
Mark 11:6 And they said unto them even as Jesus had commanded: and they let them go.
Mark 11:7 And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him; and he sat upon him.
Mark 11:8 And many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down branches off the trees, and strawed them in the way.
Mark 11:9 And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord:
Mark 11:10 Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest.
Mark 11:11 And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the temple: and when he had looked round about upon all things, and now the eventide was come, he went out unto Bethany with the twelve.

Gen. 49:5  Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.
Gen. 49:6 O my soul, come not thou into their secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.
Gen. 49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath
Gen. 49:8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father’s children shall bow down before thee.
Gen. 49:9 Judah is a lion’s whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?
Gen. 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.
Gen. 49:11 Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes:
Gen. 49:12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.

Mark 11:27 ¶ And they come again to Jerusalem: and as he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders,
Mark 11:28 And say unto him, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority to do these things?
Mark 11:29 And Jesus answered and said unto them, I will also ask of you one question, and answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things.
Mark 11:30 The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? answer me.
Mark 11:31 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did ye not believe him?
Mark 11:32 But if we shall say, Of men; they feared the people: for all men counted John, that he was a prophet indeed.
Mark 11:33 And they answered and said unto Jesus, We cannot tell. And Jesus answering saith unto them, Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things.
Mark 12:1 ¶ And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.
Mark 12:2 And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard.
Mark 12:3 And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.
Mark 12:4 And again he sent unto them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled.
Mark 12:5 And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some.
Mark 12:6 Having yet therefore one son, his wellbeloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son.
Mark 12:7 But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours.
Mark 12:8 And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.
Mark 12:9 What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? he will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others.
Mark 12:10 And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner:
Mark 12:11 This was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?
Mark 12:12 And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.
Mark 12:13 ¶ And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words.
Mark 12:14 And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not?
Mark 12:15 Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it.
Mark 12:16 And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Caesar’s.
Mark 12:17 And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s. And they marvelled at him.
Mark 12:18 ¶ Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying,
Mark 12:19 Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man’s brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
Mark 12:20 Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed.
Mark 12:21 And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise.
Mark 12:22 And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the woman died also.
Mark 12:23 In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife.
Mark 12:24 And Jesus answering said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God?
Mark 12:25 For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven.
Mark 12:26 And as touching the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?
Mark 12:27 He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err.
Mark 12:28 ¶ And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all?
Mark 12:29 And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:
Mark 12:30 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.
Mark 12:31 And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.
Mark 12:32 And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he:
Mark 12:33 And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.
Mark 12:34 And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question.
Mark 12:35 ¶ And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the Son of David?
Mark 12:36 For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
Mark 12:37 David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly.
Mark 12:38 And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and love salutations in the marketplaces,
Mark 12:39 And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts:
Mark 12:40 Which devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayers: these shall receive greater damnation.
Mark 12:41 ¶ And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury: and many that were rich cast in much.
Mark 12:42 And there came a certain poor widow, and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing.
Mark 12:43 And he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury:
Mark 12:44 For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living.
Mark 13:1 ¶ And as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones and what buildings are here!
Mark 13:2 And Jesus answering said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
Mark 13:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately,
Mark 13:4 Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled?
Mark 13:5 ¶ And Jesus answering them began to say, Take heed lest any man deceive you:
Mark 13:6 For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.
Mark 13:7 And when ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, be ye not troubled: for such things must needs be; but the end shall not be yet.
Mark 13:8 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be earthquakes in divers places, and there shall be famines and troubles: these are the beginnings of sorrows.
Mark 13:9 But take heed to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye shall be beaten: and ye shall be brought before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them.
Mark 13:10 And the gospel must first be published among all nations.
Mark 13:11 But when they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye: for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost.
Mark 13:12 Now the brother shall betray the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall cause them to be put to death.
Mark 13:13 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake: but he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.
Mark 13:14 ¶ But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:
Mark 13:15 And let him that is on the housetop not go down into the house, neither enter therein, to take any thing out of his house:
Mark 13:16 And let him that is in the field not turn back again for to take up his garment.
Mark 13:17 But woe to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!
Mark 13:18 And pray ye that your flight be not in the winter.
Mark 13:19 For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be.
Mark 13:20 And except that the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom he hath chosen, he hath shortened the days.
Mark 13:21 And then if any man shall say to you, Lo, here is Christ; or, lo, he is there; believe him not:
Mark 13:22 For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall shew signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect.
Mark 13:23 But take ye heed: behold, I have foretold you all things.
Mark 13:24 ¶ But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light,
Mark 13:25 And the stars of heaven shall fall, and the powers that are in heaven shall be shaken.
Mark 13:26 And then shall they see the Son of man coming in the clouds with great power and glory.
Mark 13:27 And then shall he send his angels, and shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from the uttermost part of the earth to the uttermost part of heaven.

xix. The application of OUR rhetorical methdology will show how first-century audience would have heard the discourse, and what theyy would have understood them to be about." ...From the outset of the Gospel of Mark, the narrator wants thereader to recognize Jesus's skill as a public speaker.

Mark 13:28 Now learn a PARABLE of the fig tree; When her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is near:
Mark 13:29 So ye in like manner, when ye shall see these things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors.
Mark 13:30 Verily I say unto you,
         that this generation shall not pass, till all these things be done.
Mark 13:31 Heaven and earth shall pass away:
         but my WORDS  shall not pass away.
Mark 13:32 But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.
Mark 13:33 Take ye heed, watch and pray: for ye know not when the time is.
Mark 13:34 For the Son of man is as a man taking a far journey, who left his house, and gave authority to his servants, and to every man his work, and commanded the porter to watch.
Mark 13:35 Watch ye therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning:
Mark 13:36 Lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping.
Mark 13:37 And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.


Appendix: A Brief History of Greco-Roman Rhetoric

Glossary of Select Rhetorical Terms




And when He says, "Be not much with a strange woman," [Matt. xxiii. 37; Luke xiii. 34.] He admonishes us to use indeed, but not to linger and spend time with, secular culture. For what was bestowed on each generation advantageously, and at seasonable times, is a preliminary training for the word of the Lord.

"For already some men, ensnared by the charms of handmaidens, have despised their consort philosophy, and have grown old, some of them in music, some in geometry, others in grammar, the most in rhetoric." [ Philo Judaeus, On seeking Instruction, 435. See Bohn's translation, ii. 173.] "But as the encyclical branches of study contribute to philosophy, which is their mistress; so also philosophy itself co-operates for the acquisition of wisdom.

Chapter VIII.-The Sophistical Arts Useless.

But the art of sophistry, which the Greeks cultivated, is a fantastic power, which makes false opinions like true by means of words.

For it produces rhetoric in order to persuasion, and disputation for wrangling. These arts, therefore, if not conjoined with philosophy, will be injurious to every one. For Plato openly called sophistry "an evil art." And Aristotle, following him, demonstrates it to be a dishonest art, which abstracts in a specious manner the whole business of wisdom, [proof-texting]
and professes a wisdom which it has not studied.

To speak briefly, as the beginning of rhetoric is the probable, and an attempted proof 88 the process, and the end persuasion, so the beginning of disputation is what is matter of opinion, and the process a contest, and the end victory.

For in the same manner, also, the beginning of sophistry is the apparent, and the process twofold; one of rhetoric, continuous and exhaustive; and the other of logic, and is interrogatory.

And its end is admiration.

The dialectic in vogue in the schools, on the other hand, is the exercise of a philosopher in matters of opinion, for the sake of the faculty of disputation.

        But truth is not in these at all.

With reason, therefore, the noble apostle, depreciating these superfluous arts occupied about words, says,

"If any man do not give heed to wholesome words, but is puffed up by a kind of teaching, knowing nothing, but doting (noseo g3552 sick, diseased) about questions and strifes of words, whereof cometh contention, envy, railings, evil surmisings, perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, destitute of the truth." 89

Note 89: 1 Tim. vi. 3-5. [He treats the sophists with Platonic scorn, but adopts St. Paul's enlarged idea of sophistry.])

You see how he is moved against them, calling their art of logic-on which, those to whom this garrulous mischievous art is dear, whether Greeks or barbarians, plume themselves-a disease (nosoj). Very beautifully, therefore, the tragic poet Euripides says in the Phoenissae,-

"But a wrongful speech Is diseased in itself, and needs skilful medicines." 90

For the saving Word 91 is called "wholesome," He being the truth; and what is wholesome (healthful) remains ever deathless.

It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life. John 6:6
And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by
bread alone, but by every word of God. Luke 4:4
But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by
every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Matt 4:4

But separation from what is healthful and divine is impiety, and a deadly malady.

These are rapacious wolves hid in sheep-skins, men-stealers, and glozing soul-seducers, secretly, but proved to be robbers; striving by fraud and force to catch us who are unsophisticated and have less power of speech. "Often a man, impeded through want of words, carries less weight

In expressing what is right, than the man of eloquence. but now in fluent mouths the weightiest truth
They disguise, so that they do not seem what they ought to seem," says the tragedy.

Such are these wranglers, whether they follow the sects, or practise miserable dialectic arts. These are they that "stretch the warp and weave nothing," [Get pregnant on straw and give birth to stubble] says the Scripture; 92 prosecuting a bootless task, which the apostle has called "cunning craftiness of men whereby they lie in wait to deceive." [ Eph. iv. 14] 93 "For there are," he says, "many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers:" [Tit. i. 10.] 94

That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness whereby they lie in wait to deceive; Eph 4:14

Wherefore it was not said to all, "Ye are the salt of the earth." 95 For there are some even of the hearers of the word who are like the fishes of the sea, which, reared from their birth in brine, yet need salt to dress them for food. Accordingly I wholly approve of the tragedy, when it says:-

"O son, false words can be well spoken,
And truth may be vanquished by beauty of words.
But this is not what is most correct, but nature and what is right;
He who practises eloquence is indeed wise,
But I consider deeds always better than words."

We must not, then, aspire to please the multitude. For we do not practise what will please them,but what we know is remote from their disposition. "Let us not be desirous of vainglory," says the apostle, "provoking one another, envying one another. " 96

Thus the truth-loving Plato says, as if divinely inspired, "Since I am such as to obey nothing but the word, which, after reflection, appears to me the best." 97

Accordingly he charges those who credit opinions without intelligence and knowledge, with abandoning right and sound reason unwarrantably, and believing him who is a partner in falsehood.

For to cheat one's self of the truth is bad; but to speak the truth, and to hold as our opinions positive realities, is good.

Men are deprived of what is good unwillingly. Nevertheless they are deprived either by being deceived or beguiled, or by being compelled and not believing.

He who believes not, has already made himself a willing captive; and he who changes his persuasion is cozened, while he forgets that time imperceptibly takes away some things, and reason others.

And after an opinion has been entertained, pain and anguish, and on the other hand contentiousness and anger, compel. Above all, men are beguiled who are either bewitched by pleasure or terrified by fear. And all these are voluntary changes, but by none of these will knowledge ever be attained.

8.01.91. 90

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