Tertullian on Necessity of Baptism

A viper of the Cainite heresy makes it her first aim to destroy baptism.
b. c. 155, /160, Carthage [now in Tunisia]
d. after 220, Carthage

On Baptism.

Chapter I.-Introduction. Origin of the Treatise.

Chapter II.-The Very Simplicity of God's Means of Working, a Stumbling-Block to the Carnal Mind.

Chapter III.-Water Chosen as a Vehicle of Divine Operation and Wherefore. Its Prominence First of All in Creation.

Chapter IV.-The Primeval Hovering of the Spirit of God Over the Waters Typical of Baptism. The Universal Element of Water Thus Made a Channel of Sanctification. Resemblance Between the Outward Sign and the Inward Grace.

Chapter V.-Use Made of Water by the Heathen. Type of the Angel at the Pool of Bethsaida.27

Chapter VI.-The Angel the Forerunner of the Holy Spirit. Meaning Contained in the Baptismal Formula.

Chapter VII.-Of the Unction.

Chapter VIII.-Of the Imposition of Hands. Types of the Deluge and the Dove.

Chapter IX.-Types of the Red Sea, and the Water from the Rock.

Chapter X.-Of John's Baptism.

Chapter XI.-Answer to the Objection that "The Lord Did Not Baptize."

Chapter XII.-Of the Necessity of Baptism to Salvation.

Chapter XIII.-Another Objection: Abraham Pleased God Without Being Baptized. Answer Thereto. Old Things Must Give Place to New, and Baptism is Now a Law.

Chapter XIV.-Of Paul's Assertion, that He Had Not Been Sent to Baptize.

Chapter XV.-Unity of Baptism. Remarks on Heretical Any Jewish Baptism.

Chapter XVI.-Of the Second Baptism-With Blood.

Chapter XVII.-Of the Power of Conferring Baptism.

Chapter XVIII.-Of the Persons to Whom, and the Time When, Baptism is to Be Administered.

Chapter XIX.-Of the Times Most Suitable for Baptism.

Chapter XX.-Of Preparation For, and Conduct After, the Reception of Baptism.

Ecclesiasticus 38

1. Honor the physician with the honor due him, according1 to your need of him, for the Lord created him;
2. for healing comes from the Most High, and he will receive a gift from the king.
3. The skill of the physician lifts up his head, and in the presence of great men he is admired.
4. The Lord created medicines from the earth, and a sensible man will not despise them.
5. Was not water made sweet with a tree in order that his power might be known?
6. And he gave skill to men that he might be glorified in his marvelous works.
7. By them he heals and takes away pain;

The Book of Jubilees, Chapter One reads:

And the Lord said unto Moses: 'I know their contrariness and their thoughts and their stiffneckedness, and they will not be obedient till they confess

23 their own sin and the sin of their fathers. And after this they will turn to Me in all uprightness and with all (their) heart and with all (their) soul,
........and I will circumcise the foreskin of their heart and the foreskin of the heart of their seed,
........and I will create in them a holy spirit,
........and I will cleanse them so that they shall not turn away from Me from that day unto eternity.

24 And their souls will cleave to Me and to all My commandments, and they will fulfil My
25 commandments, and I
will be their Father and they shall be My children.

And they all shall be called children of the living God, and every angel and every spirit shall know, yea, they shall know that these are My children, and that I am their Father in uprightness and righteousness, and that

26 I love them. And do thou write down for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee on this mountain, the first and the last, which shall come to pass in all the divisions of the days in the law and in the testimony and in the weeks and the jubilees unto eternity, until I descend and dwell

27 with them throughout eternity.'

Jesus said that without being born AGAIN of Water and Spirit or Water and the Word you CANNOT, SHALL NOT enter into His kingdom or rule which is the Ekklesia or Christian synagogue or school of the Bible. The seven "spirits" of Isaiah 11:1-4 which would rest on the BRANCH are all related to forms of spiritual knowledge. Jesus said "My Words are Spirit and Life." Therefore, you might join a venue for Rock and Roll peddled as "worship" but Jesus Christ WILL NOT be your free-of-charge Teacher until He washes your spirit or mind. Only then do you have access to the seven spirits represented by the Menorah or Candlestick which gave LIGHT to the Holy Place along with the table of bread and the incense altar. Each Christian "priest" must look into the Most Holy Place with their own prayers. Then, you can enter into the Most Holy Place to meet God. Jesus said that the ONLY new PLACE is the human spirit as it gives heed to the Spirit of Truth through the Word. Don't believe the lie that "musical teams" lead you into the presence of God: that makes them claim to be God standing in the Holy Place. Not in the vilest pagan temple could singers and musicians enter into the holy precincts on the penalty of death. Don't follow people making "Christianity" viler than paganism. If you are part of the 5 out of 13,000 congregations then you have become a laughing stock just like the musical idolatrs at Mount Sinai which forfeited and continues to forfeit the Covenant of Grace.

People who refute this have a "spirit" which intends to hurt you real bad.

On Baptism.
[Translated by the Rev. S. Thelwall.]
Only Partially Edited: Kenneth Sublett

Chapter I.-Introduction. Origin of the Treatise.

Happy is our 1 sacrament Of water, in that, by washing away the sins of our early blindness, we are set free and admitted into eternal life!

A treatise on this matter will not be superfluous; instructing not only such as are just becoming formed (in the faith),

but them who, content with having simply believed, without full examination of the grounds 2 of the traditions, carry (in mind), through ignorance, an untried though probable faith.

The consequence is, that a viper of the Cainite heresy, lately conversant in this quarter, has carried away a great number with her most venomous doctrine, making it her first aim to destroy baptism.

Chapter XXI.-The Views of Redemption Entertained by These Heretics.

1. It happens that their tradition respecting redemption is invisible and incomprehensible, as being the mother of things which are incomprehensible and invisible; and on this account, since it is fluctuating, it is impossible simply and all at once to make known its nature, for every one of them hands it down just as his own inclination prompts.

Thus there are as many schemes of "redemption" as there are teachers of these mystical opinions. And when we come to refute them, we shall show in its fitting-place,

that this class of men have been instigated by Satan to a denial of that baptism which is regeneration to God, and thus to a renunciation of the whole [Christian] faith.

They maintain that those who have attained to perfect knowledge must of necessity be regenerated into that power which is above all.

For it is otherwise impossible to find admittance within the Pleroma [spiritual realm], since this [regeneration]
it is
which leads them down into the depths of Bythus.

For the baptism instituted

by the visible Jesus was for the remission of sins,
but the redemption brought in by that
Christ who descended upon Him, was for perfection;

and they allege that the former is animal (baptism), but the latter spiritual. And the baptism of John was proclaimed with a view to repentance, but the redemption by Jesus was brought in for the sake of perfection.

See Gnosticism in Britannica Members Online

Which is quite in accordance with nature; for vipers and asps and basilisks themselves generally do affect arid and waterless places.

But we, little fishes, after the example of our Icqus 3 Jesus Christ, are born in water, nor have we safety in any other way than by permanently abiding in water;

so that most monstrous creature, who had no right to teach even sound doctrine, 4 knew full well how to kill the little fishes, by taking them away from the water!

Chapter II.-The Very Simplicity of God's Means of Working, a Stumbling-Block to the Carnal Mind.

Well, but how great is the force of perversity for so shaking the faith or entirely preventing its reception, that it impugns it on the very principles of which the faith consists!

There is absolutely nothing which makes men's minds more obdurate than the simplicity of the divine works which are visible in the act, when compared with the grandeur which is promised thereto in the effect;

so that from the very fact, that with so great simplicity, without pomp, without any considerable novelty of preparation, finally, without expense, a man is dipped in water, and amid the utterance of some few words, is sprinkled, and then rises again, not much (or not at all) the cleaner, the consequent attainment of eternity 5 is esteemed the more incredible.

I am a deceiver if, on the contrary, it is not from their circumstance, and preparation, and expense, that idols' solemnities or mysteries get their credit and authority built up.

Oh, miserable incredulity, which quite deniest to God His own properties, simplicity and power! What then? Is it not wonderful, too, that death should be washed away by bathing?

But it is the more to be believed if the wonderfulness be the reason why it is not believed. For what does it behove divine works to be in their quality, except that they be above all wonder? 6 We also ourselves wonder, but it is because we believe.

Incredulity, on the other hand, wonders, but does not believe: for the simple acts it wonders at, as if they were vain; the grand results, as if they were impossible. And grant that it be just as you think 7 sufficient to meet each point is the divine declaration which has fore-run:

"The foolish things of the world hath God elected to confound its wisdom; " 8 and, "The things very difficult with men are easy with God." 9 For if God is wise and powerful (which even they who pass Him by do not deny),

it is with good reason that He lays the material causes of His own operation in the contraries of wisdom and of power, that is, in foolishness and impossibility; since every virtue receives its cause from those things by which it is called forth.

Chapter III.-Water Chosen as a Vehicle of Divine Operation and Wherefore. Its Prominence First of All in Creation.

Mindful of this declaration as of a conclusive prescript, we nevertheless proceed to treat the question, "How foolish and impossible it is to be formed anew by water.

In what respect, pray, has this material substance merited an office of so high dignity?

"The authority, I suppose, of the liquid element has to be examined. 10 This 11 however, is found in abundance, and that from the very beginning. For water is one of those things which, before all the furnishing of the world, were quiescent with God in a yet unshapen 12 state. "In the first beginning," saith Scripture, "God made the heaven and the earth.

But the earth was invisible, and unorganized, 13 and darkness was over the abyss; and the Spirit of the Lord was hovering 14 over the waters." 15 The first thing, O man, which you have to venerate, is the age of the, waters in that their substance is ancient; the second, their dignity, in that they were the seat of the Divine Spirit, more pleasing to Him, no doubt, than all the other then existing elements.

For the darkness was total thus far, shapeless, without the ornament of stars; and the abyss gloomy; and the earth unfurnished; and the heaven unwrought:

water 16 alone-always a perfect, gladsome, simple material substance, pure in itself-supplied a worthy vehicle to God.

What of the fact that waters were in some way the regulating powers by which the disposition of the world thenceforward was constituted by God? For the suspension of the celestial firmament in the midst He caused by "dividing the waters; " 17 the suspension of "the dry land" He accomplished by "separating the waters."

After the world had been hereupon set in order through its elements, when inhabitants were given it, "the waters" were the first to receive the precept "to bring forth living creatures." 18

Water was the first to produce that which had life, that it might be no wonder in baptism if waters know how to give life. 19 For was not the work of fashioning man himself also achieved with the aid of waters?

Suitable material is found in the earth, yet not apt for the purpose unless it be moist and juicy; which (earth) "the waters," separated the fourth day before into their own place, temper with their remaining moisture to a clayey consistency. If, from that time onward, I go forward in recounting universally, or at more length, the evidences of the "authority" of this element which I can adduce to show how great is its power or its grace; how many ingenious devices, how many functions, how useful an instrumentality, it affords the world, I fear I may seem to have collected rather the praises of water than the reasons of baptism; although I should thereby teach all the more fully,

that it is not to be doubted that God has made the material substance which He has disposed throughout all His products 20 and works, obey Him also in His own peculiar sacraments; that the material substance which governs terrestrial life acts as agent likewise in the celestial.

Chapter IV.-The Primeval Hovering of the Spirit of God Over the Waters Typical of Baptism. The Universal Element of Water Thus Made a Channel of Sanctification. Resemblance Between the Outward Sign and the Inward Grace.

But it will suffice to have thus called at the outset those points in which withal is recognised that primary principle of baptism,-which was even then fore-noted by the very attitude assumed for a type of baptism,-that the Spirit of God, who hovered over (the waters) from the beginning, would continue to linger over the waters of the baptized. 21

But a holy thing, of course, hovered over a holy; or else, from that which hovered over that which was hovered over borrowed a holiness, since it is necessary that in every case an underlying material substance should catch the quality of that which overhangs it, most of all a corporeal of a spiritual, adapted (as the spiritual is) through the subtleness of its substance, both for penetrating and insinuating. Thus the nature of the waters, sanctified by the Holy One, itself conceived withal the power of sanctifying.

Let no one say, "Why then, are we, pray, baptized with the very waters which then existed in the first beginning?

"Not with those waters, of course, except in so far as the genus indeed is one, but the species very many. But what is an attribute to the genus reappears 22 likewise in the species.

And accordingly it makes no difference whether a man be washed in a sea or a pool, a stream or a fount, a lake or a trough; 23 nor is there any distinction between those whom John baptized in the Jordan and those whom Peter baptized in the Tiber, unless withal the eunuch whom Philip baptized in the midst of his journeys with chance water, derived (therefrom) more or less of salvation than others. 24

All waters, therefore, in virtue of the pristine privilege of their origin, do, after invocation of God, attain the sacramental power of sanctification;

for the Spirit immediately supervenes from the heavens, and rests over the waters, sanctifying them from Himself; and being thus sanctified, they imbibe at the same time the power of sanctifying.

Albeit the similitude may be admitted to be suitable to the simple act; that, since we are defiled by sins, as it were by dirt, we should be washed from those stains in waters.

But as sins do not show themselves in our flesh (inasmuch as no one carries on his skin the spot of idolatry, or fornication, or fraud), so persons of that kind are foul in the spirit, which is the author of the sin; for the spirit is lord, the flesh servant. Yet they each mutually share the guilt: the spirit, on the ground of command; the flesh, of subservience. Therefore, after the waters have been in a manner endued with medicinal virtue 25 through the intervention of the angel, 26 the spirit is corporeally washed in the waters, and the flesh is in the same spiritually cleansed.

Chapter V.-Use Made of Water by the Heathen. Type of the Angel at the Pool of Bethsaida. 27

"Well, but the nations, who are strangers to all understanding of spiritual powers, ascribe to their idols the imbuing of waters with the self-same efficacy."

(So they do) but they cheat themselves with waters which are widowed. 28 For washing is the channel through which they are initiated into some sacred rites-of some notorious Isis or Mithras. The gods themselves likewise they honour by washings. Moreover, by carrying water around, and sprinkling it, they everywhere expiate 29 country-seats, houses, temples, and whole cities: at all events, at the Apollinarian and Eleusinian games they are baptized; and they presume that the effect of their doing that is their regeneration and the remission of the penalties due to their perjuries.

Among the ancients, again, whoever had defiled himself with murder, was wont to go in quest of purifying waters. Therefore, if the mere nature of water, in that it is the appropriate material for washing away, leads men to flatter themselves with a belief in omens of purification, how much more truly will waters render that service through the authority of God, by whom all their nature has been constituted! If men think that water is endued with a medicinal virtue by religion, what religion is more effectual than that of the living God? Which fact being acknowledged, we recognise here also the zeal of the devil rivalling the things of God, 30 while we find him, too, practising baptism in his subjects. What similarity is there? The unclean cleanses! the ruiner sets free! the damned absolves! He will, forsooth, destroy his own work, by washing away the sins which himself inspires! These (remarks) have been set down by way of testimony against such as reject the faith; if they put no trust in the things of God, the spurious imitations of which, in the case of God's rival, they do trust in. Are there not other cases too, in which, without any sacrament, unclean spirits brood on waters, in spurious imitation of that brooding 31 of the Divine Spirit in the very beginning?

Witness all shady founts, and all unfrequented brooks, and the ponds in the baths, and the conduits 32 in private houses, or the cisterns and wells which are said to have the property of "spiriting away," 33 through the power, that is, of a hurtful spirit. Men whom waters have drowned 34 or affected with madness or with fear, they call nymph-caught, 35 or "lymphatic," or" hydro-phobic." Why have we adduced these instances? Lest any think it too hard for belief that a holy angel of God should grant his presence to waters, to temper them to man's salvation; while the evil angel holds frequent profane commerce with the selfsame element to man's ruin.

If it seems a novelty for an angel to be present in waters, an example of what was to come to pass has forerun. An angel, by his intervention, was wont to stir the pool at Bethsaida. 36 They who were complaining of ill-health used to watch for him; for whoever had been the first to descend into them, after his washing, ceased to complain.

This figure of corporeal healing sang of a spiritual healing, according to the rule by which things carnal are always antecedent 37 as figurative of things spiritual. And thus, when the grace of God advanced to higher degrees among men, 38 an accession of efficacy was granted to the waters and to the angel.

They who 39 were wont to remedy bodily defects, 40 now heal the spirit; they who used to work temporal salvation 41 now renew eternal; they who did set free but once in the year, now save peoples in a body 42 daily, death being done away through ablution of sins. The guilt being removed, of course the penalty is removed too. Thus man will be restored for God to His "likeness," who in days bygone had been conformed to "the image" of God; (the "image" is counted (to be) in his form: the "likeness" in his eternity: ) for he receives again that Spirit of God which he had then first received from His afflatus, but had afterward lost through sin.

Chapter VI.-The Angel the Forerunner of the Holy Spirit. Meaning Contained in the Baptismal Formula.

Not that in 43 the waters we obtain the Holy Spirit; but in the water, under (the witness of) the angel, we are cleansed, and prepared for the Holy Spirit. In this case also a type has preceded; for thus was John beforehand the Lord's forerunner, "preparing His ways." 44 Thus, too, does the angel, the witness 45 of baptism, "make the paths straight" 46

for the Holy Spirit, who is about to come upon us, by the washing away of sins,
........ which faith,
........ sealed in (the name of) the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, obtains.

For if "in the mouth of three witnesses every word shall stand: " 47 -while, through the benediction, we have the same (three) as witnesses of our faith whom we have as sureties 48 of our salvation too-how much more does the number of the divine names suffice for the assurance of our hope likewise!

Note 47:

One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established. Deut 19:15

But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. Matt 18:16

THIS is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established. 2 Cor 13:1

Moreover, after the pledging both of the attestation of faith and the promise 49 of salvation under "three witnesses," there is added, of necessity, mention of the Church; 50 inasmuch as, wherever there are three, (that is, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, ) there is the Church, which is a body of three. 51

Chapter VII.-Of the Unction.

After this, when we have issued from the font, 52 we are thoroughly anointed with a blessed unction,-(a practice derived) from the old discipline, wherein on entering the priesthood, men were wont to be anointed with oil from a horn, ever since Aaron was anointed by Moses. 53 Whence Aaron is called "Christ," 54 from the "chrism," which is "the unction; "which, when made spiritual, furnished an appropriate name to the Lord, because He was "anointed" with the Spirit by God the Father; as written in the Acts:

"For truly they were gathered together in this city 55 against Thy Holy Son whom Thou hast anointed." 56 Thus, too, in our case, the unction runs carnally, (i.e. on the body, ) but profits spiritually;

in the same way as the act of baptism itself too is carnal, in that we are plunged in water, but the effect spiritual, in that we are freed from sins.

And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him: Matt 3:16
........ And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Matt 3:17

For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 2 Peter 1:16

For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 2 Peter 1:17

And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. 2 Peter 1:18

We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: 2 Peter 1:19

Chapter VIII.-Of the Imposition of Hands. Types of the Deluge and the Dove.

In the next place the hand is laid on us, invoking and inviting the Holy Spirit through benediction. 57 Shall it be granted possible for human ingenuity to summon a spirit into water, and, by the application of hands from above, to animate their union into one body 58 with another spirit of so clear sound; 59 and shall it not be possible for God, in the case of His own organ, 60 to produce, by means of "holy hands," 61 a sublime spiritual modulation?

But this, as well as the former, is derived from the old sacramental rite in which Jacob blessed his grandsons, born of Joseph, Ephrem 62 and Manasses; with his hands laid on them and interchanged, and indeed so transversely slanted one over the other, that, by delineating Christ, they even portended the future benediction into Christ. 63

Then, over our cleansed and blessed bodies willingly descends from the Father that Holiest Spirit. Over the waters of baptism, recognising as it were His primeval seat, 64 He reposes: (He who) glided down on the Lord "in the shape of a dove," 65 in order that the nature of the Holy Spirit might be declared by means of the creature (the emblem) of simplicity and innocence, because even in her bodily structure the dove is without literal 66 gall.

And accordingly He says, "Be ye simple as doves." 67 Even this is not without the supporting evidence 68 of a preceding figure. For just as, after the waters of the deluge, by which the old iniquity was purged-after the baptism, so to say, of the world-a dove was the herald which announced to the earth the assuagement 69 of celestial wrath, when she had been sent her way out of the ark, and had returned with the olive-branch, a sign which even among the nations is the fore-token of peace; 70 so by the self-same law 71 of heavenly effect, to earth-that is, to our flesh 72 -as it emerges from the font, 73 after its old sins flies the dove of the Holy Spirit, bringing us the peace of God, sent out from the heavens where is the Church, the typified ark. 74

But the world returned unto sin; in which point baptism would ill be compared to the deluge. And so it is destined to fire; just as the man too is, who after baptism renews his sins: 75 so that this also ought to be accepted as a sign for our admonition.

Note 75: [II. Pet. i. 9. Heb. x. 26, 27, 29. These awful texts are too little felt by modern Christians. They are too often explained away.]

But he that lacketh these things is blind, and cannot see afar off, and hath forgotten that he was purged from his old sins. 2 Peter 1:9

Katharismos (g2512) kath-ar-is-mos'; from 2511; a washing off, i.e. (cer.) ablution, (mor.) expiation: - cleansing, / purge, purification, (-fying).

For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins, Heb 10:26

But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries. Heb 10:27

He that despised Moses law died without mercy under two or three witnesses: Heb 10:28

Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace? Heb 10:29

Chapter IX.-Types of the Red Sea, and the Water from the Rock.

How many, therefore, are the pleas 76 of nature, how many the privileges of grace, how many the solemnities of discipline, the figures, the preparations, the prayers, which have ordained the sanctity of water?

First, indeed, when the people, set unconditionally free, 77 escaped the violence of the Egyptian king by crossing over through water, it was water that extinguished 78 the king himself, with his entire forces. 79

Egypt, Babylon, Canaan, Assyria, Jerusalem and Sodom are figurative of sin. The saved were freed from sin when sin "drowned" in the Red Sea.

What figure more manifestly fulfilled in the sacrament of baptism? The nations are set free from the world 80 by means of water, to wit: and the devil, their old tyrant, they leave quite behind, overwhelmed in the water.

Again, water is restored from its defect of "bitterness" to its native grace of "sweetness" by the tree 81 of Moses.

That tree was Christ (Tree of Life, Branch, Vine), 82 restoring, to wit, of Himself, the veins of sometime envenomed and bitter nature into the all-salutary waters of baptism. This is the water which flowed continuously down for the people from the "accompanying rock; "for if Christ is "the Rock," without doubt we see baptism blest by the water in Christ.

How mighty is the grace of water, in the sight of God and His Christ, for the confirmation of baptism!

Never is Christ without water: if, that is, He is Himself baptized in water; 83
inaugurates in water the first rudimentary displays of His power, when invited to the nuptials; 84 invites the thirsty, when He makes a discourse, to His own sempiternal water; 85

approves, when teaching concerning love, 86 among works of charity, 87 the cup of water offered to a poor (child); 88 recruits His strength at a well; 89 walks over the water; 90 willingly crosses the sea; 91 ministers water to His disciples. 92 Onward even to the passion does the witness of baptism last:

while He is being surrendered to the cross,
........ water intervenes; witness Pilate's hands: 93
........ when He is wounded, forth from His side bursts water;
........ witness the soldier's lance! 94

Chapter X.-Of John's Baptism.

We have spoken, so far as our moderate ability permitted, of the generals which form the groundwork of the sanctity 95 of baptism. I will now, equally to the best of my power, proceed to the rest of its character, touching certain minor questions.

The baptism announced by John formed the subject, even at that time, of a question, proposed by the Lord Himself indeed to the Pharisees,

whether that baptism were heavenly, or truly earthly: 96 about which they were unable to give a consistent 97 answer, inasmuch as they understood not, because they believed not.

But we, with but as poor a measure of understanding as of faith, are able to determine that that baptism was divine indeed, (yet in respect of the command, not in respect of efficacy 98 too, in that we read that John was sent by the lord to perform this duty, ) 99 but human in its nature: for it conveyed nothing celestial, but it fore-ministered to things celestial; being, to wit, appointed over repentance, which is in man's power. 100

In fact, the doctors of the law and the Pharisees, who were unwilling to "believe," did not "repent" either. 101
........ But if repentance is a thing human,
........ its baptism must necessarily be of the same nature:
........ ........ else, if it had been celestial,
........ ........ it would have given both the Holy Spirit and remission of sins.

But none either pardons sins or freely grants the Spirit save God only. 102 Even the Lord Himself said that the Spirit would not descend on any other condition, but that He should first ascend to the Father. 103

What the Lord was not yet conferring, of course the servant could not furnish. Accordingly, in the Acts of the Apostles, we find that men who had "John's baptism" had not received the Holy Spirit, whom they knew not even by hearing. 104 That, then, was no celestial thing which furnished no celestial (endowments): whereas the very thing which was celestial in John-

the Spirit of prophecy-so completely failed, after the transfer of the whole Spirit to the Lord, that he presently sent to inquire whether He whom he had himself preached, 105 whom he had pointed out when coming to him, were "HE." 106

And so "the baptism of repentance" 107 was dealt with 108 as if it were a candidate for the remission and sanctification shortly about to follow in Christ: for in that John used to preach "baptism for the remission of sins," 109 the declaration was made with reference to future remission;

if it be true, (as it is, ) that repentance is antecedent, remission subsequent; and this is "preparing the way." 110

John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. Mark 1:4KJV

This messenger was John the Baptist. He lived in the wilderness and taught that all should be baptized as a public announcement of their decision to turn their backs on sin, so that God could forgive them. Mark 1:4LIV

See the Greek Word EIS showing that Baptism is in order to salvation and not because of.

But he who "prepares" does not himself "perfect," but procures for another to perfect. John himself professes that the celestial things are not his, but Christ's, by saying, "He who is from the earth speaketh concerning the earth; He who comes from the realms above is above all; " 111 and again, by saying that he "baptized in repentance only, but that One would shortly come who would baptize in the Spirit and fire; " 112 -

of course because true and stable faith is baptized with water, unto salvation;
pretended and weak faith is baptized with
fire, unto judgment.

The argument (p. 673, note 6,) is conclusive, but not clear. The disciples of John must have been baptized by him, (Luke 7:29-30) and "all the people," must have included those whom Jesus called. But, this was not Christ's baptism: See Acts 19:2, 5. Compare note 8, p. 673. And see the American Editor's "Apollos."

Chapter XI.-Answer to the Objection that "The Lord Did Not Baptize."

"But behold, "say some, "the Lord came, and baptized not; for we read, `And yet He used not to baptize, but His disciples!' " 113 As if, in truth, John had preached that He would baptize with His own hands! Of course, his words are not so to be understood, but as simply spoken after an ordinary manner; just as, for instance, we say, "The emperor set forth an edict," or, "The prefect cudgelled him."

Pray does the emperor in person set forth, or the prefect in person cudgel? One whose ministers do a thing is always said to do it. 114 So "He will baptize you" will have to be understood as standing for, "Through Him," or" Into Him," "you will be baptized." But let not (the fact) that "He Himself baptized not" trouble any. For into whom should He baptize? Into repentance? Of what use, then, do you make His forerunner? Into remission of sins, which He used to give by a word? Into Himself, whom by humility He was concealing? Into the Holy Spirit, who had not yet descended from the Father? Into the Church, which His apostles had not yet founded? And thus it was with the selfsame "baptism of John" that His disciples used to baptize, as ministers, with which John before had baptized as forerunner.

Let none think it was with some other, because no other exists, except that of Christ subsequently; which at that time, of course, could not be given by His disciples, inasmuch as the glory of the Lord had not yet been fully attained, 115 nor the efficacy of the font 116 established through the passion and the resurrection; because neither can our death see dissolution except by the Lord's passion, nor our life be restored without His resurrection.

Chapter XII.-Of the Necessity of Baptism to Salvation.

When, however, the prescript is laid down that "without baptism, salvation is attainable by none" (chiefly on the ground of that declaration of the Lord, who says, "Unless one be born of water, he hath not life" 117 ),

there arise immediately scrupulous, nay rather audacious, doubts on the part of some, "how, in accordance with that prescript, salvation is attainable by the apostles, whom-Paul excepted-we do not find baptized in the Lord?

Nay, since Paul is the only one of them who has put on the garment of Christ's baptism, 118

either the peril of all the others who lack the water of Christ is prejudged, that the prescript may be maintained,

or else the prescript is rescinded if salvation has been ordained even for the unbaptized."

I have heard-the Lord is my witness-doubts of that kind: that none may imagine me so abandoned as to ex-cogitate, unprovoked, in the licence of my pen, ideas which would inspire others with scruple.

And now, as far as I shall be able, I will reply to them who affirm "that the apostles were unbaptized." For if they had undergone the human baptism of John, and were longing for that of the Lord, then since the Lord Himself had defined baptism to be one; 119 (saying to Peter, who was desirous 120 of being thoroughly bathed,

"He who hath once bathed hath no necessity to wash a second time; " 121 which, of course, He would not have said at all to one not baptized; ) even here we have a conspicuous 122 proof against those who,

in order to destroy the sacrament of water, deprive the apostles even of John's baptism.

Note 121:

Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. John 13:9

Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all. Jn.13:10

Washed totally is:

Louo (g3068) loo'-o; a prim. verb; to bathe (the whole person; whereas 3538 means to wet a part only, and 4150 to wash, cleanse garments exclusively): - wash.

Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water. Heb.10:22

And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, Re.1:5

Wash his feet is:

Nipto (g3538) nip'-to; to cleanse (espec. the hands or the feet or the face); cer. to perform ablution: - wash. Comp. 3068.

Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all. Jn.13:10

Loutron (g3067) loo-tron'; from 3068; a bath, i.e. (fig.) baptism: - washing.

Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it; Eph 5:25

That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word Ep.5:26

Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by

> the washing of regeneration,
> > and renewing of the Holy Ghost; Tit.3:5

Baptizo (g907) bap-tid'-zo; from a der. of 911; to make whelmed (i.e. fully wet); used only (in the N.T.) of ceremonial ablution, espec. (techn.) of the ordinance of Chr. baptism: - baptist, baptize, wash.

Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ

> for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive
> > the gift of the Holy Ghost. Acts 2:38

Pluno (g4150) ploo'-no; a prol. form of an obsol. pluo, (to "flow"); to "plunge", i.e. launder clothing: - wash. Comp. 3068, 3538

And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. Re.7:14

Baptisma (g908) bap'-tis-mah; from 907; baptism (techn. or fig.): - baptism.

The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us

> (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh,
> > but the 'request for' a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ: 1 Pet 3:21

A clear conscience is the same as A holy spirit: the ability to discern the Words of Christ.

Can it seem credible that "the way of the Lord," that is, the baptism of John, had not then been "prepared" in those persons who were being destined to open the way of the Lord throughout the whole world?

The Lord Himself, though no "repentance" was due from Him, was baptized: was baptism not necessary for sinners? As for the fact, then, that "others were not baptized"-they, however, were not companions of Christ, but enemies of the faith, doctors of the law and Pharisees.

From which fact is gathered an additional suggestion, that, since the opposers of the Lord refused to be baptized, they who followed the Lord were baptized, and were not like-minded with their own rivals: especially when, if there were any one to whom they clave, the Lord had exalted John above him (by the testimony) saying," Among them who are born of women there is none greater than John the Baptist." 123

Others make the suggestion (forced enough, clearly "that the apostles then served the turn of baptism when in their little ship, were sprinkled and covered with the waves: that Peter himself also was immersed enough when he walked on the sea." 124 It is, however, as I think, one thing to be sprinkled or intercepted by the violence of the sea; another thing to be baptized in obedience to the discipline of religion. But that little ship did present a figure of the Church, in that she is disquieted "in the sea," that is, in the world, 125 "by the waves," that is, by persecutions and temptations; the Lord, through patience, sleeping as it were, until, roused in their last extremities by the prayers of the saints, He checks the world, 126 and restores tranquillity to His own.

Now, whether they were baptized in any manner whatever, or whether they continued unbathed 127 to the end-so that even that saying of the Lord touching the "one bath" 128 does, under the person of Peter, merely regard us-still, to determine concerning the salvation of the apostles is audacious enough, because on them the prerogative even of first choice, 129 and thereafter of undivided intimacy, might be able to confer the compendious grace of baptism,

seeing they (I think) followed Him who was wont to promise salvation to every believer. "Thy faith," He would say, "hath saved thee; " 130 and, "Thy sins shall be remitted thee," 131 on thy believing, of course, albeit thou be not yet baptized.

If that 132 was wanting to the apostles, I know not in the faith of what things it was, that, roused by one word of the Lord, one left the toll-booth behind for ever; 133 another deserted father and ship, and the craft by which he gained his living; 134 a third, who disdained his father's obsequies, 135 fulfilled, before he heard it, that highest precept of the Lord, "He who prefers father or mother to me, is not worthy of me." 136

Chapter XIII.-Another Objection: Abraham Pleased God Without Being Baptized. Answer Thereto. Old Things Must Give Place to New, and Baptism is Now a Law.

Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan, Matt 3:5
........ And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins. Matt 3: 6

But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers,
........ who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Matt 3: 7
........ Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance: Matt 3: 8

And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. Matt 3: 9

And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Matt 3: 10

I (man) indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear:

he (Christ or God) shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire: Matt 3:11

Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. Matt 3: 12

Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him. Matt 3: 13

But John forbade him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me? Matt 3: 14

And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffered him. Matt 3: 15

Fulfill can mean to fully preach:

Pleroo (g4137) play-ro'-o; from 4134; to make replete i.e. (lit.) to cram (a net), level up (a hollow), or (fig.) to furnish (or imbue, diffuse, influence), satisfy, execute (an office), finish (a period or task), verify (or coincide with a prediction), etc.: - accomplish, * after, (be) complete, end, expire, fill (up), fulfill, (be, make) full (come), fully preach, perfect, supply.

Righteousness is:

Dikaisosune (g1343) dik-ah-yos-oo'-nay; from 1342; equity (of character or act); spec. (Chr.) justification: - righteousness

In John's baptism:

And all the people that heard him, and the publicans, justified God, being baptized with the baptism of John. Luke 7:29

Righteousness is:

Dikaioo (g1344) dik-ah-yo'-o; from 1342; to render (i.e. show or regard as) just or innocent: - free, justify (-ier), be righteous.

To deny the RIGHTEOUSNESS of God in demanding baptism is to reject the counsel of God:

But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves, being not baptized of him. Luke 7:30

To reject is the opposite of justify: it means that we frustrate the will of God:

Atheteo (g114) ath-et-eh'-o; from a compound of 1 (as a neg. particle) and a der. of 5087; to set aside, i.e. (by impl.) to disesteem, neutralize or violate: - cast off, despise, disannul, frustrate, bring to nought, reject.

He that despised Moses law died without mercy under two or three witnesses: Heb.10:28

Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities. Ju.1:8

And Abraham is connected with baptism in the book of Galatians

And I will make thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all these countries; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; Gen 26:4

Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws. Gen 26:5

The charge of Abraham and his seed was that they were to be a blessing to the nations. However, they did not fulfill that promise and the Law was added as a curse at Mount Sinai:

Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: Gal 3:13

That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. Gal 3:14

Paul connects Christian baptism to this promise made by the Spirit of Christ:

For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. Gal 3:26
For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ. Gal 3:27

There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. Gal 3:28

And if ye be Christs, then are ye Abrahams seed, and heirs according to the promise. Gal 3:29

Here, then, those miscreants 137 provoke questions. And so they say, "Baptism is not necessary for them to whom faith is sufficient; for withal, Abraham pleased God by a sacrament of no water, but of faith."

Note 137 i.e. probably the Cainites. See c. ii.

But in all cases it is the later things which have a conclusive force, and the subsequent which prevail over the antecedent. Grant that, in days gone by, there was salvation by means of bare faith, before the passion and resurrection of the Lord.

But now that faith has been enlarged, and is become a faith which believes in His nativity, passion, and resurrection, there has been an amplification added with the sacrament, 138 viz., the sealing act of baptism; the clothing, in some sense, of the faith which before was bare, and which cannot exist now without its proper law.

For the law of baptizing has been imposed, and the formula prescribed: "Go," He saith, "teach the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." 139

The comparison with this law of that definition,

"Unless a man have been reborn of water and Spirit, he shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens," 140
........ has tied faith to the necessity of baptism.

And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. Mark 16:15

He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. Mark 16:16

Accordingly, all thereafter 141 who became believers used to be baptized. Then it was, too, 142 that Paul, when he believed, was baptized; and this is the meaning of the precept which the Lord had given him when smitten with the plague of loss of sight, saying,

"Arise, and enter Damascus; there shall be demonstrated to thee what thou oughtest to do," to wit-be baptized, which was the only thing lacking to him.

That point excepted, he bad sufficiently learnt and believed "the Nazarene" to be "the Lord, the Son of God." 143

Chapter XIV.-Of Paul's Assertion, that He Had Not Been Sent to Baptize.

But they roll back an objection from that apostle himself, in that he said, "For Christ sent me not to baptize; " 144 , as if by this argument baptism were done away!

For if so, why did he baptize Gaius, and Crispus, and the house of Stephanas? 145 However, even if Christ had not sent him to baptize, yet He had given other apostles the precept to baptize.

But these words were written to the Corinthians in regard of the circumstances of that particular time; seeing that schisms and dissensions were agitated among them, while one attributes everything to Paul, another to Apollos. 146 For which reason the "peace-making" 147 apostle, for fear he should seem to claim all gifts for himself, says that he had been sent "not to baptize, but to preach."

For preaching is the prior thing, baptizing the posterior. Therefore the preaching came first: but I think baptizing withal was lawful to him to whom preaching was.

Chapter XV.-Unity of Baptism. Remarks on Heretical And Jewish Baptism.

I know not whether any further point is mooted to bring baptism into controversy. Permit me to call to mind what I have omitted above, lest I seem to break off the train of impending thoughts in the middle.

There is to us one, and but one, baptism; as well according to the Lord's gospel 148 as according to the apostle's letters, 149 inasmuch as he says, "One God, and one baptism, and one church in the heavens." 150

But it must be admitted that the question, "What rules are to be observed with regard to heretics? "is worthy of being treated. For it is to us 151 that that assertion 152 refers. Heretics, however, have no fellowship in our discipline, whom the mere fact of their excommunication 153 testifies to be outsiders.

I am not bound to recognize in them a thing which is enjoined on me, because they and we have not the same God, nor one-that is, the same-Christ.

And therefore their baptism is not one with ours either, because it is not the same; a baptism which, since they have it not duly, doubtless they have not at all; nor is that capable of being counted which is not had. 154

Thus they cannot receive it either, because they have it not. But this point has already received a fuller discussion from us in Greek. We enter, then, the font 155 once:

once are sins washed away, because they ought never to be repeated.
But the
Jewish Israel bathes daily, 156 because he is daily being defiled: and, for fear that defilement should be practised among us also, therefore was the definition touching the one bathing 157 made.

Happy water, which once washes away; which does not mock sinners (with vain hopes); which does not, by being infected with the repetition of impurities, again defile them whom it has washed!

Chapter XVI.-Of the Second Baptism-With Blood.

We have indeed, likewise, a second font, 158 (itself withal one with the former, ) of blood, to wit; concerning which the Lord said, "I have to be baptized with a baptism," 159 when He had been baptized already. For He had come "by means of water and blood," 160 just as John has written; that He might be baptized by the water, glorified by the blood; to make us, in like manner, called by water, chosen 161 by blood.

160: This is he that came by water and blood, even Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth. 1 John 5:6

Tertullian does not quote verses 7 and 8 but above he notes;

Not that in the waters we obtain the Holy Spirit; but in the water, under (the witness of) the angel, we are cleansed, and prepared for the Holy Spirit. In this case also a type has preceded; for thus was John beforehand the Lord's forerunner, "preparing His ways." Thus, too, does the angel, the witness of baptism, "make the paths straight"

And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one. 1 John 5:8

for the Holy Spirit, who is about to come upon us, by the washing away of sins,
........ which faith, sealed in (the name of) the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, obtains.
........ ........ For if "in the mouth of three witnesses every word shall stand:"

while, through the benediction, we have the same (three) as witnesses of our faith whom we have as sureties of our salvation too-how much more does the number of the divine names suffice for the assurance of our hope likewise!

For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. 1 John 5:7

These two baptisms He sent out from the wound in His pierced side, 162 in order that they who believed in His blood might be bathed with the water; they who had been bathed in the water might likewise drink the blood. 163 This is the baptism which both stands in lieu of the fontal bathing 164 when that has not been received, and restores it when lost.

Note: 189 Tertullian has already allowed (in c. xvi) that baptism is not indispensably necessary to salvation. is seen not to be true.

Chapter XVII.-Of the Power of Conferring Baptism.

For concluding our brief subject, 165 it remains to put you in mind also of the due observance of giving and receiving baptism. Of giving it, the chief priest 166 (who is the bishop) has the right: in the next place, the presbyters and deacons, yet not without the bishop's authority, on account of the honour of the Church, which being preserved, peace is preserved.

165 Materiolam.

Beside these, even laymen have the right; for what is equally received can be equally given. Unless bishops, or priests, or deacons, be on the spot, other disciples are called i.e. to the work.

The word of the Lord ought not to be hidden by any: in like manner, too, baptism, which is equally God's property, 167 can be administered by all. But how much more is the rule 168 of reverence and modesty incumbent on laymen-seeing that these powers 169 belong to their superiors-lest they assume to themselves the specific 170 function of the bishop!

169 i.e. the powers of administering baptism and "sowing the word." [i.e. "The Keys." Scorpiace, p. 643.]

Emulation of the episcopal office is the mother of schisms. The most holy apostle has said, that "all things are lawful, but not all expedient." 171 Let it suffice assuredly, in cases of necessity, to avail yourself (of that rule 172 , if at any time circumstance either of place, or of time, or of person compels you (so to do); for then the stedfast courage of the succourer, when the situation of the endangered one is urgent, is exceptionally admissible;

inasmuch as he will be guilty of a human creature's loss if he shall refrain from bestowing what he had free liberty to bestow.

But the woman of pertness, 173 who has usurped the power to teach, will of course not give birth for herself likewise to a right of baptizing,

unless some new beast shall arise 174 like the former; so that, just as the one abolished baptism, 175 so some other should in her own right confer it!

But if the writings which wrongly go under Paul's name, claim Thecla's example as a licence for women's teaching and baptizing, See Paul and Thecla Document.

let them know that, in Asia, the presbyter who composed that writing, 176 as if he were augmenting Paul's fame from his own store,

176 The allusion is to a spurious work entitled Acta Pauli et Thecloe. [Of which afterwards. But see Jones, on the Canon, II. p. 353, and Lardner, Credibility, II. p. 305.]

after being convicted, and confessing that he had done it from love of Paul, was removed 177 from his office.

For how credible would it seem, that he who has not permitted a woman 178 even to learn with over-boldness,

should give a female 179 the power of teaching and of baptizing! "Let them be silent," he says, "and at home consult their own husbands." 180

Chapter XVIII.-Of the Persons to Whom, and the Time When, Baptism is to Be Administered.

But they whose office it is, know that baptism is not rashly to be administered. "Give to every one who beggeth thee," 181 has a reference of its own, appertaining especially to almsgiving. On the contrary, this precept is rather to be looked at carefully: "Give not the holy thing to the dogs, nor cast your pearls before swine; " 182 and, "Lay not hands easily on any; share not other men's sins." 183

If Philip so "easily" baptized the chamberlain, let us reflect that a manifest and conspicuous 184 evidence that the Lord deemed him worthy had been interposed. 185 The Spirit had enjoined Philip to proceed to that road: the eunuch himself, too, was not found idle,

nor as one who was suddenly seized with an eager desire to be baptized; but, after going up to the temple for prayer's sake, being intently engaged on the divine Scripture,

was thus suitably discovered-to whom God had, unasked, sent an apostle, which one, again, the Spirit bade adjoin himself to the chamberlain's chariot.

The Scripture which he was reading 186 falls in opportunely with his faith: Philip, being requested, is taken to sit beside him; the Lord is pointed out; faith lingers not; water needs no waiting for; the work is completed, and the apostle snatched away.

186 Acts viii. 28, 30, 32, 33, and Isa. liii. 7, 8, especially in LXX. The quotation, as given in Acts, agrees neraly verbatim with the Cod. Alex. there.

"But Paul too was, in fact, `speedily' baptized: "for Simon, 187 his host, speedily recognized him to be "an appointed vessel of election." God's approbation sends sure premonitory tokens before it; every "petition " 188 may both deceive and be deceived. And so, according to the circumstances and disposition, and even age, of each individual, the delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children.

187 Tertullian seems to have confused the "Judas" with whom Saul stayed (Acts ix. 11) with the "Simon" with whom St. Peter stayed (Acts ix. 43); and it was Ananias, not Judas, to whom he was pointed out as "An appointed vessel," and by whom he was baptized. [So above, he seems to have confounded Philip, the deacon, with Philip the apostle.]

For why is it necessary-if (baptism itself) is not so necessary 189 -that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? Who both themselves, by reason of mortality, may fail to fulfil their promises, and may be disappointed by the development of an evil disposition, in those for whom they stood? The Lord does indeed say, "Forbid them not to come unto me." 190 Let them "come," then, while they are growing up; let them "come" while they are learning, while they are learning whither to come; 191 let them become Christians 192 when they have become able to know Christ. Why does the innocent period of life hasten to the "remission of sins? "More caution will be exercised in worldly 193 matters: so that one who is not trusted with earthly substance is trusted with divine! Let them know how to "ask" for salvation, that you may seem (at least) to have given "to him that asketh." 194 For no less cause must the unwedded also be deferred-in whom the ground of temptation is prepared, alike in such as never were wedded 195 by means of their maturity, and in the widowed by means of their freedom-until they either marry, or else be more fully strengthened for continence. If any understand the weighty import of baptism, they will fear its reception more than its delay: sound faith is secure of salvation.

189 Tertullian has already allowed (in c. xvi) that baptism is not indispensably necessary to salvation NOT TRUE.

Chapter XIX.-Of the Times Most Suitable for Baptism.

The Passover affords a more than usually solemn day for baptism; when, withal, the Lord's passion, in which we are baptized, was completed. Nor will it be incongruous to interpret figuratively the fact that, when the Lord was about to celebrate the last Passover, He said to the disciples who were sent to make preparation, "Ye will meet a man bearing water." 196 He points out the place for celebrating the Passover by the sign of water. After that, Pentecost is a most joyous space 197 for conferring baptisms; 198 wherein, too, the resurrection of the Lord was repeatedly proved 199 among the disciples, and the hope of the advent of the Lord indirectly pointed to, in that, at that time, when He had been received back into the heavens, the angels 200 told the apostles that "He would so come, as He had withal ascended into the heavens; " 201 at Pentecost, of course. But, moreover, when Jeremiah says, "And I will gather them together from the extremities of the land in the feast-day," he signifies the day of the Passover and of Pentecost, which is properly a "feast-day." 202 However, every day is the Lord's; every hour, every time, is apt for baptism: if there is a difference in the solemnity, distinction there is none in the grace.

Chapter XX.-Of Preparation For, and Conduct After, the Reception of Baptism.

They who are about to enter baptism ought to pray with repeated prayers, fasts, and bendings of the knee, and vigils all the night through, and with the confession of all by- gone sins, that they may express the meaning even of the baptism of John:

"They were baptized," saith (the Scripture), "confessing their own sins." 203

To us it is matter for thankfulness if we do now publicly confess our iniquities or our turpitudes: 204 for we do at the same time both make satisfaction 205 for our former sins, by mortification of our flesh and spirit, and lay beforehand the foundation of defences against the temptations which will closely follow. "Watch and pray," saith (the Lord), "lest ye fall into temptation." 206 And the reason, I believe, why they were tempted was, that they fell asleep; so that they deserted the Lord when apprehended, and he who continued to stand by Him, and used the sword, even denied Him thrice: for withal the word had gone before, that "no one untempted should attain the celestial kingdoms." 207

The Lord Himself forthwith after baptism 208 temptations surrounded, when in forty days He had kept fast. "Then," some one will say," it becomes us, too, rather to fast after baptism." 209 Well, and who forbids you, unless it be the necessity for joy, and the thanksgiving for salvation? But so far as I, with my poor powers, understand, the Lord figuratively retorted upon Israel the reproach they had cast on the Lord. 210

For the people, after crossing the sea, and being carried about in the desert during forty years, although they were there nourished with divine supplies, nevertheless were more mindful of their belly and their gullet than of God.

Thereupon the Lord, driven apart into desert places after baptism, 211 showed, by maintaining a fast of forty days, that the man of God lives "not by bread alone," but "by the word of God; " 212 and that temptations incident to fulness or immoderation of appetite are shattered by abstinence.

Therefore, blessed ones, whom the grace of God awaits, when you ascend from that most sacred font 213 of your new birth, and spread your hands 214 for the first time in the house of your mother, 215 together with your brethren, ask from the Father, ask from the Lord, that His own specialties of grace and distributions of gifts 216 may be supplied you. "Ask," saith He, "and ye shall receive." 217

Well, you have asked, and have received; you have knocked, and it has been opened to you. Only, I pray that, when you are asking, you be mindful likewise of Tertullian the sinner. 218



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1 i.e. Christian (Oehler).

2 Rationibus.

3 This curious allusion it is impossible, perhaps, to render in our language. The word IXQUS (ikhthus) in Greek means "a fish;" and it was used as a name for our Lord Jesus, because the initials of the words 'Ihsou=j Xristo\j Qeou= Ui0o\j Swthr (i.e. Jesus Christ the Son of God, the Savior), make up that word. Oehler with these remarks, gives abundant references on that point. [Dr. Allix suspects Montanism here, but see Kaye, p. 43, and Lardner, Credib. II. p. 335. We may date it circa A.D. 193.]

4 As being a woman. See 1 Tim. ii. 11, 12.

5 Consecutio aeternitatis.

6 Admirationem.

7 i.e. that the simple be vain, and the grand impossible.

8 1 Cor. i. 27, not quite exactly quoted.

9 Luke xviii. 27, again inexact.

10 Compare the Jews' question, Matt. xxi. 23.

11 Its authority.

12 Impolita.

13 Incomposita.

14 Ferebatur.

15 Gen. i. 1, 2, and comp. the LXX.

16 Liquor.

17 Gen. i. 6, 7, 8.

18 Animas.

19 Animare.

20 Rebus.

21 Intinctorum.

22 Rendundat.

23 .

24 Acts viii. 26-40.

25 Medicatis.

26 See c. vi. ad init., and c. v. ad fin.

27 Bethesda, Eng. Ver.

28 i.e., as Oehler rightly explains, "lacking the Holy Spirit's presence and virtue."

29 Or, "purify."

30 [Diabolus Dei Simius.]

31 Gestationem.

32 Euripi.

33 Rapere.

34 Necaverunt.

35 "Nypholeptos," restored by Oehler, = numfolh/ptouj.

36 So Tertullian reads, and some copies, but not the best, of the New Testament in the place referred to, John v. 1-9. [And note Tertullian's textual testimony as to this Scripture.]

37 Compare 1 Cor. xv. 46.

38 John i. 16, 17.

39 Qui: i.e. probably "angeli qui."

40 Vitia.

41 Or, "health"-salutem.

42 Conservant populos.

43 Compare c. viii., where Tertullian appears to regard the Holy Spirit as given after the baptized had come out of the waters and recieved the "unction."

44 Luke i. 76.

45 Arbiter. [Eccles. v. 6, and Acts xii. 15.]

46 Isa. xl. 3; Matt. iii. 3.

47 Deut. xix. 15; Matt. xviii. 16; 2 Cor. xiii. 1.

48 Sponsores.

49 Sponsio.

50 Compare de Orat. c. ii. sub fin.

51 Compare the de Orat. quoted above, and de Patien. xxi.; and see Matt. xviii. 20.

52 Lavacro.

53 See Ex. xxix. 7; Lev. viii. 12; Ps. cxxxiii. 2.

54 i.e. "Annointed." Aaron, or at least the priest, is actually so called in the LXX., in Lev. iv. 5, 16, o9 i9eru\j o9 Xristo/j: as in the Hebrew it is the word whence Messiah is derived which is used.

55 Civitate.

56 Acts iv. 27. "In this city" (e0n th|= po/lei tau/th|) is ommited in the English version; and the name 'Ihsou=n, "Jesus," is ommited by Tertullian. Compare Acts x. 38 and Lev. iv. 18 with Isa. lxi. 1 in the LXX.

57 [See Bunsen, Hippol. Vol. III. Sec. xiii. p. 22.]

58 Concorporationem.

59 The reference is to certain hydraulic organs, which the editors tell us are described by Vitruvius, ix. 9 and x. 13, and Pliny, H.N. vii. 37.

60 i.e. Man. There may be an allusion to Eph. ii. 10, "We are His worksmanship," and to Ps. cl. 4.

61 Compare 1 Tim. ii. 8.

62 i.e. Ephraim.

63 In Christum.

64 See c. iv. p. 668.

65 Matt. iii. 16; Luke iii. 22.

66 Ipso. The ancients held this.

67 Matt. x. 16. Tertullian has rendered a0ke/raioi (unmixed) by "simplices," i.e. without fold.

68 Argumento.

69 Pacem.

70 Paci.

71 Dispositione.

72 See de Orat. iv. ad init.

73 Lavacro.

74 Compare de Idol. xxiv. ad fin.

75 [II. Pet. i. 9. Heb. x. 26, 27, 29. These awful texts are too little felt by modern Christians. They are too often explained away.]

76 Patrocinia-"pleas in defence."

77 "Libere expeditus," set free, and that without any conditions, such as Pharaoh had from tome to time tried to impose. See Ex. viii. 25, 28, x. 10, 11, 24.

78 "Extinxit," as it does fire.

79 Ex. xiv. 27-30.

80 Saeculo.

81 See Ex. xv. 24, 25.

82 "The Tree of Life," "the True Vine," etc.

83 Matt. iii. 13-17.

84 John ii. 1-11.

85 John vii. 37, 38.

86 Agape. See de Orat. c. 28, ad fin.

87 Dilectionis. See de Patien. c. xii.

88 Matt. x. 42.

89 John. iv. 6.

90 Matt. xiv. 25.

91 Mark iv. 36.

92 John xiii. 1-12.

93 Matt. xxvii. 24. Comp. de Orat. c. xiii.

94 John xix. 34. See c. xviii. sub fin.

95 Religionem.

96 Matt. xxi. 25; Mark xi. 30; Luke xx. 4.

97 Constanter.

98 Potestate.

99 See John i. 33.

100 It is difficult to see how this statement is to be reconciled with Acts v. 31. [i.e. under the universal illumination, John i. 9.]

101 Matt. iii. 7-12, xxi. 23, 31, 32.

102 Mark ii. 8; 1 Thess. iv. 8; 2 Cor. i. 21, 22, v. 5.

103 John xvi. 6, 7.

104 Acts xix. 1-7, [John vii. 39.]

105 Matt. iii. 11, 12; John i. 6-36.

106 Matt xi. 2-6; Luke vii. 18-23. [He repeats this view.]

107 Acts xix. 4.

108 Agebatur.

109 Mark i. 4.

110 Luke i. 76.

111 John iii. 30, 31, briefly quoted.

112 Matt. iii. 11, not quite exactly given.

113 John iv. 2.

114 For instances of this, compare Matt. viii. 5 with Luke vii. 3, 7; and Mark x. 35 with Matt. xx. 20.

115 Cf. 1 Pet. i. 11, ad fin.

116 Lavacri.

117 John iii. 5, not fully given.

118 See Gal. iii. 27.

119 See Eph. iv. 5.

120 "Volenti," which Oehler notes as a suggestion of Fr. Junius, is adopted here in prefrence to Oehler's "nolenti."

121 John xiii. 9, 10.

122 Exerta. Comp. c. xviii. sub init.; ad Ux. ii. c. 1. sub fin.

123 Matt. xi. 11, e0gh/gertai ommited.

124 Matt. viii. 24, xiv. 28, 29. [Our author seems to allow that sprinkling is baptism, but not Christian baptism: a very curious passage. Compare the foot-washing, John xiii. 8.]

125 Saeculo.

126 Saeculum.

127 Illoti.

128 Lavacrum. [John xiii. 9, 10, as above.]

129 i.e. of being the first to be chosen.

130 Luke xviii. 42; Mark x. 52.

131 "Remittentur" is Oehler's reading; "remittuntur" others read; but the Greek is in perfect tense. See Mark ii. 5.

132 i.e. faith, or perhaps the "compendious grace of baptism."

133 Matt. ix. 9.

134 Matt. iv. 21, 22.

135 Luke ix. 59, 60; but it is not said there that the man did it.

136 Matt. x. 37.

137 i.e. probably the Cainites. See c. ii.

138 i.e. the sacrament, or obligation of faith. See beginning of chapter.

139 Matt. xxviii. 19: "all" ommited.

140 John ii. 5: "shall not" for "cannot;" "kingdom of the heavens"-an expression only occurring in Matthew-for "kingdom of God."

141 i.e. from the time when the Lord gave the "law."

142 i.e. not till after the "law" had been made.

143 See Acts ix. 1-31.

144 1 Cor. i. 17.

145 1 Cor. i. 14, 16.

146 1 Cor. i. 11, 12, iii. 3, 4.

147 Matt. v. 9; referred to in de Patien. c. ii.

148 Oehler refers us to c. xii. above, "He who hath once bathed."

149 i.e. the Epistle to the Ephesians especially.

150 Eph. iv. 4, 5, 6, but very inexactly quoted.

151 i.e. us Christians; of "Catholics," as Oehler explains it.

152 i.e. touching the "one baptism."

153 Ademptio communicationis. [See Bunsen, Hippol. III. p. 114, Canon 46.]

154 Comp. Eccles. i. 15.

155 Lavacrum.

156 Compare de Orat. c. xiv.

157 In John xiii. 10, and Eph. iv. 5.

158 Lavacrum. [See Aquinas, Quaest. lxvi. 11.]

159 Luke xii. 50, not given in full.

160 1 John v. 6.

161 Matt. xx. 16; Rev. xvii. 14.

162 John xix. 34. See c. ix. ad fin.

163 See John vi. 53, etc.

164 Lavacrum. [The three baptisims: fluminis, flaminis, sanguinis.]

165 Materiolam.

166 Summus sacerdos. Compare de Orat. xxviii., "nos...veri sacerdotes," etc.: and de Ex. Cast. c. vii., "nonne et laici sacerdotes sumus?"

167 Census.

168 Disciplina.

169 i.e. the powers of administering baptism and "sowing the word." [i.e. "The Keys." Scorpiace, p. 643.]

170 Dicatum.

171 1 Cor. x. 23, where moi in the recieved thxt seems interpolated.

172 Or, as Oehler explains it, of your power of baptizing, etc.

173 Quintilla. See c. 1.

174 Evenerit. Perhaps Tertullian means literally-though that sense of the word is very rare-"shall issue out of her," alluding to his "pariet" above.

175 See c. i. ad fin.

176 The allusion is to a spurious work entitled Acta Pauli et Thecloe. [Of which afterwards. But see Jones, on the Canon, II. p. 353, and Lardner, Credibility, II. p. 305.]

177 Decessisse.

178 Mulieri.

179 Foeminae.

180 1 Cor. xiv. 34, 35.

181 Luke vi. 30. [See note 4, p. 676.]

182 Matt. vii. 6.

183 1 Tim. v. 22; mhdeni\ omitted, taxe/wj rendered by "facile," and mhde@ by "ne."

184 "Exertam," as in c. xii.: "probatio exerta," "a conspicuous proof."

185 Comp. Acts viii. 26-40.

186 Acts viii. 28, 30, 32, 33, and Isa. liii. 7, 8, especially in LXX. The quotation, as given in Acts, agrees neraly verbatim with the Cod. Alex. there.

187 Tertullian seems to have confused the "Judas" with whom Saul stayed (Acts ix. 11) with the "Simon" with whom St. Peter stayed (Acts ix. 43); and it was Ananias, not Judas, to whom he was pointed out as "An appointed vessel," and by whom he was baptized. [So above, he seems to have confounded Philip, the deacon, with Philip the apostle.]

188 See note 24, [where Luke vi. 30 is shown to be abused].

189 Tertullian has already allowed (in c. xvi) that baptism is not indispensably necessary to salvation.

190 Matt. xix. 14; Mark x. 14; Luke xviii. 16.

191 Or, "whither they are coming."

192 i.e. in baptism.

193 Saecularibus.

194 See beginning of chapter, [where Luke vi. 30, is shown to be abused].

195 Virginibus; but he is speaking about men as well as women. Comp. de Orat. c. xxii. [I need not point out the bearings of the above chapter, nor do I desire to interpose any comments. The Editor's interpolations, where purely gratuitous, I have even stricken out, though I agree with them. See that work of genius, the Liberty of Prophesying, by Jer. Taylor, sect. xviii. and its candid adnissions.]

196 Mark xiv. 13, Luke xxii. 10, "a small earthen pitcher of water."

197 [He means the whole fifty days from the Paschal Feast till Pentecost, including the latter. Bunsen Hippol. III. 18.]

198 Lavacris.

199 Frequentata, i.e. by His frequent appearance. See Acts i. 3, di' h9merw=n tessara/konta o0ptano/menoj au0toi=j.

200 Comp. Acts i. 10 and Luke ix. 30: in each place St. Luke says, a!ndrej du/o: as also in xxiv. 4 of his Gospel.

201 Acts i. 10, 11; but it is ou0rano/n throughout in the Greek.

202 Jer. xxxi. 8, xxxviii. 8 in LXX., where e0n e9orth=| fase/k is found, which is not in the English version.

203 Matt. iii. 6. [See the collection of Dr. Bunsen for the whole primitive discipline to which Tertullian has reference, Hippol. Vol. III. pp. 5-23, and 29.]

204 Perhaps Tertullian is referring to Prov. xxviii. 13. If we confess now, we shall be forgiven, and not put to shame at the judgment day.

205 See de Orat. c. xxiii. ad fin., and the note there.

206 Matt. xxvi. 41.

207 What passage is referred to is doubtful. The editors point us to Luke xxii. 28, 29; but the reference is unsatisfactory.

208 Lavacrum.

209 Lavacro. Compare the beginning of the chapter.

210 Viz. by their murmuring for bread (see Ex. xvi. 3, 7); and again-nearly forty years after- in another place. See Num. xxi. 5.

211 Aquam: just as St. Paul says the Israelites had been "baptized" (or "baptized themselves") "into Moses in the cloud and in the sea." 1 Cor. x. 2.

212 Matt. iv. 1-4.

213 Lavacro.

214 In prayer: comp. de Orat. c. xiv.

215 i.e. the Church: comp. de Orat. c. 2.

216 1 Cor. xii. 4-12.

217 Matt. vii. 7; Luke xi. 9; ai0tei=te, kai\ doqh/setai, u9mi=n in both places.

218 [The translator, though so learned and helpful, too often encumbers the text with superfluous interpolations. As many of these, while making the reading difficult, add nothing to the sense yet destroy the terse, crabbed force of the original, I have occasionally restored the spirit of a sentence, by removing them.]