Teresa D Welch Danny Corbitt Missing More Than Music

Teresa D. Welch Reviewing Danny Corbitt: Missing More than Music.  Leaven Volume 18 Issue 1 .  "Leaven" Called on Teresa because she is from a pro-instrumental music church.  However, Teresa does not give a ringing endorsemet of Danny Corbitt's effort. He has stated his position very well but we have debated the issue with Danny on a forum which limits too much quoting of Scripture and church history. Teresa rejects the notion that Paul and Silas were said to have sung HYMNS because musical instruments would not have been available. She notes that there is no difference between the words as authorizing instruments.  [I appreciate the comic relief]

"Leaven" from Pepperdine is a rich resource of articles based on the thesis of: "I USED to be an ignorant ANTI-instrumentalists but I have done research which cannot be questioned. Now, I am a PRO-instrumentalists and my goal is to try to extricate those in bondage to the freedom to "make the lambs dumb before the slaughter." In fact, Danny Corbitt has seems to have always had an agenda. The new sect of ANTI-instrumentalists was created by Dwayne E. Dunning which makes "taking an AXE to their position" justified.

A. Ralph Johnson: A Word of Caution

One difficulty with writing is, to accurately convey feelings. It is also difficult, when a subject affects millions of people in different ways, to speak to the needs of each without leaving others feeling pained that they have been lumped with the "bad guys." In citing arguments made against instrumental, I do not wish to imply that all anti-instrumentalists hold to all of them.

I recognize that most anti-instrumentalists are wise enough to reject many of the really outrageous ones. I do not wish to blame all for the folly of a few.

One may by choice sing a-cappella.
         By "
anti-instrumental" I mean those
        opposed to religious use of instrumental music, as sinful.

I have no problem with those who simply prefer to sing unaccompanied.

Dwaine E. Dunning: There are at least three ways to kill a tree.

You can poison it, or burn it. It might not survive if all the limbs were lopped off.
But men usually choose to kill a tree by
cutting down its trunk.
We take an axe or saw to it not far above the roots and "fell" that tree.

Likewise a system of doctrine may be destroyed in various ways. It might be poisoned (or sweetened in this case) by injecting a different spirit into those who hold the doctrine.

Or its various contentions may be individually or specifically refuted,
lopping off a tree's branches one by one

One might think that they could find a single example of God's people being called into assembly for congregational singing. One might even think they missed the instrumental idolatry at Mount Sinai which requested that God turn them over to worship the starry host.
One might even think that there is some God-breathed text which CAN be sung tunefully.
One might even wonder why some psalms (only) had to be radically rewritten to make singing (unison only) remotely possible AFTER the Reformation.

We have worked or overworked the HYMN theme because the Greek and Latin text shows the difference between speaking Scripture hymns as prayers, and those who SANG their hymns. The literature is complete in consigning hymns as "prayers to a god" accompanied with instruments to Dionysus, Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon) and other "gods" of paganism.  For those who insist that Churches of Christ IMPOSED the law of NOT using musical instruments, we note that there is no command, example or remote inference of God's people being called out of their rest for congregational singing with or without instruments.  The Levites were ABANDONED to making instrumental noises because they had been abandoned to worship the starry host and to warn any godly person supposed to be in their small, scattered towns resting or attending synagogue that they would be EXECUTED if they came inside the city gates. The Spirit OF Christ denied that God commanded any of the Civil-Military-Clergy complex.  In the prophets He calls them robbers and parasites.  There is no command to SING in the synagogue or ekklesia because that had been forbidden in the wilderness and because of common reverence when assemblying to hear the word PREACHED by being READ for comfort and doctrine. Furthermore, you cannot sing tunefully any of the commanded text:
Hymnody developed systematically, however, only after the emperor Constantine legalized Christianity (AD 313); and it flourished earliest in Syria, where the practice was possibly taken over from the singing by Gnostics and Manichaeans of hymns imitating the psalms. The Byzantine Church adopted the practice; in its liturgy, hymns maintain a much more prominent place than in the Latin liturgy; and Byzantine hymnody developed complex types such as the kanon and kontakion (qq.v.; see also Byzantine chant). Saint Ephraem--a 4th-century Mesopotamian deacon, poet, and hymnist--has been called the "father of Christian hymnody." Britannica Online

In the West, St. Hilary of Poitiers composed a book of hymn texts in about 360. Not much later St. Ambrose of Milan instituted the congregational singing of psalms and hymns, partly as a counter to the hymns of the Arians, who were in doctrinal conflict with orthodox Christianity. In poetic form (iambic octosyllables in four-line stanzas), these early hymns--apparently sung to simple, possibly folk melodies--derive from Christian Latin poetry of the period. By the late Middle Ages trained choirs had supplanted the congregation in the singing of hymns. Although new, often more ornate melodies were composed and many earlier melodies were elaborated, one syllable of text per note was usual. Some polyphonic hymn settings were used, usually in alternation with plainchants, and were particularly important in organ music.

So that terminates the discussion for anyone who follows the universal example of trying to make the church Apostolic obeying the mandate that the church is edified or educated by the Prophets and Apostles.

Abilene Christian University in its tilt away from its founders invited Danny Corbitt to its lectureships because he has repeated the ANTI-instrumentalists "proof texts" first collected by O. E. Payne in 1920. Payne fails to grasp the meaning of ekklesia-synagogue defined inclusively and exclusively as the Qahal or Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness.  The PATTERN was described to Moses in Exodus 18 when Israel was under The Book of The Covenant or the only spiritual covenant God in Christ made to Abraham.

Ex. 18:20 And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws,
        and shalt shew them the way wherein they must walk,
        and the work that they must do.

Ex. 18:21 Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness;
        and place such over them, to be
        rulers of thousands,
        and rulers of hundreds,
        rulers of fifties, and 
        rulers of tens:
H8269 śar sar From H8323 ; a head person (of any rank or class):—captain (that had rule), chief (captain), general, governor, keeper, lord, ([-task-]) master, prince (-ipal), ruler, steward.
Ex. 18:22 And let them judge the people at all seasons: and it shall be,
        that every great matter they shall bring unto thee,
        but every small matter they shall judge:
        so shall it be easier for thyself,
        and they shall bear the burden with thee.

Ex. 18:23 If thou shalt do this thing, and God command thee so,
        then thou shalt be able to endure,
        and all this people shall also go to their place in peace.

Ex. 18:24 So Moses hearkened to the voice of his father in law, and did all that he had said.
Ex. 18:25 And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people,
        rulers of thousands,
        rulers of hundreds,
        rulers of fifties, and
        rulers of tens.
  1. The people REFUSED to listen to the Book of the Covenant which God spoke to Moses: the Ten Commandments was the preamble.
  2. Because of REFUSING to listen they assumed that SILENCE permitted them to resume their old musical worship of the Egyptian trinity represented by the golden calf or calves.
  3. On the REST day when God demanded silence which was to guard them against the common Sabzianism, they rose up AGAINST God and to PLAY. That included singing, playing, dancing and other practices which  God tried to prevent
  4. The Jacob-cursed and God-abandoned Levites executed 3000 of the "brethren" for their idolatry.
  5. God removed Grace and gave them The Book of the Law and sentenced them to captivity and death beyond Babylon.
  6. God commanded that the soothsaying Levites stand guard around the not-commanded animal slaughter and burning. This was to protect the godly people/
  7. The Spirit OF Christ further defined the ASSEMBLY which excluded the pagan "vocal or instrumental rejoicing" and self-speak or rhetoric.
  8. The final blow came when the elders demanded a king like the nations: God understood that they wanted to worship like the nations and putting the godly people into slavery.
  9. The Levites under the king and commanders of the army were not "musical worship ministers" but soothsayers with instruments ready to execute any godly Israelite who came inside the gates and close to any of the animal slaughter as God's abandonment to bloood and flesh lust.
The Synagogue always existed and it became freed from the sacrificial system during the captivity. However, it had a one-piece pattern although it was opened with a prayer: the recitation of the Shema repudiated the Monarchy's polytheism.

Jesus attended the synagogue to STAND UP TO READ and then SAT DOWN and waited for dialog. He went OUT to preach.

There is no command, example or remote inference that the synagogue-ekklesia had any musical content.  That is proven because  we  know that "singing" in a style more elevated than cantillation was imposed from the east in the year 373. That split the west from the east and was especially repulsive because it was added so that the unwashed bishops could sing self-composed hymns to replace the reading of the Psalms for "teaching" and not for "worship." 

The agents of the NACC should be ashamed of spreading the mantra that the Church of Christ virtually invented and imposed NOT using instruments just because they were nasty, southern, ignorant rednecks.

Teresa D. Welch:  Danny Corbitt challenges commonly held positions within the Churches of Christ on the subject that has become, as he states

"a Iitmus test for church staff candidates or missionary support ...

Danny Corbitt and others affect hostility toward anyone who would dare hire people to teach what they believe: since there is no Biblical role or dole for STAFF CANDIDATES, the widows and honest working people reserve the right to exclude those boasting about "infiltrating and diverting" other people's property into "theaters for holy experience." We know for a fact that those betraying churches have organized a "leadership in waiting" and actively worked to slowly impose instruments. Rich Atchley teaming with David Faust and others notes:
We sent them to youth rallies and Church of Christ events
        with some of the finest Christian bands in the world.

        We discipled our children to leave our Movement!
Individuals worship God without mediators in song and sermon thank you very much. The only assembly on the REST days was to Read and Rehearse the Word of God. Giving heed to the Word of Christ in the Prophets and Apostles is the only concept in the new testament.  Unless, of course, you want to add an ACT to the pattern of falling on your face in holy terror.

Jesus commanded that true evangelists "GO into all the world, teach to make disciples, baptize and teach what HE commanded to be taught.  Danny etal missed the fact that Jesus didn't command any organized "service" or "hard bondage" beyond holding Bible class: even the Lord's Supper is a preaching or showing forth visual aid.

Danny Corbitt can just have a fit because people who believe that instrumental noises are FORBIDDEN in the name of God are NOT going to bond with people he knows will betray those who paid him.

The Church of Christ (the Rock) as the Church in the wilderness was quarantined to isolated towns and:
It was INCLUSIVE of Rest, Reading and Rehearsing The Word of God as it handed down.
It was EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing which included rhetoric.

That is because the Greek Ekklesia or Synagogue excluded any thing for discussion which had not been handed down by a higher authority.

The Campbells had read the Word and began by saying:

Church is A School of Christ
Worship was Reading and Musing the Word (only)

Jesus affirmed the Synagogue by TEACHING and by going out to PREACH.
He set the pattern by  standing up to read the assigned text and then decently and in order sat down.
He "synagogued" with the Disciples two first days of the week after His resurrection and there is no example of any musical content in the epistles or church history for almost 400 years.

In contrast to the Disciples the Reformed Baptists were disciples of John Calvin. Alexander said that Calvin could be a Campbellite based on his discussion of adult baptism.

John Calvin was the first to allow radically rewritten psalms (only) to be set to a simple meter to be sung in unison (only). He and Luther refer to Romans 15 which in the self-pleasure words reject any of the performing arts and crafts including singing, playing, dancing or acting. That grasped that Jesus died to remove the Laded Burden (arousal songs) along with the burden laders.

But the obstinate pursue a course quite the reverse, forsaking, rejecting and judging him who differs from them, and following their own ways, guided by their own opinions; as do the orders of popery, and other sects.

"That with one accord ye may with one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ."

For instance, the distracted world attempts to serve God
setting apart houses, churches, cloisters;
        vestures, gold-trimmed, silk and [50] every other kind;
        silver vessels and images; bells and organs, candles and lamps;
        the money for which expense should have been appropriated to the poor
        if the object was to make an offering to God.

Further, it keeps up a muttering and wailing in the churches day and night.
But true praise and honor of God, a service that cannot be confined to place or person,
is quietly ignored the world over.

The pretenses of priests and monks about their system of exercises
being service to the Lord, are false and delusive.

As a further consequence it is necessarily impossible for divine service to exist.

Even if all the choristers were one chorister, all the priests one priest,
all the monks one monk, all the churches one church,
all the
bells one bell; in brief if all the foolish services offered to God in the institutions, churches and cloisters were a hundred thousand times greater and more numerous than they are,what does God care for such carnivals and juggling?

54. Therefore, God complains most of the Jews in the second chapter of Micah,

because they silenced his praise, while at the same time,
they piped, blared and moaned like we do.
True divine service of praise cannot be established with revenues,
nor be circumscribed by laws and statutes.
High and low festivals have nothing to do with it.
It emanates from the Gospel, and certainly is as often rendered by a poor,
servant as by a great bishop. [51]

Teresa D. Welch: a sticking point for prospective Sunday school teachers ...

Well, yes, that's included in the Constitution and the liberty from Jesus. No instrumental church would permit anyone to take over a Sunday school class and just READ the Biblical context of the isolated words or phrases he uses.  One of the imposed discords was the Standard Publishing promoting of the Sunday School with its officers independent of the local elders.  That sounds like the ethics of a Bank Robber.  Simply RESISTING the effort to "Take Tennessee for the organ and society within 5 years" is branded as a hostile attack.

Danny Corbitt taking pay from a Church of Christ would NOT have tolerated anyone in the youth groups or other staff roles.  Those who use instruments EXCLUDED the masses in the beginning when they imposed organs (only they promised). Those who continue to use the pattern of what is known as the hypocritic arts and crafts EXCLUDE those who understand the meaning of ekklesia or synagogue. Those who do NOT use the hypocritic arts and crafts DO NO exclude anyone except perhaps a professional musician looking for a role with a dole.

If you refuse to begin doing something you have always rejected just to have fellowship meaning to affirm or confirm, support and endorse, it would seem strange that people get so upset that people refused to be dictated to and do what has no role when the "elders teach that which has been taught" and no one taught that we should make music while the Words of Christ were ONCE the sole resource. That would begin to accept what all polite society repudiated just so we can have "fellowship."

Teresa D. Welch: [and] a  for Christian fellowship" (8).

Danny Corbitt apparently "fellowshipped" the "a cappella" heresy when they fed him.  No one believes that you MUST have a role for theatrical or musical performance to fulfill the role of the church. And he wants us to pay them too!

If you refuse to begin doing something you have always rejected just to have fellowship meaning to affirm or confirm, support and endorse, it would seem strange that people get so upset that people refused to be dictated to and do what has no role when the "elders teach that which has been taught" and no one taught that we should make music while the Words of Christ were ONCE the sole resource. That would begin to accept what all polite society repudiated just so we can have "fellowship."

The Gifts of Christ in Ephesians 4 EXCLUDED the Sophists so that the one-another SPEAKING the Word can take place. Jesus didn't include the huge cost to make a church into "a theater for holy entertaining" and pay a STAFF to perform what was always noted as parasitic roles: people who would DO anything from having to do productive work as the meaning of "minister."

Teresa D. Welch: For the past one hundred years, the majority of Churches of Christ have held to a belief that prohibits the use of solos, choruses and instruments to praise God in corporate worship settings.


From Ephraim the Syrian and Aphrahat the Persian Sage

To Ephraim pertains the high and unique distinction of having originated-or at least given its living impulse to-a new departure in sacred literature; and that, not for his own country merely, but for Christendom.

From him came, if not the first idea, at all events the first successful example,
of making song an essential constituent of public worship,
and an exponent of theological teaching;
and from him it spread and prevailed through
Eastern Churches, and affected even those of the West.

To the Hymns, on which chiefly his fame rests, the Syriac ritual in all its forms owes much of its strength and richness; and to them is largely due the place which Hymnody holds throughout the Church everywhere.

And hence it has come to pass that, in the Church everywhere, he stands as the representative Syrian Father, as the fixed epithet appended to his name attests-" Ephraim the Syrian,"-the one Syrian known and reverenced in all Christendom.

From a few lines of Proba's work can be seen the problems with this approach: little of what was created could justifiably be placed alongside the great works of the past, and since that was an implicit target the failure to meet it was embarrassing; more pressingly, such Christianisations did not appeal to the highly educated, who preferred to read the imitated originals and did not appeal to Christians who would not otherwise have read the originals, who needed something written to their own culture and not to that of a past elite. This kind of imitation had its brief flourishing at the time of the emperor Julian, who forbade Christians to teach pagan works, but had no lasting effect.(Kenneth Latourette, A History of Christianity, p. 760).

John Calvin defined the Qahal, synagogue, ekklesia or Church in the wilderness to exclude the calling of the assembly with the alarm or triumph over meaning "vocal or instrumental rejoicing.

John Calvin called for a Restoration of the Church of Christ and defined that as REMOVING anything which had been imposed and which minimized the educational role of the church.

Danny Corbitt has fallen for the NACC charge that Churches of Christ sected out of their goup in 1906. In fact, recorded history notes that there was never any "unity" between Churches of Christ and the Disciples: unity means that we affirm or conform, fellowship, endorse and support you. Only preachers with no role and no dole have time to try to include EVERYONE perhaps because they think they prove their superiority over churches of Christ which never engaged in the use of musical instruments (machines for doing hard work mostly in making war) from the Church in the Wilderness.

Danny Corbitt and others use the RACA words on those now defined as ANTI-instrumentalists and worthy of destruction by means both unfair and foul.

Teresa D. Welch: Prompted by questions raised by the students in the Church of Christ campus ministry he served for fourteen years and his own personal journey, Corbitt returned to the scriptures and historical information often used to support the a cappella tradition.

This is the common dodge: EVERYONE is asking "why".  Corbitt proves that he had never read the story line left by what the Spirit OF Christ called "the lying pen of the Scribes."

On the contrary Danny Corbit had wabbled betwee the Christian Church and Churches of Christ. Even though paid by the widows and honest workers he refused to teach the students and instead endorsed the use of instruments.  He was encouraged to use his work to infiltrate and divert churches of Christ. Unfortunately, he lifts oft-repeated verbage and cannot have read about the instrumental fall from grace at Mount Sinai.

Teresa D. Welch:  The conclusions he draws from his study differ from the traditional position of the Churches of Christ,
       which in turn lead him to support the use of instruments
       in praise in addition to the tradition of a cappella worship.

is one of those hate words using psychologican violence. Churches of Christ have been able to read the text and by defining words and seeing how they were used in pagan "worship" have grasped that from the serpent (musical enchanter(ess) or singing and harp playing prostitute in the garden of Eden (defined by the Spirit OF Christ) to the Babylon Mother of Harlots in Revelation, anyone who can ask "what means that" can understand why no church father or founder of denominations failed to understand the truth.  In Revelation 18 John calls them "lusted after fruits" (emasculated priests of Cybele) and called the singers, instrument players and all religious craftsmen SORCERERS who had deceived the whole world once. John says that they will be cast alive into the lake of fire.  The Spirit OF Christ in Isaiah 30 defines the Prophetic type: the marks in sight and sound of God driving His enemies into "hell" will be wind, string and percussion instruments. These are the ones Lucifer brought into the garden of Eden when Cast as Profane out of heaven. That is from the Heylel, Halal and Chalal words speaking of "blowing the flute, stealing people's inheritance, pollution or prostitution,.

Paul understanding that the Spirit OF Christ in Isaiah 58 outlawed seeking our own pleasure or speaking our own words, specified the only way to praise or Glorify God. Church is A School of the Word and the synagogue never had a praise service. Praise implies that you can AID or bring about that which you praise.
Romans 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification. [Education only]
Romans 15:3 For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written,
        The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me.
Romans 15:4 For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning,
        that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.
Romans 15:5 Now the God of patience and consolation
        grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:
Romans 15:6 That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God,
        even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Romans 15:7 Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us to the glory of God. 

John 15:8 Herein is my Father glorified,
that ye bear much fruit;
so shall ye be my disciples. 
Philippians 1:9 And this I pray, that your love may abound yet more and more
        in knowledge and in all judgment;
Philippians 1:10 That ye may approve things that are excellent;
        that ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ;
Philippians 1:11 Being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ,
        unto the glory and praise of G

See the Encomiast: he assists the gods to prevent them from failing--again

"In ancient Mesopotamia its main purpose appears to have been the enhancement of what was seen as beneficial. With the sole exception of wisdom literature,

the core genres are panegyric in nature (i.e.,
they praise something or someone),
and the
magical power and use of praise
is to
instill, call up, or activate the virtues presented in the praise.

"That praise is of the essence of hymns, for instance, is shown by the fact that over and over again the encomiast, the official praiser, (See Kantor, Precenter, Worship Leader) whose task it was to sing these hymns,

closed with the standing phrase: "O [the name of a deity or human hero], thy praise is sweet." The same phrase is common also at the end of myths and epics, two further praise genres that also belonged in the repertoire of the encomiast.

"They praise not only in description but also in narrative,
by recounting acts of valour done by the hero,

thus sustaining and enhancing his power to do such deeds,
according to the magical view.

Teresa D. Welch:  Though Corbitt's book provides the rationale for his position, its primary intent is "to contribute to our understanding of these issues that divide us" (7), for in the midst of his personal journey and study, he came to believe that the issue of the use of instrumental music should be seen as secondary to the more important issues of worship and unity. Before launching into a presentation of his research of biblical interpretation, word studies and a look at church history in defending his argument, Corbitt articulates how the practice of the non-instrumental, nonsolo churches has been perceived as inconsistent by those both inside and outside this tradition.

He suggests that the reason for the dispute over specific biblical passages and the interpretation of specific words in those texts is not because of improper interpretation, but rather the presuppositions one brings to the text.

Corbitt states, "Perhaps we are wearing a cappella-colored glasses" that "have kept us [Churches of Christ] from seeing" (12). Therefore, he encourages readers to attempt to remove their glasses in reevaluation of the arguments used for the past century in support of non-instrumental worship.

For the first time in history (we believe) the Disciples of Christ invented the PSALLO word to try to justify the massive discord within the Disciples of Christ.  On the wild American frontier none of the religious groups which solified first as Reformed Baptists and then known as The Church of Christ believed that music had a role to play in a Word-based or synagogue-ekklesia assembly.

Melody as tunefulness belongs to the 19th century we are told and that one of the PARTS of complex harmony. Melody  is not harmony and is not related to it.

None of the Bible is metrical and was never intended to be performed but read and understood.  Cantillation was improvised as rhymic prose and notated specificially to prevent anyone from making commentary by preachery emphasis
.  Both Jew and Gentile were "wise unto salvation" because the Gentiles attended synagogue to escape the always-pagan SUN worship on the Sevent day.
Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time
        hath in every city
        them that preach him,
        being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

There is no command, example or remote inference in any of the godly people quarantined to the isolated towns singing as a group with or without instruments.  No one until after the Reformation could sing congregationally and the organ was used for processionals, intermissions or recessionals in the official Catholic Mass.

It was the Israelites at Mount Sinai who demanded a human mediator who are recored to have risen up (against god) in PLAY. That was with the loud noise (not music) of musical instruments. The Jacob-cursed and God abandoned Levites volunteered to execute 3,000 of the idolaters. Thereafter, they were not given any inheritance but were to stand in ranks and execute any godly person who came near any supposed "holy" thing or place.

God revoked The Book of the Covenant for the Levites and turned them over to worship the starry host: that would be on their way to captivity and death beyond Babylon meaning 'no return.'

The Spirit OF Christ speaks only through the Prophets and Apostles: the Civil-Military-Clergy complex are noted as robbers and parasites.  Nehemiah notes that it was because of their sin that the religious complex confiscated their property and gave it to the "staff" of the King.

Teresa D. Welch:  Corbitt engages the arguments of the Churches of Christ by addressing the research and conclusions of scholars, most specifically the work of renowned patristic scholar, Dr. Everett Ferguson. Though he explicitly expresses his admiration of Dr. Ferguson and appreciation for his work, Corbitt attempts to look at some of the same sources and research through a different lens.

This results in Corbitt providing a different set of conclusions than those he was taught and had practiced as a member of the Church of Christ for many years.

He concludes that since the New Testament does not clearly prohibit the use of instruments in favor of a cappella singing during corporate worship, the church should support both instrumental and non-instrumental worship.

That should prove that the younger generation have studied theology and merchandising and not the text or church history. The sad history is that before you can use the ploy of BOTH/AND you have to confiscate the property of widows and honest workers who have to be gradually betrayed.  Those who begin with Sabbath Instruments or Sunday-School instruments rapidly consign the "a cappella" to 8:15 on Sunday morning and the "worship" rapidly degenerates into Rock and Roll.  He assuedly will never get a Christian Church to add "a cappella" (goat singers: the castrated opra singers in the Sistine). In fact, Christian churches have been invaded with more "progressives" and sowed much discord.

Teresa D. Welch: Additionally, he challenges the belief that worship can occur only in a corporate setting such as the weekly assembly. Rather, he encourages his readers to worship God with their entire lives. Corbitt also weaves into his book constant reminders of the apostle Paul's command regarding the acceptance of one another in regard to "disputable matters" (Rom 14.1).

Romans 14 has been the favorite ploy of the NACC: In fact if you knew the history of Rome and the various sects which were coming into the church you would grasp that Paul OUTLAWS anything that does not edify or EDUCATE.  Doubtful disputations were simply identified by the days the sects attended the marketplace where the temples provided both entertainment and various types of food. 
Ovid Book One Ovid Art of Love 35

You, who in Cupid's roll inscribe your name,
First seek an object worthy of your flame;1
Then strive, with art, your lady's mind to gain; And last, provide your love may long remain.
1 The poet here gives his advice as to three things: to seek after an amiable object: to win it by respect and complacency, and not to lose it after once gotten.
On these three precepts all my work shall move: These are the rules and principles of love. Before your youth with marriage is oppress't,2 Make choice of one who suits your humour best
And such a damsel drops not from the sky;
She must be sought for with a curious eye. The wary angler, in the winding brook, Knows what the fish, and where to bait his hook.

The fowler and the huntsman know by name
The certain haunts and harbour of their game. So must the lover beat the likeliest grounds; Th' Assemblies where his quarries most abound:

Nor shall my novice wander far astray;
These rules shall put him in the ready way.
Thou shalt not fail around the continent,
As far as Perseus or as Paris went:

For Rome alone affords thee such a store,
As all the world can hardly shew thee more.
The face of heav'n with fewer stars is crown'd, Than beauties in the Roman sphere are found.

Whether thy love is bent on blooming youth,
On dawning sweetness, in unartful truth;
Or courts the juicy joys of riper growth;
Here may'st thou find thy full desires in both:

Or if autumnal beauties please thy sight
(An age that knows to give and take delight;)
Millions of matrons, of the graver sort,
In common prudence, will not balk the sport.
2 That is, while you are a freeman, unmarried, and not engaged to any other mistress. The truest meaning that can be given, is, that while you are young, and are not yet troubled with the infirmities of age (for an old man in love is ridiculous) choose where you please.
In summer's heats thou need'st but only go
To Pompey's cool and shady portico;3
Or Concord's fane; or that proud edifice
Whose turrets near the bawdy suburbs rise;

Or to that other portico, where stands
The cruel father urging his commands.
And fifty daughters wait the time of rest,
To plunge their poniards in the bridegroom's breast.
3 This was a shady walk which Pompey built for the people; and there were several in Rome of the same sort; but the most admirable one of all the porticos, was the Corinthian, near the Flaminian cirque, built by Cneius Octavius.
Or Venus' temple; where, on annual nights,
They mourn Adonis with Assyrian rites.4
4 It was the custom among the Romans, to meet in the temples of Venus to mourn Adonis; of which the prophet Ezekiel speaks, (Ezek. viii. 14.); and infamous acts of lewdness were there committed, if we may believe Juvenal in his sixth satire.

Ezekiel 8.[14] et introduxit me per ostium portae domus Domini quod respiciebat ad aquilonem et ecce ibi mulieres sedebant plangentes Adonidem

Nor shun the Jewish walk, where the foul drove
On sabbaths rest from everything but love.5
5 There were great numbers of the Jews at Rome in Augustus's reign, who were allowed full liberty to exercise their ceremonies, according to the law of Moses.
        And the Roman ladies went often to see them out of curiosity,
        which gave occasion for assignations at their synagogues.
Nor Isis' [Venus] temple; for that sacred whore
Makes others, what to Jove she was before;6
And if the hall itself be not belied,
E'en there the cause of love is often tried;
6 That is, many women were debauched by Isis's means, as she was by Jupiter under the name of Io.
Near it at least, or in the palace yard,
From whence the noisy combatants are heard.
The crafty counsellors, in formal gown,7
[stola] There gain another's cause, but lose their own.

Their eloquence is nonpluss'd in the suit;
And lawyers, who had words at will, are mute.
Venus from her adjoining temple smiles
To see them caught in their litigious wiles;
7 The following verses are a happy paraphrase of Ovid; in whose time we find the long robe dealt as much with the stola, etc., as it does in our own.
Ov. Ars 1
You may believe; and Venus be my guide.10
Far hence ye vestals be, who bind your hair;11 And wives, who gowns below your ancles wear.
I sing the brothels loose and unconfin'd,
Th' unpunishable pleasures of the kind;
Which all alike for love or money find.
Grave senators lead home the youthful dame,8

Returning clients when they patrons came.
8 We see these assemblies were composed of all sorts of persons; upon which our French author remarks thus: " This does not very well agree to the practice in our days; and I cannot comprehend how gallant women could frequent the courts of justice : where it is to be supposed, nobody came but such as had business and suits depending."
But above all, the Playhouse is the place;9
There's choice of quarry in that narrow chace:

There take thy stand, and sharply looking out, Soon may'st thou find a mistress in the rout, For length of time or for a single bout.

The Theatres are berries for the fair; Like ants or mole-hills thither they repair; Like bees to hives so numerously they throng, It may be said they to that place belong:

Thither they swarm who have the public voice; There choose, if plenty not distracts thy choice.

To see, and to be seen, in heaps they run;

Some to undo, and some to be undone.
9 It must be owned, the theatres, amphitheatres, cirques, hippodromes,

    and all places where the public feasts and rejoicings were kept, were very fatal to the chastity of the women of old.

Romans 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification. [education]
Romans 15:3 For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me.
Romans 15:4 For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.

ROMANS 15 DEFINES THE ASSEMBLY, gathering or coming together which are synagogue words: there was no praise service in the synagogue or ekklesia

-Romans 15.1 
debemus autem nos firmiores inbecillitates infirmorum sustinere et non nobisplacere

-Placeo to please, to be pleasing or agreeable, to be welcome, acceptable, to satisfy (class.).
1. In scenic lang., of players or pieces presented, to please, find favor, give satisfaction: “primo actu placeo, Ter. Hec. prol. alt. 31: cui scenico placenti,populo ut placerent quas fecisset fabulas,

Făcĭoto compose, id. Pis. 29, 70: “carmina,Juv. 7, 28: “versus,id. 7, 38: “sermonem,Cic. Fam. 9, 8, 1; cf. “litteram,id. Ac. 2, 2, 6: ludos, to celebrate, exhibit = edere, id. Rep. 2, 20; id. Att. 15, 10; “also i. q. ludificari,
 4. To represent a thing in any manner, to feign, assert, 8. In relig. lang., like the Gr . rhezein, to perform or celebrate a religious rite; to offer sacrifice, make an offering, to sacrifice compositio,

2Timothy 4:4 And they shall turn away their ears from the truth,
        and shall be turned unto fables.

Fābŭla , ae, f. fari,
B.  Of particular kinds of poetry.
1.  Most freq., a dramatic poem, drama, play (syn.: “ludus, cantus, actio, etc.): in full, fabula scaenica,Amm. 28, 1, 4; “or, theatralis,id. 14, 6, 20: “fabula ad actum scenarum composita,”fabulam, quae versatur in tragoediis atque carminibus non a veritate modo

  Cantus , ūs, m. id., I. the production of melodious sound, a musical utterance or expression, either with voice or instrument; hence, song, singing, playing,
1. With the voice, a singing, song; in full, cantus vocum , Cic. Rosc. Am. 46, 134: “fit etiam saepe vocum gravitate et cantibus ut pellantur animi, etc.,
2. With instruments, a playing, music: “citharae,” “horribili stridebat tibia cantu,Cat. 64, 264: “querulae tibiae,  “lyrae,Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 72: “tibicine

Outlawed: 1. In scenic lang., of players or pieces presented, to please, find favor, give satisfaction: scenico placenti

Outlawed: Scaenĭcus I. of or belonging to the stage, scenic, dramatic, theatrical

FABLES TO FOOL:   Scaenĭcus (scen- ), a, um, adj., = skēnikos, I. of or belonging to the stage, scenic, dramatic, theatrical (class.).
stage-plays, theatrical representations , “fabula,a drama, Amm. 28, 1, 4: “organa,Suet. Ner. 44: “coronae,id. ib. 53: “habitus,id. ib. 38: “gestus,Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 220: “modulatio,Quint. 11, 3, 57:
1. scaē-nĭcus , i, m., a player, actor, Cic. Off. 1, 31, 114: “orator plurimum aberit a scaenico 2. scaenĭca , ae, f., a female player, an actress,
Skēni^k-os  of the stage, theatrical, Plu.2.1142c; “agōnactor

Outlawed: Orgănum , Vitr. 10, 1.--Of musical instruments, a pipe,. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 et saep.--Of hydraulic engines, an organ, water-organ: organa hydraulica,

Gen 4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
H8610 manipulate, figuratively to use unwarrantably:--catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, X surely, surprise, take.
H8608 taphaph to drum, that is, play (as) on the tambourine:taber, play with timbrels.
H8611 tôpheth to'-feth From the base of H8608 ; a smiting, that is, (figuratively) contempt:--tabret. MEANING HELL
Orgănum , i, n., = organon,Of musical instruments, a pipe, Quint. 11, 3, 20; 9, 4, 10; Juv. 6, 3, 80; Vulg. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 et saep. an organ, water-organ:organa hydraulica,Suet. Ner. 41: aquatica, Mythogr. Lat. 3, 12.—Of a church-organ, Cass. Expos. in Psa. 150; Aug. Enarr. in Psa. 150, n. 7.—  B. Transf.: organum oris, the tongue of a man, Prud. steph

Romans 8:8 So then they that are in the flesh cannot please God.

Outlawed: I. Lit.: poëtae, dramatic poets, ludi, stage-plays, theatrical representations, : fabula, a drama, organa, Suet. Ner. 44 : coronae, id. ib. 53 : habitus, id. ib. 38 : gestus, Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 220 : modulatio Comedy. ōrātor , ōris, m. oro, one who speaks. I. A speaker, orator (very common in all periods and styles of writing): eum (oratorem)

Poi-êtês II. composer of a poem, author, p. kômôidias Pl.Lg.935e ; p. kainôn dramatôn, b. composer of music, 2. author of a speech

Outlawed:modulatio,”  II. In partic., a rhythmical measure, modulation; hence, singing and playing, melody, in poetry and music, Quint. 9, 4, 139: “modulatione produci aut corripi (verba),id. 9, 4, 89: “modulatio pedum,id. 1, 6, 2: “scenica,id. 11, 3, 57: “vocis,melody, id. 11, 3, 59: “musica,

Clement of Alexandria: "After having paid reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within [at church] what they have heard. And outside they foolishly amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quavering (feminine vibrato), occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxication, and all kinds of trash.
Outlawed: Mūsĭca , ae, and mūsĭcē , ēs, f., = mousikē,
I. the art of music, music; acc. to the notions of the ancients, also every higher kind of artistic or scientific culture or pursuit: “musicam Damone aut Aristoxeno tractante? etc.,Cic. de Or. 3, 33, 132: “socci et cothurni,” i. e. comic and dramatic poetry, Aus. Ep. 10, 43: “musice antiquis temporibus tantum venerationis habuit, ut,Quint. 1, 10, 9.

Teresa D. Welch:  He calls on the movement that once called itself the unity movement to stop dividing the church and breaking fellowship with others over issues of music and to restore relationships with other brothers and sisters in Christ.  61

Again, the Reformed Baptists (Churches of Christ later) were never UNITED with the Disciples of Christ.  Stone would have demanded his own terms and "union" would have demanded a CREED and some kind of organization. Churches of Christ were congregational and the Campbells warned about the Missionary Society even though the Disciples elected Campbell as a ploy.  Unity happens when everyone speaks the same things: God provided an absolute patters practiced from the wilderness onward. Paul said to "use one mind and one mouth to speak that which is written for our learning.

See Burnett on the so-Called Stone-Campbell Movement

Unity in John 17 and among the Campbells was based on the WORD of God. That removed anything BUT teaching the Word and leaving the private opinions at home.  He said that the Christians had shown how people could be divided rather than united.  There was no "unity" between the Disciples and Reformed Baptists. Before the "handshake" in 1833 and after that so-called unity with the Reformed Baptists, Alexander Campbell and Stone denied that there could be any unity.

If there were Christians (upper case) in the SECTS He urged them to COME OUT OF BABYLON.

Teresa D. Welch: The strength of Missing More Than Music lies in Corbitt's clear articulation of the issues. Though some may think his work is redundant or oversimplified, his intent is to provide a resource for four groups of people:

(I) members of non-instrumental churches who have struggled with understanding the rules surrounding worship,

The struggle began when the Christian Churches were first sected out of the Disciples in 1971. Since then the Stone-Campbell Movement (based on lies) has had the NACC working to "unite" again meaning that "you do what we do and we can be friends."  Rich Atchley has been one of the few who have been captured and used by the NACC:  No one struggled and never BRANDED themselves as non-instrumental churches of Christ until the NACC named itself "Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ." That caused all of the conflict.
Rick Atchley: The era of the progressive Church of Christ is over.

Back in the 80’s you could go to any major city, especially in the South, and you could find a progressive Church of Christ — and if they would preach grace, and if they would put words on a screen, and if they would let divorced people place membership, they would grow.

The generation of Boomers has enough denominational loyalty that they’re going to find the least legalistic

Well, we discipled the children of those progressive churches
        for a whole generation to grow past us Boomers.
        They never heard the sermons we heard.
        They never heard the rationale for a cappella music.

We sent them to youth rallies and Church of Christ events
        with some of the finest Christian bands in the world.

        We discipled our children to leave our Movement!
Rick Atchley was targeted by David Faust: under the ploy of "unity" he made the rounds with a "white paper" insisting that FACTS demanded that Churches of Christ endorse the Instrumentalists. Hopefully without understanding that the CONTEXT of his proof texts proves that David's 10 reasons are utterly false.

David Faust and the Temple
See Christ defining Blasphemy of The Holy Spirit

1. David Faust insists:
I . In the Old Testament the Lord didn't merely "permit" the use of musical instruments as aids to worship.
                He commanded their use.

In the old Testament the Lord didn't merely "permit' the use of musical instruments as aids to worship.
                He blessed their use.

2. Christ in the Prophets said:

Jer. 8:7 Yea, the stork in the heaven knoweth her appointed times; 
        and the turtle and the crane and the swallow observe the time of their coming; 
        but my people know not the judgment of the LORD.

Jer. 8:8 How do ye say, We are WISE
        and the law of the LORD is WITH US? 
        THE PEN OF THE SCRIBES IS in vain.

WISE IS: Sophos   A. skilled in any handicraft or art, clever, mostly of poets and musicians, Pi.O.1.9, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. E.IT1238 (lyr.), cf. Ar.Ra.896 (lyr.),poets and musicians, Pi.O.1.9, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. E.IT1238

Sophis-teia , h(, A. sophistry, D.S.12.53, Plu.2.78f, D.L.2.113, etc.; opp. sophia, Ph.1.10; s. mantikē, of Balaam
Sophis-tês , ou, ho, master of one's craft, adept panu thaumaston legeis s (wonderful speaker)
with modal words added, “hoi s. tōn hierōn melōn”  (Melody in a holy place)
II. from late v B.C., a Sophist, i.e. one who gave lessons in grammar, rhetoric, politics, mathematics, for money,

The Lying Pen of the Scribes does not speak to the Godly people
Mendax II. Transf., of inanim, and abstr. things, lying, false, deceptive; feigned, fictitious, counterfeit, not real, etc.
a liar should have a good memory,

The Spirit OF Christ contradicts:

Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel;
       Put your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat flesh. Jeremiah 7:21

For I spake NOT unto your fathers, nor  commanded them
        in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt,
         concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices: Jeremiah 7:22
But this thing commanded I them, saying,
         Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people: (CENI)
         and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, (CENI)
         that it may be well unto you. Jeremiah 7:23

Jer 23:17 They say still unto them that despise me,

        The Lord hath said, Ye shall have peace;
        and they say unto every one that walketh
        after the imagination of his own heart,
        No evil shall come upon you.  "You can SOW discord and steal from the owners"
Teresa D. Welch:  (2) Church of Christ members who continue to support a cappella only worship and are skeptical about those who would disagree,

(3) individuals who would like to dialogue with those in the a cappella churches, and

Thank you very much for the permission: most of us dialog lots of times. Forums are open for those who cannot be at two places at the same time on Sunday  Morning.   Dialog only has value when you can quote Scripture with members of Churches of Christ.  We tend to follow the Commands, examples and inferences which are defined clearly by the Spirit OF Christ in the prophets, the New Testament, most historic scholars and founders of denominations.  The LOGOS form of speaking excludes poetry and music or one's personal experiences or opinions. We find it pretty hard to dialog about the Word when the performers are on stage ASSISTING us.

Teresa D. Welch: (4) Christians who desire unity within the church.

According to Jesus unity exists in His Church when we imate him.  The Father of Thought, Breathed on the Son and the Son articulated God's WORD without METRON.  That has the same meaning as "meter" so unity SPEAK what the SON Spoke  without adding any of His opinions.  It is probable that the School of Christ is like that proverbial NUT: not under either shell. 

Teresa D. Welch: Therefore, Corbitt deliberately explains quotes, attempts to help his readers understand how to read lexicon entries and goes to great lengths to simplify complicated biblical interpretation issues.

Unfortunately, Corbitt apparently does not have access to an extensive lexicon and assuredly has never followed the links to historic documents showing how a word is used in context. For instance, the Psallo word has the same root meaning as SOP: it has no musical message for the church.  It is USED of SMITING a harp string with one's FINGERS and NEVER with a plectron.  Therefore, he cannot possibly use a guitar pick without being psallo-condemned.  Psallo has nothing to say about wind or percussion instruments.  Psallo is never used in any literature meaning musical melody or even playing a harp: if you plick a bow-string you make it twang to send forth a singing arrow into a literal heart.  If you  pluck a harp-string you make a twanging sound but NOT music.  Paul used psallo and charis (grace) in a parallel sense. Since the direct command is to SPEAK that which is written for our learning, the psallo IN THE HEART is to repudiate the getting FLUTED down with wine where they struck a HARP which is not a HEART.

Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is.
Ephesians 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit;
Ephesians 5:19 Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
        singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;

kat-auleô , A. charm by flute-playing, metaphor., se . . -êsô phobôi I will flute to you on a ghastly flute, E.HF871 (troch.):--Pass., of persons, methuôn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute, Pl.R.561c; k. pros chelônidos psophon to be played to on the flute with lyre accompaniment, II. in Pass., [ton monochordon kanona] parechein tais aisthêsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, Ptol.Harm.2.12: metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelômenoi 

2. c. gen. loci, make a place sound with flute-playing, resound with flute-playing, nêsos katêuleito Plu.Ant.56 

Plutarch, Anthony 56 Thus, all their forces being joined together, they hoised  sail towards the ile of Samos. and there gave themselves to feasts and solace. For as all the kings, princes, and commonalties, people, and cities, from Syria unto the marrishes Maeotides , and from the Armenians to the Illyrians, were sent unto, to send and bring all munition and warlike preparation they could:
        even so all players, minstrels, tumblers, fools, and festers,
        were commanded to assemble in the ile of Samos.
So that, where in manner all the world in every place was full of lamentations, sighs, and tears, only in this ile  of Samos there was nothing for many days' space but singing and piping, and all the theatre full of these common players, minstrels, and singing-men. Besides all this, every city sent an ox thither to sacrifice, and kings did strive one with another who should make the noblest feasts, and give the richest gifts. So that [p. 204] every man said, "What can they do more for joy of victory, if they win the battle, when they make already such sumptuous feasts at the beginning of the war ?" 

II. in Pass., [ton monochordon kanona] parechein tais aisthêsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, Ptol.Harm.2.12: metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelômenoi k
III. c. acc. rei,
play on the flute, ta mêtrôia Duris 16 J.:--Pass., to have played to one as an accompaniment on the flute,

katapsallô A.play stringed instruments to, [sumposion] katauleinkai k. Plu.2.713e :--usu. in Pass., have music played to one, enjoy music, ib.785e; of places, resound with music, Id.Ant.56. 2. Pass., to be buried to the sound of music3. metaph., katapsalletai . . hodêmiourgos is drummed out
  • hupauleô , play on the flute in accompaniment, melo. lusiôidos 1 one who played women's characters in male attire,  

Kha^rizō [Grace] 2. gratify or indulge a humour or passion,
3. in erotic sense, grant favours to a man, Ar.Ec.629

Plat. Rep. 493d  that it is wisdom to have learned to know the moods and the pleasures of the motley multitude in their assembly, whether about painting or music or, for that matter, politics?
        For if a man associates with these and offers and exhibits to them his poetry
        or any other product of his craft or any political. service,
        and grants the mob authority over himself more than is unavoidable,
the proverbial necessity of Diomede will compel him to give the public what it likes, but that what it likes is really good and honorable, have you ever heard an attempted proof of this that is not simply ridiculous?”5
5 katagelaston is a strong word. “Make the very jack-asses laugh” would give the tone. Cf. Carlyle, Past and Present, iv. “impartial persons have to say with a sigh that . . . they have heard no argument advanced for it but such as might make the angels and almost the very jack-asses weep. Cf. also Isoc.Panegyr. 14, Phil. 84, 101, Antid. 247, Peace 36, and katagelastos in Plato
Teresa D. Welch:  He is intentionally writing for readers to understand the positions of both sides of these issues. Additionally, at the conclusion of each section, Corbitt poses questions to help readers apply the material to their current understanding or set of presuppositions. At times, Corbitt seems to make the same mistakes he claims Ferguson and others make when approaching the study of specific words or passages, because he now comes to the material wearing his own set of glasses.

In his explanation of the connotations of the Greek word psallo, Corbitt looks for arguments that this word implied, for the New Testament audience, the use of instruments to accompany songs of praise.

See the Psallo background never read by any of those planning to sow discord.

That is never a fact.  If one "psallos" or PLUCKS a harp sting it makes a sound: it never meant to play an instrument without naming that instrument. The meaning of Psallo in connection with a Bowstring has the same meaning as plucking a harp string. Which as the same meaning as plucking a hair.

Psallo is used as a metaphor for "making the heart strings sing": there is no Bible passage  which is translated as having this meaning.  If you want to PLAY a harp you must name that harp. A one-note melody was never metrical.

Teresa D. Welch: For example Corbitt argues that Luke chose to use the Greek word humneo in his description of Paul and Silas singing hymns in prison (Acts 16.25) since instrumental accompaniment could not have been used in this circumstance.

Perhaps Danny Corbitt thinks that Paul and Silas went around singing hymns and plucking their harp: that would universally put them in the class as females or effeminate.  Speaking where the Bible speaks would never permit such a statement.

Paul commanded that we SPEAK the Biblical Text.  A Hymn is one of few in the Book of Psalms: they are prayers and we don't PLAY instruments when WE pray or when WE preach but we DO when Jesus comes to teach.

humnos , ho, A. hymn, ode, in praise of gods or heroes (“kai ti ēn eidos ōdēs eukhai pros theous, onoma de humnoi epekalounto Pl.Lg.700b;

Jesus and the apostles HYMNED and then went out after the institution of the Lord's Supper.
Matthew 26.30 When they had 'hymned" they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Matthew 26.30  et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Oliveti

Hymnus , i, m., = humnos, I. a song of praise, a hymn: “hymnus cantus est cum laude Dei,  “divinorum scriptor hymnorum, Lact. 4, 8, 14; Vulg. Psa. 60 tit.; id. Matt. 26, 30.
Psalm 60 A teaching poem by David,
They SPOKE the hallel

Dīco,  to say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor stands for the Gr. eipein pros tina,
4. To describe, relate, sing, celebrate in writing (mostly poet.): “tibi dicere laudes,
The Brisker Rav explains that the reason for these differences is based on a difference in the essence of each Hallel. The Hallel of the Regalim and the set days is a Hallel recited as an obligation to *read the Hallel*, an obligation in "Keri'ah" (through reading the Hallel,

"The Hallel through the generations, on specific occasions: Pesachim 117a
Hallel requires a full stomach and a satisfied spirit: Taanis 25b-26a
READING is beloved to the people, and so they LISTEN closely: Megillah 21b

"The Hallel as an Institution of the Prophets, to use to PRAY for salvation from danger: Pesachim 117a [2x]
Saying the Hallel daily is blasphemous: Shabbos 118b
Role of the Reader in the "Hallel" prayer of praise 
Ability of the Reader to read the prayers for others who aren't expert: Rosh HaShanah 33b,34b-35a


The SERVICE of the soothsaying Levites is called hard bondage: Christ in Isaiah 1 and Jeremiah 7 says that God did not comand sacrifices or burnt offerings. This came along with being abandoned to worship the starry host.
H6 Abad wander away, destroy, perish
h9 Abedah destruction, that is Hades
h10 Abaddoh perishing, destruction
h11 Abaddon perishing concretely Hades--destructon

That has the same meaning as Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon. Apollo was the father of musical harmony, shooting real arrows into real hearts with his bow and shooting love arrows into his friends with his lyre. He is the father of homosexual or sectual practices in "worship services" which are often "virtual" as Carol Wimber mother of the Vineyards of wineskins worship promotes.
"An artificial, effeminate music which should relax the soul, frittering the melody, and displacing the power and majesty of divine harmony by tricks of art, and giddy, thoughtless, heartless, souless versifying would be meet company." (Barnes, Albert, Amos, p. 303).

"Jingling, banging, and rattling accompanied heathen cults, and the frenzying shawms of a dozen ecstatic cries intoxicated the masses. Amid this euphoric farewell feast of a dying civilization, the voices of nonconformists were emerging from places of Jewish and early Christian worship; Philo of Alexandria had already emphasized the ethical qualities of music, spurning the 'effeminate' art of his Gentile surroundings.

Similarly, early synagogue song intentionally foregoes artistic perfection, renounces the playing of instruments,
attaches itself entirely to the WORD--the TEXT of the Bible (Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1971 ed., s.v. "Music")

1 i.e., solemn chants sung to the “cithara” or lyre. “Dithyrambs” were choral odes to Dionysus; “paeans” were mostly hymns of praise to Apollo. [Abaddon, Apollyon: the name of the SERVICE of the Levites or soothsayers]
Why should we be intimidated into "fellowshiping" and paying for performances of which Apollo was the father when it was rejected by more literate and civil society?
Plat. Laws 936c There shall be no beggar in our State; and if anyone attempts to beg, and to collect a livelihood by ceaseless [making Poieo meter, hymns] prayers, the market-stewards shall expel him from the market, and the Board of city-stewards from the city, and from any other district he shall be driven across the border by the country-stewards, to the end that the land may be wholly purged of such a creature. If a slave, male or female, do any injury to another man's goods,
Epikheir-eō , (kheir) A. put one's hand to,hoi men deipnō epekheireon
III.  attempt to prove, argue dialectically, Pl.Tht.205a, Hermog.Inv.3.4; “peri tinos”  ek tinos from a topic, ib.115a26 ; “es tiD.L.4.28 ; “e. hoti; “logikōteron estin epikheirein hōde
Gignomai  to be engaged in . Ergon, Occupation. , hoi en poiēsei ginomenoi in poetry, Id.2.82; etc.; g. epi tini fall into or be in one's power, X.An.3.1.13, etc.; “epi sumphorais g.D.21.58 
Poi-ēsis , eōs, , melos , eos, to, A. fabrication, creation, production,
2. of Poetry, tōn dithurambōn p., tēs tragōdias, tōn epōn, Pherecr.145.10, Pl.Grg.502a, 502b, R. 394c: abs., art of poetry,hoi en 
-Plato. Republic [398a] “True,” he said. “If a man, then, it seems, who was capable by his cunning of assuming every kind of shape and imitating all things should arrive in our city, bringing with himself the poems which he wished to exhibit, we should fall down and worship him as a holy and wondrous and delightful creature, but should say to him that there is no man of that kind among us in our city, nor is it lawful for such a man to arise among us, and we should send him away to another city, after pouring myrrh down over his head and crowning him with fillets of wool, but we ourselves, for our souls' good, should continue to employ
-Commentary Epideik-nu_mi -nuō 2. . more freq. in Med., show off or display for oneself or what is one's own, mousikan orthan e. give a specimen of his art. of a rhetorician lecturing, Id.Phdr.235a; “polla kai kalaId.Grg.447a; of epideictic orators, Arist.Rh.1391b26; of a musician, e. “hupertheōnPl.Lg.648d.
-Plat. Rep. 3.398b the more austere and less delightful poet and tale-teller, who would imitate the diction of the good man and would tell his tale in the patterns which we prescribed in the beginning, when we set out to educate our soldiers.” “We certainly should do that if it rested with us.
Plat. Laws 700b one class of song was that of prayers to the gods, which bore the name of “hymns”;

with this was another class, best called “dirges”; “paeans” formed another; and yet another was the “dithyramb,” named, I fancy, after Dionysus. “Nomes” also were so called as being a distinct class of song; and these were further described as “citharoedic nomes. So these and other kinds being classified and fixed, it was forbidden to set one kind of words to a different class of tune.

The songs accompanied by a guitar would ALWAYS be those of Apollo one of the SUN GODS worshipped by the Jews after God abandoned them.

1 i.e., solemn chants sung to the “cithara” or lyre. “Dithyrambs” were choral odes to Dionysus; “paeans” were mostly hymns of praise to Apollo [Abaddon, Apollyon]

2 Cp. Plat. Laws 657c ff., 699c ff.

Plat. Laws 657c Athenian
May we confidently describe the correct method in music [mousikē] and play [paizō ], in connection with choristry, in some such terms as this:
        we rejoice whenever we think we are prospering,
        and, conversely, whenever we rejoice we think we are prospering? Is not that so?

Clinias Yes, that is so.
Moreover, when in this state of joy we are unable to keep still.

Paizō  2. esp. dance, “paisat
4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16.
5. play amorously, “pros allēlousX.Smp.9.2; “meta tinosLXX Ge.26.8;

Nomos is the only meaning of "legalism": then and now nothing is so law-based as singing and playing various instruments. Nothing is so works-intensive as musical learning, rehearsing, performing and critiquing.

Nomos I. anything assigned, a usage, custom, law, ordinance, Lat. institutum, Hes.; nomos pantōn basileus custom is lord of all,
a musical mode or strain, Aesch., Plat., etc.; nomoi kitharōdikoi Ar.

If you want to SING a hymn it takes two words: Lucky for us Paul told us to SPEAK.
1aoidēs humnosOd.8.429
he may take pleasure in the feast, and in hearing the strains of the song
aiti te terpētai kai aoidēs humnon akouōn.

2 Terpō , delight, gladden, cheer, “ho ken terpēsin aeidōn17.385; “ phormiggi ho ge thumon eterpenIl.9.189, will give momentary pleasure
2. enjoy or delight oneself, c. dat. instr
., “phrena t. phormiggiIl.9.186; “muthoisiOd.23.301;

3 Aoid-ē a^],  2  act of singing, song,
  eppsdē, spell, incantation,okhēes ōkeiais . . anathrōskontes aoidaisA.R.4.42, cf. 59
phorm-igx , iggos, ,
A.lyre, freq. in Hom., esp. as the instrument of Apollo [Abaddon, Apollyon] , “phormiggos perikalleos hēn ekh' ApollōnIl.1.603, cf. 24.63, Od.17.270, Hes.Sc.203; of Achilles, “phrena terpomenon phormiggi ligeiē kalē daidaleēIl.9.186
2. ph. akhordos, metaph. for a bow,
anti-psallō ,
A.play a stringed instrument in accompaniment of song, “a. elegois phormiggaAr.Av.218.

There is no single word which means to play and sing
The Word
humn-eō , Ep. humneiō Hes.Op.2;
Hes. WD 1 Muses of Pieria who give glory through song, come hither, tell of Zeus your father and chant his praise. Through him mortal men are famed or unfamed, sung or unsung alike, as great Zeus wills. [5] For easily he makes strong, and easily he brings the strong man low; easily he humbles the proud and raises the obscure, and easily he straightens the crooked and blasts the proud,—Zeus who thunders aloft and has his dwelling most high. Attend thou with eye and ear, and make judgements straight with righteousness. [10] And, Perses, I would tell of true things.

h.Ap.190 Homeric Hymns To Pythian Apollo

[1] O Lord, Lycia is yours and lovely Maeonia [180] and Miletus, charming city by the sea, but over wave-girt Delos you greatly reign your own self.

Leto's all-glorious son goes to rocky Pytho, playing upon his hollow lyre, clad in divine, perfumed garments; and his lyre, [185] at the touch of the golden key, sings sweet. Thence, swift as thought, he speeds from earth to Olympus, to the house of Zeus, to join the gathering of the other gods: then straightway the undying gods think only of the lyre and song, and all the Muses together, voice sweetly answering voice,

[190] hymn the unending gifts the gods enjoy and the sufferings of men, all that they endure at the hands of the deathless gods, and how they live witless and helpless and cannot find healing for death or defence against old age.

Meanwhile the rich-tressed Graces and cheerful Seasons dance with [195] Harmonia and Hebe and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus, holding each other by the wrist. And among them sings one, not mean nor puny, but tall to look upon and enviable in mien,

Artemis who delights in arrows, sister of Apollo. [200] Among them sport Ares and the keen-eyed Slayer of Argus, while Apollo plays his lyre stepping high and featly and a radiance shines around him, the gleaming of his feet and close-woven vest. And they, [205] even gold-tressed Leto and wise Zeus, rejoice in their great hearts as they watch their dear son playing among the undying gods.

prospaizô , fut.
A. -paixomai App.BC4.118 : aor. prosepaisa Pl. Euthd.283b , Alciphr.3.65; also prosepaixa ib.5, Plu.Caes.63:--play or sport with, tini X.Mem.3.1.4, Pl.Euthd.278b; of a partridge, Porph.Abst.3.4: metaph., prospaizousa tois ômois komê playing over, Poll.2.25.
2. abs., sport, jest, p. en logois Pl.Phdr.262d , cf. Lg. 653e, 804b; opp. spoudazein, Id.Euthd.283b.
3. laugh at, make fun or sport of, tini Men.Epit.182, Plu.2.197d, Caes.63; satirize, tini D.L.4.61, 7.164:--Med., App. l.c.
II. c. acc., theous p. sing to the gods, sing in their praise or honour, Pl.Epin.980b: c. dupl. acc., humnon prosepaisamen . . ton . . Erôta sang a hymn in praise of Eros, Id.Phdr.265c.
banter, tous rhêtoras Id.Mx.235c , cf. Euthd.285a; p. ton kuna, ton arkton, tantalize, Luc.Dom.24, Ael.NA4.45.
Plat. Epin. 980b and honoring the gods, with high tribute of his hymns and affluence throughout the period of his own life.

Cleinias Well spoken, indeed, good sir. Yes, may you have this consummation of your laws, after making fine sport in praising the gods and having passed a purer life, to find thereby the best and fairest end!

Athenian Then how, Cleinias, do we state it? Do we honor the gods, think you, to the utmost with our hymns, praying that we may be moved to speak the fairest and best things about them? Do you state it so, or how?

Plat. Phaedrus 265b Socrates
And we made four divisions of the divine madness, ascribing them to four gods, saying that prophecy was inspired by Apollo, the mystic madness by Dionysus, the poetic by the Muses, and the madness of love, inspired by Aphrodite and Eros, we said was the best. We described the passion of love in some sort of figurative manner, expressing some truth, perhaps, and perhaps being led away in another direction, and after composing a somewhat
[265c] plausible discourse, we chanted a sportive and mythic hymn in meet and pious strain to the honor of your lord and mine, Phaedrus, Love, the guardian of beautiful boys.

Yes, and I found it very pleasant to hear.

Polu-umnos , on,
A.abounding in songs, much sung of, famous, theos p., of Dionysus, E.Ion1074 (lyr.), cf. h.Hom.26.7; “pornēAnacr.159;AthēnaiAr.Eq.1328; “thēsauros MousanTim.Pers.244.

prokōmion , to,
A.prelude sung by a kōmos, Pi.N.4.11.

pronom-ion , to,
A.song sung before the nomos (sign f. 11), Poll.4.53: metaph., Jul.Or.2.56d (pl.): also as Adj., “p. melosHim. Or.4.3, cf. 34.1.
I.  anything assigned, a usage, custom, law, ordinance, Lat. institutum, Hes.; nomos pantōn basileus custom is lord of all,
II.  a musical mode or strain, Aesch., Plat., etc.; nomoi kitharōdikoi Ar.
2  a song sung in honour of some god, Hdt.; nomoi polemikoi war- tunes, Thuc.
prosōdia , , (ōdē)
A.song sung to instrumental music,= ōdē pros kitharan, Critias 57, cf. Choerob. in Sch.D.T.p.124 H., Hsch., Phot., etc.
II. variation in pitch of the speaking voice, phthoggoi kai p. tones and voice-modulations, Pl.R.399a.
4. written marks indicating the above differences of pronunciation, autos ho kharaktēr tōn tonōn kai tōn khronōn kai tōn pneumatōn, hoion

humn-ētos , ē, on,
A.sung of, praised, lauded,eudaimōn kai hu.Pi.P.10.22, cf. 11.61, LXXDa.3.56.

It is absolute: all of singing AND playing a harp point directly to Apollo, Abbadon or Apollyon

Teresa D. Welch:  However, since Luke does not use psallo elsewhere in his writings, the assertion that Luke's choice of words infers the difference between psallo and humneo as instrumental accompaniment is unfounded.
Neither are accompanied unless specified. We have noted the common NOMOS or "legalism" that other forms of songs are accompanied by instruments. These are specificially involved with Dionysus or Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon).  It is a fact that when the Disciples tried to justify their sowing of discord they originally said that Psallo authorized instruments. The effort has shifted to say that Psallo DEMANDS the use of instruments when Jesus comes to be our Master Teacher.  That having been proven false, the latest effort is that when God turned the Jews over to worship the starry host

Teresa D. Welch: Corbitt acknowledges the difficulty he had in seeking a publisher for his work, and though he states he has had this book reviewed and affirmed by scholars, this work is self-published and has not been formally reviewed and edited by those who might discover additional inconsistent arguments. Additionally, Corbitt makes a few assumptions about the practice of the Churches of Christ that may not be true for all churches within that movement and uses strong, sometimes even abrasive language, when addressing those who would disagree with his position.

His choice of the word "exclusion" to define the beliefs of the non-solo, non-instrumental churches may not be helpful in his attempt to reconcile himself to his former tradition. On page 29, he likens those who support "exclusion" to the Pharisees whom Jesus rebukes in Mark 7.5-8 who have "let go of the commands of God and are holding on to the traditions of men." Though he desires compassion in favor of unity, his argumentative writing style may not always sound compassionate toward his fellow brothers and sisters in Christ.

Again, Corbitt is self-condemned: he subconsciously or unconsciously brands himself as a hypocrite and--for teaching his own doctrine for MONEY fits the pattern of the Scribes and Pharisees: in the Ezekiel version Christ names speakers, singers and instrument players as the MARK of those who had no intention of obeying the Word of God

Matthew 24:49 And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;

Per-cŭtĭo  b. To strike, play a musical instrument (poet.): lyram,Ov. Am. 3, 12, 40; Val. Fl. 5, 100.—
1.  To smite, strike, visit with calamity of any kind (class.): “percussus calamitate,Cic. Mur. 24, 49: “percussus fortunae vulnere,id. Ac. 1, 3, 11: “ruina,Vulg. Zach. 14, 18: anathemate. id. Mal. 4, 6: “plaga,id. 1 Macc. 1, 32: “in stuporem,id. Zach. 12, 4.—
 2. to strike, shock, make an impression upon, affect deeply, move, astound

Anathema means to dedicate some thing or person to adorn a temple: it can never be redeemed and must be burned.

Matthew 24:50 The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour
that he is not aware of,

Matthew 24:51 And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites:
        there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

Hypocrĭta or -es , ae, m., = hupokritēs.
I.  A mime who accompanied the delivery of an actor by gestures, Suet. Ner. 24; Quint. 2, 17, 12; 11, 3, 7.—
II. In eccl. Lat., a hypocrite, Vulg. Job, 8, 13; id. Matt. 6, 2; id. Luc. 12, 56 al.

Hupo-kri^tēs , ou, ho,
A. one who answers:
I. interpreter or expounder,tēs di' ainigmōn phēmēsPl.Ti. 72b; “oneirōnLuc.Somn.17, etc.
II. in Att., one who plays a part on the stage, actor, Ar.V.1279, Pl.R.373b, Chrm. 162d, Smp.194b, X. Mem.2.2.9, etc.
2. of an orator, poikilos hu. kai perittos (of Dem.) Phld.Rh.1.197 S.; one who delivers, recites, declaimer, epōn rhapsōdoi; rhapsodist, D.S.14.109, 15.7; this sense or sense 11.1 is possible in PCair.Zen.4.44 (iii B. C.).
3. metaph., pretender, dissembler, hypocrite, LXX Jb.34.30, 36.13, Ev.Matt.23.13, al.
Poikilos 2. of Art, p. humnos a song of changeful strain or full of diverse art, Pi.O.6.87; “poikilon kitharizōnId.N.4.14; “dedaidalmenoi pseudesi poikilois muthoiId.O.1.29; of style, “lexis poiētikōtera kai p.Isoc.15.47 (Comp.); “skhēmatismoiD.H.Is.3.
Pind. O. 6 My mother's mother was the nymph of Stymphalus, blossoming Metopa, [85] who bore horse-driving Thebe, whose delicious water I drink, while I weave my embroidered song for heroic spearmen. Now rouse your companions, Aeneas, first to shout the praises of Hera Parthenia, and then to know whether we have truly escaped the ancient reproach [90] of men's speech, “Boeotian pig.” For you are a faithful herald, a message-stick of the lovely-haired Muses, a sweet mixing-bowl of loud-sounding songs.

Id.N.4.14; And if your father Timocritus had still been warmed by the strength of the sun, playing embroidered notes on the cithara [15] and bending to this strain, he would have often celebrated his triumphant son,  The laws of song and the hurrying hours prevent me from telling a long story, [35] and I am drawn, by a magic charm on my heart, to touch on the new-moon festival... Weave out, sweet lyre, right now, [45] the beloved song with Lydian harmony, for Oenone and Cyprus, where Teucer the son of Telamon reigns far from home;

Pind. O. 1 Yes, there are many marvels, and yet I suppose the speech of mortals beyond the true account can be deceptive, stories adorned with embroidered lies; [30]
        and Grace, who fashions all gentle things for men,
        confers esteem and often contrives to make believable the unbelievable.
        But the days to come are the wisest witnesse

generally, assumption of what does not belong to one, pretence,III. in language, ho poiētikos s. the poetical formation (peleias = Pleias), Ath.11.490d; plēthuntikos s.

Epos , includes 1. song or lay accompanied by music, 8.91,17.519.
Teresa D. Welch: Regardless of one's position on the issues of instruments in worship, this book could serve as a helpful resource and encouragement to reexamine the issues that have fractured the Restoration Movement.

Again, we need to correct the false claim that Churches of Christ split the Disciples of Christ in 1906. Churches of Christ following the Reformation path begun by Calvin is not closely related to the Christian churches flowing out of the Methodists, Anglicans, Catholics under OKelly etal. Because the NACC sected out of the Disciples of Christ any unity should ask them to return to the Disciples.  And because the Churches of Christ were never joined to the Disciples except for fraternal relationships before any of the churches decided to ORGANIZE and ORGAN-ize knowing they were sowing discord.

Teresa D. Welch:  For those, including myself, who participate in instrumental congregations, Corbitt's work can promote understanding in an effort to dialogue with our brothers and sisters who worship differently. It could also serve to encourage all of us to reexamine other "disputable matters" that have divided our fellowship from other believers in Christ. Corbitt rightly concludes, "I am ready for a lost world to come to Jesus because of a church that is united. I want to see them drawn in amazement at what God alone can do. I want to be in that number" (162).

While the definition of worship has radically changed, the historic Church of Christ was always a Bible-based assembly where preachers preached the WORD rather than silly self-salvation lectures.

Matt. 28:17 And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted.
G4352 proskuneō pros-koo-neh'-o From G4314 and probably a derivative of G2965 (meaning to kiss, like a dog licking his master’s hand); to fawn or crouch to, that is, (literally or figuratively) prostrate oneself in homage (do reverence to, adore):—worship.
Proskun-eō obeisance to the gods or their images, fall down and worship, c. acc., Hdt.2.121
2.   esp. of the Oriental fashion of prostrating oneself before kings and superiors, abs., Hdt.1.119, 8.118: c Plat. Rep. 398a
(Orig. perh. throw a kiss to the god, cf. Apul.Met.4.28: the gesture is probably represented in Sumerian and Babylonian art monuments.)

Hebrews 12:24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
Hebrews 12:25 See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven:

Because they refused to listen to God, they rose up in PLAY which was musical idolatry. For that offense God gave them The Book of the Law and sentencted them to captivity and death beyond Babylon.  Musical Idolatry is a TERMINAL SIN in many Bible examples

Hebrews 12:26 Whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also heaven.
Hebrews 12:27 And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken may remain.
Hebrews 12:28 Wherefore we receiving a kingdom which cannot be moved, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear:
Hebrews 12:29 For our God is a consuming fire.
Most churches of Christ never speak much about being NON-instrumental or now ANTI-instrumental until people boast about and do "infiltrate and divert" using psychological violence trying to force everyone to AFFIRM their practices. 

TERESA D. WELCH IS ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION AT EMMANUEL SCHOOL OF RELIGION IN JOHNSON CITY, TENNESSEE. 2 Leaven, Vol. 18 [2010], Iss. 1, Art. 15 http://digitalcommons.pepperdine.edu/leaven/vol18/iss1/15a

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