Synagogue Worship - Alfred Edersheim

The Assembly of the Synagogue: The place for Reading the Word and Prayer. That defines "worship in spirit and in truth."

The Covenant God in Christ made with Abraham was not affected by The Law of Moses which "split off" the Civil-Military-Clergy to worship the starry host.

The Law of Moses and the following Law of the Monarchy did not change God's original plan that "church" be a school of the Word of God.  However, the Law was a great curse because, in the words of Nehemiah, the people were enslaved and robbed because of their own sins. While people OF FAITH were accepted by God because they feared Him and worked righteousness, they would be under the Laded Burden of all sacrificial systems.  Jesus gives us REST and says that the kingdom of god does not come with religious observations.
Galatians 3:13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us:
        for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:
Galatians 3:14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ;
        that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.
Galatians 3:15 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men;
        Though it be but a man’s covenant, yet if it be confirmed,
        no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.
Galatians 3:16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made.
        He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.
Galatians 3:17 And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, t
        he law, which was four hundred and thirty years after,
        cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.
Galatians 3:18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise:
        but God gave it to Abraham by promise.
Galatians 3:19 Wherefore then serveth the law?
        It was added because of transgressions,
        till the seed should come to whom the promise was made;
        and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.


Exodus 4:12 Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say.
Exodus 4:15 And thou shalt speak unto him,
        and put words in his mouth: and I will be with thy mouth,
        and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do.

1Corinthians 2:16 For who hath known the mind of the Lord,
        that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ.

This was always available through the prophets.  Jesus would "make the prophecies more certain" and Peter limits the teaching resources to the Prophets and Apostles.

Isaiah 59:20 And the Redeemer shall come to Zion,
        and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the LORD.
Isaiah 59:21 As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the LORD;
        My spirit [breath] that is upon thee,
        and my words which I have put in thy mouth,
        shall not depart out of thy mouth,
        nor out of the mouth of thy seed,
        nor out of the mouth of thy seed’s seed,
        saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever.

God would offer the people The Book of The Covenant which was a covenant of grace like that of the Abrahamic Covenant. The Tribal Elders governed the people and taught the Word of God.  This Covenant of Grace was not changed by the future Laws of the Civil-Military-Clergy state from which the godly people were quarantined to their local area.

Ex. 18:19 Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee:
        Be thou for the people to Godward,
        that thou mayest bring the causes unto God:

Ex. 18:20 And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws,  
        and shalt shew them the way wherein they must walk,  
       and the work that they must do.
A. Objectively, sacredness, sanctity (in this sense rare, and only in sing.): sanctitas regum, et caerimonia deorum. Caes. ap. Suet. Caes. 6: legationis. Cic. Rosc. Am. 39, 113; Tac. A. 4, 64 fin.: 3, 61: loci. id. ib. 14, 22 fin.
B. Subjectively, a holy dread, awe, reverence, veneration of the Deity (external; while religio has regard both to internal and external reverence for God; rare except in sing.)
Cic. S. Rosc. 39.113  Is it not so? In the most trifling affairs be who neglects a commission, must be condemned by a most dishonouring sentence; what punishment ought to be inflicted on that man who has not hindered some private advantage by his carelessness, but has polluted and stained by his treachery the solemnity of the very commission itself? or by what sentence shall he be condemned?
Ostendo , A.  In gen., to show, disclose, exhibit, manifest: ille dies cum gloriā maximā sese nobis ostendat, 2. Transf.: “vocem,to make heard, Phaedr. 1, 13, 9.—
1. to show, express, indicate by speech or signs; to give to understand, to declare, say, tell, make known, etc. (syn.: indico, declaro, significo).—With acc.: “illud ostendit,Cic. Att. 1, 1, 4.—With obj.- or rel.-clause: “ostendit se cum rege colloqui [ to talk together, converse] velle,Nep. Con. 3, 2:
Because Moses admitted that he needed help especially in instructing all of the people:

Ex. 18:21 Moreover thou shalt provide
        out of all the people
        able men, [Apt]
        such as fear God, [H337 yârê’ From H3372 ; fearing; morally reverent]:—
        men of truth, [stable, truth, trustworthy]
        hating covetousness; [unjust gain]
and place such over them, to be
        rulers of thousands,
        and rulers of hundreds,
        rulers of fifties, and 
        rulers of tens:

H8269 śar sar From H8323 ; a head person (of any rank or class):—captain (that had rule), chief (captain), general, governor, keeper, lord, ([-task-]) master, prince (-ipal), ruler, steward.
From quoted Plato In Phaedrus

And they have the less difficulty in finding the nature of their own god in themselves, because they have been compelled to gaze intensely on him; their recollection clings to him, and they become possessed of him, and receive from him their character and disposition, so far as man can participate in God.

The followers of Zeus desire that their beloved should have a soul like him;
        and therefore they seek out some one of a philosophical
and imperial nature,
        and when they have found him and loved him
        they do all they can to confirm
such a nature in him,
and if they have no experience of such a disposition hitherto,
        they learn of any one who can teach them,
        and themselves follow in the same way.


Socrates. The wise are doubtful, and I should not be singular if, like them, I too doubted. I might have a rational explanation that Orithyia was playing with Pharmacia [Sorcery], when a northern gust carried her over the neighbouring rocks; and this being the manner of her death, she was said to have been carried away by Boreas.

The third kind is the madness of those who are possessed by the Muses (Musicians of Rev 18);
        which taking hold of a delicate and virgin soul
        and there inspiring frenzy
        awakens lyrical
and all other numbers;
        with these adorning the myriad actions of ancient heroes for the instruction of posterity (prophecy

In certain ancient Israelite prophetic groups, music was used to achieve the ecstatic state, in which the participants, in their accompanying dancing, were believed to have been seized by the hand of Yahweh, the God of Israel, as in the case of Saul, the 11th-century-bc king of Israel. Encyclopædia Britannica Online


1Timothy 3:2 A bishop then must be blameless,
        the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach;
2Timothy 2:24 And the servant of the Lord must not strive; but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient,

2Thessalonians 2:15 Therefore, brethren, stand fast,
        and hold the traditions which ye have been taught,
        whether by word, or our epistle.
Titus 1:9 Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught,
        that he may be able by sound doctrine
        both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers [Judge]

And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists;
        and some, pastors and teachers; Eph 4:11

For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry,
        for the
edifying of the body of Christ: Eph 4: 12
Till we all come in the unity of the faith,
        and of the
knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man,
        unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ: Eph 4: 13


That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro,
        and carried about with every wind of doctrine,
        by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness
        whereby they lie in wait to deceive; Eph 4: 14
-Fluctuo  fluctus, to move in the manner of waves, i. e. to wave, rise in waves
-Oratio E. A prayer, an address to the Deity (eccl. Lat.): “respice ad orationem servi tui,Vulg. 3 Reg. 8, 28: “per orationes Dominum rogantes,id. 2 Macc. 10, 16: “pernoctans in oratione Dei,id. Luc. 6, 12.—Also absol., prayer, the habit or practice of prayer: “perseverantes in oratione,Vulg. Act. 1, 14: “orationi instate,id. Col. 4, 2; cf. Gell. 13, 22,

-Panourg-êma  A. knavish trick, villainy, S.El.1387 (lyr.), LXX Si.1.6 (v.l.); sophistry, Gal.5.251; cf. panourgeuma.
        -Sophia A. cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, as in carpentry, tektonos, hos rha te pasēs eu eidē s. Il.15.412; of the Telchines, Pi.O.7.53; entekhnos s., of Hephaestus and Athena, Pl.Prt.32 1d; of Daedalus and Palamedes, X.Mem.4.2.33, cf. 1.4.2; in music and singing, tekhnē kai s. h.Merc.483, cf. 511; in poetry, Sol.13.52, Pi.O.1.117

speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things,
        which is the head, even Christ: Eph 4: 15

From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, 
        According to the effectual working in the measure of every part,
        maketh increase of the body unto the edifying [educating] of itself in love. Eph 4: 16

This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord,
        that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk,
        in the vanity of their mind, Eph 4: 17

Vanitas I. Lit., emptiness, nothingness, nullity, want of reality, popular opinion, Magus, Magice. măgus ,I. magic, magical (poet.): artes, Ov. Am. 1, 8, 5: “manus, id. Med. fac. 36: carmen,Sen. Herc. Oet. 467.
        Charms Carmen. I. a tune, song; poem, verse; an oracular response, a prophecy; a form of incantation (cf.: cano, cantus, and canto). I. In gen., a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumental

-HH 4 483 What skill is this? What song for desperate cares? What way of song? For verily here are three things to hand all at once from which to choose, —mirth, and love, and sweet sleep. [450] And though I am a follower of the Olympian Muses who love dances and the bright path of song —the full-toned chant and ravishing thrill of flutes —yet I never cared for any of those feats of skill at young men's revels, as I do now for this:
        Whoso with wit and wisdom enquires of it cunningly, him it teaches [485] through its sound all manner of things that delight the mind, being easily played with gentle familiarities, for it abhors toilsome drudgery; but whoso in ignorance enquires of it violently, to him it chatters mere vanity and foolishness.
Having the understanding darkened, [Skotoo]
        being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance [Agnoia] that is in them,
        because of the
blindness [pōr-oō petrified] of their heart: Eph 4: 18


Ezek 20:11 And I gave them my statutes,
        and shewed them my judgments,
        which if a man do, he shall even live in them.

Ezek 20:12 Moreover also I gave them my sabbaths,
        to be a sign between me and them,
        that they might know that I am the Lord that sanctify them.
Amos 5:26 But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch
        and Chiun your images, the star of your god,
ye made to yourselves.
Amos 5:27 Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus,
        saith the LORD, whose name is The God of hosts
Acts 7:41 And they made a calf in those days, 
        and offered sacrifice unto the idol, 
        and rejoiced in the works of their own hands.
Acts 7:42 Then God turned,
        and gave them up to worship the host of heaven;
        as it is written in the book of the prophets,
        O ye house of Israel,  have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices
        by the space of forty years in the wilderness?
Acts 7:43 Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch
        and the star of your god Remphan, 
        figures which ye made to worship them: 
        and I will carry you away beyond Babylon.
Ezek 20:13 But the house of Israel rebelled against me in the wilderness:
        they walked not in my statutes, and they despised my judgments,
        which if a man do, he shall even live in them;
        and my sabbaths they greatly polluted:
        then I said, I would pour out my fury upon them in the wilderness,
        to consume them.


The future sacrificial system under the Civil-Military-Clergy was abandoned to a Temple-State identical in most respects to the Egyptian-Canaanite--Babylon system.  This system did not follow the Law of Moses.

God in Christ--the ROCK--ordained the qahal, synagogue or Church in the wilderness: while the law was taught to regulate the purely civil role, the synagogue continued to obey the original Covenant: the earlier prophets guided by the Spirit OF Christ taught the people and also repudiated the evil Civil-Military-Clergy state.  As a result the prophets were often murdered for the "faith of Abraham" which was not changed by the addition of the Law of Moses given because of transgression.

Ezek 20:11 And I gave them my statutes,
        and shewed them my judgments,
        which if a man do, he shall even live in them.

The stumbling stone is that almost no sees church as a school of the Bible but as a "worship service" which is patterned on the fatal pattern of the tribe of Levi.


When God rescued the Israelites from Egypt it was to fulfill His promise: righteousness would have left them there to self destruct. The prophets speaking for Christ defined their fall from pure grace about the same time their feet hit safe grounds.

God reconfirmed the Abrahamic Covenant of Grace and it is recorded as The Book of the Covenant. The people refused to listen to the voice of God, demanded a human mediator, and were blinded. They would not be able to read black text on brown paper until they converted (were baptized into) to Christ (2 Cor 3).

While Moses was on the mountain getting the tablets of stone and The Book of The Covenant of Grace, the people fell from Grace and beyond redemption because of the musical idolatry of their old Egyptian trinity.  The Levites were clergy of sun worship in Egypt and it was left to them to slaughter their brethren as they refused to hold the truth of God in their hearts.  The Mount Sinai event is presented in three Papers.

The Musical worship in Egypt repeated as the golden calf at Sinai.       Part Two  

The actual Mount Sinai musical idolatry which abandoned the Levi people to worship the starry host.

The Spirit of Christ defining the result of the fatal musical fall from grace.

The Kabbalah. Because the Jews never saw the spiritual message, after the fall of Jerusalem they took time to restudy the Old Testament.  Unfortunately, the clergy was and will be the last ones to see and hear the Second Advent until Jesus has been here and gone.


As a result of this musical fall from Grace, God gave The Book of The Law. This was to govern the nation politically and to protect the weak from the strong.  After the demand for a king like the nations so they could worship like the nations, God gave them kings and warned that they would rob, steal, enslave and carry out the captivity and death sentence. The like the nations sacrificial systen of the monarchy, temple, sacrificial system and all that went with it had nothing to do with the citizens.

God as Christ the Rock, Pillar, Cloud, Manna etal then ordained the Holy Convocation to be held on the first and seventh days of all festivals. This was a national synagogue where the Words of God were dispensed to the tribes in small groups.


Catholic Encyclopedia.

Every seven years, that is in the year of release, during the feast of Tabernacles, 
the Law was to be read before all the people according to the command found in Deut., xxxi, 10.

But this enactment was probably soon found to be impracticable;
        and thus the Jewish authorities arranged to read on every sabbath,
        commencing with the sabbath after the feast of Tabernacles in one year of release
        and ending with the feast of Tabernacles in the next year of release,
        a portion of the Law so calculated that the whole Pentateuch would be read through in seven years.

This would in some way the commandment be fulfilled. Some time later,
        the Jews of Palestine lengthened the sections for each sabbath
        in such a manner that he entire Law could be read in three years (Talm. Babyl. Megillah, 29b).

Miqra (h4744) mik-raw'; from 7121; something called out, i. e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal: - assembly, calling, convocation, reading.

So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading. Ne.8:8

And the Lord will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be a defence. Is.4:5 


God only authorized the two silver trumpets: these were reserved for sending important signals.  However, many people had their own flutes or shofars, tambourines and sistrums: Miriam had here sistrum as a priestess or prophetess in Egypt.  The women especially were prone to parade around singing, clapping, dancing and beating on instruments.  Therefore, the command:

Num. 10:5 When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward.
Num. 10:6 When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys.

"Despite the differences between the Mosaic and the Egyptian cults, it can hardly be denied that Egyptian influence on Jewish musical practices were quite significant. They would stand to reason because of the high quality of egyptian cultic music.

The tambourine or timbrel, a hoop of bells over which a white skin was stretched, came from Egypt. Miriam used this instrument to accompany the singing and dancing on the shores of the Red Sea (Ex. 15).

The trumpet blown for decampment, at the gathering of the people and on different cultic occasions, especially during sacrifices (2 Chron. 30:21; 35:15; Num 10:2), was the signaling instrument of the Egyptian army.

The sistrum, according to 2 Sam 6:5, was used by the Israelites and bore the name mena'aneim. It was the same as the Egyptian kemkem which was employed in the cult of Isis.

The solemnity celebrated on the occasion of the transferring of the Ark to Sion, as well as the dances of the daughters of Israel at the annual feast of the Lord of Shiloh (Judg 21:21), were similar in thier musical embellishments to Egyptian customs in the liturgy and at parades. As Herodotus reports,

women sang the praises of Osiris while likenesses of the gods were born about and, during the festival of Diana at Bubastis,

choirs of men and women sang and danced to the beating of drums and the playing of flutes." (Quasten, Johannes, Music and Worship in Pagan and Christian Antiquity, p. 65)

However, for the Qahal or Church assembly which was only for teaching the Word, the triumph or alarm blowing of instruments and vocal rejoicing was outlawed.  First, this would signal an unlawful assembly and would be a warning. Secind, it would creates the alarm or sense of panic made by any loud vocal or instrumental noises. Thirdly, it would put the people in an aroused state making hearing and learning the Word impossible. Fouth, Calvin notes that no one should attend an assembly not called by God Himself.

The Israelites in Egypt were under the same pagan influences as in Greece and in Babylon to which they were doomed to return because of musical idolatry. The sentence was conditional and Moses warned the people in advance the signs that their second chance had been forfeited.

The Latin defines the synagogue or church in the wilderness as an ACADEMIA

Numbers 10:[7]  But when the assembly is to be gathered together,
        you shall blow,
        but you shall not sound an alarm.

Numbers 10.[7]  [7] quando autem congregandus est populus simplex tubarum clangor erit et non conciseululabunt

Academia congregation. Collect into a flock,  where plato taught, scholars are called Academici, and his doctrine Philosophia Philosophia Academica,

in distinction from Stoica, Cynica, etc., Cic. de Or. 1, 21, 98; id. Or. 3, 12; id. Fin. 5, 1, 1 al.
Cic. de Orat. 1.  [21] Neque vero ego hoc tantum oneris imponam nostris praesertim oratoribus in hac tanta occupatione urbis ac vitae, nihil ut eis putem licere nescire, quamquam vis oratoris professioque ipsa bene dicendi hoc suscipere ac polliceri videtur, ut omni de re, quaecumque sit proposita, ornate ab eo copioseque dicatur.
ē-lŏquor  I. v. dep. a., to speak out, speak plainly, to utter; to pronounce, declare, state, express: Rhetorical, Eloquent, ornate  B. Trop., to adorn, decorate, set off; to commend, praise, extol; to honor, show honor to, distinguish:
Quint. Inst. 10 1.7 [7] I know that some speakers make a practice of learning lists of synonyms by heart, in order that one word out of the several available may at once present itself to them, and that if, after using one word, they find that it is wanted again after a brief interval, they may be able to select another word with the same meaning and so avoid the necessity of repetition. But this practice is childish and involves thankless labour, while it is really of very little use, as it merely results in the assembly of a disorderly crowd of words, for the speaker to snatch the first that comes to hand.
The philosophy of the Acadamy, A. For The philosophy of the Academy: “instaret academia, quae quidquid dixisses,
Dixisses: to say, speak, utter, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state, assert

Cyrenaica pleasure is the only good. Good in a pleasing agitation of the mind or in active enjoyment. hedone. Nothing is just or unjust by nature, but by custom and law. 
Cynics Diogenes, in particular, was referred to as the Dog.. a distinction he seems to have revelled in, stating that "other dogs bite their enemies, I bite my friends to save them."  Later Cynics also sought to turn the word to their advantage, as a later commentator explained:
        There are four reasons why the Cynics are so named. First because of the indifference of their way of life, for they make a cult of indifference and, like dogs, eat and make love in public, go barefoot, and sleep in tubs and at crossroads. The second reason is that the dog is a shameless animal, and they make a cult of shamelessness, not as being beneath modesty, but as superior to it. The third reason is that the dog is a good guard, and they guard the tenets of their philosophy. The fourth reason is that the dog is a discriminating animal which can distinguish between its friends and enemies. So do they recognize as friends those who are suited to philosophy, and receive them kindly, while those unfitted they drive away, like dogs, by barking at them.

He once masturbated in the Agora; when rebuked for doing so, he replied, "If only it was as easy to soothe my hunger by rubbing my belly."

Augustine stating that they had, "in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs." De Civitate Dei 14.20.

From the city of God
Human nature, then, is without doubt ashamed of this lust; and justly so, for the insubordination of these members, and their defiance of the will, are the clear testimony of the punishment of man’s first sin. And it was fitting that this should appear specially in those parts by which is generated that nature which has been altered for the worse by that first and great sin,—that sin from whose evil connection no one can escape, unless God’s grace expiate in him individually that which was perpetrated to the destruction of all in common, when all were in one man, and which was avenged by God’s justice.

Phil. 3:2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.
Phil. 3:3 For we are the circumcision,
        which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus,
        and have no confidence in the flesh.
Argumentum I. A..The means by which an assertion or assumption may be made clear, proved, an argument, evidence, proof (and in particular, that which rests upon facts, while ratio is that which depends upon reasoning
II. The matter which lies at the basis of any written or artistic representation, contents, subject, theme, argumentCynicorum ratio,
Cynĭcus , i, m., = κυνικός (doglike).
I. Subst., a Cynic philosopher, a Cynic, Cic. de Or. 3, 17, 62; id. Fin. 3, 20, 68; Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 18; Juv. 13, 121: “nudi dolia,” i. e. of Diogenes, id. 14, 309.—Hence, adj.: Cynĭcus , a, um, Cynic: “institutio,Tac. A. 16, 34: “cena,Petr. 14; and in * adv.: Cynĭcē , after the manner of the Cynics, Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 22.—
You say right; I care for no dainties. Drink away, Piper13; drink, if you do drink. I' faith, this must be drunk--don't shirk it. Holds the goblet to the PIPER. Why flinch at what you see must be done by you? Why don't you drink? Do it, if you are to do it. Take it, I tell you, for the public pays for this. That's not your way to shirk your drink. Take your pipes14 out of your mouth. The PIPER drinks.
14 Take your pipes: The "Tibicines," "Pipers" or "flute-players," among the Greeks and Romans, were in the habit of playing upon two pipes at the same time. These were perfectly distinct, and were not even, as has been supposed by some, connected by a common mouth-piece. The Romans were particularly fond of this music, and it was introduced both at sacrifices, funerals, and entertainments. See a comical story about the Roman "Tibicines" in the Fasti of Ovid, B. 6, l. 670 et seq. From the present specimen they appear to have been merry souls, occupying much the same place as the country fiddlers of modern times.

When he has drunk, either do you mind my rules15, or else I'll give up. I don't wish us to drink this straight out; we shall soon be about nothing16; for, by my faith, almost all in a moment, the cask might be turned head downwards17.

to the PIPER . How now? Although you did make a fuss about it, still it didn't hurt you. Come, Piper, when you've done drinking, put back your pipes to your lips; quickly puff out your cheeks, just like a reptile serpent18. Come now, Stichus, whichever of the two breaks order, shall be fined a cup.

II. Suffering by σπασμὸς κυνικός, spasmodic distortion, Plin. 25, 5, 24, § 60; cf. Cels. 4, 2, 2.
ONLY the intrinsic worth, reality, truth of written prose or poetry. In philos. lang., a conclusion, a syllogism:
Presented to the Infirmus of sheep or to those less nourishing, weak in mind in character, superstitious, pusillanimous, inconstant, light-minded. no weight or consequence
2. Weak-mindedly, superstitiously: “tonitrua et fulgura paulo infirmius expavescebat,Suet. Aug. 9. —
Quint. Inst. 5 12.4  In insisting on our strongest arguments we must take them singly, whereas our weaker arguments should be massed together: for it is undesirable that those arguments which are strong in themselves should have their force obscured by the [301] surrounding matter, since it is important to show their true nature: on the other hand arguments which are naturally weak will receive mutual support if grouped together

Romans XV. debemus autem nos firmiores inbecillitates infirmorum sustinere et non nobis placere

inbecillitates  B.  Transf., of condition as regards ability, powerlessness, impotency, helplessness, imbecility: disposition
sĕnĭum , ii, n. seneo, II.. I. Lit., the feebleness of age, decline, decay, debility (cf. senectus; class.): tardigemulo senio oppressum,  the growing old, passing away

Repello I. to drive, crowd, or thrust back; to reject, repulse, repel, etc., = reicere (freq. and class.; syn.: reicio, repono, removeo).
II. Trop., to drive away, reject, remove; to keep off, hold back, ward off, repulse, etc.: “repelli oratorem a gubernaculis civitatum,
ōrātor , ōris, m. oro, one who speaks. I. A speaker, orator
III. One who prays or supplicates for any thing, an entreater, beseecher, suppliant (Plautin.), Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 145; so in the twofold signif. of ambassador and beseecher, id. Stich. 3, 2, 39.
Luke 20:47 Which devour widows’ houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation.
Cic. de Orat. 1.11 [11] Truly me this to be seen to be word , out of all these  upon of these artium [for cunning, artifice, fraud, stratagem: “ in the least degree abundant supply poet [“oratores et poëtae,id. ib. 3, 10, 39: “versificator] and orator egregiorum to rise someone superior , 
Templum b. In partic., a place dedicated to some particular deity, a fane, temple, shrine:

Sustinere . to hold up, hold upright, uphold, to bear up, keep up, support, sustain
B. In partic., to hold or keep back, to keep in, stay, check, restrain, control, etc. (syn.: refreno, supprimo, moror)  -spondĕo , Exerceo

Refrain from -spondĕo  b. Trop., to answer, respond, reply to, re-echo, resound, etc.: “saxa et solitudines voci respondent,Cic. Arch. 8, 19; “respondent flebile ripae,Ov. M. 11, 53; and: “respondentia tympana,2. In partic. (acc. to II. A. 2.), an answer, reply of a lawyer, priest, oracle, etc.; an opinion, response, oracle: “cum responsumque ab eo (Crasso) verum magis, quam ad suam rem accommodatum abstulisset, etc.

Refrain from
Exerceo I. to drive on, keep busy, keep at work; to oversee, superintend; with an inanimate object, to work, work at, employ one's self about a thing. rhetorum LUDICER to appear on the stage, which were played in the theatre
C. Pregn., to disturb, disquiet, vex, plague (the figure being taken from the baiting of wild beasts):

frīgĕro , āre, v. a. id.,
I. to make cool, to cool, to refresh with coolness (very rare): “frigerans Aganippe,Cat. 61, 30: “frigerandi cholerici,Cael. Aur. Acut. 3, 21, 208.
II. Trop.
A. In gen., to uphold, sustain, maintain, preserve: “dignitatem et decus civitatis,
B. In partic.
    1. To sustain, support, maintain, by food, money, or other means:
    2. To bear, undergo, endure; to hold out against, withstand
Acts 20:35 I have shewed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, It is more blessed to give than to receive.
1Th. 5:14 Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly, comfort the feebleminded, support the weak, be patient toward all men.

Imbecillitas Caes. B. G. 7, 77, 9

Caes. B. G. 7, 77, 9  Caesar, Gallic War 7.77. LXXVII. But those who were blockaded at Alesia, the day being past, on which they had expected auxiliaries from their countrymen, and all their corn being consumed ignorant of what was going on among the Aedui, convened an assembly [Concilium Pastorium] and deliberated on the exigency of their situation. After various opinions had been expressed among them, some of which proposed a surrender, others a sally, while their strength would support it, the speech of Critognatus ought not to be omitted for its singular and detestable cruelty.

Concĭlĭum I. a collection of people, an association, gathering, union, meeting, assembly,
Pasco I. to cause to eat, to feed, pasture.
A. Of animals, to pasture, drive to pasture, to feed, attend to the feeding of, etc. (cf. pabulor): 2. To feed, nourish, maintain, suppor 3. To cherish, cultivate, let grow, feed,
To hold feasts for others
Pastor . a herdsman, esp. a shepherd 2. The minister or superintendent of a church or congregation (eccl. Lat.): “pastores Israel,Vulg. Ezech. 34. 2: “pastores et doctores,id. Eph. 4, 11.—Esp., of Christ: “Ego sum pastor bonus,Vulg. Johan. 10, 11: “eduxit de mortuis Pastorem magnum,id. Heb. 13, 20; cf. 1 Pet. 2, 25; 5, 4.
Ezekiel 34 The word of Yahweh came to me, saying, [2] Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel, prophesy, and tell them, even to the shepherds, Thus says the Lord Yahweh: Woe to the shepherds of Israel who feed themselves! Shouldn't the shepherds feed the sheep? [3] You eat the fat, and you clothe you with the wool, you kill the fatlings; but you don't feed the sheep. [4] You haven't strengthened the diseased, neither have you healed that which was sick, neither have you bound up that which was broken, neither have you brought back that which was driven away, neither have you sought that which was lost; but with force and with rigor have you ruled over them. [5] They were scattered, because there was no shepherd; and they became food to all the animals of the field, and were scattered.
This is in CONTRAST to the synagogues of the Cynics Paul identified as dogs identified by their howling style of "praise singing" seeking whom they might devour. They were Catamites or male prostitutes and Paul insisted that worship in the PLACE of the spirit would not give them a chance to get on the ministry team.  If you MARK the church by reading and discussing the Word of God then they have no place to "feather bed." 

Blowing a horn would be like a church bell: the signal was simple and not musical in any sense.  However, the giddy people in the small tribal groups would be--like Miriam and the women--prone to break out in the "praise" singing, clapping and "making noise on istruments of delusion." 

Simplex I. In gen., simple, plain, uncompounded, unmixed,

Tuba Apart from military purposes, it was used on various occasions, as at religious festivals, games, funerals,  
Sonorous, elevated epic poetry,
c. A lofty style of speaking,
II. Trop.: tuba belli civilis, i. e. exciter, author, instigato

Cicero F 6. The passport has not been issued at once, owing to the amazing rascality of certain persons, who would have been bitterly annoyed at a pardon being granted to you, whom that party call the "bugle of the civil war"--and a good many observations to the same effect are made by them, as though they were not positively glad of that war having occurred.
Never forget that scholars note that the pagan practices of the Jews and Greeks were similar: those actually fet to lead the "worship of the starry host" would tend to trouble the Bible study assembly. Both Elijah and Josephus say that these Levites who exercised priestly tasks instead of servant tasks CAUSED the destruction of the nation and were wanting to do it again.
Vergil, Aeneid 5.104
Now came the day desir'd. The skies were bright
With rosy luster of the rising light:
The bord'ring people, rous'd by sounding fame
Of Trojan feasts and great Acestes' name,
The crowded shore with acclamations fill,
Part to behold, and part to prove their skill.

And first the gifts in public view they place,
Green laurel wreaths, and palm, the victors' grace:
Within the circle, arms and tripods lie,
Ingots of gold and silver, heap'd on high,
And vests embroider'd, of the Tyrian dye.
The trumpet's clangor then the feast proclaims,
And all prepare for their appointed games.
The praise singing of the Levites under the King and commanders of the army was the halal which meant to make yourself vile as a homosexual rape threat against the enemy. That MARK always existed among those wanting to get paid for poetry or music.

Clango    [kindred with crocio, glocio; cf. clamo and klazô] , to clang, to sound, resound horrida clangunt signa tubae,  luctificum clangente tubā,  clangunt aquilae, Auct. Carm. Phil. 28.

Ululo Ulŭlo  I. Neutr., to howl, yell, shriek, utter a mournful cry. B.Transf., of places, to ring, resound, re-echo with howling: penitusque cavae plangoribus aedes Femineis ululant,Verg. A. 2, 488 : resonae ripae, Sil. 6, 285 : Dindyma sanguineis Gallis, Claud. Rapt. Pros. 2, 269 .--
Catullus,Carmina 63
Thy timbrel, Mother Cybele, the firstings of thy rite,
And as her tender finger-tips on bull-back hollow rang
She rose a-grieving and her song to listening comrades sang.

"Up Gallae, hie together, haste for Cybele's deep grove,
Hie to the Dindymnean dame, ye flocks that love to rove;
The which affecting stranger steads as bound in exile's brunt
My sect pursuing led by me have nerved you to confront

The raging surge of salty sea and ocean's tyrant hand
As your hate of Venus' [ZOE] hest your manly forms unmann'd,
Gladden your souls, ye mistresses, with sense of error bann'd.
Drive from your spirits dull delay, together follow ye
To hold of Phrygian goddess, home of Phrygian Cybebe,
Where loud the cymbal's voice resounds with timbrel-echoes blending,
And where the Phrygian piper drones grave bass from reed a-bending,

Where toss their ivy-circled heads with might the Maenades
Where ply mid shrilly lullilooes the holiest mysteries,
Where to fly here and there be wont the she-god's vaguing train,
Thither behoves us lead the dance in quick-step hasty strain."
Fēmĭnĕus   II.Transf., with an accessory notion of contempt, womanish, effeminate, unmanly:

A. Galli , ōrum, m., the priests of Cybele, so called because of their ravingOf or belonging to the priests of Isis,
This is undoubtedly a Greek retelling of the Moses, Miriam, Golden calf event.

Ovid Amours XII to Isis
Oh Isis, who delight'st to haunt the fields,
Where fruitful Nile his golden harvest yields,
Where with seven mouths into the sea it falls,
And hast thy walks around Canope's walls,
Who Memphis visit'st, and the Pharian tower,
Assist Corinna with thy friendly powers.
Exodus 15:20 Miriam was a prophetess wih noise. I.a foreteller, soothsayer, prophet,  sacerdotes Aegyptiorum, quos prophetas vocantAegyptius, propheta primarius
See howq Miriam conjured with the Sistra.
Exodus 15:[20] sumpsit ergo Maria prophetis soror Aaron tympanum in manu egressaeque sunt omnes mulieres post eam cum tympanis et choris
God will afflict Miriam with leprosy when she claims to speak for God.  The first meaning of prophet in the PAGAN sense meant a charismatic, musical performer.  All dramatic performance is INTERPRETATION which is, according to Paul, just speaking in tongues.
Prophe-ta  I. a foreteller, SOOTHSAYER prophet... oraculorumque interpretes, sacerdotes Aegyptiorum, quos prophetas vocant, [Priestess of Egpt prophetess call out] Aegyptius, propheta primarius

Aegyptius, propheta primarius
1.  Aegyptius,
2.  Prophetai
3.  Primarius I. one of the first, of the first rank, chief, principal, excellent, remarkable,
primarius parasitus,
Jesus only spoke through the writing prophets.
Thee by thy silver Sistra I conjure,
A life so precious by thy aid secure;
So mayst thou with Osiris still find grace:
By Anubis's venerable face,

I pray thee, so may still thy rights divine
Flourish, and serpents round thy offerings twine
May Apis with his horns the pomp attend, [the calfe made of gold]
And be to thee, as thou'rt to her, a friend.

Look down, oh Isis! on the teeming fair,
And make at once her life and mine thy care:
Have pity on her pains; the help you give
To her, her lover saves, in her I live.

From thee this favour she deserves; she pays
Her vows to thee on all thy solemn days;
And when the Galli at thy altars wait,
She's present at the feast they celebrate.

The meaning of TRIUMPH OVER:

"The general was allowed to enter the city crowned with a wreath of laurel, bearing a scepter in one hand, and a branch of laurel in the other, riding in a circular chariot, of a peculiar form, drawn by four horses. He was preceded by the senate and magistrates, musicians, the spoils, the captives in fetters, etc., and followed by his army on foot in marching order. The procession advanced in this manner to the Capitoline Hill, where sacrifices were offered, and victorious commander entertained with a public feast." Webster


Amos Five
and Isaiah Five especially show how music caused people to be lost because of lack of knowledge.

But, first the cross must bear the cross: the cross or crucifixion speaks of cooling the passions of those involved in blood lust under the sacrificial system.  The work of Christ is not for Himself to to give people away to WASH AWAY the sin of this bloodd lust which was always performed with music as exorcism.
Acts 8:32 The place of the scripture which he read was this,
He was led as a sheep to the slaughter;
        and like a lamb dumb before his shearer,
        so opened he not his mouth:
Isa 53:2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him.

Isa 53:3 He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.

Isa 53:4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted.

Stricken: H5060 nâga‛ naw-gah' A primitive root; properly to touch, that is, lay the hand upon (for any purpose; euphemistically, to lie with a woman);  

H5061 nega‛ neh'-gah From H5060 ; a blow (figuratively infliction); also (by implication) a spot (concretely a leprous person or dress):—plague, sore, stricken, stripe, stroke, wound.

H5062 nâgaph naw-gaf' A primitive root; to push, gore, defeat, stub (the toe), inflict (a disease):—beat, dash, hurt, plague, slay, smite (down), strike, stumble, X surely, put to the worse.

H5059 nâgan naw-gan' A primitive root; prop to thrum, that is, beat a tune with the fingers; especially to play on a stringed instrument; hence (generally) to make music:--player on instruments, sing to the stringed instruments, melody, ministrel

Isa 53:5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed.

Wounded, h2490 at Left.

Silencing the musical noise OUTLAWED for the spiritual thread in the church in the wilderness is absolutely required before the Qahal, synagogue or school of the Word of God is possible.


Luke 4:14 And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee: and there went out a fame of him through all the region round about.
Luke 4:15 And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified of all.
Luke 4:16 And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was,  he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day, and stood up for to read.
Jesus "preached" or "made prophecy more certain" and this is never subject to private interpretation which means further expounding.  The Spirit of Christ spoke spiritual truth only through the prophets or prophecies.  When He fulfilled those prophecies Peter insists that this is the resource to which we must give heed (worship). The result of reading "that which has been taught" is that the Day Star will arise in out heart.  After READING Jesus gave us the patternism for uncommon decency in never trying to "private interpret" or expound that which has been expounded:
Luke 4:20 And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister,
        and sat down.

And the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him.
Luke 4:21 And he began to say unto them,
        This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears.
The Greek converts were also prepared for the first advent because they had listened to the READING of the Biblical text (only) rather than attend their pagan festivals where the day star was Lucifer in on form or another.  
Acts 15:21 For Moses 
        of old time hath in every city
        them that preach him,
        being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.
Paul outlawed "doubtful disputations" in Romans 14 which would be "private opinions" which would create diversity.  In Romans 15 he outlawed self pleasure which excludes all of the dramatic or musical effects which in paganism replaced the reading of the Word (only).  We will look at Romans 15 later: this like the synagogue or church in the wilderness is EXCLUSIVE of any kind of spiritual excitement defined as the performing arts.  It was INCLUSIVE of speaking with one mind and one mouth using that which is written or Scripture.  That is the non-theatrical way to glorify or praise God, it comforts us with Scripture and it prevents the sowing of discord from "private diversities."  The musical or hypocritic arts are specificially excluded by the words Paul uses and the so-called  "musical" passages uses the words for "sing" which means to cantillate or SPEAK where the word speak is opposite of poetry or music.

Most people have at least 150 years of DNA which almost forces them to believe that the church is a place to worship in the senes the Spirit of Christ outlawed in the founding of the church.

If they cannot grasp that the words ekklesia and synagogue absolutely outlaws ceremonial legalism as rituals which must be performed to keep God from getting mad, then it probably does not matter for them. The Book of Enoch and the Bible uses musical instruments as a MARK that people have no interest in being disciples of Christ and will do anything to silence His word.

Music derived from mystery in fact MEANS to "shut the mouth of the victime."  This is defined as sacred violence in the same sense as the sacrificial system.  


R.P. Martin says in his interesting book on worship in the early church that the reading and exposition of the Scriptures is
     "an inheritance we have received, through the early church, from the worship of Judaism, and which makes the model Christian service a
Word-of-God service".

From the outset, church worship was a "Word-of-God service". The truths of the Bible were at the heart of worship. And this was also true insofar as the singing of songs was concerned.

It was the synagogues that remained after AD.70, NOT the Temple! The original purpose of the synagogue was primarily for Scripture-reading and exposition of the passages read (Lk.4:16-22; Mt.13:54; Mk.1:21-22; Jn.6:59).

There was also prayer (Mt.6:5) and, although there is no specific mention in the literature of singing in the synagogue, it is considered most likely "that those parts of the Liturgy which were connected with Temple worship, like the recitation of psalms...were sung"

So long as one's idea of worship is rooted in the Temple concept, one will crave "celebrations" and big displays. The charismatic style of worship naturally arises out of this false concept of the O.T. Temple.

However, the chief element in synagogue worship -- its central factor -- was not ceremonial or display but something which was of vital importance to the shaping of the subsequent life of the local churches upon which the synagogue was so influential.

That element was the reading and exposition of Scripture. Worship in the Early Church involved "Word-of-God" services. Ralph Martin very appropriately called the reading and exposition of Scripture "the centre of gravity of the synagogue's service, with the blessings and prayers gathered around it"

Paul commanded Timothy to do two things:

EXCLUDE: Old wives's tales or the babbling stories which begin with: "When I was a famous preacher in Texas...."

1 Tim 4:7 But refuse profane and old wives fables, and exercise thyself rather unto godliness.

Rom 14: 1 Him that is weak in the faith receive ye, but not to doubtful disputations.

1 Tim 4:12 Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity.

1 Tim 4:13 Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine.

Attendance is a worship word: It becomes worship only if the preacher "teaches that which has been taught."  If you are commanded to teach only that which HAS BEEN TAUGHT then even Simple Simon does not need a law to KEEP HIM FROM teaching stuff he just fabricates.

The Testimony of the Pharisees While Jesus condemned the Pharisees for not living up to their preaching, it is a fact that the Pharisees abandoned the Temple which was under political control of the Roman ruler and the high priest who bought his office as highest bidder. The Pharisees moved the synagogue worship away from the temple and therefore away from instrumental music.

If the Church or Synagogue is a WORD OF GOD ONLY assemby then our conclusions above are proven: the Church of Christ can be in the world but not OF the world.  It is still MARKED by the silence or ABSENCE of noise which shows respect for Christ in Spirit as our only Teacher.

"Historians tend to explain the disappearance of the Hasideans as a gradual merging with the Pharisees. The Hasideans may also have had a doctrinal influence on the Essenes, an early Jewish sect that flourished in Palestine.

The Pharisees emerged as a party of laymen and scribes in contradistinction to the Sadducees, i.e.,
the party of the
high priesthood that had traditionally provided the sole leadership of the Jewish people

The Pharisees were not primarily a political party but a society of scholars and pietists. They enjoyed a large popular following, and in the New Testament they appear as spokesmen for the majority of the population.

Around 100 BC a long struggle ensued as the Pharisees tried to democratize the Jewish religion and remove it from the control of the Temple priests.

The Pharisees asserted that God could and should be worshiped even away from the Temple and outside Jerusalem. To the Pharisees, worship consisted not in bloody sacrifices--the practice of the Temple priests--
but in prayer and in the study of God's law.
Hence the Pharisees fostered the synagogue as an institution of religious worship, outside and separate from the Temple. (
Britannica Members 
Typical synagogue of the first century A.D. The men met in the inner room and the balcony was the place for the women. This probably represents the synagogue at Capurnum. From Holman's Bible Dictionary.

How to Build a Synagogue Service:

Ten adult males are required to be present for a bublic service to proceed. The service consists of five parts:

  1. Reading the Shema [trinitians need not apply]
  2. Synagogue Prayers
  3. Synagogue Prayers
  4. Reading from the Torah (The Law of Moses)
  5. Reading from the Prophets
  6. Benediction.

No sacrifices were carried out here; rather, reading the Scriptures replaced this as the central event of Jewish Worship. There was, therefore, no praise service.

And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up:
..........and, as his custom was,
..........he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day,
..........and stood up for to read. Luke 4:16

And after the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them,
..........saying, Ye and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on. Acts 13:15

Paraklesis (g3874) par-ak'-lay-sis; from 3870; imploration, hortation, solace: - comfort, consolation, exhortation, intreaty. 

For Moses of old time hath in every city them that
..........preach him,
..........being read the synagogues every sabbath day. Acts 15:21

"Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham, and whosoever among you feareth God, to you is the word of this salvation sent. Acts 13:26

For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their RULERS
..........because they knew him not,
..........nor yet the voices of the prophets
..........which are read every sabbath day,
..........they have fulfilled them in condemning him  Acts 13:27

Rom 15 4 For whatsoever things
..........were written aforetime
..........were written for our learning,
..........that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.

Rom 15 5 Now the God of patience and consolation
..........grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:

Rom 15 6 That ye may
..........with one mind and mouth glorify God,
..........even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

1 Tim 4:13 Till I come, give attendance [the worship word] reading, exhortation, doctrine.

To that Jesus instituted, Paul defined and the church practiced the Lord's Supper.
Paul defined the gatherings as SYNAGOGUES.

There was "no praise service in the synagogues" because they were outlawed by Numbers 10
and the very definition of a Holy Convocation to REST (from institutes), READ and REHEARSE the Word.

Anything added to that VIOLATES Rom 15:5 and has produced ALL known sowing of discord.

Sometimes during the period between the Old and New Testaments, formal Jewish schools for children were started in the synagogues. By the time of Jesus, all Jewish male children had to go to school. They learned how to read and write by studying the Bible. It is possible that Jesus Himself went to such a school, where he learned the Torah and grew in every way.

The great historian J. Robert Teringo wrote: "The fixed order of service began, after the customary greeting, with a prayer while the people remained standing facing the sacred Torah scroll. The reading of the law of Moses was next. The Torah scroll was taken from the chest and placed before a reader who read in the ancient Hebrew tongue and immediately translated it into Aramaic the language of those days. A commentary was always added to this reading. Next, a portion was read from the books of the prophets and, again, immediately translated verse by verse. After a closing prayer, the service was concluded..."

If everyone had a Bible then there would be no need for a reader of a generally unknown language and then translate into the vernacular.

The oft-heard question is:

"What, if any, was the authority for the Synagogue?" In some cases the false belief that the Synagogue had no authority seems to be a "law of silence" which permits the "living church" (I.e. Catholic form) to add whatever it needs to "be as much like the world as possible."

Old men, women and children were not required to attend the temple rituals where the "musical" panic noise was under the king and commanders of the army.

When Israel's leaders led them into musical idolatry at Mount Sinai, God gave the Law of Moses and made the people "strangers" to quarantine them from the tabernacle and then the temple which was influenced by the worship of the starry host to which god abandoned the leaders.

God ordained the gathering or synagoguing for the entire population.

And Moses commanded them, saying, At the end of every seven years, in the solemnity of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles, Deut 31:10
When all Israel is come to appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing. Deut 31:11
Gather (h6950) the people together, men, and women, and children, and thy stranger that is within thy gates,
that they may hear, and that they may learn,
and fear the Lord your God, and observe to do all the words of this law: Deut 31:12

This is the synagoguing which also outlaws instruments and loud rejoicing:

Gahal (h6950) kaw-hal'; a prim. root; to convoke: - assemble (selves) (together), gather (selves) together).
Qahal (h6951) kaw-hawl'; from 6950; assemblage (usually concr.): - assembly, company, congregation, multitude.

The church #1577 ekklesia - assembly, called out ones, set apart ones, congregation; in Hebrew this word is #6951 qahal (kahal) - a "synagogue" (E. W. Bullinger, Commentary on Revelation, p. 165-166), an assemblage, congregation, company from the root #6950 qahal meaning specifically a coming together, an assembling, a convocation, congregation; this word is used mostly for religious purposes (see William Wilson's Old Testament Word Studies, p. 92)

The LXX uses the word ekklesia to translate the Hebrew qahal. Qahal means to call, to assemble, and the noun form means a congregation or assembly. Solomon is called koheleth the Preacher, translated by the LXX ekklesiastes. The earliest known occurrence of the word is found in Job 30:28, ‘I cried in the congregation’. In the books of the law, qahal is rendered by the Greek word sunagoge, showing that the synagogue is the beginning of the New Testament church. Stephen in his speech which ended in his martyrdom referred to the history of Israel, and dwells for considerable length upon the one great leader Moses, saying in Acts 7:38:

‘This is he, that was in the CHURCH in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sinai’.

The people of Israel, looked upon as ‘a called-out assembly’ were ‘the Church’ of that period.

Paul's only "worship" words are related to giving heed to the Words of Christ or to Timothy to define worship:

Till I come, give attendance to (the public) reading, to exhortation, to doctrine. 1Ti.4:13

There was a DIRECT COMMAND regulating these assemblies:

But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. Num 10:7

The alarm was to be blown for camp or military movements and God ordained the TWO silver trumpets. Alarm is:

Ruwa (h7321) roo-ah'; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears (with sound), i. e. shout for alarm or joy: - blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout (for joy), sound an alarm, triumph.
Ruwph (h7322) roof; a prim. root; prop. to triturate (in a mortar), i. e. (fig.) to agitate (by concussion): - tremble.
These two words define external melody which "grinds you into bits."
Psalm 41 prophesied that Judas would attempt to "triumph over" Jesus and the JUDAS BAG was for "carrying the mouthpieces of wind instruments."
"Here are directions concerning the public notices to be given the people by sound of trumpet. Their laws in every case were to be Divine, therefore, even in this matter Moses is directed. These trumpets typify the preached gospel. It sounds an alarm to sinners, calls them to repent, proclaims liberty to the captives and slaves of Satan, and collects the worshippers of God. It directs and encourages their heavenly journey; stirs them up to combat against the world and sin, encouraging them with the assurance of victory. It leads their attention to the sacrifice of Christ, and shows the Lord's presence for their protection.
It is also necessary that the gospel trumpet give a distinct sound, according to the persons addressed, or the end proposed; whether to convince, humble, console, exhort, reprove, or teach. The sounding of the trumpet of the gospel is God's ordinance, and demands the attention of all to whom it is sent. Matthew Henry

The meaning of TRIUMPH OVER:

"The general was allowed to enter the city crowned with a wreath of laurel, bearing a scepter in one hand, and a branch of laurel in the other, riding in a circular chariot, of a peculiar form, drawn by four horses. He was preceded by the senate and magistrates, musicians, the spoils, the captives in fetters, etc., and followed by his army on foot in marching order. The procession advanced in this manner to the Capitoline Hill, where sacrifices were offered, and victorious commander entertained with a public feast." Webster
Playing instruments and making a joyful noise before the Lord.
Why was this? Why this does not define musical "worship" but it is the Israelite and all of the nation's WAR CHANT.

The church is Christian Synagogue: if you meet to worship IN SPIRIT by GIVING HEED TO THE WORDS OF CHRIST and you play instruments and engage in infantile frolic (the play at Mount Sinai) then you tell God: We will not listen to your words.

Al, this will not cause any harm. Believe me. Rather, it is the MARK throughout the Bible and contemporary writings that a people had "risen up to play" and moved beyond redemption.

Furthermore, the Hebrew word for Synagogue is:

Mowed (h4150) mo-ade'; (2 Chron. 8:13), mo-aw-daw'; from 3259; prop. an appointment, i. e. a fixed time or season; spec. a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand): - appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn (-ity), synagogue, (set) time (appointed)

We can really say that any of the meetings either in the central sanctuary of the state worship, or the people's meetings in their villages was a synagogue

What is authority?

Authority is normaly defined in terms of a task. For instance, the task of the leaders of Israel was to teach the sacred writings. This could be in sitting down, rising up, walking by the way or by gathering in a building protected from the weather.

A privelege was prayer at any time or any place. It did not need to be LED.

When few people knew the Word, and there were few written documents available, the teaching task fell into the hands of the Levitical tribe who primarily taught the parents who, in turn, taught their family. There simply is no mention made of children in the Bible and in the early churches as part of a ritualized service.

The word "worship" has nothing to do with music or rituals. Rather, Jesus eleminated the time and PLACE of the Jerusalem or Gerezim temples. Instead, He said that God only seeks us in the place of OUR SPIRIT or mind. In the Old testament taking head depended on teachers.

Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that

the priests the Levites shall teach you:
as I commanded them,
so ye shall observe to do. Deut 23:8

Then the king of Assyria commanded, saying, Carry thither one of the priests whom ye brought from thence; and let them go and dwell there,

and let him teach them the manner of the God of the land. 2 Kings 17:27

For a long time Israel was without the true God, without a priest to teach and without the law. 2 Chronicles 15:3

However, almost from the beginning, the priestly class failed:


heads thereof judge for reward, and the
priests thereof teach for hire, and the
prophets thereof divine for money:

yet will they lean upon the Lord, and say, Is not the Lord among us? none evil can come upon us. Micah 3:11

As a result, people arose within the villages who taught the Word of God and led the people in prayer. This was the essence of the Synagogue. By the time Jesus came, the entire clergy was corrupt and murderous:

And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. Mark 8:31

This is repeated today as people begin to fail because the priests and diviners work for hire and repudiate the Word of God and substitute "chicken soup." Therefore, the people retire from the "central temples" and begin to meet in homes. This is a faithful reproduction of the move from Temple-Sacrificial system to the home and the Word.

Synagogue, like "church," has nothing to do with buildings and originally nothing to do with organizations or institutions. The word literally means an assembly or an appointed time or place.

The primary tasks of teaching the revealed Word and prayer was carried out in assembled groups and therefore needed no new authority.

Institutionalizing the Synagogue

"Since the Babylonian Jews were unable to participate in the worship of the cultus as in former days, the exile marked an important turning-point in their religious developmemt. Open-air meetings by the Kabar irrigation-canal replaced gatherings in the Temple and its precincts, a non-sacrificial worship emphasized confession, fasting, prayer, and the reading of the Law, and initial improvisations were developed to the point

"where the faithful community aimed at as great a spiritual differentation from the pagan Babylonians as was possible.

Remember that Israel demanded the right to "worship like the nations" and therefore their worship was much like that which they were forced into in Babylon. By seeing themselves as others saw them, the Jews were essentially cured of idolatry while in captivity.

"With the development of house-gatherings and the increased importance attached to the knowledge and observance of the Torah, there was laid the basis for subsequent synagogue-worship, an institution that owes its origin to the diligence of Ezekiel." (Harrison, R. K., Introduction to the Old Testament, Eerdmans, p.414).

"The Synagogue-worship, developed by and after the exile, largely substituted the book for the symbol, and thought for the sensuous or object appeal" (Int Std. Bible Ency., Worship. p. 3111).

Most aware people understand that the "church" has reverted to the "become as much like the world as possible in the hopes of winning the world to their collection plates." However, "church" exists only where the difference is clearly shown in teaching the Words of Christ in song and sermon.

What about singing and other "acts of worship?"

Social functions such as singing were not in the synagogues but "at the places of watering" and not during the "assembly" time. Alfred Edersheim makes it clear: there was not a role for "praising the Lord" or singing in a celebrative sense in the synagogue. For this reason, there is no evidence of a "praise" service in the New Testament church.

No. This is not the "hole in the donut." This is not God's oversight which we must correct with secular like singing.

"Hallel, in Jewish ritual, selection from the Psalms, chanted as part of the liturgy during certain festivals. The more frequently used selection includes Psalms 113-118 and is known as the Egyptian Hallel, presumably because Psalm 114 begins, "When Israel went out of Egypt"

It is sung in synagogues on the first two days of Passover, on Shabuoth, on Sukkot, on each morning of the eight days of Hanukkah, and at the close of the Seder.

"The Hallel through the generations, on specific occasions: Pesachim 117a
"Hallel requires a full stomach and a satisfied spirit: Taanis 25b-26a
reading is beloved to the people, and so they listen closely: Megillah 21b

"The Hallel as an Institution of the Prophets, to use to pray for salvation from danger: Pesachim 117a [2x] Saying the Hallel daily is blasphemous: Shabbos 118b

For instance, Deborah dwelled under palm tree to apply the Law. She was a Judge and not a worship leader. Because of failed male leadership she had to become the warrior chief of the nation.

And when they celebrated her victory as a warrior the NIV translates:

the voice of the singers at the watering places. They recite the righteous acts of the LORD, the righteous acts of his warriors in Israel. Then the people of the LORD went down to the city gates. Judges 5:11NIV

Here is the Greek word the NIV translates singers:

Chacac (h2686) khaw-tsats'; a prim. root [comp. 2673 = split in half]; prop. to chop into, pierce or server; hence to curtail, to distribute (into ranks); as denom. from 2671, to shoot an arrow: - archer, * bands, cut off in the midst.

Therefore, there is nothing similar to singing or musicians in this passage. The KJv reads:

They that are delivered from the noise of archers in the places of drawing water, there shall they rehearse the righteous acts of the Lord, even the righteous acts toward the inhabitants of his villages in Israel: then shall the people of the Lord go down to the gates. Judges 5:11KJV

"At the sound of those who divide flocks among the watering places, There they shall recount the righteous deeds of the Lord, The righteous deeds for His peasantry in Israel. Then the people of the Lord went down to the gates. Judges 5:11NAS

All words related to "music" or instruments have the same roots in a destructive practice. For instance, to praise David meant that they ridiculed Saul and drove a wedge between the friendship.

The word psallo in Greek is related to singing with instruments in its original meaning. The word is related to the twanging of bowstrings to send a "singing" arrow to pierce the literal heart. The word is also related to the SOP Jesus fed Judas as a supernatural sign.

Jesus condemed praise as saying "Lord, Lord" and therefore praise always had an object. For instance, the Jews praised God by telling others how He saved the people at the Red Sea. God explicitly condemns the prophesiers (singers, chanters, deliverers of messages) because HIS Word was not in them.

Praising God or often the military leader was something done at any time or place but ritualized praise would embarass most humans. Albert Barnes notes of the daily rituals of Israel:

"An artificial, effeminate music which should relax the soul, frittering the melody, and displacing the power and majesty of divine harmony by tricks of art, and giddy, thoughtless, heartless, souless versifying would be meet company." (Barnes, Albert, Amos, p. 303).

"Jingling, banging, and rattling accompanied heathen cults, and the frenzying shawms of a dozen ecstatic cries intoxicated the masses. Amid this euphoric farewell feast of a dying civilization, the voices of nonconformists were emerging from places of Jewish and early Christian worship; Philo of Alexandria had already emphasized the ethical qualities of music, spurning the 'effeminate' art of his Gentile surroundings.

Similarly, early synagogue song intentionally foregoes artistic perfection, renounces the playing of instruments,

and attaches itself entirely to 'the word'--the TEXT of the Bible" (Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1971 ed., s.v. "Music")

How About Biblical Authority?

There is one translation of the word synagogues in the book of Psalms:

Thine enemies roar in the midst of thy congregations; they set up their ensigns for signs. Psalm 74:4

There is a conspiracy of her prophets in the midst thereof, like a roaring lion ravening the prey; they have devoured souls; they have taken the treasure and precious things; they have made her many widows in the midst thereof. Eze.22:25

They have cast fire into thy sanctuary, they have defiled by casting down the dwelling place of thy name to the ground. Psalm 74:7

They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned up all the synagogues of God in the land. Psalm 74:8

The people in general did not worship at the sanctuary of God's name, but normally in their own villages or homes. The Living Bible translates verse 8:

"Let's wipe out every trace of God," they said, and went through the entire country burning down the assembly places where we worshiped you. Psalm 74:8LIV .

We noted that this is a widely-used word for the synagogue above: Mowed (h4150).

Jesus and Worship

By adding the "Lord's Supper," the synagogue could be used by the early church. It had no priests as intercessors. "Essentially democratic, the synagogue represents a fellowship of worshipers seeking God through prayer and study." (Britannica)

It simply is not possible to add any "programs" to that task without diminishing the Christ-ordained purpose for the church of Christ.

This was "Spiritual" worship in the mind or heart and devoted to truth. Jesus did not prescribe usage for anxiety-creating rituals because He came to take them off the backs of the lambs. He could not parcel out His Word like a lawyer and still be the Shepherd:

"Jesus did not Himself prescribe public worship for His disciples, no doubt assuming that instinct and practice, and his own spirit and example would bring it about spontaneously, but He did seek to guard their worship from the merely outward and spectacular, and laid great emphasis on privacy and real 'innerness' in it (Mt. 6:1-18)" (The Int. Std, Bible Ency., Synagogue, p. 3111).


Giving is not a legalistic act. However, when we give in order to further the church or to help the poor then our "act" becomes worship. Why? Because we are "giving heed" to the Word of God.

Giving was to be voluntary as alms. However, the Jewish clergy often sent people out to force you to give the leaves of the mint or spices. Jesus outlawed controlled giving by saying:

TAKE heed that ye do not your alms (compassionateness) before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven. Matthew 6:1

Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. Matthew 6:2

But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth: Matthew 6:3

That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly. Matthew 6:4

The Greek eklesia was a body of like-minded people who always looked out for their members. Giving by those with means to those who are in need is both human and spiritual. The Greek ekklesia wa much like a county court where mature males discussed and acted on changes to the laws which they did not make. However, Paul denounced giving "as a commandment."

I speak not by commandment, but by occasion of the forwardness (speed) of others, and to prove the sincerity of your love. 2Co.8:8


Paul did not command prayer as an "act." Rather, he warned that one praying a personal prayer in the presence of others must speak understandable words. Therefore, he condemned prayer in unclear languages. Prayer is to be in all places and at all times. It was one of the two key features of the synagogue. Prayer is personal and we all know that it is virtually impossible to "lead" a group prayer except performing a "ritual by rote." This 'leading' in the institutionalized synagogue was reciting certain formula prayers but they did not substitute for individual prayers as seen in the case of Hannah.

The general rule, but not for Jesus, was that the participants such as the reader of the Word in the synagogue must sit. Therefore, Jesus commanded:

And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites (actors perform acts) are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. Matthew 6:5

But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet (pantry), and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. Matthew 6:6

This is a DIRECT COMMAND from the mouth of Lord Jesus. While others might listen to our prayers we should use clear language, there is no command, example or inference that one liturgical performer can say a prayer in place of the individual.

That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. Mt.6:18

The brothers of Jesus knew the "fame game." They said:

His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judaea, that thy disciples also may see the works that thou doest. John 7:3

For there is no man that doeth any thing in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. If thou do these things, shew thyself to the world. John 7:4

For neither did his brethren believe in him. John 7:5

Someone has said that "we begin to pray only when our mouth runs out of words." This allows God to listen as our spirit speaks for us. However, the pagans never ran out of words such as "Lord, Lord."

And when you pray, do not keep on babbling like pagans, for they think they will be heard because of their many words. Matthew 6:7

The barbarians spoke in tongues or their own minor dialects in public. However, Paul outlawed it "in church" where everyone understood the same language. These were never gibberish in an approved sense but simply the approximately 70 minor dialects which the Greeks called TONGUES. The gibberish spoken by the intoxicated pagan priestess was never called a language or a tongue.

God knows what we need and responds to prayer. However, it is vanity to think that by harassing Him we can force an answer, The earthly ruler must be importuned -- even the widow must beg. However, God, our Father, feeds us without making us beg.


While Jesus did not command singing as an "act," as a Jew observing Passover, He sang one of the story songs called hallel which was restricted to designated leaders for legal festivals. Hymning was quiet and even silent reciting certain Psalms and not sentimental poetry. Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual Songs were all "the Word of Christ" in Colossians 3:16. Singing was a "one another" practice to distinguish it from the legal, Levitical performance for the worshippers. However, the ancient changers were not timid about restoring legal, Old Testament or even Pagan rituals:

The McClintock and Strong Cyclopedia not only speaks, in general terms, of 'heresy largely pervading the church and making rapid headway' at that very time, but it specifies 'the appointment of singers as a distinct class of officers in the church' with 'the consequent introduction of profane (not the Bible) music' (Kurfees, M. C., Instrumental Music in Worship, p. 123)

The modern appeal for designated or trained singing teams is based upon the fact that flawless, complex harmony has the not-too-secret power to manipulate the mind of the audience. This may be a denial of the power of prayer and the Word of Christ given into the hands of the elders of whom Paul commanded:

He must hold firmly to the trustworthy message as it has been taught, so that he can encourage others by sound doctrine and refute those who oppose it. Titus 1:9

Added: The Lord's Supper:

Lynn Anderson, keynoter for Jubilee 99 and author of Navigating the Winds of Change shows how to move the Lord's Supper into another musical performance. The method of change agentry is this: Let the old folks have a quiet, reverent Lord's Supper one week. Next week, those who need to feel the music rather than to search out the leaven in their own hearts can get a jab of morphine-like endorphins to dull the pain and make them feel spiritual. No doubt, in the long run, the old rurals will loose and the urbans will win.

Jesus instituted the Lord's Supper as a quiet, family meal of bread and the fruit of the vine. This was not "crumbled off" bread or sop dipped in bitter herbs. Part of the Passoveras the context of the institution of the Lord's Supper was a search of the house for leaven:

The search itself was to be accomplished in perfect silence and with a lighted candle. To this search the apostle may have referred in the admonition to 'purge out the old leaven' (1 Corinthians 5:7) (Edersheim, Passover)

Corinth's assembly was "doing more harm than good" (1 Corinthians 11:17). Among other things, the two forms of worshipers existed: by those who, in silence, searched out the leaven in their heart, and by those who saw the supper as a celebration. A component of the new wineskin dogma is that worship means feeling the exhilaration. This is a form of intoxication, perhaps on pure ignorance.

Perhaps only a few understood the nature of the literal body of Christ which He gave in death so that we do not have to die. Paul said:

Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 1 Corinthians 11:27

Unworthily does not mean that we must be worthy. Rather, unworthy means irreverently. Like the Passover where the search for the house for leaven was conducted in total silence, those taking the Lord's Supper must be quiet to search their own heart for leaven. Because you cannot think about two things at the same time, Paul made the Supper a personal time of reverence -- noise is never an aid but a burden:

But let a man examine (test) himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. 1 Corinthians 11:28

For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily (without reverence in introspection), eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning (separate thoroughly, discriminate) the Lords body. 1 Corinthians 11:29

For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep. 1 Corinthians 11:30.

It cannot be doubted that those who need to sing during this period need to shut out the process for others as well as themselves. Music is always a way to discern ones own body and not the body of Christ. No, that sweep of emotion is not spirituality but just the opposite: it is an injection of drugs. One "pastor" even wants to put LSD into the communion juice because music is fine but drugs are quicker.

We believe that the Lord's Supper was a designated act at a designated time to remember the Lord's Sacrifice. It, like Baptism, was more than an outward symbol. Those who refuse baptism refuse to come alive in Christ while those who disrupt the Lord's Supper get spiritually sick and die back to their old state.

Alfred Edersheim: Sketches of Jewish Social Life by Alfred Edersheim Chapter 17 Notes of the Synagogue which was connected to the Temple grounds:

"Of theological lectures and discussions in the Temple, we have an instance on the occasion when our Lord was found by His parents "sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions" (Luke 2:46).

Edersheim identifies three circles of sanctity: the first was the temple proper into which not even Jesus could go.

Next, the grounds or precints of the temple became the common gathering place of the teachers and disciples as a form of the synagogue.

Finally, what Paul identified as "outside the camp" was the millions of Jews attended "school" and prayer at the synagogues while perhaps no more than 10 thousand of the "sects" clustered around the Temple.

This would have been the place in the "temple" where the early disciples met.

"And it can scarcely be doubted, that this also explains how the scribes and Pharisees could so frequently "come upon Him," while He taught in the Temple, with their difficult and entangling questions, up to that rejoinder about the nature of the Messiah, with which He finally silenced them: "If David then call Him Lord, how is He his Son?" (Matt 22:45).

"But in reference to the so-called "Temple-synagogue," there is this difficulty, that certain prayers and rites seem to have been connected with it,

which formed no part of the regular Temple services, and yet were somehow engrafted upon them.

We can therefore only conclude that the growing change in the theological views of Israel, before and about the time of Christ, made the Temple services alone appear insufficient.

The symbolical and typical elements which constituted the life and centre of Temple worship had lost their spiritual meaning and attraction to the majority of that generation,

and their place was becoming occupied by so-called teaching and outward performances.
Thus the worship of the letter took the place of that of the spirit, and Israel was preparing to reject Christ for Pharisaism.

The Sadducees were generally in charge of the temple which from the beginning had been the center of the civil state and not the "church" of the people. The Pharisees had taken over the synagogues in opposition to the temple but when competition exists there is likely to be abuses.

As for Jesus going into the Synagogue Edersheim observes:

"And yet there was nothing in the worship itself of the synagogue which could have prevented either the Lord, or His apostles and early followers, from attending it till the time of final separation had come.

"Readers of the New Testament know what precious opportunities it offered for making known the Gospel. Its services were, indeed, singularly elastic.

For the main object of the synagogue was the teaching of the people.

"The very idea of its institution, before and at the time of Ezra, explains and conveys this, and it is confirmed by the testimony of Josephus (Ag. Apion, ii, 157-172).

But perhaps the ordinary reader of the New Testament may have failed to notice, how prominently this element in the synagogue is brought out in the gospel history. Yet the word "teaching" is used so frequently in connection with our Lord's appearance in the synagogue, that its lesson is obvious (see Matt 4:23; Mark 1:21, 6:2; Luke 4:15, 6:6, 13:10; John 6:59, 18:20).

The "teaching" part of the service consisted mainly in reading a section from the law, with which the reading of a portion from the prophets, and a sermon, or address, were conjoined.

The later rabbis developed a law against "allegorizing." That is, the sermon was simply the explanation of those portions of the Scripture read and was often directed to questions.

"Although the sermon was not an essential part of the synagogue service, the translation and explanation of the Scripture lesson was a step in the direction of a preaching service. There is evidence that an exposition of the lesson formed a part of the Sabbath afternoon service. In earliest times the sermon seems to have been connected with the reading from the Prophets. Anyone able to instruct might be asked to preach (Acts 13:15). The preacher spoke from a sitting position on an elevated place (Luke 4:20). (Feiffer, Charles F., Between the Testaments, p. 63 Baker Book House).

"Of course, the liturgical element could in such services never have been quite wanting, and it soon acquired considerable importance. It consisted of prayer and the pronouncing of the Aaronic blessing (Num 6:24-26) by priests--that is, of course,

not by Rabbis, who were merely teachers or doctors, but by lineal descendants of the house of Aaron.

There was no service of "praise" in the synagogues.

There absolutely was no instrumental music and the "singing' is defined as the "way a school boy recites the hallel." The fact that the synagogue was a school and not a "temple" meant that any form of music had no more rationale than a band in a Physics lecture.

"Early Christianity inherited its musical practices and attitudes from Judaism, especially from the Synagogue. Unlike the Temple the Synagogue employed no instruments in its services (Werner). The absence of instruments did not result from antagonism toward instruments, whether the instruments of the Temple or of the Hellenistic cults, but from the simple fact that instruments had no function in the unique services of the Synagogue.

"Public worship * commenced on ordinary occasions with the so-called "Shema," which was preceded in the morning and evening by two "benedictions," and succeeded in the morning by one, and in the evening by two, benedictions; the second being, strictly speaking, an evening prayer.

* Our description here applies to the worship of the ancient, not of the modern synagogue; and we have thought it best to confine ourselves to the testimony of the Mishnah, so as to avoid the danger of bringing in practices of a later date.

Jesus endorsed the Shema which declared that there is only One God.

"Another act, hitherto, so far as we know, unnoticed, requires here to be mentioned. It invests the prayers just quoted with a new and almost unparalleled interest. According to the Mishnah (Megillah, iv. 5), the person who read in the synagogue the portion from the prophets was also expected to say the "Shema," and to offer the prayers.

These prayers were not improvized.

Lifting Holy Hands

"The prayers were conducted or repeated aloud by one individual, specially deputed for the occasion, the congregation responding by an "Amen." The liturgical service concluded with the priestly benediction (Num 6:23,24), spoken by the descendants of Aaron. In case none such were present, "the legate of the Church," as the leader of the devotions was called, repeated the words from the Scriptures in their connection.

Prayers like the reading was not mumbo-jumbo made up by non-bible readers: it was reciting set prayers and was also a form of teaching.

In giving the benediction, the priests elevated their hands up to the shoulders (Sotah, vii. 6);

in the Temple, up to the forehead. Hence this rite is designated by the expression,

"the lifting up of the hands." *

* The apostle may have had this in his mind when, in directing the order of public ministration, he spoke of "the men...lifting up holy hands, without wrath or doubting" (1 Tim 2:8). At any rate, the expression is precisely the same as that used by the Rabbis.

Elsewhere, Edersheim notes that only the High Priest could lift his hands over his head.

In noting the attitude observed in the prayers:

Suffice it, that the body was to be fully bent, yet so, that care was taken never to make it appear as if the service had been burdensome.

One of the Rabbis tells us, that, with this object in view, he bent down as does a branch; while, in lifting himself up again, he did it like a serpent--beginning with the head!

Any one deputed by the rulers of a congregation might say prayers, except a minor. This, however, applies only to the "Shema." [The shema was quoting a passage of Scripture and was not spontaneous prayer].

It has already been pointed out, that the main object of the synagogue was the teaching of the people.

This was specially accomplished by the reading of the law.

The Sermon

"After each verse an Aramaic rendering was given by an interpreter, who in Palestine was bound NOT to use a written translation and not to allegorize" (The New Shaff-Herzog, Ency., p. 215).

Paul explained this for the Christian churches

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 2 Pe.1:20

Epilusis (g1955) ep-il'-oo-sis; from 1956; explanation, i.e. application: - interpretation.

Epiluo (g1956) ep-ee-loo'-o; from 1909 and 3089; to solve further, i.e. (fig.) to explain, decide: - determine, expound.

Jesus and the apostles further expounded the Scriptures once and they are not subject to further expounding. This is the meaning of allegorizing or "applicating" the Word by taking a passage out of context and fitting it to one's personal preaching or singing agenda.

The reading of the prophets was often followed by a sermon or address, with which the service concluded. The temptation to ignore that which was written and invent their own new commentary led Jesus to condemn the Pharisees.

The preacher was called "darshan," and his address a "derashah" (homily, sermon, from "darash," to ask, inquire, or discuss).

When the address was a learned theological discussion--especially in academies--it was not delivered to the people directly, but whispered into the ear of an "amora," or speaker,

who explained to the multitude in popular language the weighty sayings which the Rabbi had briefly communicated to him.

A more popular sermon, on the other hand, was called a "meamar," literally, a "speech, or talk." These addresses would be either Rabbinical expositions of Scripture, or else doctrinal discussions, in which appeal would be made to tradition and to the authority of certain great teachers.

"For it was laid down as a principle, that "every one is bound to teach in the very language of his teacher."

Paul continued this principle for the church:

He must hold firmly to the trustworthy message as it has been taught, so that he can encourage others by sound doctrine and refute those who oppose it. Titus 1:9

The rule of the synagogue for leaders was repeated by Paul. As the elders were the "pastor teachers" in the synagogue, Paul insisted that they be the preacher-teachers in the local congregation. Those were to be recognized according to Lenski who were "already laboring to the point of exhaustion in preaching and teaching." These men who were already fully devoted coluld, like the Levites of old, given food or other help:

Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. 1 timothy 5:17

For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward. 1 timothy 5:18

John Chrysostom agreed that this is not "singing" but "preaching or teaching or reading" the Word.

When Paul is said to preach in English, he "dialogued" in the Greek:

"DIALEGOMAI primarily denotes to ponder, resolve in one's mind; then, to converse, dispute, discuss, discourse with; most frequently, to reason or dispute with." In Acts 20:7 and 9 "the A.V. (KJV) translates it 'preached,' this the R.V. corrects to 'discoursed,' lit., 'dialogued,' i.e. not by way of a sermon, but by a discourse of a more conversational character." (Vine, p. 319).

"to say thoroughly, i.e. discuss (in argument or exhortation):--dispute, preach, reason, speak" (Strong)

When Paul went into a settle condition the assembly would be more like our Sunday Schools than our worship service which makes a deliberate effort to focus the congregation on the celebrative preacher.

"Although the sermon was not an essential part of the synagogue service, the translation and explanation of the Scripture lesson was a step in the direction of a preaching service. There is evidence that an exposition of the lesson formed a part of the Sabbath afternoon service.

In earliest times the sermon seems to have been connected with the reading from the Prophets. Anyone able to instruct might be asked to preach (Acts 13:15).

The preacher spoke from a sitting position on an elevated place (Luke 4:20). (Pfeiffer, Charles F., Between the Testaments, Baker Book House, p. 63)

It appears that only the females in some early churches tended to "stand over" or become "non-sedantary." The males did not stand over to enhance their authority. Therefore, the "law against women" should be an unnecessary law against men in theatrical performance.

Of Jesus, Edersheim noted that:

"Similarly, the form also of His teaching was so different from the constant appeal of the Rabbis to mere tradition; it seemed all to come so quite fresh and direct from heaven, like the living waters of the Holy Spirit,

that "the people were astonished at His doctrine: for He taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes" (Matt 7:28,29).

In Fact, Jesus insisted that the human flesh is not important. He spoke only what He heard from the Father and could say:

It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life. John 6:63

Paul did not command singing but teaching. To Timothy he wrote:

Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine. 1 Timothy 4:13

There was no preaching other than reading and often translating to "give the sense" of that which had been read. "There was no praise service in the synagogue" or the civil ekklesia.

And after the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on. Ac.13:15

Exhortation is:

Paraklesis (g3874) par-ak'-lay-sis; from 3870; imploration, hortation, solace: - comfort, consolation, exhortation, intreaty.

Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand. Re.1:3

There was no praise service in the synagogue.

Churches moved into the synagogues

Therefore, there was no recorded praise service in the early churches.

The command is not to "sing" but to teach. The singing and melody is "in the heart." The word "speak" is identical to the word "preach."

The word mistranslated as "church" is the same as the Hebrew word for "synagogue. The early Christians patterned their meetings after the synagogue, not after the temple; so Christians would not have used musical instruments, since nothing is recorded about the Jews using instrumental music in their ancient synagogues.

"In his book Purity of Worship, the Presbyterian M. C. Ramsay writes: "Those who maintain that Jewish worship had associated with it instruments of music fail to appreciate the facts; and some of the facts are as follows:

"The ordinary worship of the Jew was that of the synagogue, and it was always unembellished.
men of Israel were commanded to attend the temple worship only thrice annually.

Throughout the remainder of the year, Sabbath by Sabbath, they met for worship in their synagogues.
Their wives and children attended regularly the synagogue where the services were marked by simplicity....

"Where there was congregational singing, there was no musical instrument. ... It is both interesting and informative to notice that the instruments of music were first used in synagogues at the beginning of the nineteenth century, that is,

about the same time as they began to be introduced into Protestant [i.e., Presbyterian] churches."

1 Tim 4:15 Meditate upon these things;
give thyself wholly to them;
that thy profiting may appear to all.

G3191meletao mel-et-ah'-o From a presumed derivative of G3199 ; to take care of, that is, (by implication) revolve in the mind:--imagine, (pre-) meditate.

G3199 melō mel'-o A primary verb; to be of interest to, that is, to concern (only third person singular present indicative used impersonally it matters):--(take) care.

Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom;
teaching and
admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
singing with
grace in your hearts to the Lord Col 3:16 

Exhortation is:

Paraklesis (g3874) par-ak'-lay-sis; from 3870; imploration, hortation, solace: - comfort, consolation, exhortation, intreaty.

But he that prophesieth (teaches) speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort. 1Co.14:3

Doctrine is:

Didaskalia (g1319) did-as-kal-ee'-ah; from 1320; instruction (the function or the information): - doctrine, learning, teaching.

Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee. 1Ti.4:16

And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; Eph 5:18

Speaking (preaching) to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
        singing and making melody
in your heart to the Lord; Eph 5:19 

Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; Eph 5:20 
        Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God. Eph 5:21

Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord. Col 3:16

Didasko (g1321) did-as'-ko; a prol. (caus.) form of a prim. verb dao, (to learn); to teach (in the same broad application): - teach

And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name (authority) of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him. Col 3:17

Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord. Col 3:18

The worship of the Jews was always blended with paganism. For instance, many of the musical instruments and musical terms are derived from Greek. While the clergy tried to control the situation there was always pressure from without and within to turn the festivals ordained by God into entertainment festivals where the "talent" of men and women became the God. Where musical or performing talent is involved in "religion" you have fertility rituals.

"During the fourth century the Jews came under the influence of Greek Rationalism. In 332 BC Alexandeer of Macedonia defeated Darius III of Persia and the Greeks began to colonize Asia and Africa. The founded city-states in Tyre, Sidon, Gaza, Philadelphis (Amman) and Tripolis and even in Shechem.

The Jews of Palestine and the diaspora were surrounded by a Hellenic culture which some found disturbing,

but others were excited by Greek theater, philosophy, sport and poetry. They learned Greek, exercised at the gymnasium and took Greek names. Some fought as mercinaries in the Greek armies.

"Thus some Greeks came to know the God of Israel and decided to worship Yahweh (Iao) alongside Zeus and Dionysus.

Some were attracted to the synagogue... There they read scriptures, prayed and listened to sermons (explanations).

The synagogue was unlike anything else in the rest of the ancient religous world.

Since there was no ritual or sacrifice, it must have seemed more like a school of philosophy, and many flocked in the synagogue if a well-known Jewish preacher came to town...

"By the second century BC this hostility was entrenched: in Palestine there had even been a revolt when Antiochus Epiphanes, the Selucid governor, had attempted to Hellenize Jerusalem and introduce the cult of Zeus into the temple....

"In the second century BC Jesus Ben Sira...

made Wisdom (Sophia)
stand up in the Divine Council
and sing her praises:

she had come forth from the mouth of the Most High as the Divine Word by which God had created the world... Wisdom leaving God to wander through the world in search of humanity,

it is hard not to be reminded of the pagan goddesses such as Ishtar, Anat and Isis, who had also descended from the divine world in a redemptive.

"When monotheists fell in love with Greek philosophy, they inevitably wanted to try to adapt its God to their own." (Armstrong, Karen, A History of God, p. 67f)

See how the Jews fell into Greek worship with music and the gymnasium.

And See how Josephus warned the Levites not to restore the music which had destroyed the nation once.

Music in Reform Judaism

Music in the Synagogue: Britannica Members

"The description of the synagogue service above noted the role of the hazzan, or cantor. It is he who reads the service and

declaims the scriptural lessons to certain set musical modes that vary with the season and occasion.

Many of these call for melodic responses on the part of the congregation. The origins and varying developments of these chants are ancient, often obscure, and equally complicated. Whatever the basic materials, these were enlarged, varied, corrupted, and reworked over the centuries in the various environments in which the Jewish communities have lived. In modern times musicologists have begun to examine with great care the history of synagogal music, analyzing its basic structures and its relationship to the music of Christian liturgical traditions.

In the 19th century in Western Europe much of the traditional music was either discarded or re-worked under the influence of western forms and styles.

In addition the pipe-organ was introduced and was the centre of stormy controversy.

A.D 1810-1815

"The strict order of the Church Fathers that only one instrument should be employed, i.e., the human voice, has been observed in the Syriac, the Jacobite, the Nestorian, and the Greek churches to the present day. So also the synagogue did not use any instrument in the services up to 1810, in which year the organ was introduced in Seesen, Germany" (Idelsohn, quoted by Bales , p. 259).

"The modern organ in Reform Synagogues as an accessory of worship was first introduced by Israel Jacobson at Berlin in the new house of prayer which he opened for the Shabu'ot festival, June 14, 1815...(because this one was closed because errother Jews brought suit) The members of the Reform party succeeded in building and dedicating their first temple on October 18, 1818, at Hamburg, where they set up a fine organ, but employed a non-Jewish organist" (Isadore Singer, Jewish Encyclopedia)

"It is still banned by rigid adherents to old ways; but in ordinary conservative congregations it is unhesitatingly employed at weddings and other services on week days" (Ibid., p. 134)

An attempt was made by "Reform" Judiasm to export its heresies to Russia. Dr. Max Lillienthal (1814-1882) set up the groundwork for government-sponsored Jewish secular schools in December 1841. However, his best-laid plans were put to an end by the great Lubavitcher Chasidic rabbi--thr Tzemach Tzedek. Generations afterwards his discendent was was thrown down a flight of stairs after the Russian Revolution. Reform Judaism began in Germany just after the Napoleonic emanicipation.

The synagogue services were shortened, the vernacular and music were used and group replaced individual confirmation.

Political Reforms: Britannica Online

"Napoleon convoked a Sanhedrin (Jewish legislative council) in 1807 to create a new, modern definition of Judaism in its renunciation of Jewish nationhood and national aspirations, its protestations that rabbinic authority was purely spiritual, and its recognition of the priority of civil over religious authorities even in the matters of intermarriage. In areas other than France, the rationale for reform, at least in its early years, was more aesthetic than doctrinal. The external aspects of worship--i.e., the form of the service--appeared unacceptable to the newly Westernized members of the Jewish bourgeoisie in both Germany and the United States, whose standards of cultural acceptability had been shaped by the surrounding society, and who desired above all to resemble their Gentile peers. Thus, the short-lived Reform temple established in Seesen, by the pioneer German reformer Israel Jacobson,

in 1810 enshrined order and dignity of a Protestant type in the service and introduced an organ, sermon, and prayers in German, in place of Hebrew, to create an uplifting spiritual experience.

The more radical temple in Hamburg (established 1818) adopted all of Jacobson's reforms and published its own much-abridged prayer book, which deleted almost all the references to the long-awaited restoration of Zion. Reformers in Charleston, South Carolina, introduced similar changes in the synagogue ritual in 1824, for they sought a non-national Judaism similar in form to Protestantism and adapted to the surrounding culture. It was apparent to the reformers that in Western society Judaism would have to divest itself of its alien customs and conform to the cultural and intellectual standards of the new "age of reason."

Israel Jacobson (1768-1828), a Jewish layman, established an innovative school in Seesen, Brunswick, in 1801.

There he held the first Reform services in 1809, attended by adults as well as children. Jacobson's liturgy was in German rather than Hebrew;

men and women were allowed to sit together; organ and choir music were added to the service;

and Jacobson instituted confirmation for both boys and girls to replace the traditional boys' Bar Mitzvah ceremony. The liturgy omitted all references to a personal messiah who would restore Israel as a nation. Jacobson held Reform services in Berlin in 1815; and from there Reform practices spread to Denmark, Hamburg, Leipzig, Vienna, and Prague.

The early church added the Lord's Supper as a memorial of the death of Christ and like the synagogue its task was edification which is teaching the Word of Christ in song and sermon. And like the Synagogue there does not seem to be any rationale for congregational or organized praise.

Both "stand over" performance preaching and "team" singing is a direct violation of everything the Bible has to say to us about the "assembly" which does not mean "church" in the modern institutional sense.

See Edersheim's Full Article

Church Index


Counter added 8.02.05 7:30p 4.03.07 5546  5.15.07 7239 10.26.07 8973 12.06.07 425 2.15.09 14234 7.11.09 15922
5.25.11 25886


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