Romans Chapter Ten
In chapter nine we saw from the Sarah-Hagar types that Hagar stood for Mount Sinai, the Book of the Law, the City of Jerusalem and of course the Temple. The Jews believed that all of these made them superior. However, Paul makes it clear that all of these were types of literal and spiritual adultery, idolatry or slavery.
He could do no better than to return to Israel's continuation of their "Egyptian prostitution" at Mount Sinai and warn the church that it should not imitate these practices.
Therefore, it is impossible to understand his message to Rome without understanding what really happened in Egypt and at the foot of Mount Sinai.
Paul makes the following points in the tenth chapter:
He wants true Israelites to be saved 10:1
Sincerity counts for nothing 10:2
Ignorance leads to self-righteousness, true righteousness comes from God 10:3
Christ is the goal or end point of "the law" to bring righteousness by faith 10:4
Right living even under law was possible by faithful obedience 10:5
This righteousness did not come from charismatic ritual 10:6-7
Justification by faith is revealed by the word of faith 10:8
Justification means that God approves when we believe.
Outward profession and inward belief brings salvation 10:9
Belief justifies but outward profession saves 10:10
Trust has always been God's way 10:11
This is true of both Jew and Gentile 10:12
Calling on the Name at baptism is outward confession and brings salvation 10:13
One cannot hear without the Word being taught 10:14
Evangelists with "beautiful feet" are always sent 10:15
Not all of the Jews accepted the "good news" by believing 10:16
Therefore, faith now comes from hearing the word of Christ 10:17
The Jews were without excuse because the word was sent out 10:18
The Jews could have known that God would save Gentiles 10:19
Gentiles "found" God because He revealed Himself to them 10:20
God still offers salvation to obedient Jews 10:21
In the first two verses Paul concedes that the Jews (even the Pharisees) were very sincere and zealous. In fact, before his conversion he was so "religious" that he would have you killed on the spot as "an act of worship." In his mind he defended God whom he believed was not capable of defending Himself. Jesus showed that this would happen when--
"They will put you out of the synagogue; in fact, a time is coming when anyone who kills you will think he is offering a service to God. -- John 16:2
Therefore, Paul understood the ignorant zeal of his Jewish brethren when he wrote--
Brothers, my heart's desire and prayer to God for the Israelites is that they may be saved.
For I can testify about them that they are zealous for God,
but their zeal is not based on knowledge. -- Rom 10:1-2
There is nothing more useless than the fastest football player in the world running in the wrong direction--
This is Paul's message to lay the foundation for the charismatic zeal which motivated the Jews to legalistically establish their own righteousness while ignoring God
10:1: Throughout the ninth chapter Paul showed that salvation did not rest on God's national predestination of Israel. Rather, the true "spiritual" Israelites are those who demonstrate the faith of Abraham which gains its "earning" or "justifying" power (grace) from God by faith. Paul continues to defend himself by showing that his desire and prayer was that the true Israelites be saved. Therefore, he shows that he is not anti-semitic.
10:2: He can testify as a "witness" that however sincere one's religion, it is not a faith relationship with God unless it is based upon knowledge. If his message has any meaning to the churches, then and now, it is that religion has no value unless it is based upon knowledge of God which comes from God. Our only source of that knowledge has always been the "enscripturated" Word in which God revealed Himself through prophets and apostles.
Being zealous meant that they really tried to do acts. However, their "acts" were not based upon faith. This was true because faith, according to Paul, comes from "hearing the Word of God." And Israel did not learn their "acts of worship" from reading the Word but often from the pagan high places. That is why the Holy Spirit was always very careful throughout the Old Testament to show a difference between the practices which God ordained and those "introduced by David" or other kings.
In our background on charismatic revivalism which sweeps over even rational people, we saw that the more "out of their mind" some people become the more convinced they are that God is behind it. However, we also noted that the zeal often did more harm than good and that church growth came through "going into the whole world with the gospel."
Since they did not know the righteousness that comes from God and sought to establish their own,
they did not submit to God's righteousness. -- Rom 10:3
Christ is the end of the law so that there may be righteousness for everyone who believes. -- Rom 10:4
10:3: Later in this chapter Paul will quote Moses to show that God gave His Word to the Israelites and they were, therefore, without excuse. However, they deliberately ignored the covenant and law and invented new and more exciting ways to "ascend" to God to force Him to "descend" to "meet their needs."
God "approved" Israel by a pure act of grace and rescued them from Egypt when they did not deserve anything but death. The people saw the miracles and pledged themselves to perfectly obey the original life-giving Covenant. However, by continuing the idol worship which they had learned in Egypt, the covenant ceremony which they had just experienced did teach them that God is not Apis and that He has rules by which one may approach Him. Their entire background convinced them that if it "felt good" it "was" good. The ability to sit down, shut up and listen to an invisible "formless" God caused them to reject Him.
During the Exodus, in the Sinai desert at the foot of Mount Sinai, Israel fired God and had Aaron make a more suitable leader in the form of the bull image of the Egyptian god, Apis. Later, they confirmed God's justice in rejecting them as a nation whey they finally rejected the rule of God, fired Him and demanded a "king in their own image" who would allow them to worship "like the nations." That is, they wanted an "enjoyment" religion in place of a "discipline" religion.
After that fatal choice of a king, their worship became a mixture of Law and pagan idolatry. They believed that by keeping the rituals of the law they had permission to "improve" their lives and worship by adding Canaanite rituals. This idolatry was not always the worship of an image. Rather, it was usually self-worship which believes that ones own creation (image or self-composed message) is of more value than faith in an invisible, formless God.
The ignorance which developed while they were performing their own rituals was especially dangerous because it allowed or even encouraged acts of unrighteousness. Therefore, they closed their ears and shut their eyes so that they were deliberately ignorant of the Word of God. In addition, they persecuted anyone who tried to teach or preach God's message.
In summary: The Israelites did not submit and sought to establish their own righteousness by changing the law, by adding idolatry (musical prophesying), by replacing God (the king), by their commentary (the rabbis), by commercialism (the lying pen of the scribe), by failing to teach (the priests), by failing to warn (the prophets), and by failing to enforce the teaching of the Word (the elders).
10:4: Christ is the end of the law in the sense that the goal or destination of the law was to bring all people to Christ. It was the "narrow way" to keep them away from the wide gate and broad road of idolatry. In addition, living under the law should have forced them to faith.
"So the law was put in charge to lead us to Christ that we might be justified by faith. -- Gal 3:24
However, because Israel used the law as a pretext for claiming that they were "very religious," God removed the crutch. That is, by removing the Law-as-means God took power away from anyone who would control others to establish their own secular-like institution. Because these people knew that they were not perfect, the Law became a "downer" and just made them feel guilty. Because they never gained "relief" they turned to endorphin-inducing rituals which made them feel better even when they were not better. Music-induced endorphins, like morphine, always demands more and more as a way to "get the spirit" of the pagan god. Therefore, Paul warned that hearing the "spirit words" of God through Jesus is the only way to receive the Holy Spirit. The only way they could fail to understand something so simple is by allowing someone to manipulate them out of their rational mind--
You foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you? Before your very eyes Jesus Christ was clearly portrayed as crucified. -- Gal 3:1
I would like to learn just one thing from you: Did you receive the Spirit by observing the law, or by believing what you heard? -- Gal 3:2
Are you so foolish? After beginning with the Spirit, are you now trying to attain your goal by human effort? -- Gal 3:3
Paul says what Jesus and others say: one receives the Spirit by believing the message which is a message of spirit. Christ made it simple by saying that "spirit" comes as a result of hearing the life-giving message; the Galatians tried to "get spirit" through human efforts (law) or "bewitching" rituals (paganism).
All who rely on observing the law are under a curse, for it is written: "Cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the Book of the Law." -- Gal 3:10
Next, Paul quoted Moses to show that the Law is indeed profitable to those who keep it by faith. It has no value to those who see the rituals as proof of their own righteousness--
- Moses describes in this way
- The righteousness that is by the law:
- The man who does these things will live by them." -- Rom 10:5
10:5: The word "law" is used in two forms. It is used of The Book of the Covenant which God gave at Mount Sinai and The Book of the Law which He added after Israel fell into idolatry. Several prophets show that life was possible to those who obeyed the Covenant out of faith.
To say that life was possible by keeping a law which is impossible to keep would make no sense.
Therefore, the promise of life came before Israel engaged in charismatic worship of their old Egyptian god. The law "was added because of transgression." Therefore, the Book of the Law which was to regulate lawless men had no life giving power. Because of their idolatry the final law could not be kept perfectly and it became a source of death to those who trusted themselves rather than God.
When God gave a law He was happy when people believed and obeyed Him. Faith was the path by which they approached Him. However, Ezekiel reminded the uninformed people why their ancestors failed and confirms the difference between the original covenant and the final law--
The Book of the Covenant:
Then said I unto them, Cast ye away every man the abominations of his eyes, and defile not yourselves with the idols of Egypt: I am the Lord your God. Ezekiel 20: 7
But they rebelled against me, and would not hearken unto me: they did not every man cast away the abominations of their eyes, neither did they forsake the idols of Egypt: then I said, I will pour out my fury upon them, to accomplish my anger against them in the midst of the land of Egypt. Ezekiel 20: 8
But I wrought for my names sake, that it should not be polluted before the heathen, among whom they were, in whose sight I made myself known unto them, in bringing them forth out of the land of Egypt. Ezekiel 20: 9
Wherefore I caused them to go forth out of the land of Egypt, and brought them into the wilderness. Ezekiel 20:10
And I gave them my statutes, and shewed them my judgments, which if a man do, he shall even live in them. Ezekiel 20:11
Moreover also I gave them my sabbaths, to be a sign between me and them, that they might know that I am the Lord that sanctify them. Ezekiel 20:12
They practiced Charismatic Idolatry:
But the house of Israel rebelled against me in the wilderness: they walked not in my statutes, and they despised my judgments, which if a man do, he shall even live in them; and my sabbaths they greatly polluted:
then I said, I would pour out my fury upon them in the wilderness, to consume them. Ezekiel 20:13
Chalal (h2490) khaw-lal'; a prim. root [comp. 2470]; prop. to bore, i. e. (by impl.) to wound, to dissolve; fig. to profane (a person, place or thing), to break (one's word), to begin (as if by an "opening wedge"); denom. (from 2485) to play (the flute): - begin (* men began), defile, * break, defile, * eat (as common things), * first, * gather the grape thereof, * take inheritance, pipe, player on instruments, pollute, (cast as) profane (self), prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound.
This is why God had the people's "congregation" put outside the gates when the music began for animal sacrifices.
Based on the word "pollute," "play," the example of Samson and David and scholarly opinion, the "because of transgression" was musical idolatry:
Stephen was murdered in part for denying that God lived in houses or was worshiped with the works of men's hands:
And they made a calf in those days, and offered sacrifice unto the idol, and rejoiced in the works of their own hands. Acts 7:41
Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the host of heaven; as it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye house of Israel, have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices by the space of forty years in the wilderness? Acts 7:42
"Then God turned away from them and gave them up, and let them serve the sun, moon, and stars as their gods! In the book of Amos' prophecies the Lord God asks, 'Was it to me you were sacrificing during those forty years in the desert, Israel? Acts 7:42LIV
God did not destroy them:
But I wrought for my names sake, that it should not be polluted before the heathen, in whose sight I brought them out. Ezekiel 20:14
Yet also I lifted up my hand unto them in the wilderness, that I would not bring them into the land which I had given them, flowing with milk and honey, which is the glory of all lands; Ezekiel 20:15
Because they despised my judgments, and walked not in my statutes, but polluted my sabbaths: for their heart went after their idols. Ezekiel 20:16
Nevertheless mine eye spared them from destroying them, neither did I make an end of them in the wilderness. Ezekiel 20:17
To try to purify them before they went into Canaan, the younger people were told not to repeat the worship of their fathers which was idolatry--
But I said unto their children in the wilderness, Walk ye not in the statutes of your fathers, neither observe their judgments, nor defile yourselves with their idols: Ezekiel 20:18
I am the Lord your God; walk in my statutes, and keep my judgments, and do them; Ezekiel 20:19
And hallow my sabbaths; and they shall be a sign between me and you, that ye may know that I am the Lord your God. Ezekiel 20:20
Again, the children turned to idolatry and God allowed many to die in the desert--
Notwithstanding the children rebelled against me: they walked not in my statutes, neither kept my judgments to do them, which if a man do, he shall even live in them; they polluted my sabbaths: then I said, I would pour out my fury upon them, to accomplish my anger against them in the wilderness. Ezekiel 20:21
Nevertheless I withdrew mine hand, and wrought for my names sake, that it should not be polluted in the sight of the heathen, in whose sight I brought them forth. Ezekiel 20:22
However, they were continuing their "prostitute" religion and were "storing up God's wrath" because He warned--
I lifted up mine hand unto them also in the wilderness, that I would scatter them among the heathen, and disperse them through the countries; Ezekiel 20:23
Because they had not executed my judgments, but had despised my statutes, and had polluted my sabbaths, and their eyes were after their fathers idols. Ezekiel 20:24
God Gave the Book of the Law:
Wherefore I gave them also statutes that were not good, and judgments whereby they should not live; Ezekiel 20:25
The idolatry they loved finally destroyed them:
And I polluted them in their own gifts, in that they caused to pass through the fire all that openeth the womb, that I might make them desolate, to the end that they might know that I am the Lord. Ezekiel 20:26
We have looked at the fact that the Valley of Hinnom became "the king's music grove" where men like Solomon were entertained by the "men and women singers" for his own pleasure. It was called Topheth named after the tabret or tambourine and became the symbol of hell itself because the children were burned while the instruments drowned out the cries so that "evil sounds did not reach the ears of the priests."
That this law was something new and in addition to the covenant is proven by Moses--
"These are the terms of the covenant the LORD commanded Moses to make with the Israelites in Moab, in addition to the covenant he had made with them at Horeb. -- Deu 29:1
God made the life-giving covenant at Horeb but it was only after they arrived in Moab and all of the old folks were dead that God gave an "addition to the covenant." This law was specifically to regulate a people who would not obey God and eradicate paganism but would join with them--
"Deuteronomy 12 is an expansion of the law recorded in Exodus 20:24... But when the religious situation that would be encountered in Canaan once the tribes began to occupy the terrain was contemplated,
the different conditions required a somewhat different approach from that of a desert milieu." (Harrison, R. K., Introduction to the Old Testament, Eerdmans, p. 642)
The places where Israel became defiled were the "high places" (bamah) where they tried to literally and spiritually ascend to God. When they wanted a "king like the nations" they wanted to worship like the nations (Ezek. 20:32). As a result, the Israelites did what God knew they would do: they went into Canaan, practiced idolatry, demanded a king to replace Him, and fell so completely into idolatry that most of them self-destructed--they did not live in the literal sense.
Paul also appealed to Habakkuk to show that living in accordance with the written, revealed Word of God is "living by faith."
I will stand at my watch and station myself on the ramparts; I will look to see what he will say to me, and what answer I am to give to this complaint. -- Hab 2:1
Then the LORD replied: (1) "Write down the revelation and (2) make it plain on tablets so that (3) a herald may run with it. -- Hab 2:2
For the revelation awaits an appointed time; it speaks of the end and will not prove false. Though it linger, wait for it; it will certainly come and will not delay. -- Hab 2:3
However, even when God went to the trouble of giving knowledge and demanding that His people take it to the nations, they were overcome because of deliberate ignorance. Therefore, Habakkuk next compared Judah's oppressors with a right relationship with God--
"See, he is puffed up; his desires are not upright--but the righteous will live by his faith -- Hab 2:4
God's people would not only live by faith but when the enemy was defeated the earth would be filled with the knowledge of God to replace the ascending-descending errors of Hab. 2:4-5--
For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea. -- Hab 2:14
As Moses prophesied of a "Prophet like himself" who must be "listened to," Habakkuk predicted that the earth would be filled with the knowledge of God. This is compared to "waters" which must be allowed to cover the sea. The Apocalyptic writer warns against men who would become "restrainers of the waters" as Jesus warned the Jews that they "took away the key to knowledge." Therefore, in the words of Moses, people do not have to "send across the sea" to get "water."
This is a direct prediction of the end of "prophesying" or the charismatic singing with music which was used to arouse the "god" from across the sea to come and meet their needs.
Moses understood that righteousness by law was possible under the Covenant law. Therefore, he did not just warn against a casual "search for God in out of way places." Rather, he understood that the charismatic rituals of idolatry "took away" life from the Covenant law. This was a result of "rejecting the testimony" of the one whom God sent and it was, therefore, a rejection of God. That this is possible can be seen from Paul's warning that if he used "words of human wisdom" in place of the revealed Word of God, "the cross of Christ would be emptied of its power." The unchanged Word is God's bearer of cross power.
In the same way, Paul warned the Romans that they had been the victims of ancient paganism whose focus upon emotionalism blinded them to the rational, self-evident, nature of the true God. This narrow, self-evident path was not in terms of rituals, celebrations, festivals, ecstatic practices, or the need to "visualize" God through idols or temples. Because--
The wrath of God is being revealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness, -- Rom 1:18
since what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. -- Rom 1:19
For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities--his eternal power and divine nature--have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse. -- Rom 1:20
For although they knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him, but their thinking became futile and their foolish hearts were darkened. -- Rom 1:21
Although they claimed to be wise, they became fools-- Rom 1:22
and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles. -- Rom 1:23
To continue his warning that idolatry hindered God's predestinated plan, Paul quoted Moses who defined what the Israelites did when they rejected the Word and practiced idolatry--
But the righteousness that is by faith says: "Do not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' " (that is, to bring Christ down) -- Rom 10:6
"or 'Who will descend into the deep?' " (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). -- Rom 10:7
But what does it say? "The word is near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart," that is, the word of faith we are proclaiming: -- Rom 10:8
Background: Because some questioners felt betrayed by Paul's belittling of the Jewish religion, he began his letter by saying that neither Jew nor Gentile found God. Now, he directs them to the warning of Moses about how the Jews--imitating the Gentiles--suppressed the Word of God. Therefore, it will be helpful to recall what led to the warning of Moses not to follow pagan practices in an attempt to find God Who had already revealed Himself in understandable terms.
While Moses was getting the covenant on Mount Sinai in written form the people were trying to "find" their god through pagan ritual. There are four primary clues to what they were doing:
First, before Moses arrived at the scene of idolatry he could hear that it was was not the "sound" of victory or of defeat. Rather, Moses heard a form of singing (Exod. 32:18) which convinced him that idolatry was taking place. He would not have been troubled if they had been "reciting" the Song of Moses heard at the Red Sea but he heard a troubling sound--it was the ritual singing of idolaters to the beat of instruments.
Second, Moses stated--
"So the next day the people rose early and sacrificed burnt offerings and presented fellowship offerings. Afterward they sat down to eat and drink and got up to indulge in revelry. -- Exo 32:6 (or play KJV)
Paul warns the Corinthians not to be idolaters but to flee from it like it was a present danger by reminding them of the Scripture--
"Do not be idolaters, as some of them were; as it is written: "The people sat down to eat and drink and got up to indulge in pagan revelry." -- 1 Cor 10:7
One of the supporting evidences is that Paul compared speaking in tongues or singing out of their own "spirit" to the noise and clang of David's music. In addition, he showed that the instruments are to signal warfare. Another evidence of music is that Isaiah and others show that music is part of the noisy revelry which would doom Israel and Judah:
"The gaiety of the tambourines is stilled, the noise of the revelers has stopped, the joyful harp is silent. -- Isa 24:8
Third, in Exodus 32:6 the Hebrew for "played" is Tsachaq which one source defines as "to laugh outright in merriment or scorn, laugh, mock, play, make sport" (Strong). This is often the natural activity of animals (Psa. 104:26). This word is often used in places where it is said "she played the harlot" as in Jer. 3:1, 6, 8; Ezek. 16:28. When Tyre "played the harlot" she "played the harp." As in the case of the Pharisees whom Jesus condemned, the games of youth--wedding, funeral, party--were played with music.
History confirms that when idolaters performed their rituals it was with mind-altering drugs, physical acts, or music. The word is used elsewhere and further insight is gained when the Israelites sought to bring the ark to Jerusalem. They ignored God's rules for moving it and became disorderly. In Second Samuel it is said that--
"David and the whole house of Israel were celebrating (playing) with all their might before the LORD, with songs and with harps, lyres, tambourines, sistrums and cymbals. - 2 Sam 6:5
As the ark came into the city, Michal proves that they believed that "God was in the box" and she despised David for doing what only the servant girls or vulgar men might do--
"As the ark of the LORD was entering the City of David, Michal daughter of Saul watched from a window. And when she saw King David leaping and dancing before the LORD, she despised him in her heart. -- 2 Sam 6:16
David had no right to wear the ephod and he had no right to appear naked before the people. However, Michal had no "right" to question a king and class him with the charismatic lower classes--
"When David returned home to bless his household, Michal daughter of Saul came out to meet him and said, "How the king of Israel has distinguished himself today, disrobing in the sight of the slave girls of his servants as any vulgar fellow would!" -- 2 Sam 6:20
David suddenly felt that his kingdom was at risk, boasted that Saul had been rejected and took measures to make sure that no descendant of Saul would ever threaten him--
"David said to Michal, "It was before the LORD, who chose me rather than your father or anyone from his house when he appointed me ruler over the Lord's people Israel--I will celebrate before the LORD. -- 2 Sam 6:21
I will become even more undignified than this, and I will be humiliated in my own eyes. But by these slave girls you spoke of, I will be held in honor." -- 2 Sam 6:22
God often warns that the people "offered the sacrifice to Him but they ate the meat themselves." Here, David offers his vulgar dance to God but the slave girls gave him the honor--not God.
They "played" before the ark with music. As a result of disobedience and the unruly crowd, Uzzah ignored what he knew from the Word, touched the upset ark and died. David had also ignored the Word of God which showed how the ark should have been moved. His immediate response was not to seek the Word but to get angry (2 Sam. 6:8). What they did is described by Beecher as he defines the meaning of "played" during the idolatry at Mount Sinai and while David danced naked as--in his mind--he "dragged along his god" whom he believed lived within boxes and houses.
"The Hebrew verb means to dance to music, vocal and instrumental. See Judges 19:2f, 1 Chron. 13:8)" (Cook) "This was playing before the ark, as it slowly made progress; that is, there were evolutions and marching figures and religious dances. There was music, vocal and instrumental." (Beecher, quoted in Peloubet's Selects Notes, 1903, p. 269-270).
Beecher referred to the story of the young Levite who took a concubine from Bethlehem. She was unfaithful to him and returned to her father's house. The Levite went to her to try to get her to return and was welcomed by his father in law. When he decided to return home his father in law persuaded him to pause and refresh himself--
So the two of them sat down to eat and drink together. Afterward the girl's father said, "Please stay tonight and enjoy yourself." -- Judg 19:6
After being delayed for several nights, they started for home but were caught out at night near Jebus (Jerusalem). The servant wanted to stop but the master knew that it was dangerous to get entangled with the "aliens" in Jerusalem. They went on to Gibeah but no one took them into their home for the night.
Finally an old man took them in but during the night the men of the city demanded that they would have sex with the Levite. Instead, the concubine was sent out, abused and died. And the story gets worse. However, it all began with: "they sat down to eat and drink and rose up to play."
Of this use of music and dance to induce ecstasy one writer said:
"And the people celebrated this feast with burnt-offerings and thank-offerings, with eating and drinking, i.e. with sacrificial meals and sports, or with loud rejoicing, shouting, antiphonal songs, and dances, in the same manner in which the Egyptians celebrated their feast of Apis (Herod. 2, 60, and 3, 27)." (Keil and Delitzsch, Vol. II, p. 222).
Not to be overlooked here is the accompaniment of music and dancing which, with the character of the ensuing phenomena, makes the diagnosis (of idolatry) certain." (Schaff-Herzog, Ecstasy, p. 71).
"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Music, p. 589).
While the people thought they were worshipping, God said--
"Moses saw that the people were running wild and that Aaron had let them get out of control and so become a laughingstock to their enemies." -- Exo 32:25
Isn't that what Michal said of David?
If the Israelites fell into an "out of control" or charismatic ritual then David did the same. Both engaged in revelry. By the time of this second removal of the ark it no longer mattered because David's response to being caught untaught was to get angry at God.
Fourth, Moses wrote, and Paul confirmed, that Israel was trying to ascend to find God by the idolatry in the desert. From all of the Biblical and other historical records we know that when pagan worshippers tried to "ascend" or "descend" they were engaged in practices which were almost always made possible by song, music, dance, other body motions, or wine. This was ritual drama where songs were magical incantations given more power over the god by the use of instrumental music.
From the context of Amos it is clear that they "dragged their own god along" with music. In later years this practice continued and Tertullian taunted them by saying that they obviously believed that they were superior to their gods--
"The writer of comedy, expressing his dissatisfaction with the common usages, tries to expose the impious arrogance of the prevailing error in the drama of the Priestess, sagely declaring:
- 'If a man drags the Deity
- Whither he will by the sound of cymbals,
- He that does this is greater than the Deity;
- But these are the instruments of audacity and means of living
- Invented by men. (Tertullian, Exhortation to the Heathen, Ante-Nicene, II, p. 193).
Fifth, the Amos/Stephen (Acts 7) parallel shows that Israel's musical worship in Canaan was identical to their musical worship in the desert. This was charismatic running wild, being out of control, and becoming a laughingstock. After Cane Ridge, these same things occurred among Mormons so that--
"Many would have fits of speaking in all of the Indian dialects which none could understand. Again at the dead hour of the night, young men might be seen running over the fields and hills in pursuit, as they said, of balls of fire, lights, etc.) (Jividen, Glossolalia, p. 84).
However, Hamilton, on page 88, recounts the story of a Mormon elder who published an account of their experience of glossolalia (the Cane Ridge phenomena continued).
"He accused some of the speakers in tongues with stopping at a 'gin shop' on their way to meeting and arriving 'beastly drunk with whisky.' He recalled that 'one would jump up, put forth his arm, stretch out his neck, shut his eyes, and at the top of his voice begin a series of disjointed utterances. When he had finished, he collapsed, and, at his last 'fiz,' another arose to interpret."
Jesus understood the Septuagint (LXX) and in the Zondervan translation it teaches that the Israelites thought that their musical worship had "abiding value." However, it was just "fleeting pleasure" or revelry as all the prophets make clear. Amos warned of those--
- "who excel in the sound of musical instruments;
- they have regarded them as abiding, not as fleeting pleasure." Amos 6:5 LXX
As a result, they were sent a famine of hearing the Word of God (8:11). Albert Barnes condemned their practices by defining chanting much like the speaking in tongues of the pagans--
"The central meaning of the Arabic root is "anticipating another," then hurry, negligence, excess, inadvertence in act, and, in speech, exaggeration in praise, and 'got the first word,' 'spoke precipitately, the tongue outrunning the sense.' Walid... says that the corresponding Arabic participle is used by those 'who extemporize poetry, i. e. sing extempore without thought." (Barnes, Albert, Amos, p. 308).
In addition to the word "excel" our Zondervan LXX has "applauding" in the marginal notes. Therefore, they excelled, anticipated one another and the tongue outrunning the senses. They were really perhaps "applauding" themselves while the enemy was at the "gates." This is defined as the pagan Marzeah which is translated revelry. It was only after Israel rejected God through their false worship that professionals were called "to mourning and lamentation and skilled in complaining." God would indeed pass through their midst (Amos 5:16f) but it would do no good. The mourning was deliberately manipulated by men skilled in bringing it on but it did not drive them to the Word. They would stagger from authority to authority (sea to sea or charismatic worship) trying to find the Word but they would not find it.
They would suffer from literal hunger (they fought over garbage in some later meetings) but they would faint as a sign that the "water" was not being poured out of the "fountain" of God--
"In that day," declares the Sovereign LORD, "the songs in the temple will turn to wailing. Many, many bodies--flung everywhere! Silence!" -- Amos 8:3
"The days are coming," declares the Sovereign LORD, "when I will send a famine through the land-- not a famine of food or a thirst for water, but a famine of hearing the words of the LORD. -- Amos 8:11
"In that day "the lovely young women and strong young men will faint because of thirst. -- Amos 8:13
10:6-8: In light of this background, Paul defines righteousness by faith by saying what it is not. The Jews failed to "chase righteousness down" because they believed that God owed them His favor because they ran the race so well. However, they put the trust in themselves rather than in God. This is the age-old imitation of Satan who sought to ascend to heaven and take control from God. Therefore, since it is impossible to understand Paul's statement without further help, we look where Paul points--to the Second Law or Deuteronomy. Moses began his warning with--
"Make sure there is no man or woman, clan or tribe among you today whose heart turns away from the LORD our God to go and worship the gods of those nations; make sure there is no root among you that produces such bitter poison. -- Deu 29:18
The rest of the chapter is a warning against Israel who would ignore the Word of God. Therefore, they would be scattered and most of them would be destroyed because of idolatry. However, when the few people were returned to the land their safety did not just depend upon outward obedience of the law. Rather, they would again obey the Word (Deut 29:8) and "turn to the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul" (Deut. 30:10). Therefore, Moses explained his warning against idolatry in terms which they could clearly understand and which parallels Paul's warning to the Romans--
Now what I am commanding you today
(1) is not too difficult for you or
(2 not beyond your reach. -- Deu 30:11.
It is not (3) up in heaven, so that you have to ask, "Who will ascend into heaven to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?" -- Deu 30:12
Nor is it (4) beyond the sea, so that you have to ask, "Who will cross the sea to get it and proclaim it to us so we may obey it?" -- Deu 30:13
No, the word is very near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart so you may obey it. -- Deu 30:14
In this passage Moses (and Paul) defined the nature of the destructive idolatry in terms which the people of that day could understand. Therefore, they said that the Word of God is not in heaven and you do not need a ritual or clergy worship team to go get a message! You don't have to pray for discernment when God has given you Divine truth.
Nor, Moses and Paul said, is the Word across the sea. We will understand his use of the sea as we further discuss Israel's quest for someone to "give them a better deal" than God had supplied through His Word. To them it might be back across the Red Sea in Egypt. To the Israelites at Mount Sinai it was the musical attempt to resurrect the dead god (Tammuz etc.) to force him to come and join in "playing the magic flute and smelling the incense."
No, Moses and Paul say: God has done His job and all you have to do is read the Word and obey it. You are instructed and therefore competent to instruct one another (Rom. 15:14). Why did they quench the Holy Spirit Who had already spoken? Why did the Jewish Rabbis "take away the key to knowledge?" Why, in the words of the Apocalyptic writer, did they "restrain the water" flowing from Zion? It was because they did not listen to Isaiah who had God saying--
"I have not spoken in secret, from somewhere in a land of darkness; I have not said to Jacob's descendants, 'Seek me in vain.' I, the LORD, speak the truth; I declare what is right. -- Isa 45:19
The book of Job shows that it is not possible for any man to fathom or probe the mysteries of God. Therefore, it would be foolish to send for an expert to find what cannot be found unless God chooses to reveal it.
Baqash (g1245) baw-kash'; a prim. root; to search out (by any method, spec. in worship or prayer); by impl. to strive after: - ask, beg, beseech, desire, enquire, get, make inquisition, procure, (make) request, require, seek (for).
But without faith it is impossible to please him:
for he that cometh to God must believe that he is,
and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him Heb.11:6
Ekzeteo (g1567) ek-zay-teh'-o; from 1537 and 2212; to search out, i.e. (fig.) investigate, crave, demand, (by Hebr.) worship: - en- (re-) quire, seek after (carefully, diligently).
Whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory: 1 Pet 1:8
Receiving the end (telos=perfecton) of your faith, even the salvation of your souls. 1 Pet 1:9
Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: 1Pe.1:10
Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Rom 6:3
Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. Rom 6:4
For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection: Rom 6:5
Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin. Rom 6:6
Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness? Rom 6:16
But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life. Rom 6:22
Eliphaz the Temanite, in his speech to Job, asked him to consider how many people he had instructed and how many people he had helped. Yet, when Job is troubled he asked whether Job's piety (righteousness) and his blameless ways (justice) should not give him confidence. He claimed the visit of a spirit and is warned against "calling" for someone to supply what God has already supplied--
A spirit glided past my face, and the hair on my body stood on end. It stopped, but I could not tell what it was. A form stood before my eyes, and I heard a hushed voice: 'Can a mortal be more righteous than God? Can a man be more pure than his Maker? -- Job 4:15-17
If God places no trust in his servants, if he charges his angels with error, how much more those who live in houses of clay, whose foundations are in the dust, who are crushed more readily than a moth! Call if you will, but who will answer you? To which of the holy ones will you turn? -- Job 4:18-5:1
"But if it were I, I would appeal to God; I would lay my cause before him. -- Job 5:8
This was because (1) God elevates the lowly, (2) thwarts the crafty, (3) lets the wise be caught in their craftiness, and (4) sweeps away the schemes of the wily. The book further asks--
"Can you fathom the mysteries of God? Can you probe the limits of the Almighty? -- Job 11:7
They are higher than the heavens--what can you do? They are deeper than the depths of the grave (Sheol) --what can you know? -- Job 11:8
Their measure is longer than the earth and wider than the sea. -- Job 11:9
Again, better trust God to tell you what He wants you to know. However, of those who refused to honor the One Who really created the universe Job asked-
"Why do the wicked live on, growing old and increasing in power? They see their children established around them, their offspring before their eyes. Their homes are safe and free from fear; the rod of God is not upon them. Their bulls never fail to breed; their cows calve and do not miscarry. -- Job 21:7-10 (the "agricultural" god was doing his job--they thought).
They send forth their children as a flock; their little ones dance about.
They sing to the music of tambourine and harp;
they make merry (revel) to the sound of the flute. -- Job 21:11-12
They spend their years in prosperity and go down to the grave in peace.
Yet they say to God, 'Leave us alone! We have no desire to know your ways. Who is the Almighty, that we should serve him? What would we gain by praying to him?' -- Job 21:13-15
This is the story of a charismatic search for a god who they believe has not yet done his job. Therefore, if he wants me to worship him then he had better "get the check in the mail."
The eternal battle is between this "charismatic search" and believing the word as God's means for supplying Spirit power through spirit words which Jesus was crucified to deliver to us.
Therefore, the word which Paul was teaching did not call for any attempt to find God in religious ritual. Rather, he demanded that they believe to be justified and confess to be saved. That is, the simple message is to have faith in God and profess Him before the watching world. Therefore, the purpose of teaching the Word which was "at hand" was--
That if you confess with your mouth, "Jesus is Lord," and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. -- Rom 10:9
For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified,
and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved. -- Rom 10:10
10:9-10: In verse 9 Paul places confession before belief and in verse 10 he reverses the order. The order is not just a series of "steps" but a natural result of hearing the Word. Deep faith or belief gives one access to God while outward profession or practice brings salvation--good spiritual health.
Paul makes a distinction between "justification" and "salvation" and shows that faith or belief is that which "gains God's approval." That is, by the simple act of believing the testimony of the One Whom God sent we are "set right" with God. Indeed, one can never do any "work" which could make God happier than the simple act of believing that He exists and cares.
However, this acceptance, approval or right standing with God is that which "gives one the power to become" a living, breathing "child" of God. After we believe we have all of God's power directed toward us and when we exercise our faith by outward confession we become a "disciple" of Christ. This discipleship means that we obey His smallest wish and are not ashamed to tell the world.
Salvation is "good spiritual health." Therefore, as we are "conceived" by the "seed" of the Spirit planted in our hearts, we grow to "full term" and are "born" as a child of God. This good health means that we "grow in the grace and knowledge" of God and are "sanctified" or set-aside for the service of God.
Therefore, John--and all of the writers--denied "salvation by faith only" by saying--
"Yet at the same time many even among the leaders believed in him. But because of the Pharisees they would not confess their faith for fear they would be put out of the synagogue -- John 12:42
"Whoever acknowledges me before men, I will also acknowledge him before my Father in heaven. -- Mat 10:32
In Acts 16:31-33 when the jailer "believed" he was immediately baptized. Therefore, Paul will refute both legalism and anti-legalism--
Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing.
Keeping God's commands is what counts. -- 1 Cor 7:19
For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision has any value.
The only thing that counts is faith expressing itself through love. -- Gal 5:6
Paul, therefore, does not disagree with James who wrote-- But someone will say, "You have faith; I have deeds." Show me your faith without deeds, and I will show you my faith by what I do. -- James 2:18
Because no person can be saved by the law we know that the natural steps to a right relationship with God are now available to both Jew and Gentile. This refutes the idea that God "owed" universal salvation to all Jews--
As the Scripture says, "Anyone who trusts in him will never be put to shame." -- Rom 10:11
For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile--the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him, -- Rom 10:12
for, "Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved." -- Rom 10:13
10: 11: By pointing us back--as he often does--to Isaiah 28 Paul connects the entire message to the Romans to the loosing effort to find God through charismatic rituals borrowed (or stolen) from the Babylonians, Hittites, Canaanites and others.
One important point to make is that some of the ancients worshipped almost anything. It might be a rock which fell from the sky but it might be love, fear, war or honesty. That is, a person took fear as a god and worshipped it.
Others made a god out of ignorance. That is, there was a calculated effort to shut off all debate, burn the books, make sure the kids don't go to school or hide the Bible in the temple. The Israelites, according to Isaiah, were such people. They made a lie their total god.
Therefore, Paul calls our attention to Isaiah chapter 28 which is also a rich source for his teaching about charismatic practices in Corinth. For instance, Isaiah wrote:
Therefore hear the word of the LORD, you scoffers who rule this people in Jerusalem. -- Isa 28:14
You boast, "We have entered into a covenant with death, with the grave we have made an agreement. When an overwhelming scourge sweeps by, it cannot touch us, for we have made a lie our refuge and falsehood our hiding place." -- Isa 28:15
So this is what the Sovereign LORD says: "See, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation; the one who trusts will never be dismayed. -- Isa 28:16
As a result of what Paul sees as the coming of Messiah, they would have to abandon their "covenant with death" because Jesus will not judge by what he sees or hears but--
"I will make justice the measuring line and righteousness the plumb line; hail will sweep away your refuge, the lie, and water (truth) will overflow your hiding place. -- Isa 28:17
Hail is the symbol of destruction (Exo 9:19) and water is the symbol of the Word of God. Therefore, at Pentecost the Jews were given the tongue sign that everything would be destroyed and the Word would displace their entire legal-pagan-like structures.
Paul will use this chapter of Isaiah in connection with First Corinthians, chapter fourteen to prove that their form of singing out of their own spirit or "speaking in tongues" was a sign of unbelief. Now, the Roman Jews are brought under judgment as Paul tries to convince them that the Old Testament taught that trust in God was always the "narrow gate" to find Him. He wrote earlier to prove that salvation was and is available to anyone who follows the moral principles of the law--
"(Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since they show that the
requirements of the law are written on their hearts,
their consciences also bearing witness,
and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them.) -- Rom 2:14-15
10:12: Israel was selected or predestinated to be the channel of God's blessing to the nations. The story of Jonah, for instance, proves that God wanted them to go to the Gentiles and teach them about God. Jonah did not want to "go and preach" to the people of Nineveh because he was afraid they would repent and change their lives and God would save them--and Jonah did not want them saved! The Israelites also became very exclusive and "walled out" those whom they should have blessed. Now, Paul is in deep trouble and has to prove that God makes no distinction between Jew and Gentile--the "Jewish" God is also the "Gentile" God.
10:13: In chapter ten Paul lists all of the natural "steps" by which we believe mankind accepts the message and Messenger of God. Only baptism is not clearly defined. However, there are several proofs that "calling on His name" is done at baptism. For instance:
1. In Rom 10:13 Paul quotes Joel who said--
"And everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved;
Why is that?
And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be delivered: for in mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the Lord hath said, and in the remnant (those who escaped) whom the Lord shall call. Joel 2:32
And it came to pass, when Joshua and the children of Israel had made an end of slaying them with a very great slaughter, till they were consumed, that the rest which remained of them entered into fenced cities. Jos.10:20
The word elect means to CALL. Those who are "perfected" with A holy spirit at baptism or A clear conscience (1 Peter 3:21) are the few faithful Jews and the few Gentiles who have survived their own natural religion. God in Christ adds us to His Body, the church, after we are baptized as the way to call upon Him.
On the day of Pentecost when the apostles spoke by the Holy Spirit, the people were confused but Peter confirmed that they were not drunk but speaking tongues to the Jews in judgment--
"No, this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel: -- Acts 2:16
We understand what Joel predicted when as a result of Peter's preaching the people called out "what shall we do?" Peter directed them to the name of Jesus and commanded that they be baptized:
"Peter replied, "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. -- Acts 2:38
In the words of Joel, this act of identification made them survivors while those who heard the "sound from the temple" would be lost.
The unbelieving Jews heard the sounds or "tongues" while the believers heard the gospel in "their own" language. They believed and were baptized to be saved.
2. When Saul (Paul) was confronted on the Damascus road Jesus used the same language God used when Moses wanted to "stand still and see the salvation of the Lord" as an act of faith only. However, God demanded that they march out and cross the Red Sea as if on dry ground. Now, Paul demands impatiently-
"And now what are you waiting for? Get up, be baptized and wash your sins away,
calling on his name.' -- Acts 22:16
Joel had prophesied:
"And everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved;
Therefore, when Paul "called upon the name" of Jesus it was at the point of being baptized asking Christ for a clear conscience. This is typical parallelism: calling on the name is, or is concurrent with being baptized. To identify with the name of a teacher one became a disciple.
3. By using the symbol of the Ark as baptism Peter said--
The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ: 1 Peter 3:21KJV
However, the definition of words and other versions prove that it is at the time and place of water baptism that we ASK for God to give us a clean conscience which is the gift of A holy spirit.
Suneidesis (g4893) soon-i'-day-sis; from a prol. form of 4894; co- perception, i.e. moral consciousness; - conscience.
Suneido (g4894) soon-i'-do; from 4862 and 1492; to see completely; used (like its prim.) only in two past tenses, respectively mean. to understand or become aware, and to be conscious or (clandestinely) informed of: - consider, know, be privy, be ware of.
And corresponding to that, baptism now saves you-- not the removal of dirt from the flesh, but an appeal to God for a good conscience-- through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 1 Peter 3:21NAS
Baptism, which corresponds to this, now saves you, not as a removal of dirt from the body but as an appeal to God for a clear conscience, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 1 Peter 3:21RSV
(That, by the way, is what baptism pictures for us: In baptism we show that we have been saved from death and doom by the resurrection of Christ;[c] not because our bodies are washed clean by the water but because in being baptized we are turning to God and asking him to cleanse our hearts from sin.) 1 Peter 3:21LIV
Other versions make it clear that the "pledge of a good conscience" is the believer's "appeal" or "request" for a clear conscience. Therefore, when one is baptized it is not to gain salvation by water but it is the time and place which God has ordained where believers can call upon His name and ask for salvation and "get into discipleship" to Him.
The Holy Place was typical of the church and the Most Holy Place is typical of God's Spirit which we meet (one at a time) as we worship IN SPIRIT which is the only place Jesus said God would even seek us.
Before a priest could enter even into the Holy Place as a carnal type of the body of church of Christ. The sacrifice had to be WASHED and so Jesus Christ submitted to baptism to "fully preach" baptism. Each Christian priest can now go boldly into the Most Holy Place because God in Christ took His blood there into the spiritual temple. Our worship is alone in darkness and silence in the PLACE of our spirit MADE holy by Christ. Through Him we can seek Him in prayer as the incense and then go into the Most Holy place which contained the MERCY SEAT under which the Word of God was reserved for us.
Paul agrees with Peter:
And having an high priest over the house of God; Hebrews 10:21
Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith,
having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience,
and our bodies washed with pure water. Hebrews 10:22
That their hearts might be comforted, being knit together in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowledgement of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ; Col.2:2
The new HEART is the same thing as A new spirit which is A holy spirit: our own spirit made holy by the washing of Jesus Christ:
And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh: Eze.11:19
A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. Eze.36:26
The word translated PLEDGE in the NIV is not translatable from the Greek which is:
Eperotema (g1906) ep-er-o'-tay-mah; from 1905; an inquiry: - answer.
Eperotao (g1905) ep-er-o-tah'-o; from 1909 and 2065; to ask for, i.e. inquire, seek: - ask (after, questions), demand, desire, question.
Erotao (g2065) er-o-tah'-o; appar. from 2046 [comp. 2045]; to interrogate; by impl. to request: - ask, beseech, desire, intreat, pray. Comp. 4441.
Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying, Mt.22:35
And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church. 1Co.14:35
The Jewish members logically ask how the Gentiles could be saved by calling on God when they did not have access to His Word. However, Paul quotes Isaiah to show that people gained God's approval primarily as a result of someone going out and telling them about His mighty deeds. When the Gentiles "obeyed by nature" they obeyed what they had learned.
How, then, can they call on the one they have not believed in? And how can they believe in the one of whom they have not heard? And how can they hear without someone preaching to them? -- Rom 10:14
And how can they preach unless they are sent? As it is written, "How beautiful are the feet of those who bring good news!" -- Rom 10:15
But not all the Israelites accepted the good news.
For Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our message?" -- Rom 10:16
10:14: God clearly does not exert supernatural effort to force predestinated people to obey Him. Because He decided that His message would be taught by the use of written words, these words can be taught by anyone who can read to anyone who can hear. Therefore, if Israel failed it was by the priests "hoarding" the Word and refusing to go out and teach the entire nation. Therefore, the Jews in Rome could not fault God for not doing His part. They were just ignorant of Isaiah who wrote--
"so will he sprinkle (startle) many nations, and kings will shut their mouths because of him. For what they were not told, they will see, and what they have not heard, they will understand. -- Isa 52:15
10:15: Isa. 40:9 demands that the one with good news go out and tell all of the towns of Judah that God gathers and tends His people. Then he wrote--
"And now what do I have here?" declares the LORD. "For my people have been taken away for nothing, and those who rule them mock, " declares the LORD. "And all day long my name is constantly blasphemed. -- Isa 52:5
Therefore my people will know my name; therefore in that day they will know that it is I who foretold it. Yes, it is I." -- Isa 52:6
How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of those who bring good news, who proclaim peace, who bring good tidings, who proclaim salvation, who say to Zion, "Your God reigns!" -- Isa 52:7
Salvation in Hebrew is:
Jeshuwah (h3444) yesh-oo'-aw; fem. pass. part. of 3467; something saved, i. e. (abstr.) deliverance; hence aid, victory, prosperity: - deliverance, health, help (-ing), salvation, save, saving (health), welfare.
THEN Jonah prayed unto the Lord (Jehovah) his God (Elohim) out of the fishs belly, Jonah 2:1
Prayed means: to judge (officially or mentally)
And said, I cried (yelled for help) by reason of mine affliction (female opponent) unto the Lord, and he heard me; out of the belly of hell cried I, and thou heardest my voice. Jonah 2:2
For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about: all thy billows and thy waves passed over me. Jonah 2:3
The Lord on high is mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, than the mighty waves of the sea. Ps.93:4
Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple. Jonah 2:4
BEHOLD, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the Lord of hosts. Mal.3:1
The waters compassed me about, even to the soul: the depth closed me round about, the weeds were wrapped about my head. Jonah 2:5
I went down to the bottoms of the mountains; the earth with her bars was about me for ever: yet hast thou brought up my life from corruption, O Lord my God. Jonah 2:6
Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne; Acts 2:30
He seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption. Acts 2:31
When my soul fainted within me I remembered the Lord: and my prayer came in unto thee, into thine holy temple. Jonah 2:7
They that observe lying vanities forsake their own mercy. Jonah 2:8
And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the Lord: Zec.6:12
But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving; I will pay that that I have vowed. Salvation is of the Lord. (Jehovah) Jonah 2:9
And the Lord spake unto the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land. Jonah 2:10
And the songs of the temple shall be howlings in that day, saith the Lord God: there shall be many dead bodies in every place; they shall cast them forth with silence. Am.8:3
Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear. Acts 2:33
Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ. Acts 2:36
Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do? Acts 2:37
Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. Acts 2:38
For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call. Acts 2:39
AND the word of the Lord came unto Jonah the second time, saying, Jonah 3:1
Arise, go unto Nineveh, that great city, and preach unto it the preaching that I bid thee. Jonah 3:2
Qeriyah (h7150) ker-ee-aw'; from 7121; a proclamation: - preaching.
Qara (g7121) kaw-raw'; a prim. root [rather ident. with 7121 through the idea of accosting a person met]; to call out to (i. e. prop. address by name, but used in a wide variety of applications): - bewray [self], that are bidden, call (for, forth, self, upon), cry (unto), (be) famous, guest, invite, mention, (give) name, preach, (make) proclaim (- ation), pronounce, publish, read, renowned, say.
Bid is Dabar which is the same as the Greek Logos:
Dabar (g1696) daw-bar'; a prim. root; perh. prop. to arrange; but used fig. (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue: - answer, appoint, bid, command, commune, declare, destroy, give, name, promise, pronounce, rehearse, say, speak, be spokesman, subdue, talk, teach, tell, think, use [entreaties], utter, * well, * work.
These are the things that ye shall do; Speak ye every man the truth to his neighbour; execute the judgment of truth and peace in your gates: Zec.8:16
They hate him that rebuketh in the gate, and they abhor him that speaketh uprightly. Am.5:10
Jonah shows that God saves when people repent and bring forth fruits of repentance.
So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days journey. Jonah 3:3
But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands. Jonah 3:8
Who can tell if God will turn and repent, and turn away from his fierce anger, that we perish not? Jonah 3:9
And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them; and he did it not. Jonah 3:10
Nacham (h5162) naw-kham'; a prim. root; prop. to sigh, i. e. breathe strongly; by impl. to be sorry, i. e. (in a favorable sense) to pity, console or (reflex.) rue; or (unfavorably) to avenge (oneself): - comfort (self), ease [one's self], repent (-er, -ing, self).
The end of truth sellers--
As the Jews heard the good news from messengers with "beautiful feet" the Gentiles would eventually hear the gospel by men obeying the evangelistic mandate of the Great Commission--even if the Jews refused to go and teach.
Isaiah warned that the people were trying to ascend to find God but were told that they can't get there and they would not understand even if they could "climb up." Therefore, God has descended to earth in the form of prophets and given His word out of His own mouth. It does not need to be "digested"--God is perfectly capable of saying what He wants to say in the way He wants to say it. And it will teach His message unless it is filtered through explicators, explainers, or exegetes--
"Come, all you who are thirsty, come to the waters; and you who have no money, come, buy and eat! Come, buy wine and milk without money and without cost. -- Isa 55:1
The Pharisees and Scribes rejected the clear message of Isaiah because they knew that when Messiah came they would no longer be able to "sell sick sheep" or even sell "the gospel." We noted in a previous lesson that Zechariah prophesied that a time will come when the true prophets will no longer be needed. The result would be that the false prophesiers who "prophesied for a price" would no longer have a legitimate "office" by which their false office was defended.
However, it is not uncommon to demand that "if you eat at the trough you must pay your feed bill." The Pharisees were destroyed or chased out of Jerusalem and this utterly eliminated their place at which they plied their trade.
The end of the Jerusalem-temple model--
In chapter fifteen Paul will tell the Romans that they are perfectly competent to "teach one another." Therefore, they do not have to "send beyond the sea" to get the Word--Paul was preaching it to them.
However, this truth had to be revealed directly by God and it was therefore, in the words of Jesus, "spirit and truth." It will do its job if we once give it a chance
For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways," declares the LORD. -- Isa 55:8
"As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts. As the rain and the snow come down from heaven, and do not return to it without watering the earth and making it bud and flourish, so that it yields seed for the sower and bread for the eater, -- Isa 55:9-10
so is my word that goes out from my mouth: It will not return to me empty, but will accomplish what I desire and achieve the purpose for which I sent it. -- Isa 55:11
10:16: After saying that Christ would "startle" many nations Isaiah asked "who has believed our message and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed" (Isa. 53:1). He then continues to describe the life and death of Jesus Christ in prophecy. Therefore, he leaves the Jews with no excuse for not knowing their own prophets and not accepting the Gentiles.
The Jews were not lost because God had not done all of the supernatural work He was going to do. He had created them, sent Moses and the prophets, sent Messiah, worked miracles among them but they did not accept Him.
The single, simple error was that they were ignorant of the Word.
If God has descended to bring His Word and His Word has the power to "accomplish what I desire and achieve the purpose for which I sent it" then the Jews will have to look to the Word in order to accept that which the Word predicted--
Consequently, faith comes from hearing the message, and the message is heard through the word of Christ. -- Rom 10:17
But I ask: Did they not hear? Of course they did: "Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their words to the ends of the world." -- Rom 10:18
Again I ask: Did Israel not understand? First, Moses says, "I will make you envious by those who are not a nation; I will make you angry by a nation that has no understanding." -- Rom 10:19
And Isaiah boldly says, "I was found by those who did not seek me; I revealed myself to those who did not ask for me." -- Rom 10:20
But concerning Israel he says, "All day long I have held out my hands to a disobedient and obstinate people." -- Rom 10:21
10:17: The Jews could not fault God because He sent out His Word. Then and now God places the response to this Word squarely in our hands. In the words of John which we discussed under chapter eight, only those who accept the testimony of the One Whom God sent validate God and gain His approval. Therefore, the message to ancient Israel and Christianity is that when one tampers with the Word, peddles the Word, or alters it in any way they "take away the key to knowledge," "empty the cross of its power" or "restrain the waters."
Therefore, if the Jews were not saved it was because they lacked faith. And if they lacked faith it was because they tried every trick in the religious world to prevent the Word from being taught. They still worshipped the god called ignorance.
Now, the Word of God is distinctly the word of Christ which Paul demanded be the source of sermon and song (Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16).
10:18: Paul quotes David who acknowledged that "the heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands" (Psa 19:1). This was a universal language so that all people could recognize that God must have created the universe and that He was a God of law and order. This universal knowledge, however, is not made clear by nature but through the written Word--
The law of the LORD is perfect, reviving the soul. The statutes of the LORD are trustworthy, making wise the simple. -- Psa 19:7
The precepts of the LORD are right, giving joy to the heart. The commands of the LORD are radiant, giving light to the eyes. -- Psa 19:8
The fear of the LORD is pure, enduring forever. The ordinances of the LORD are sure and altogether righteous. -- Psa 19:9
Therefore, "the faith of Abraham" honored God -- "because Abraham obeyed me and kept my requirements, my commands, my decrees and my laws." -- Gen 26:5
10:19: Paul also quotes from the first song which was clearly given to Moses by God. Moses was not to "sing" the "song' but to "recite" it (Deut. 32:45) so that the assembled elders could learn it and return and teach it to their flocks. God's "singing" has always been directed from Him to us. However, pagan singing was always directed from mankind to their god.
Paul was still condemning idolatry as Israel's failure because the song showed that Israel was lost because of idolatry:
They made me jealous by what is no god and angered me with their worthless idols. I will make them envious by those who are not a people; I will make them angry by a nation that has no understanding. -- Deu 32:21
We will see that God's "song" in Isaiah 5 expresses the same idea: God made Israel into a vineyard but they produced no fruit because of their idolatry. Therefore, Moses concluded the prophetic song with--
he said to them, "Take to heart all the words I have solemnly declared to you this day, so that you may command your children to obey carefully all the words of this law. -- Deu 32:46
However, when God began the "song" He said--
"Now write down for yourselves this song and teach it to the Israelites and have them sing it, so that it may be a witness for me against them. -- Deu 31:19
When Moses taught the song he "recited" it. However, when Israel "sang" the song it was to pronounce judgment against themselves because they never took the warning to heart. Thereafter, music is always in place of hearing the Word of God and the song says that Israel would be captured by those who were not Israelites--people speaking unknown tongues.
This supports Paul's emphasis upon warning the Romans against the charismatic, musical worship which destroyed Israel to such an extent that the Assyrians came speaking unknown tongues to conquer them.
10:20: God did not invite "true" Israel or Gentiles to "come to temple" and "worship." Rather, He sent men out to preach to them. We quoted Lenski earlier to say:
"In the Hebrew the two verbs are the nifal tolerativum: 'I let myself be found (gave myself to be found), let myself become manifest." (Lenski, Commentary on Rom. 10:20).
Paul also takes us back to Isaiah who warned of the nature of the idolatry of which Moses warned: of people "pursuing their own imaginations and provoking God by offering sacrifices in gardens" (Isa 65:1-5). Because they fell into idolatry in the very temples and "music groves" they had built for God, they should have been totally destroyed. Even when God permitted Himself to be found by Israel even as they were engaging in a charismatic form of worship--
"I revealed myself to those who did not ask for me; I was found by those who did not seek me. To a nation that did not call on my name, I said, 'Here am I, here am I.' -- Isa 65:1
All day long I have held out my hands to an obstinate people, who walk in ways not good, pursuing their own imaginations-- -- Isa 65:2
a people who continually provoke me to my very face, offering sacrifices in gardens and burning incense on altars of brick; -- Isa 65:3
who sit among the graves and spend their nights keeping secret vigil; who eat the flesh of pigs, and whose pots hold broth of unclean meat; -- Isa 65:4
If God showed such mercy to the Jews then certainly He could show the same mercy to the Gentiles.
Even when God tried to get Israel to "listen" they failed and He would not save the vineyard, the vines or the grapes: He would save only a tiny bit of the "juice."
This is what the LORD says: "As when juice is still found in a cluster of grapes and men say, 'Don't destroy it, there is yet some good in it,' so will I do in behalf of my servants; I will not destroy them all. -- Isa 65:8
Therefore, Romans chapter eleven shows that when God has a predestinated remnant of Israel it will be that tiny "drop of juice" which still has "some good in it." However, the "cluster" or "tribe" or "nation" has been destroyed never to rise again--there is no Jew or Gentile! Therefore, if the Jews wanted to obey what Paul taught they would have to give up their "hyphenated Jewishness."
Isaiah then prophesied of the destruction of the "house" which Israel had built for God when He did not need the house and could not dwell in it. What He wanted was a people who were "humble and contrite in spirit, and trembles at my Word" (Isa. 66:1-2). What follows could easily be his prediction of the day of Pentecost where the "noise" from the house or Temple was not a sign of God's approval but rather God repaying those who shouted glory to God but did not tremble at His Word--those who "piped" and Jesus did not dance--
Hear the word of the LORD, you who tremble at his word: "Your brothers who hate you, and exclude you because of my name,
have said, 'Let the LORD be glorified, that we may see your joy!' Yet they will be put to shame. -- Isa 66:5
Hear that uproar from the city, hear that noise from the temple! It is the sound of the LORD repaying his enemies all they deserve. -- Isa 66:6
10:21: The direct quotation about God holding out his hands and its context has been quoted under Romans 10:19. The message was repeated while Paul was in Antioch where the Judaizers came and demanded that the people be "circumcised" and obey the "law of Moses." Paul and Barnabas went to Jerusalem to consult the Apostles and James spoke to the assembly and said-
Simon has described to us how God at first showed his concern by taking from the Gentiles a people for himself. -- Acts 15:14
The words of the prophets are in agreement with this, as it is written: "'After this I will return and rebuild David's fallen tent. Its ruins I will rebuild, and I will restore it, -- Acts 15:15-16
that the remnant of men may seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles who bear my name, says the Lord, who does these things' that have been known for ages. -- Acts 15:17-18
As the Jews retreated to the Temple rather than teach the good news to people they did not want to be saved, they took away the key to knowledge so that they did not have to conform to God's will and did not have to take the Word to other nations.
However, the True David would not be the Savior of the Jews or the builder of a literal temple or the warrior God to destroy the enemies of the Jews. Just as Israel could not "put God in a box" an "drag Him along" to Canaan, the Jews could no longer pretend that they had Him "housed" in Jerusalem where you had to "buy a ticket" or "pay your temple tax" to get close to Him.
The "fallen tent" was the true Tabernacle which is the church involving all of God's people on earth and in heaven.
This chapter of Romans is Paul's effort to get the church to understand that by being freed from the "traditions" and by understanding that God does His work through faith, they must individually act upon that faith. The result would be to end the practices identified as "ascending to heaven" or "descending to the grave" and put their "beautiful feet" to work carrying out the only plan God ever had--that of evangelism.
Notes on Romans/ 1/30/94/ K. Sublett /rev 2/10/94// 4/18/95
Diokania/and room 104