Robert Ballard Are Instrumental Performers Parasites?

Parasites: Religious Performers Sermon Writers-speakers, Singers, Musicians, Actors, Staff. A faithful Church of Christ follows the pattern Christ defined in the wilderness to PREACH the Word (only) by READING the Word for comfort and doctrine. That was what Paul practiced and commanded Timothy.  A School of Christ as defined by the Campbells:

CHURCH is a School of Christ. Christ gave APT elders to be the vocational pastor-teachers
WORSHIP is reading and musing the Word

Christ as Spirit gave APT elders to a faithful church as the only vocationa Pastor-Teachers. Their first duty was to cast out the cunning craftsmen or sophists: Jesus said that God HIDES from the sophists who are speaking for pay, singers, instrument players or actors. Only after they were ejected could the School of the Word take place. The reason they should be ejected says Paul is that they are Lying in Wait to Deceive. The speakers, singers and instrument players in Revelation 18 are called SORCERERS and will be CAST ALIVE INTO THE LAKE OF FIRE.  These performers as priests of the Babylon Mother of Harlots HAD once deceived the whole world.  They were to be unleashed from the netherworld in the last days under their king APOLLO, Abaddon or Apollyon. The Locusts are "muses" and the Greeks knew then as dirty adulteresses who had become shepherdesses. Abaddon or Apollyon is the LEADER of the MUSES.  Beyond teaching that which has been taught all religious craftsmen are called parasites.

Parasi_t-os [parasites], ho, who eats at the table of another, and repays him with flattery and buffoonery, parasite, peri Parasitou, title of work by Luc.: c. gen., “kenēs p. trapezēs[Money Changer's Table: collection Plates] metaphors., ikhthus ēn p. (v. opson) Luc.Lex.6. II. of priests who had their meals at the public expense,
'Dinias?' I put in; 'Who is Dinias?' 'Oh, he's a dance-for-your-supper carry-your-luggage rattle-your-patter gaming-house sort of man; eschews the barber, and takes care of his poor chest and toes.' 'Well,' said I, 'paid he the penalty in some wise, or showed a clean pair of heels?' 'Our delicate goer is now fast bound. The governor, regardless of his retiring disposition, slipped him on a pair of bracelets and a necklace, and brought him acquainted with stocks and boot. The poor worm quaked for fear, and could not contain himself, and offered money, if so he might save his soul alive.'

I am deathly cold; if I could get some warmth into me, I had rather listen to these light-fingered gentry of flute and lyre.' 'What is this you say, Eudemus?' says I 15. 'You would exact mutation from us? are we so hard-mouthed, so untongued?
Parasi_t-i^kos , ē, on, A.of a parasitos : - tekhnē) the trade of a parasitos, toad-eating, ib.4 ; in full, Ath.6.240b.
        LEGALISM: tekhn-ē , , (tektōn) A. art, skill, cunning of hand of a soothsayer, A.Ag.249 (pl., lyr.), Eu.17, S.OT389, etc.; “tekhnai heterōn heteraiPi.N.1.25; “ōpase t. pasanId.O.7.50.
III. an art or craft, i.e. a set of rules, LAWS system or method of making or doing, whether of the useful arts, or of the fine arts, Pl.Phdr.245a, Arist.Rh.1354a11, EN1140a8; “hoi tas t. tōn logōn suntithentes LAWS of rhetoric, Arist.Rh.1354a12, but rather TRICKS of Rhetoric, in Aeschin. 1.117)

Plat. Phaedrus 244e Moreover, when diseases and the greatest troubles have been visited upon certain families through some ancient guilt, madness  has entered in and by oracular power has found a way of release for those in need, taking refuge in prayers and the service of the gods, and so, by purifications and sacred rites, he who has this madness is made safe for the present and the after time, and for him who is rightly possessed of madness a release from present 245a ills is found. And a third kind of possession and madness comes from the Muses. This takes hold upon a gentle and pure soul, arouses it and inspires it to songs [ōdas opposite Logos] and other poetry, and thus by adorning [kosmousa] countless deeds of the ancients educates later generations.
        But he who without the divine madness comes to the doors of the Muses, confident that he will be a good poet by art, meets with no success, and the poetry of the sane man vanishes into nothingness before that of the inspired madmen.

The Adornment is the Lying Wonders: This is particularly telling when the commanded SPEAKING the Word of God is replaced with the songs honoring the experiences and opinions of human preachers and song writers.  The Kosmos or WORLD is that for which Jesus said He will not even pray.

kosm-eō  2. generally, arrange, prepare, “dorpon ekosmeiOd. 7.13; “k. aoidēn ēBacch.59; erga Hes.Op.306;

Ephesians 2:2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world,
        according to the prince of the power of the air,
the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:

Kosmos , ho,  natgural, II.rnament, decoration, esp. of women; “hieros k.OGI90.40 (Rosetta, ii B. C.): pl., ornaments, A.Ag.1271; “hoi peri to sōma k.Isoc.2.32: metaph., of ornaments of speech, such as epithets, Id.9.9 (pl.), Arist.Rh.1408a14, Po.1457b2, 1458a33; hadumelē k. keladein to sing sweet songs of praise, Pi.O.11 (10).13 (s.v.l.).

, Dor. had- , Aeol. ad- , es, A. sweet-singing, “khelidoiAnacr.67, cf. Sapph.122(Comp.), Pi.N.2.25; sweet-sounding, “xoanaS.Fr.238, etc.: poet. fem., “hēdumeleia surigxNonn.D.29.287.

, iggos, ,
2. cat-call, whistle, hiss, as in theatres, Id.Lg.700c; cf. “surizō11.2, surigmos:—the last part of the nomos Puthikos was called surigges, prob. because it imitated the dying hisses of the serpent Pytho, Str.9.3.10.
3. mouthpiece of the aulos,
ALL names of instruments and musical terms are defined as enchantment or sorcery because it intends to tap into the fears and superstitious people ALWAYS to pick their pockets.

Aoid-ē a^], Att. contr. ōdē (q. v.), , : (aeidō):— 5. = eppsdē, spell, incantation,okhēes ōkeiais . . anathrōskontes aoidaisA.R.4.42, cf. 59. Cf. ōdē.    A.divinely sounding, divinely sweet,

ō OPPOSITE  lexis  2. = epōdos, magic song, spell, Longus 2.7.
2. act of singing, song, thespesios A.divinely sounding, divinely sweet,
Lexis A.speech, OPPOSITE ōdē, orders given by word of mouth, the style used here (in courts of justice. word for word,
4. TEXT of an author, OPPOSITE exegesis,

1Cor. 14:23 If therefore the whole church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in those that are unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mad?

La^l-eōII. chatter, opp. articulate speech, as of locusts, chirp, Theoc.5.34; mesēmbrias lalein tettix (sc. eimi), a very grasshopper to chirp at midday, LOCUST
III. of musical sounds, “aulō laleōTheoc.20.29; of trees, v.supr.1.2; “di'aulou ē salpiggos l.Arist. Aud.801a29; of Echo, D.C.74.14: also c.acc. cogn., magadin lalein sound the magadis,

Mousa A.Olumpiades M., Dios aigiokhoio thugateres” [ALWAYS "DAUGHTERS"]
II. mousa, as Appellat., music, songkanakhan . . theias antiluron mousasS.Tr.643

Revised 9.28.13  Well, even when God ABANDONED the Jews to worship the Starry Host because of instrumental idolatry, He never, ever commanded anything more than the two silver trumpets.  The Spirit OF Christ defined the assembly of the godly and OUTLAWED vocal or instrumental rejoicing or preaching as in "sermonizing."
2. Music Before and During the Law of Moses.............................15
3. Instrumental Music During the Period of the Prophets...........21
4. Instrumental Music in the New Testament Church..................58
    Proves Instrumental Musid was used in the Early Church................75
1. Instrumental-Non Instrumental Problem....................................7

Robert Ballard:
In 2006, it will be a hundred years since a huge fracture came in the Restoration Movement

That is false:
In 1832 those who followed Barton W. Stone sought to "unite" with what became the Churches of Christ. A few men agreed on a working paper and shook hands.  Alexancer Campbell laughed at the notion that a few handshakes could merge two groups which held nothing in common but trust in the Bible.   The ink must not have been dry before the Disciples (Anglican, Catholic rooted) began to do what it agreed not to do.  See H. Leo Boles for the "contract" between a few preachers.
The agreement composed by John Smith is listed in this paper.
The Christian Church, NACC, did not begin until 1927 and did not finally sect out of the Disciples until 1971.  Since Robert Ballard sected out of the Disciples he is under obligation to restore the unity he broke.

The Disciples split among their own group over instrumental music and confiscated the churches of those who disagreed. Everyone can meet without instruments and most agree that it is more acceptable than musical performance.  However, when Robert's group added instruments with no need for authority beyond finances, he
EXCLUDED  half of the people.

It was because of musical
idolatry at Mount Sinai that God removed The Book of The Covenant of Grace, gave them The Book of The  Law and gave them the unredeemable promise that they would be returned to Babylon where they began as robbers of caravans.  Abraham's covenant was the ONLY spiritual covenant and the New Testament ignores the Monarchy as a Goyim, Gentile or Babylonish Temple-State and consigned them to spiritual blindness until they turned, were converted or were baptized into Christ (2 Cor 3) or wer washed with water INTO the School of the Word (only).

The godly people were
quarantined from anything you can discover about "instrumental praise." The qahal, synagogue or Church of Christ in the Wilderness was:

of Rest, Reading and Rehearsing the Word of God--only
of vocal or instrumental rejoicing.

The godly people were prepared for the reign of Jesus as The Holy Spirit because there is not a single instance of this pattern being violated------

Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time
        hath in every city
        them that preach him,
        being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.
The synagogue never ceased and the godly people attended BIBLE CLASS while the Civil-Military-Clergy were profaning God on the REST day.

The "praise" word is devoted to "making self vile" or "feigning madness" as a way to threaten the enemy: After all, the Jacob-cursed Levites were under the King and Commanders of the Army: they made war and never God commanded or approved spiritual devotion to Him. The praise word--halal--is the source for the word Lucifer: Lucifer was the singing and harp playing prostitute in the garden of Eden according to Christ in the prophets.

Robert Ballard lists a few churches which have agreed to merge: with some personal knowledge when an instrumental group agrees to "merge" with another group it is always founded on the demand that the not-faithful group SUBMIT to the false teachings of the instrumentalists.

Robert Ballard: 2. MUSIC BEFORE AND DURING THE LAW OF MOSES ....... 15

When Israel rose up in musical idolatry at Mount Sinai, the Levites jumped at the chance to slaughter 3,000 people among the sinning "brethren." Because the Levites had carried out this execution because of musical idolatry, Moses set the tribe of Levi aside to serve the priests.  They were to STAND IN RANKS and execute anyone who came inside the gates during sacrifices without authority.

THE LEVITES Stood in ranks to execute you if you were inside the gates when they made a great noise.

We suggest that you read the role of the NEW MUSICAL LEVITES
before you give them your tithe and offering to "stand in the holy place" to threaten and dare you to perform as preacher,  singer or instrument player.

A Jubal "handled" all of the musical instruments meaning "without authority."

Genesis 4:19 And Lamech took unto him two wives
       the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.
Genesis 4:20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of
        such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle.
Genesis 4:21 And his brother’s name was Jubal:
        he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
8610. taphas, taw-fas´; a primitive root; to manipulate, i.e. seize; chiefly to capture, wield, specifically, to overlay; figuratively, to use unwarrantably:-catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, x surely, surprise, take.

H8608 taphaph taw-faf' A primitive root; to drum, that is, play (as) on the tambourine: taber, play with timbrels.
H8611 tôpheth to'-feth From the base of H8608 ; a smiting, that is, (figuratively) contempt:--tabret.
H8612 tôpheth to'-feth The same as H8611 ; Topheth, a place near Jerusalem:--Tophet, Topheth.

Christ in Isaiah 30 and John identifies all of the musical performers  [Reve18] who are marking God driving His enemies into hell or cast alive into the Lake of Fire. That is because all musical terms identify enchantment or sorcery of someone stealing your property.

Genesis 4:22 And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain,
        an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron:
        and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.
Genesis 4:23 And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah,
        hear my voice;
        Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech:
        for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt.
Genesis 4:24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.

Job 17:1  My breath is
corrupt, my days are extinct, the graves are ready for me.
Job 17:2 Are there not mockers with me?
        and doth not mine eye continue in their provocation?
Job 17[2] non peccavi et in amaritudinibus moratur oculus meus

, 2. To fix the attention of, to delight, amuse, entertain: morata recte Fabula Valdius oblectat, populum meliusque moratur, Quam, etc., delays, i. e. entertains, Hor. A. P. 321: “carmina, quae possint oculos auresque morari Caesaris,arrest, id. Ep. 1, 13, 17: “tardior stilus cogitationem moratur,Quint. 1, 1, 28:

2Timothy 4:2 Preach the word; be instant in season,
        out of season; reprove, rebuke,
        exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.
2Timothy 4:3 For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine;
        but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers,
        having itching ears; [eager for combat, pleasure, to be wanton]


2Timothy 4:4 And they shall turn away their ears from the truth,

        and shall be turned unto fables.

Fābŭla , ae, f. fari,
B.  Of particular kinds of poetry.
1.  Most freq., a dramatic poem, drama, play (syn.: “ludus, cantus, actio, etc.): in full, fabula scaenica,Amm. 28, 1, 4; “or, theatralis,id. 14, 6, 20: “fabula ad actum scenarum composita,”fabulam, quae versatur in tragoediis atque carminibus non a veritate modo

FABLES TO FOOL:  Cantus , ūs, m. id., I. the production of melodious sound, a musical utterance or expression, either with voice or instrument; hence, song, singing, playing,
With the voice, a singing, song; in full, cantus vocum, Cic. Rosc. Am. 46, 134: cantibus 
With instruments, a playing, music: “citharae,horribili stridebat tibia cantu,Cat. 64, 264: “querulae tibiae,  “lyrae, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 72: “tibicine

Orgănum , i, n., = organon, Of musical instruments, a pipe, Quint. 11, 3, 20; 9, 4, 10; Juv. 6, 3, 80; Vulg. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 et saep. an organ, water-organ: “organa hydraulica,Suet. Ner. 41: aquatica, Mythogr. Lat. 3, 12.—Of a church-organ, Cass. Expos. in Psa. 150; Aug. Enarr. in Psa. 150, n. 7.—  B. Transf.: organum oris, the tongue of a man, Prud. steph

Jubal "Handled" musical instruments "without authority."

Hor. Ars 321 When this sordid rust and hankering after wealth has once tainted their minds, can we expect that such verses should be made as are worthy of being anointed with the oil of cedar, and kept in the well-polished cypress?

Poets wish either to profit or to delight; or to deliver at once both the pleasures and the necessaries of life. Whatever precepts you give, be concise; that docile minds may soon comprehend what is said, and faithfully retain it. All superfluous instructions flow from the too full memory.
Job 17:3 Lay down now, put me in a surety with thee;
        who is he that will strike hands with me?
Job 17:4 For thou
hast hid their heart from understanding:
        therefore shalt thou not exalt them.
Job 17:5 He that speaketh flattery to his friends,
        even the eyes of his children shall fail.
Job 17:6 He hath made me also a byword of the people; 
h4914 Mesol a song of derision.
h4911 Mashal a "psalm": parables song or derision Joel 2:17
        and aforetime I was as a tabret.
Job 17:7 Mine eye also is dim by reason of sorrow,
        and all my members are as a shadow.
Job 17:8 Upright men shall be astonied at this,
        and the innocent shall stir up himself against the hypocrite.
Moses writes of the common story of Genun the composite children of Cain through Lamech in Babylon. This was to warn people who had fallen into musical idolatry at Mount Sinai and were on there way back for captivity and death.
Uwgab (h5748) oo-gawb'; or uggab oog-gawb'; from 5689 in the orig. sense of breathing; a reed-instrument of music: - organ
And his brothers name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. Gen 4:21
is: Taphas (h8610) taw-fas'; a prim. root; to manipulate, i. e. seize; chiefly to capture, wield; spec. to overlay; fig. to use unwarrantably: - catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, * surely, surprise, take.
Agab (h5689) aw-gab'; a prim. root; to breathe after, i. e. to love (sensually): - dote, lover.

The traditional Jewish interpretation of this verse implies that it marked the beginning of idolatry, i.e. that men starting dubbing "Lord" things that were mere creatures. This is because the previous generations, notably Adam, had already "begun calling upon the name of the Lord", which forces us to interpret הוחל huchal not as "began" but as the homonym "profanated". In this light, Enosh suggests the notion of a humanity (Enoshut) thinking of itself as an absolute rather than in relation to God (Enosh vs. Adam). Wikipedia     See the Account by Adam Clark:

Halal or David's "praise" word means to make self vile because he and everyone had been turned over to worship the starry host. It is the root meaning of Lucifer whom Christ calls "the singing and harp-playing prostitute in the garden of Eden.

The Chalal version means to "play the flute, steal other people's inheritance, pollute or prostitute.  It is the word which defines Lucifer (Zoe, Venus) being Cast as profane out of heaven.
B. Blowing the trumpet for the Tabernacle

Any godly person who came near or into any holy thing or place was to be executed by the Jacob-cursed and God-abandoned Levites.  A Levite with or without his David-commanded instrument who went into any holy place was to be executed by the "brethren."

There was a direct command to use the 2 (only) trumpets to send signals: they were used to accompany congregational singing.  Restricting the two trumpets in the hands of the priests was important in sending "certain signals" since the life of the community depended on warning and signals to move the camp.  However, the Qahal, synagogue or Church of Christ in the wilderness was not to "worship" but to listen to the Word of God: that pattern never changed since the Lord's Supper is a teaching activity.

The Latin defines the synagogue or church in the wilderness as an ACADEMIA

Numbers 10:[7]  But when the assembly is to be gathered together,
        you shall blow,
        but you shall not sound an alarm.

Numbers 10.[7]  [7] quando autem congregandus est populus simplex tubarum clangor erit et non conciseululabunt

Academia congregation. Collect into a flock,  where plato taught, scholars are called Academici, and his doctrine Philosophia Philosophia Academica,

in distinction from Stoica, Cynica, etc., Cic. de Or. 1, 21, 98; id. Or. 3, 12; id. Fin. 5, 1, 1 al.

philosophy of the Acadamy, A. For The philosophy of the Academy: “instaret academia, quae quidquid dixisses,
Dixisses: to say, speak, utter, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state, assert
However, the Academy of the Cynics or "Dogs" are excluded from Christian worship IN THE SPIRIT as opposed to IN THE FLESH (Philippiand 3)
Cyrenaica pleasure is the only good. Good in a pleasing agitation of the mind or in active enjoyment. hedone. Nothing is just or unjust by nature, but by custom and law.

Cynĭcus , i, m., = κυνικός (doglike). I. Subst., a Cynic philosopher, a Cynic, Cic. de Or. 3, 17, 62; id. Fin. 3, 20, 68; Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 18; Juv. 13, 121: nudi dolia,” i. e. of Diogenes, id. 14, 309.—Hence, adj.: Cynĭcus , a, um, Cynic: “institutio,Tac. A. 16, 34: “cena,Petr. 14; and in * adv.: Cynĭcē , after the manner of the Cynics, Plaut. Stich. 5, 4, 22.—


As many as there are fingers on your hand. The Greek song is, "Drink either your five cups or your three, but not your four."

You say right; I care for no dainties. Drink away,
Piper; drink, if you do drink. I' faith, this must be drunk--don't shirk it. Holds the goblet to the PIPER. Why flinch at what you see must be done by you? Why don't you drink? Do it, if you are to do it. Take it, I tell you, for the public pays for this. That's not your way to shirk your drink. Take your pipes14 out of your mouth. The PIPER drinks.
14 Take your pipes: The "Tibicines," "Pipers" or "flute-players," among the Greeks and Romans, were in the habit of playing upon two pipes at the same time. These were perfectly distinct, and were not even, as has been supposed by some, connected by a common mouth-piece. The Romans were particularly fond of this music, and it was introduced both at sacrifices, funerals, and entertainments. See a comical story about the Roman "Tibicines" in the Fasti of Ovid, B. 6, l. 670 et seq. From the present specimen they appear to have been merry souls, occupying much the same place as the country fiddlers of modern times
to the PIPER . How now? Although you did make a fuss about it, still it didn't hurt you. Come, Piper, when you've done drinking, put back your pipes to your lips; quickly puff out your cheeks, just like a reptile serpent. Come now, Stichus, whichever of the two breaks order, shall be fined a cup.

stating that they had, "in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs." De Civitate Dei 14.20.

De Civitate Dei 14.20.
Even at this day there are still Cynic philosophers to be seen; for these are Cynics who are not content with being clad in the pallium, [female garment] but also carry a club; yet no one of them dares to do this that we speak of. If they did, they would be spat upon, not to say stoned, by the mob. Human nature, then, is without doubt ashamed of this lust; and justly so, for the insubordination of these members,
and their defiance of the will, are the clear testimony of the punishment of man’s first sin. And it was fitting that this should appear specially in those parts by which is generated that nature which has been altered for the worse by that first and great sin,
That's why worship must be IN THE SPIRIT as opposed to IN THE FLESH as Jesus commanded in John 4. If you do FLESH WORSHIP do not be surprised that the dogs (catamites) don't consume you.

Philippians 3:1 Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things to you, to me indeed is not grievous, but for you it is safe.

Philippians 3:2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.
Philippians 3:3 For we are the circumcision,
        which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus,
        and have no confidence in the flesh.
Singing and Playing was always a mark of the Dogs or Catamites: they and all who perform religious ceremonies for others are called PARASITES.
Robert Ballard: The Bible speaks of the burnt offering bringing a sweet smell to God.

The Civil-Military-Clergy complex is called robbers and parasites by Christ in the prophets.
The Scribes and Pharisees arfe called hypocrites: Christ in Ezekiel 33 names speakers for hire, singers and instrument players.
Christ warned about the LYING PEN OF THE SCRIBES.

Stand in the gate of the Lords house [courts], and proclaim there this word, and say, Hear the word of the Lord, all ye of Judah, that enter in at these gates to worship the Lord. Jeremiah 7:2

Shachah (h7812) shaw-khaw'; a prim. root; to depress, i. e. prostrate (espec. reflex. in homage to royalty or God): - bow (self) down, crouch, fall down (flat), humbly beseech, do (make) obeisance, do reverence, make to stoop, worship. 

Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel,
        Amend your ways and your doings,
        and I will cause you to dwell in this place. Jeremiah 7:3  

Trust ye not in lying words, saying, The temple of the Lord, The temple of the Lord, The temple of the Lord, are these. Jeremiah 7:4

For if ye throughly amend your ways and your doings; if ye thoroughly execute judgment between a man and his neighbour; Jeremiah 7:5 

If ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow,
shed not innocent blood in this place,
        neither walk after other gods to your hurt: Jeremiah 7:6 

Then will I cause you to dwell in this place, in the land that I gave to your fathers, for ever and ever. Jeremiah 7:7

Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit. Jeremiah 7:8

SCRIBES AND PHARISEES AS DOCTORS OF THE LAW TAKE AWAY THE KEY TO KNOWLEDGE.  All musical performances proves, according to Ephesians 4, that cunning craftsmen are LYING IN WAIT TO DECEIVE.
Psalms 50:7 Hear, O my people, and I will speak; O Israel, and I will testify against thee: I am God, even thy God.
Psalms 50:8 I will not reprove (don't care) thee for thy sacrifices or thy burnt offerings, to have been continually before me.
Psalms 50:9 I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor he goats out of thy folds.
Psalms 50:10 For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills.
Psalms 50:11 I know all the fowls of the mountains: and the wild beasts of the field are mine.
Psalms 50:12 If I were hungry, I would not tell thee: for the world is mine, and the fulness thereof.
Psalms 50:13 Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?
Psalms 50:14 Offer unto God thanksgiving; and pay thy vows unto the most High:
That was the opinion of the Scribes whom Jesus denounced and in the prophets warns about the "lying pen of the Scribes." In Ezekiel 33 he calls them rhetoricians, singers and instrument players.
Jeremiah 7:21 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel;
        Put your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat flesh.
Jeremiah 7:22 For I spake not unto your fathers,
        nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, c
        concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices:
Jeremiah 7:23 But this thing commanded I them, saying, Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people: and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, that it may be well unto you.
Jeremiah 7:24 But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked in the counsels and in the imagination of their evil heart, and went backward, and not forward.
Jeremiah 7:25 Since the day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Egypt unto this day I have even sent unto you all my servants the prophets, daily rising up early and sending them:
Jeremiah 7:26 Yet they hearkened not unto me, nor inclined their ear, but hardened their neck: they did worse than their fathers.
Jeremiah 7:27 Therefore thou shalt speak all these words unto them; but they will not hearken to thee: thou shalt also call unto them; but they will not answer thee.
Jeremiah 7:28 But thou shalt say unto them, This is a nation that obeyeth not the voice of the LORD their God, nor receiveth correction: truth is perished, and is cut off from their mouth
THE EXAMPLE OF MIRIAM:  When the Red Sea swallowed Pharaoh and his chariots, Miriam led the Hebrfew women with tambourines and dancing and a chorus of praise to God (Ezodus 15:20, 21)

See Al Maxey using Miriam
as an example of a femal musical worship minister in the church: that's a long way from being a soothsayer just out of "baptism" leading the women to escape the SPEAKING of Moses.

All scholars note that while Moses SPAKE the Song, Miriam took probably the Sistrum and LED THE WOMEN out which meant to ESCAPE.  The sistrum and the "answering" or responsisve singing was a form of browbeating and not worship.
"In the first place, it will be noticed from the account of the triumphant rejoicing on the shore of the Red Sea that the men sang only: 'Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, and SPAKE saying.'" (Girardeau, George, p. 33)

Masculine is SPEAK or SAY (as in Speak one to another). Feminine or effeminate is to "SANG and CLANG": no recorded exception to the rule,

"In the second place, it was Miriam and the women who used instruments of music on the occasion: 'And Miriam, the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went after her with timbrels and with dances." (Girardeau, p. 33).

Of course a tabret or sistrum is NOT a musical instrument and it gave its name for TOPHETH or HELL.

The sistrum was a RATTLE and not a musical instrument. It did not even make a SINGLE note.  It was to establish a BEAT--Jewish music was not metrical. Therefore, 
 Ex 15:20 And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand;
        and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.

Here is what Miriam really did "as saith the law"
ē-grĕdĭor ,  to mount up, B. Trop., to overstep, surpass, exceed: “per omnia fortunam hominis egressus, yet had attained no higher honor
Mŭlĭer , woman, a female, whether married or not. II.  Transf., as a term of reproach, a woman, i. e. a coward, poltroon: “non me arbitratur militem, sed mulierem,Plaut. Bacch. 4, 8, 4.

If males do this the word is:

, āvi, 1, v. a. id., I. to make womanish, render effeminate

1 Macc 1:10 - From them came forth a sinful root, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king; he had been a hostage in Rome. He began to reign in the one hundred and thirty-seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks.

11 - In those days lawless men came forth from Israel, and misled many, saying,

"Let us go and make a covenant with the Gentiles round about us, for since we separated from them many evils have come upon us."

15 - and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covenant. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.  

The Deipnosophists of Athenaeus of Naucratis

And among the barbarians the Celts also, though they have very beautiful women, enjoy boys more; so that some of them often have two lovers to sleep with on their beds of animal skins.

As for the Persians, Herodotus says they learned the use of boys from the Greeks.

King Alexander also was madly devoted to boys. Dicaearchus, at any rate, in his book On the Sacrifice at Ilium, says that he was so overcome with love for the eunuch Bagoas that, in full view of the entire theatre, he, bending over, caressed Bagoas fondly, and when the audience clapped and shouted in applause, he, nothing loath, again bent over and kissed him. But Carystius in Historical Notes says:

"Charon of Chalcis had a beautiful boy who was dear to him. But when Alexander, at a drinking-party in the house of Craterus, praised the boy, Charon bade him kiss Alexander
Yaca (h3318) yaw-tsaw'; a prim. root; to go (causat. bring) out, in a great variety of applications, lit. and fig... break out, condemned, departure), draw forth, escape, exact, fail, fall (out), fetch forth (out), get away.. lead out, pluck out, proceed, pull out,

Some examples of breaking out:

And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord,
        and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.Ge.4:16

And I said unto them, Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it off. So they gave it me: t
        hen I cast it into the fire, and
there came out this calf. Ex.32:24

There is one
come out of thee, that imagineth evil against the Lord, a wicked counsellor. Na.1:11
Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle. Zec.14:3

Here is what God thought of her "revelations."

Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that thou observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you: as I commanded them, so ye shall observe to do. Deut 24:8

Remember what the Lord thy
God did unto Miriam by the way, after that ye were come forth out of Egypt. Deut 24:9

Here is what Miriam did which was common to what the Israelites did in Egypt and never ceased to do.

, i (collat. form typă-num , Cat. 63, 8 sq.), n., = tumpanon,
A. Esp., as beaten by the priests of Cybele, Lucr. 2, 618; Cat. 63, 8 sq.; Verg. A. 9, 619; Ov. M. 3, 537; 4, 29; 4, 391; id. F. 4, 213; Plaut. Poen. 5, 5, 38; Caes. B. C. 3, 105; Curt. 8, 11, 20; 8, 14, 10; Tac. H. 5, 5, —Also by the Bacchantine females, Ov. M. 11, 17.—Beaten by the Parthians as a signal in battle in place of the tuba, Just. 41, 2, 8.—
B. Trop., a timbrel, etc., as a figure of something effeminate, enervating: “tympana eloquentiae,Quint. 5, 12, 21: “in manu tympanum est,Sen. Vit. Beat. 13, 3.—
This was also the instrument of the prophetess of Isis: the golden calf was the symbol of Osiris, Isis and Horus the always-pagan trinity.
Sistrum, a metallic rattle which was used by the Egyptians in celebrating the rites of Isis, and in other lascivious festivals,.Ov. Am. 2, 13, 11 By the Jews, Vulg. 1 Reg. [Samuel] 18, 6 .--Hence sarcastically, as if used for a war - trumpet by the wanton Cleopatra Verg. A.8.696   Luc. 10.63

Both Miriam and the Levites who prophesied with instruments performed SORCERY.

Prophe-ta  I. a foreteller, SOOTHSAYER prophet... oraculorumque interpretes, sacerdotes Aegyptiorum, quos prophetas vocant, [Priestess of Egpt prophetess call out] Aegyptius, propheta primarius

Aegyptius, propheta primarius 1.  Aegyptius,
2.  Prophetai
3.  Primarius I. one of the first, of the first rank, chief, principal, excellent, remarkable,
primarius parasitus,

Image of Bast

BastetSistr.gifOvid, art of love
And hast thy walks around Canope's walls,
Who Memphis visit'st, and the Pharian tower,
Assist Corinna with thy friendly powers.
Thee by thy silver Sistra I conjure,
A life so precious by thy aid secure;
So mayst thou with Osiris still find grace:
By Anubis's venerable face,
I pray thee, so may still thy rights divine
Flourish, and serpents round thy offerings twine
May Apis with his horns the pomp attend, [re: golden calf]
And be to thee, as thou'rt to her, a friend.
Look down, oh Isis! on the teeming fair,

1 Samuel 18:[6]  It happened as they came, when David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel,
singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tambourines, with joy, and with instruments of music. [7]  The women sang one to another [h6030 Anah] as they played, and said, Saul has slain his thousands, David his ten thousands. [8]  Saul was very angry

"was a typical woman's instrument... Although it occurs in the Psalter and in religious hymns (Exod. 15; Jer. 31:4), it was not permitted in the temple. Its functions in the bible was restricted to secular or religious frolicking, cultic dances, or processions (e.g., II Sam. 6:5; I Chr. 13:8; Ps. 68:25-26). Its absence in the temple ritual was possibly due to its strong female symbolism, which always accompanied the tambourine, and which made its use so popular at all fertility rites." (The Int. Std. Bible Dict., p. 474).
Ovid: book 9, Metamorphoses
the sacred rattles were there, and Osiris, known
the constant object of his worshipers' desire,
and there the Egyptian serpent whose quick sting
gives long-enduring sleep. She seemed to see
them all, and even to hear the goddess say
to her, "O Telethusa, one of my
remembered worshipers, forget your grief;

your husband's orders need not be obeyed;
and when Lucina has delivered you,
save and bring up your child, if either boy
or girl. I am the goddess who brings help
to all who call upon me; and you shall
never complain of me--that you adored
a thankless deity." So she advised
by vision the sad mother, and left her.

"Thus they made a golden bull, the image of an animal that was held to be the most sacred in that land; they offered unholy sacrifices, performed impious dances and sang hymns which differed in no way from the pagan mourning songs. Philo, De specialibus legibus

"This reference probably indicates the use of songs from the cult of Osiris... it can hardly be denied that Egyptian influence on Jewish musical practices was quite significant. This would stand to reason because of the high quality of Egyptian cultic music. The tambourine or timbrel, a hoop of bells over which a white skin was stretched, came from Egypt. Miriam used this instrument to accompany the singing and dancing on the shores of the Red Sea (Ex. 15).

"The trumpet... was the signaling instrument of the Egyptian army. The name of the Sistrum (2 Sam 6:5) was mena'ane'im. It was the Egyptian kemken used in the cult of Isis.

"The music during the transferring the Ark to Sion (David rose up to play)
and the dances of the women at the Shiloh (Judges 21:21), were similar to the Egyptian liturgy and parades.

"As Herodotus reports, women sang the praises of Osiris while liknesses of the gods were born about and, during the festival of Diana at Bubastis.

See Ezekiel explaining.

"Unfortunatcly, Scripture gives us no details about Miriam's prophetic skills, but they seem to be at the root of the darkest period in her life, for in her next appearance she is vying in prophecy with Moses. She and Aaron have been whispering to each other, first against the "Cushite" wife Moses married and then against his leadership. "Has the Lord spoken only through Moses?" they say. "Has He not spoken through us as well?" (Numbers 12: ).


We should note that the worship of Israel in Egypt would have been according to their practices: these practices are well documented in the religious texts of the whole area.

Remembering that God had already virtually abandoned the People when they refused to listen to The Book of the Covenant.  ACU missed Exodus that Moses is being given instructions NOT given before the rejection. One of the commands was.
Read Exodus 32 and find out WHY music causes a fall from grace because it despises resting and learning the Words of GOD: Sure, they had rather listen to their own words.
Exod 31:12 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,
Exod 31:13 Speak thou also unto the CHILDREN OF ISRAEL,
        saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep:
        for it is a sign between me and you
        throughout your generations; [your revolution of time]
        that ye may know that I am the Lord that doth sanctify you.

That doesn't sound like A DAY OF WORSHIP to me! The word KEEP is:

Exod 31:14 Ye shall
keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you:
        every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death:
        for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.

8104. shamar, shaw-mar´; a primitive root; properly, to
hedge about (as with thorns), i.e. guard; .

Keep in Latin:
Custodio II. With the access. idea of hindering free motion, A. In gen., to hold something back, to preserve, keep: To prevent PLAY or Ludo A. To sport, play with any thing, to practise as a pastime, amuse one's self with any thing, B. To sport, dally, wanton Esp., to play on an instrument of music, to make or compose music or song:  Soft, weak oration
The Israelites did what all of the pagans did. Therefore, if you want deliberately sow discord defining words would seem important.
Verg. G. 2.386
For no offence but this to Bacchus bleeds
The goat [caper, auriga, capella ]
at every altar,
and old plays [ludi]
Upon the stage find entrance; therefore too
The sons of Theseus through the country-side— Hamlet and crossway—set the prize of wit,

And on the smooth sward over oiled skins

in their tipsy frolic. Furthermore
The Ausonian swains, a race from Troy derived, Make merry with rough rhymes and boisterous mirth,
Grim masks of hollowed bark assume, invoke
Thee with glad hymns, O Bacchus, and to thee Hang puppet-faces on tall pines to swing.Hence every vineyard teems with mellowing fruit,
Till hollow vale o'erflows, and gorge profound, Where'er the god hath turned his comely head.
Therefore to Bacchus duly will we sing
Meet honour with ancestral hymns, and cates
And dishes bear him; and the doomed goat
Led by the horn shall at the altar stand,
Whose entrails rich on hazel-spits we'll roast.
2. To sport or fool away a thing, i. e. to destroy or waste in sport; in mal. part., to violate, abuse


to produce melodious sounds, whether of men or animals; later, with a designation of the subject-matter of the melody, as v. a., to make something the subject of one's singing or playing, to sing of, to celebrate, or make known in song, etc.

I. Neutr., to utter melodious notes, to sing, sound, play.
Transf., of the instruments by which, or (poet.) of the places in which, the sounds are produced, to sound, resound: “canentes tibiae,
HERE IS THE WAY YOU CAN DEFILE THE SABBATH h2490 like David's "praise word" and as "Lucifer was cast as profane out of heaven."

When they rose up to PLAY in musical idolatry, they profaned the Sabbath.  The word is used by older Jews to identify the days of Enoch when people began to CALL THEMSELVE JEHOVAH.

Ex. 31:18 And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him upon mount Sinai, two tables of testimony,
tables of stone, written with the finger of God.


Robert Ballard: Tehillim is the Hebrew word for Psalms:

3. Instrumental Music During the Period of the Prophets..............21

Robert Ballard:

Eph 2:19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners,
        but fellowcitizens with the saints,
        and of the household of God;
Eph 2:20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets,
        Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;

Eph 2:21 In whom all the building fitly framed together
        groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord:
Eph 2:22 In whom ye also are builded together
        for an habitation of God through the Spirit.
Because the prophets lived at the same time as the kings, his view is that whatever the kings taught was affirmed by the prophets.  However, Christ guided the prophets to repudiate everything involved in the cursed Monarchy which worshipped the starry host.

First, a Psalm is a poetic writing.  It can be read, recited, sung, sung TO a harp or matching note for note.  However, if you want to SING a Psalm then the text says they SANG a Psalm. That is they cantillated since none of the Psalms are metrical or tuneful.  If you want to play a harp you need to SAY SO: Psallo or plucking with your fingers only the string of A harp.  Psallo has no musical content and Scripture never uses psallo meaning to PLAY and A HARP much less using and INSTRUMENT.

The Spirit OF Christ ALWAYS connects musical instruments to prostitutes or leaders refusing to SPEAK the Word of God.

The Prototype of Babylon-Tyre Israel. Sodom not spiritual Israel.
>Jesus referenced Isaiah and Ezekiel to define the national Worship of the Starry Host--Abaddon
>The End-Time Fulfillment

For thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I will bring upon Tyrus Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, a king of kings, from the north, with horses, and with chariots, and with horsemen, and companies, and much people. Ezek 26:7

They will plunder your wealth and
    loot your merchandise;
    they will break down your walls
    and demolish your fine houses

    and throw your stones, TIMBER and rubble into the sea. Ezek 26:12

Also, thou son of man, the children of thy people still are talking against thee by the walls and in the doors of the houses,

and speak one to another, every one to his brother, saying,

Come, I pray you, and hear what is the word that cometh forth from the Lord. Eze 33:30

Rev 17:3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy having seven heads and ten horns.
Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:
Rev 17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.
I will put an end to your noisy songs, and the music [sound] of your harps will be heard no more. Ezek 26:13

cantĭcum A song, in gen.: “chorus canticum Insonuit,
A song, in gen.: “chorus canticum Insonuit,Phaedr. 5, 7, 25: “canticum repetere,id. 5, 7, 31
cĭthăra , ae, f., = kithara, the cithara, cithern, guitar, or lute, of a stringed instrument, the art of playing on the cithara, kithara player

The LXX is more forceful in showing that both the music and the musicians would be silenced---

"And he shall destroy the multitude of thy musicians, and the sound of thy psalteries shall be heard no more." Ezek. 26:13 LXX

My people come to you, as they usually do, and sit before you to listen to your words,

    but they do not put them into practice.

With their mouths they express devotion (Lord, Lord as amorousness - inordinate love),

    but their hearts are greedy for unjust gain (commerce or trade or attendance). Eze 33:31

Rev 18:1 And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory. 2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird

And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee; Rev 18:22

then I will bring you down with those who go down to the pit,

to the people of long ago
I will make you dwell in the earth below,
as in ancient ruins, with those who go down to the PIT,and you will not return or take your place in the land of the living. Ezek 26:20

Isaiah 14:11 Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms [maggots] cover thee.

Amos 5:23 Take thou away from me the noise [
tŭmultus] of thy songs [carmen] for I will not hear the melody [cantĭcum] of thy viols

Indeed, to them you are NOTHING MORE

    than one who sings love songs with a beautiful voice

and [NOTHING MORE than one who]

    plays (make melody on) an instrument well,

for they hear your words

    but do not put them into practice. Eze 33

Rev 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee;

and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee:

for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.

I will make thee a terror, and thou shalt be no more:
    though thou be sought for,

    yet shalt thou never be found again, saith the Lord God. Ezek 26:2

When all this comes true--

and it surely will--

then they will know that a prophet has been among them." Eze 33:33

Theiron or beast is "a new style of music or drama". This is the sign and way of escape.

Revelation 19:19 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.
Revelation 19:20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.

2 Peter 3:1 This is now, beloved, the second letter that I have written to you; and in both of  I stir up your sincere mind by reminding you;
All of the end time musical discorders have the MARK of using the curse of the sacrificial system as the pattern. The Monarchy was recorded by what the prophets call the Lying Pen of the Scribes. Christ, on the other hand speaks to those with the MARK of the spirit only through the Prophecies by Christ and the prophecies made more perfect by Jesus Christ Whom God made to be both Lord and Christ to fulfill these prophecies in a human form.

2 Peter 3:2 That ye may
        be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets,
        and of the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord and Saviour:

That is the CURRICULUM for DISCIPLES who attend the School of the Word and not pagan ceremonial legalism

2 Peter 3:3  Knowing this first,
        that there shall come in the last days scoffers,
        walking after their own lusts,

G1702 empaizō emp-aheed'-zo
From G1722 and G3815  (paizo); to jeer at, that is, deride:—mock.

Paizo, 4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16. 5. play amorously, “pros allēlousX.Smp.9.2

Prospaizō, prospaizousa tois ōmois komē playing over, II. c. acc., theous p. sing to the gods, sing in their praise or honour, Pl.Epin.980b: c. dupl. acc., humnon prosepaisamen . . ton . . Erōta sang a hymn in praise of Eros, Id.Phdr.265c.

2. banter, “tous rhētorasId.Mx.235c, cf. Euthd.285a; p. ton kuna, ton arkton, , humnon pr. ton Erōt
See Enoch
Jude 14 And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying,
        Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,
Jude 15 To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them
        of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed,
        and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him.
Jude 16 These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts;
        and their mouth speaketh great swelling words,
        having men’s persons in admiration [lying wonders] because of advantage.
Jude 17 But, beloved, remember ye the words
         which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ;
Jude 18 How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time,
        who should walk after their own ungodly lusts.
G1703 empaiktēs emp-aheek-tace' From G1702 ; a derider, that is, (by implication) a false teacher:—mocker, scoffer.
Jude 19 These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit.
Robert Ballard: See 2 Peter 1 which outlaws adding to the prophecies madeperfectg.
2 Pet 1:18 And this voice which came from heaven
, when
were with him in the holy mount.  

2 Pet 1:19 
WE have also a more sure word of prophecy;
        whereunto YE
do well that ye take heed,
   as unto a light that shineth in a dark place,
       until the day dawn,
       and the day star arise in your hearts: Robert Ballard:

Robert Ballard In verse twenty-Five, it says the Holy Spirit rightley spoke through Isaiah the prophet.  If it was right for the Holy Spirit to speak through a prophet, would it also be right for us to speak through a prophet?

No, you are not the Holy Spirit. The Spirit OF Christ spoke through the prophets and apostles.

Jesus made the prophecies more perfect and since you are not the the Holy Spirit (Christ) you cannot "private interpret."

2 Pet 1:20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.

Epilusis (g1955)ep-il'-oo-sis; from 1956; explanation, i.e. application: - interpretation.
Epiluo (g1956) ep-ee-loo'-o; from 1909 and 3089; to solve further, i.e. (fig.) to explain, decide: - determine, expound.

Epi-lusis  A. release from, e. phobôn [fear] didou A.Th.134 (lyr.): abs., exemption from banishment, [purgatory?]. The word dissertio also carries the idea of trying to REMOVE fear by explaining away any worry about keeping laws. 2. . solution, “sophismatōnS.E.P.2.246; explanation, 2 Ep.Pet.1.20

Sophisticus    I. sophistic, sophistical; res admodum insidiosa et sophistica, neque ad veritates magis quam ad captiones reperta, Gell. 18, 2, 6: “ostentatio,sophistically: “interpretari legem et cavillari,

Sophos A. skilled in any handicraft or art, clever, mostly of poets and musicians, Pi.O.1.9, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. E.IT1238

Robert Ballard Page 39 Hezekiah's plague stopping ritual.

The plague stopping animal slaughter happened only once in the whole Bible involving the Levites under the King and Commanders of the Army.  Isn't it strage that people work so hard to use that as a "pattern" for the assembly which is defined inclusively and exclusively as A School of the Word: The Prophets and Apostles.
This was a CIVIL-MILITARY-CLERGY  ceremony.
STOOD guard with silence
When the Levites made NOISE.
2Chr. 29:25a And he set the Levites in the house of the LORD

1. To station or post troops somewhere, to draw up, set in order: “legionem
closely watched, carefully guarded:
Numbers 18:1 And the LORD said unto Aaron,
Thou and thy sons and thy father’s house with thee
    shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary:
    and thou and thy sons with thee
    shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood.

Num 18:3 And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the tabernacle:  only they shall not come nigh the vessels of the sanctuary and the altar, that neither they, nor ye also, die.

Num 18:7 Therefore thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priest’s office for every thing of the altar, and within the veil; and ye shall serve: I have given your priest’s office unto you as a service of gift:  and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.

2Chr. 29:25b with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps,
        according to the
commandment of David,
        and of Gad the kings seer,
2Chr. 29:27 And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar.

Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel;
   Put your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat flesh. Jeremiah 7:21 

21. Put ... burnt offerings unto ... sacrifices ... eat flesh--Add the former (which the law required to be wholly burnt) to the latter (which were burnt only in part), and "eat flesh" even off the holocausts or burnt offerings. As far as I am concerned, saith Jehovah, you may do with one and the other alike. I will have neither (Isa 1:11 Ho 8:13 Am 5:21,22).

For I spake NOT unto your fathers, nor commanded themin the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, oncerning burnt offerings or sacrifices: Jeremiah 7:22
But this thing commanded I them, saying,
       Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people:

But they HEARKENED NOT, nor inclined their ear,but walked in the counsels and in the imagination of their evil heart,and went backward, and not forward. Jeremiah 7:24

and Nathan the prophet: for so was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets.
And when the burnt offering began,
2Chr. 29:26 And the
stood with the instruments of David,
Sto, a. To stand in the ranks or under arms, to fight: “quisque uti steterat, jacet obtinetque ordinem, Sententiā,
the song of the LORD began also with the trumpets
        and the PRIESTS with the trumpets.

Now, how can people lie and say that God commanded the "musical" instruments?
and with the instruments ordained by David king of Israel.

and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.
The godly people attended Synagogue to quarantine them from the Jacob-cursed and God-abandoned Levites.

Synagogue was INCLUSIVE of Rest, Reading and Rehearsing the Word (only) of God (only)

Synagogue was EXCLUSIVE of "vocal or instrumental rejoicing or elevated sermons."
Scripture often uses forms of parallelism to make it "impossible" to get deluded.

SUBJECT is "He SET the Levites."
2Chr. 29:25 And he SET the Levites in the house of the LORD [court]
          A. with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps,
                according to the commandment of David, and of Gad the king’s seer, [star gazer]  
B. and Nathan the prophet:
               for so was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets.   
Moses SET the Levites to make certain that no one not of the tribe of Levi came near or they would be killed. God spoke through Moses in The Book of the Law which contains no example of instruments used in connection with the singular Tabernacle of Testimony.
Constituo 1. To station or post troops somewhere, to draw up, set in order: “legionem
Con-custōdītus closely watched, carefully guarded:
Under the King and Commanders of the Army they were SET up in ranks to guard the not-commanded animal slaughter from any intrusion by any of the civillians.

The PERFORMANCE was under both the Priests and the Civil-Military.
2Chr. 29:26 And the Levites stood with the instruments of David,
2Chr. 29:27 And Hezekiah commanded
        to offer the burnt offering upon the altar.
                And when the burnt offering began,
                       B.  the song of the LORD began also with the TRUMPETS
      A.  and with the INSTRUMENTS ORDAINED by David king of Israel.

THE LEVITES WERE SET TO GUARD AND KILL ANY ONE NOT OF LEVI. The "praise" word is the root for "lucifer" and means "to make yourself vile."  


They stood in ranks under King and Commanders
A. with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps,
          according to the commandment of David,
          and of Gad the king’s seer,
[star gazer]

B. and Nathan the prophet:
       for so was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets.

B.  the song of the LORD began also with the TRUMPETS
They played
and with the INSTRUMENTS ORDAINED by David king of Israel.

Because the Levites slaughtere 3,000 of the brethren because of musical idolatry: Moses commanded the Levites to stand guard to guarantee that no godlly person came near the slaughter pen: they attended synagogue on the Rest Days.  The loud noise in all sacrificial systems was to ward off the demons as well as any civillian or any Levite who came too close.  Their role was SOOTHSAYING with Instrumental accompaniment: they would execute you if you came into that mes.

There are parallel examples to warn those who would blaspheme.

God: Then Solomon offered burnt offerings unto the Lord on the altar of the Lord, which he had built before the porch, 2Chr 8:12

This violated the law to build an altar of dressed stones and a stairway:

Even after a certain rate every day, offering according to the commandment of Moses, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the solemn feasts, three times in the year, even in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles. 2 Chr 8:13

David: And he appointed, according to the order of David his father, the courses of the priests to their service, and the Levites to their charges, to praise and minister before the priests, as the duty of every day required: the porters also by their courses at every gate: for so had David the man of God commanded. 2Chr 8:14

"It was by the hand or commandment of the Lord and his prophets that the Levites should praise the Lord; for so the Hebrew text may be understood:

"and it was by the order of David that so many instruments of music should be introduced into the Divine service." (Adam Clark, Commentary on 2 Chron. 29:25).

Also Jehoiada appointed the offices of the house of the Lord by the hand of the priests the Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the Lord,

to offer the burnt offerings of the Lord, as it is written in the law of Moses,
with rejoicing and with singing, as it was ordained by David. 2Chr 23:1
We should note that Jacob had warned that we should not attend the assemblies of the Levi Tribe.  After the fall from Grace at Mount Sinai, God turned them over to worship the starry host under Levites.  God quarantined the worship behind closed doors and gates and Levites stood guard and could not come near any holy thing or enter any holy place. Their instruments were solemn warnings or threats that you had better be outside of the gates or on your face or bowing in submission.
Gen. 49:5 Simeon and Levi are brethren;
        instruments of cruelty are [h3627 psaltery, weapon]
        in their habitations. [stabbing, burning Bello ]
Iniquitas B. Unfairness, injustice, unreasonableness: luxuria, praetoris, unreasonable demands in the shape of taxes,
1 See some history of the Jacob-Cursed tribe of Levi
Evil Thesis:
Gen. 29:34 And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said,
        Now this time will my husband be joined unto me,
        because I have born him three sons:
        therefore was his name called [3]  Levi.
H3878  lêvıy lay-vee' From H3867; attached; Levi, a son of Jacob:--Levi. See also H3879 , H3881 .

. lavah, law-vaw´; a primitive root; properly, to twine, i.e. (by implication) to unite, to remain; also to borrow (as a form of obligation) or (caus.) to lend: abide with, borrow(-er), cleave, join (self), lend(-er).

3880.  livyah, liv-yaw´; from 3867; something attached, i.e. a wreath:

Leviyiy, [Chaldee] lay-vee-ee´;  Leviy, lay-vee´; patronymically from from H3878 ; a Leviite or descendant of Levi:--Levite.

livyathan, liv-yaw-thawn´; from 3867; a wreathed animal, i.e. a serpent (especially the crocodile or some other large sea-monster); figuratively, the constellation of the dragon; also as a symbol of Babylon:--leviathan, mourning.
Job 3:8
Isa 27:1 In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword
shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent,
even leviathan that crooked serpent;

H3868 lûz looz A primitive root; to turn aside (compare H3867 , H3874 and H3885 ), that is, (literally) to depart, (figuratively) be
perverse:--depart, froward, perverse (-ness).
Godly Antithesis: Gen. 29:35 And she conceived again, and bare a son: and she said,
        Now will I praise the LORD: therefore she called his name [4] Judah; and left bearing.

Evil Thesis:
Gen. 49:5 Simeon and Levi are brethren;
        instruments of cruelty are [h3627 psaltery, weapon]
        in their habitations. [stabbing, burning Bello  to wage or carry on war, to war, to fight in war.

Caes. Gal. 1.2 incited by lust of sovereignty, formed a conspiracy among the nobility, and persuaded the people to go forth from their territories with all their possessions, [saying] that it would be very easy, since they excelled all in valor, to acquire the supremacy of the whole of Gaul.

From these circumstances it resulted, that they could range less widely, and could less easily make war upon their neighbors; for which reason
men fond of war [as they were] were affected with great regret. They thought, that considering the extent of their population, and their renown for warfare and bravery, they had but narrow limits, although they extended in length 240, and in breadth 180 [Roman] miles.

This was the condition when David had destroyed all of the enemies and he had a host of Levites on his hand.

Iniquitas B. Unfairness, injustice, unreasonableness: luxuria, praetoris, unreasonable demands in the shape of taxes,
Cruelty h2555 unjust gain Habitations h4380 Stabbing, a sword a furnace, boiling
Instruments:  7015. qiynah, kee-naw´; from 6969; a dirge (as accompanied by beating the breasts  or on instruments):—lamentation.       
  6969. quwn, koon; a primitive root; to strike a musical note, i.e. chant or wail (at a funeral):— lament, mourning woman [from CAIN]
Remember That Cain was of the wicked one and Paul said that Eve was totally deceived as a wife is taken before her husband.
Gen. 49:6 O my soul, come not thou into their secret;  [counsel: don't look to Levi for a pattern]
        unto their assembly
, mine honour, be not thou united:
        for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.
Gen. 49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel:
        I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
Divido I. To force asunder, part, separate, divide (very freq. and class.; cf.: distribuo, dispertio; findo, scindo, dirimo, divello, separo, sejungo, segrego, secerno).
Godly Antithesis:
Genesis 49:8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise:
        thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies;
        thy father’s children shall bow down before thee.
Genesis 49:9 Judah is a lion’s whelp:
        from the prey, my son, thou art gone up:
        he stooped down, he couched as a lion,
        and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?
Genesis 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah,
        nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come;
        and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.
You CANNOT be an assembly of Christ is you build on the foundation of the Tribe of Levi: Maybe that is why those associated with the NACC (ex Disciples) are so aggressive in pretending to hold unity meetings but calling people who will not uses instruments legalistic.
And don't forget that they volunteered to slaughter 3000 including their own "brethren" for engaging in musical idolatry.

"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of
music in religious services, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Music, p. 589).  See Musical Idolatry at Mount Sinai
Robert Ballard Page 68 Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs P. 92 "To His saints in this Christian dispensation He says: "Speak to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs" (Eph. 5:19).

Why would the NACC translate that as "SING to yourselves with Fanny Crosby and make melody with a HARP?"

Check.gifBIBLE 101 POINT ONE:

To Teach: SPEAK LEXIS to yourselves (one another) with Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual songs.  In Romans 15 Paul says the same thing after silencing all of the actors and musicians: "use one mind and one mouth to speak that which is written for our learning" or "Scriptures for out comfort.  The command from the wilderness onward was to: PREACH the Word (Logos only) by READING the WORD.

Keep Silent: ODE and PSALLO in the heart to God: Ode and Psallo IN the heart or mind means KEEP IT SILENT SILLY.

Robert Ballard and all of the Instrumental Sectarians may REALLY see Paul commanding:

Sing to the audience with the Biblical Text.
Sing and Play and Instrument TO the audience.

-lexis , eōs, h(, (legō B) A. speech, OPPOSITE. ōdē, Pl.Lg.816d; l. ē praxis speech or action, Id.R.396c; ho tropos tēs l. ib.400d; ta lexei dēloumena orders given by word of mouth,

ōdē  is the OPPOSITE of lexis


Psilos IV. logos ps. bare language, i. e. prose, Opposite to poetry which is clothed in the garb of metre, Pl.Mx.239c, Phld.Mus.p.97K.; more freq. in pl., “ps. logoiPl.Lg.669d; Opposite ta metra,

2. poiēsis ps. mere poetry, without music, i. e. Epic poetry, Opposite Lyric ( en ōdē), Pl.Phdr.278c; so “aneu organōn ps. logoiId.Smp.215c, ; ps. phōnē the ordinary sound of the voice, Opposite singing ( ōdikē), D.H. Comp.11.

When you speak LEXIS the LOGOS you are honoring the Regulative Principle of god: Logos is the opposite of preaching, singing, playing instruments or acting.  Robert Ballard and the instrumental sect say they are not bound by a Regulative Principle.

Check.gif BIBLE 101 POINT TWO:

If you PLAY an instrument--NEVER COMMANDED--it is unaccompanied by the voice, Opposite meta melōdias, psilos aulētēs one who plays unaccompanied on the flute (cf. psilokitharistēs),

When Jesus and the Disciples HYMNED and went out they didn't play a harp.
Matthew 26.30  et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Oliveti
Hymnus , i, m., = humnos, “divinorum scriptor hymnorum, Vulg. Psa. 60 tit.; id. Matt. 26, 30.

Psalm 60 A teaching poem by David, when he fought with Aram Naharaim and with Aram Zobah, and Joab returned, and killed twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt.

There is no SINGING TUNEFULLY involved in hymning:

Dīco to say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor stands for the Gr. eipein pros tina,
Ontōs , Adv. part. of eimi A. (sum), really, actually, verily, with Verb
a^, Dor. ala_thēs , es, (lēthō,
Hom., Opposite. pseudēs, in phrases alēthea muthēsasthai, eipein, agoreuein, alēthes enispein
of oracles, true, unerring, “alathea mantiōn thōkonPi. P.11.6, cf. S.Ph.993, E.Ion1537; of dreams, A.Th.710. “alēthei logō khrasthaiHdt. 1.14
        Opposite Epos
1. song or lay accompanied by music, 8.91,17.519.
                 b. generally, poetry, even lyrics
        5. celebrate, of poets, “Aiantos bian
Most people understand that you cannot SPEAK and SING at the same time. 


Matthew 26.30
  Kai humnēsantes exēlthon eis to Oros tōn Elaiōn.
John 1:30 This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me.
This never means SING a song in a tuneful sense: the word means chant or speak as in SPEAK to yourselves.

Humn-eō , Ep. humneiō Hes.Op.2; Ep.3pl.
over and over again, harp upon, repeat, recite,
        ton nomon humnein recite [erō say] the form of the law, Id.Lg.871a:
in pass. sense, phēmai . . humnēsousi peri ta ōta will ring in their ears Pl.R.463d

Phēmē  I. utterance prompted by the gods, significant or prophetic saying, II. any voice or words, speech, saying, logōn ph. poet. periphr. for logoi, S.Ph.846 (lyr.
Logos, verbal noun of lego
        Opposite kata pathos
        Opposite music, poetry or rhetoric
        Opposite human reasoning
        Opposite Epagoge bringint in to one's aid, introduction
                Alurement, enticement, incantation, spell

Opposite Pathos  A. that which happens to a person or thing, incident, accident,
where this incident took place, unfortunate accident,
2. what one has experienced, good or bad, experience
of the soul, emotion, passion (“legō de pathē . . holōs hois hepetai hēdonē ē lupēArist.EN1105b21), “sophiē psukhēn pathōn aphaireitai

Matthew 26:31 Then SAITH Jesus unto them,
        All ye shall be offended because of me this night:
        for it is written, I will smite the shepherd,
        and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad.

Pa^tassō , Ep. impf.
, fut. - E.El.180: aor. 2. strike one against another, strike together, k. kheiras clap the hands
5. strike
a stringed instrument with a plectron, Simon.183, Pl.Ly.209b: generally, play any instrument (v. krouma, kroumatikos)“, aulei  [flute]. . krouōn iastiCom.Adesp.415: c. dat., k. krembalois, = krembalizein, Ath.14.636d.
krouein akratō, v. patassō 11.2. (Cf. Lith. krùšti 'bruise', 'pound', Lett. krausēt 'thresh'.)


saiah 50.6 [6] corpus meum dedi percutientibus et genas meas vellentibus faciem meam non averti ab increpantibus et conspuentibus

I. (With the notion of the per predominating.) To strike through and through, to thrust or pierce through (syn.: percello, transfigo).
II. (With the idea of the verb predominating.) To strike, beat, hit, smite, shoot, etc. (cf.: ico, pulso, ferio). CLAP
2. To strike, shock, make an impression upon, affect deeply, move, astound (class.): “percussisti me de oratione prolatā,
3. To cheat, deceive, impose upon one .

-Pulso.  Of military engines: “ariete muros,Verg. A. 12, 706: “ariete turres,Sil. 16, 696: “moenia Romae,id. 6, 643: “cuspide portas,id. 12, 565: “pulsabant turrim ariete,Amm. 20, 11, 21: “moenia Leptitana,id. 28, 6, 15.—Of musical instruments:chordas digitis et pectine eburno,to strike, play upon, Verg. A. 6, 647: chelyn,Val. Fl. 1, 139: “pectine nervos,Sil. 5, 463: cymbala,Juv. 9, 62.—Of things: “pulsant arva ligones,Ov. Am. 3, 10, 31; id. M. 11, 529: “nervo pulsante sagittae,Verg. G. 4, 313.—
        Always Violent: A. In gen., to urge or drive on, to impel, to set in violent motion,
        to move
, agitate, disturb, disquiet:—

-Pello, Always Violent: 1. To drive out or away, to thrust or turn out, expel, banish; esp. milit., to drive back, discomfit, rout the enemy (freq. and class.; syn.: fugo, elimino, deicio)
         4. Of a musical instrument, to strike the chords, play:nervi pulsi,struck,
 Cic. Brut. 54, 199
: “lyra pulsa manu,Ov. M. 10, 205; cf.: “classica pulsa,” i. e. blown

In Particular b. To strike, play a musical instrument (poet.): “lyram,Ov. Am. 3, 12, 40; Val. Fl. 5, 100.—

Check.gif Mark 10:34 And they shall mock him,
Latin Illudo  as a female: Applied as a term of reproach, effeminate men, eloquence, rhētor but with idea of contempt, caneret,
A. Of men: “si absurde canat, of the crooked race, a reed pipe, a guitar, crowing of a hen tibiae, tubaeGallus , i, m., = Gallos Strab., A. Galli , the priests of Cybele, on account of their emasculated condition) Gallic:turma, the troop of the priests of Isis, Ov. Am. 2, 13, 18.  “resupinati cessantia tympana Galli,” [resupinati cessantia tympana Galli, i. e. prostrate from drunkenness]
Gallos , ho, A. priest of Cybele,
gallazō , A. practise cult of Cybele,
Galli. Eunuch priests of Cybele or the great mother: begun under the reign of Erichthonius, king of Attica, B.C. 1506;

Galli A form gallantes, as if from gallare, "to rave like a priest of Cybelé," is cited from Varro (ap. Non. p. 119Non., 5). In their wild, enthusiastic, and boisterous rites the Galli recalled the legends of the Corybantes (q.v.). According to an ancient custom, they were always castrated (spadones, semimares, semiviri, nec viri nec feminae), and it would seem that, impelled by religious enthusiasm, they performed this operation on themselves... Other names, however, are of distinctly Semitic affinities; Rhea perhaps=the Babylonian Ri (Mulita or Mylitta), and Nana more certainly=the Babylonian Nana, modern Syrian Nani.  Nana motherof Attis

Paizo, 4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16. 5. play amorously, “pros allēlousX.Smp.9.2

Prospaizō, prospaizousa tois ōmois komē playing over, II. c. acc., theous p. sing to the gods, sing in their praise or honour, Pl.Epin.980b: c. dupl. acc., humnon prosepaisamen . . ton . . Erōta sang a hymn in praise of Eros, Id.Phdr.265c. 2. banter , “tous rhētoras Id.Mx.235c, cf. Euthd.285a; p. ton kuna, ton arkton, , humnon pr. ton Erōt

Mark 14:35 And some began to spit [blasphemi] on him, and to cover his face,
        and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: (sing, lament, dance)
        and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.
Alăpa , ae, f. akin to -cello, to smite, as if calapa; cf. kolaphos,
I. a stroke or blow upon the cheek with the open hand, a box on the ear: “ducere gravem alapam alicui,to give, Phaedr. 5, 3: “ministri eum alipis caedebant,Vulg. Marc. 14, 65; ib. Joan. 18, 22; 19, 3; esp. among actors, for the purpose of exciting a laugh among their auditors, * Juv. 8, 192

ălăpus , i, m. alapa, I. a parasite, who submitted to the box on the ear for gold,

PRUDENTIUS 40   Domus Caiphae
Inpia blasphemi cecidit domus ecce Caiphae,  [Blasphemy: denying that instruments are forbidden]
in qua pulsata est alapis facies sacra Christi,  [Using the Psallo word against Jesus and His Word]
hic peccatores manet exitus, obruta quorum
vita ruinosis tumulis sine fine iacebit.

The universal root:  
, I. inf. parag. pulsarier, Lucr. 4, 931), 1, v. freq. a. id., to push, strike, beat (cf.: tundo, ferio, pello).
Of all musical instruments: Of musical instruments:chordas digitis et pectine eburno,to strike, play upon, Verg. A. 6, 647: chelyn, [harp] ” Val. Fl. 1, 139: “pectine nervos,Sil. 5, 463: “cymbala, Juv. 9, 62.—Of things: “pulsant arva ligones,Ov. Am. 3, 10, 31; id. M. 11, 529: “nervo pulsante sagittae,Verg. G. 4, 313.—
Psalm 41 prophesied that Judas would try to Triumph Over him with the "vocal or instrumental rejoicing" which Christ outlawed for the Church in the wilderness
DSS: All who have eaten my bread
.........have lifted their heel against me (cf John 13:18)
.........And all those joined to my Council
   ......have mocked me with wicked lips. (Children piping and chiding.)
DSS: They have overtaken me in a narrow pass (gap) without escape
.........And there is no rest for me in my trial.
.........They sound my censure upon a harp
.........and their murmuring and storming upon a zither." Ps.41:11

After the SORCERERS (speakers, singers and instrument players) have been cast into the lake of fire the children of God in Revelation 19 and in the peaceable kingdom

DSS: Then will I play on  the zither of deliverance and harp of joy, on the tabors of prayer and the pipe of praise without end.

Robert Ballard To forbid instruments as being unfit for CHRISTIANS to use in the accompaniment of "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs" is to speak where God had not spoken,  and to refuse to permit that which God Himslef has (P93) SAID TO USE. To forbid their use, where God has  SAID TO USE THEM, as in Eph. 5:19 and Col. 3:16 is flagrant sin (Rev 22:18:19)


Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. Eph 5:17

And be not drunk with wine,

Allen: For Plato as for the Christians, there was another reason for disallowing instruments -- they stir up the emotions in excitement Niceta is keen to claim that the songs of the Church put out, rather than excite, the passions Basil contrasts psalms, fasting and prayer' with auloi, dancing and drunkenness Homily Psa 114

ĭn-ēbrĭo Saturate, full of talk

kat-auleō , A. charm by flute-playing, methuōn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelōmenoi kai -oumenoimētrōa melēMetroos the worship of Cybele, b. Mētrōa, Mother goddess: music played in her honour, Mele Melos 3. melody of an instrument, “phormigx d' [mark of o]  au phtheggoith' hieron m. ēde kai aulos

wherein is excess;  (Greek: vanity)

The results of being drunk on wine

luxŭrĭa Of style: “in qua (oratione), ut

, wanton, revel, sport, skip, bound, frisk: Deliciis that which allures, flatters the senses], delight, pleasure, charm, allurement; deliciousness, luxuriousness, voluptuousness, curiosities of art; , to make sport paizō dance  4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16saltātĭo, David's naked dance.

Paul always defines away all of the hypocritic arts.

BUT, be filled with the Spirit; Eph 5:18

      John 6:63b the words that I speak unto you,
       they are spirit, and they are life.

Colossians 3:1 If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God.

Colossians 3:5  Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry

Phĭlŏsŏphĭadoctores săpĭentĭa sermons, interpret, sects Cic.Off.2.2.5 Wisdom, = sophia

Sophia , A. cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, in music and singing, poetry, divination

interprĕtor , ātus (in tmesi interpres, to explain, expound, interpret, give expression to, translate; to understand, conclude, infer. A. To decide, determine
12, 29: “haec ex Graeco carmine interpretata recitavit,Liv. 23, 11, 4; 45, 29, 3.
, I. In gen., a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumentalbarbaricum,id. M. 11, 163.—With allusion to playing on the cithara

Rom 8[13] For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.

Pathos emotion, to create passion, drama MY experiences Sophia cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, in music and singing, tekhnē kai s, poetry, in divination pleonexia assumption, one's own advantage. Financial gain

Colossians 3:10 And have put on the new man,
    which is renewed in knowledge
    after the image of him that created him:

Colossians 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom;

Speaking to yourselves
in psalms and hymns
      and spiritual songs, [Scripture]
TEACHING and admonishing one another
      in psalms and hymns
      and spiritual songs, [Scripture]

singing and making melody
your heart to the Lord; [silent]

But if there be no interpreter, let HIM keep silence in the church; and let HIM speak to HIMself, and to God. 1 Cor. 14:28
singing with grace
      IN your hearts
to the Lord. [silent]

always giving thanks
     to God the Father for everything,
     in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all
    In the name of the Lord Jesus,
    giving thanks to God and the Father by him.

1Corinthians 14:1 Follow after charity, and desire spiritual gifts, but RATHER that ye may prophesy.
1Corinthians 14:2 For he that speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh not unto men,
        but unto God: for no man understandeth him;
        howbeit in the [his] spirit he speaketh mysteries.


La^l-eō ,Mark of the Locusts
II.  chatter, Opposite. articulate speech, as of locusts, chirp, Theoc.5.34; mesēmbrias lalein tettix (sc. eimi), a very grasshopper to chirp at midday, 
III.  of musical sounds, “aulō [flute] laleōTheoc.20.29; ; “di'aulou [flute] ē salpiggos l.”[trumpet]  of Echo magadin lalein sound the magadis,  [double flute]

1 Cor. 14:6 Now, brethren, if I come unto you SPEAKING with tongues,
what shall I profit
you, except I shall SPEAK to you either
revelation, or
knowledge, or
prophesying, or

Paul didn't chatter with inarticulate speech, chirp like a locust, play the flute, blow the trumpet or play the double flute so the ANTITHESIS of musical counds is:

legō, speak, legō say, speak, To say something, i. e. to speak to the point or purpose, 2. recount, tell over,
13. recite what is written, “labe to biblion kai lege”  of lectures, “akousate mou skholia legontos”  sunageirōn


Robert Ballard p 76

Francis J. Winder attempts to show that the organ was in use before the traditional accounts used to refute the use of instruments in the church.  Winder quotes from books defending instruments and does not include all of the evidence. However, picking out specific statements is likely to show that the writer has an agenda and not a hunger for the truth.

Jesus SPOKE that which God breathed (Spirit) into Him WITHOUT METRON meaning musical meter.  God is the Word or Logos which is the Regulative Principle: Simple Simon would grasp that when people used the LOGOS concept they would understand it as God's governing principle: God uses the Logos as the Instrumental Means of what He creates or what He teaches His creatures.  Logos is the opposite of rhetoric, singing, playing instruments, enchantments or sorcery and expecially "melody in the holy places."  Melody was not tuneful before the 19th century. Even now, melody is a series of single, pure tones.  Harmony at the time included using TWO VOICES usually the women and children chanting up one octave.  Even when the Pope introduced his castrated Opra singers, they sang in the place of the chapel or cappella (the goat shrine). Their STYLE of singing was ORGANUM beginning with using two voices.

The Spirit OF Christ defined the Qahal, synagogue, ekklesia or Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness:

It was EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing or any speaking other than reading the Word.  This assembly for the godly people is first describes in Exodus 18 before the fall into instrumental idolatry.
It was INCLUSIVE of REST, reading and rehearsing the Word of God.

The people were quarantined to their own area and synagogues existed with ten heads of families (Exodus 1). The people were not permitted to travel and were never in attendance at the sacrificial system.

To prove that fact, there is nothing metrical in the entire Bible because Gods PATTERN is to SPEAK that which is written and we have no input.

Nothing in the Bible or among the Catholics involved "congregational singing" and when Gregorian chants were imposed the chanter, Cantillator or Precenter chanted the message.  When organs were imposed at the Fair city cathedrals it was not at the request of the church leaders.  The Organ did not have the capacity to accompany "congregational singing" and it was never used in the official MASS.  It was used for processionals to get everyone in place, for intermissions to take a break and for recessionals playing while the people filed out in silence and orderly.

Modern exegetes do not agree in this matter. For a time many would admit no metre at all in the Psalms. Davison (Hast., "Dict. of the Bible", s. v.) writes: "
      though metre is NOT discernible in the Psalms,
      it does not follow that rhythm is excluded".

This rhythm, however, "defies analysis and systematization". Driver ("Introd. to Lit. of O. T.", New York, 1892, 339) admits in Hebrew poetry
     "no metre in the strict sense of the term".
     Exegetes who find metre in the Psalms are of four schools,
     according as they explain Hebrew metre by quantity, by the number of syllables
     by accent, or by both quantity and accent.  (from The Catholic Encyclopedia)

Up to the Edict of Milan (AD 313), the psalms were interspersed with lessons.

By the time of Gregory I (circa 600), the Mass and Office had assumed a fixed shape and antiphonal psalmody (the chanting of a psalm alternately by two choirs and responsorial psalmody when the congregation responded to a psalm sung by a cantor were institutionalized.The distinction between these types later faded
So, it would be ANTI-truthful to argue for Instrumental Music Accompanying Congregational Singing.

Music at the Crossroads of Empire: Ambrose and Milanese Chant

The liturgical music in use in Milan at the time of Ambrose seems, according to surviving sources, to have been characterized by a strong eastern influence (Byzantine and Graeco-Syrian) that was added to a base of local music. Paulinus of Nola, Ambrose's secretary and biographer, suggests that the liturgy in Milan at this time--if not the liturgical and musical sensibilities of Ambrose himself--was changing because of such influences:

Apart from the development of hymnody, in which Ambrose was certainly involved, and the use of antiphonal singing, which he may have introduced,

During his exile in Asia Minor (356-360), Bishop Hilary of Poitiers was influenced by the compositions and practices attributed to Ephrem of Syria and Gregory of Nazianzus; he brought these traditions back with him when he returned to Poitiers.

In Fact, Ephraem was the FIRST to introduce SINGING as an ACT ABOUT 373.

Other than using the commanded Biblical text, singing was invented to combat the Arians. : "antiphonal singing may have been introduced to Milan--alternating verses or partial verses of a psalm between two choirs. "

You CAN'T accompany a chant with an organ: the Catholics used the organ in the NON-mass part of the assembly and not to accompany congregational singing.

p.77 (Ballard) "for we are told that St Ambrose joined instruments with the public service in the Cathedral Church of Milan."

He quotes the

Everywhere the early missionaries they had to contend with pagan temples who had always offered singing, clapping, dancing and other favors which made them think that the priest could heal them. 

Christianizing the Romann Empire ad 100-400 p 64f Ramsay MacMullen,.

The pagan priests attracted disciples by singing, clapping, drumming, drinking wine and claiming that they could bestow supernatural power. Early missionaries spread the propoganda that when they left a pagan temle the demons would not return. Others claimed that just their shadow could heal and they could raise the dead. These claims of supernatural power lost their "power."  The church as a purely intellectual movement

p. 63 In the late fourth century the point made here is illustrated by a little poem of Christian propaganda.  It clearly  means to incline gentle readers to believe through the versified coversation  overheard among three shepherds. Baculus complains that all his sheep are dying; but Tityrus tellls him salvation lies through the sign of the cross, and "no altar wet with blood" is needed; to which Aegon adds, "If, tityrus you should make good on thes easservations about paganism, without delay I'll serve true cult.  

Toward the end of or period  Christians could publicize their faith quite openlhy sso a sto reach non-Christians. Hymns written for the same purpose, written in the hope of their being sung  by non-believers as well  as  inside the Christian community too. There were tracts of aggressive debate addressed to non-Christians, to argue them down."  These songs "could make the pagans flee" and so were added, as by the Arians, as propoganda which resulted in literal warfare.

When they could not convince, they tore down all pagan signs and temples and replaced them with the sign of the cross.

p.74f Bishop Basil Reproved the dancers in the very chapels of Caesarea.  Other church leaders in Syria and the Levant tried to suppress dancing, or hand -clapping, or piping along with hymns or at weddings.  And returning to the west, in North Africa Bishop Augustine encountered the same custom and spoke out against it. So everwhere we look we find the problem.
But had not David danced? "Those actions [likeDavid's which areperformed disgracefulloy, if looked at only as physical, are, when viewed through holy religion, rather to be held in respect." those wrote Ambrose.
"Exactly, and non-Christians did hold them in respect and everywhere joined music and motion to their occassions of worship, often accompanied by pipe or castanet or little drum.
Because the pagans merged pleasuer and worship, the church decided to Christianize the hymns and that process produced Christian hymns.  The Church, considering how the boundaries around itself were defined, and to set it off from rival cults without too musch reducing the rewards of life for those who were converted, had to take account of such practical considerations.
Because Jesus spoke ONLY the words delivered from the Father by His "breath" it was WITHOUT METER as the word often means. That is why no one ever tried to sing any of the commanded Biblical text using melody in a tuneful sense.  So, before you can use violence to impose instruments you have to get past the absolute fact that the command is to  SPEAK that which is written and not SING that which is written:
Robert Ballard p 78-79 The "Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics," James Hastings, 1917 "in the Hebrew Temple, at the beginning of the Christian era, the harp, lute, flute, trumpet and drum were used as accompament to the Psalms and canonical hymns; yet owing to the necesity of avoiding comparison with pagan rites, instrumental music was forbidden in the early Christian Church.

The GODLY class was quarantined from the temple which God did not command an denounced. The sacrificial system was essentially dead by the Return from Babylonian Captivity. The Temple was HEROD'S TEMPLE and Jesus recognized on the outer court as a place to pray--without a Minister of Prayer.  Any Levite at any time in recorded history who went near or into any "holy" place was to be executed.  Most godly Jews had fled Jerusalem rather than participating with the Abomination of Desolation which made Jewish boys into prostitutes and went into the temple.

history notes that the early church only gradually accepted the practices of the pagans but only on the pagan festival days. No one who has ever read the Bible would think that music was commanded for holding a school of Christ where they read the Biblical text and discussed it. The early church had no RITES which would be both pagan and legalistic.

The church was ordained in the wilderness to quarantine the godly people FROM the temple.  The Civil-Military-Clergy had been "turned over to worship the starry host" because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.  No speaker, singer or instrument player came near or in the Holy Place as a type of the synagogue or future church without getting executed.

Furthermore, no Levite, used as Warrior Noise makers a
nd later under the king and commanders of the army--could come near the holy places of the sanctury or they would be executed. The patternism is that if a musician enters into the body of Christ as fulfilment of the Holy Place he / she / it is worthy of death.
Num 18:2 And thy brethren also of the tribe of Levi, the tribe of thy father, bring thou with thee, that they may be joined unto thee, and minister unto thee: but thou and thy sons with thee shall minister BEFORE the tabernacle of witness. [never IN]

H8334 sharath shaw-rath' A primitive root; to attend as a menial or worshipper; figuratively to contribute to:--minister (unto), (do) serve (-ant, -ice, -itor), wait on. 

Num 18:3 And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the tabernacle:
        only they shall
not come nigh
the vessels of the sanctuary and the altar,
        that neither they, nor ye also, di

Contrary to being a spiritual worship service, the sacrificial system had been imposed and if it were not performed it would bring down God's wrath as punishment due for NOT performing what they had been abandoned to.

Num 18:6 And I, behold, I have taken your brethren the Levites from among the children of Israel:
         to you they are given as a gift for the LORD,
         to do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation.

Num 18:7 Therefore thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priest’s office for every thing of the altar,
        and within the veil; and ye shall serve: I have given your priest’s office unto you as a service of gift:

        and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.
"Neither must the children of Israel henceforth come nigh the tabernacle of the congregation,
        lest they bear sin, and die. Numbers 18:22

NONE of the Bible including the psalms were metrical: they were cantillation or metrical prose. You can stroke an instrument between stanzas but you cannot ACCOMPANY any of the Bible. And if you do not use that which is written for our learning then you are not a disciple of Christ.

"prophesing with harps" or other instruments is called soothsaying: that's what you do when God ABANDONS you to worship the starry hosd.  The sacrificial system was NOT commanded says Christ in the prophets. Therefore, in Jerusalem as in all national temples the singers were called parasites.

Parasit-os who eats at the table of another, and repays him with flattery and buffoonery, parasite, Epich.36, Arar.16, etc.; name of plays by Antiph., Alex., and Diph.; peri Parasitou, title of work by Luc.: c. gen., kenês p. trapezês [MONEY CHANGING TABLE] AP11.346 (Autom.) : metaph., ichthusên p. (v. opson) Luc.Lex.6.  Parasitus Phoebi, a player

knikos , ê, on, ( [kuôn] ) dog-like, X.Cyr.5.2.17 (v.l. for huïkon); to k. kai thêriôdes tôn orexeôn Plu.2.133b ; k. spasmos unilateral facial paralysis, Cels.4.3.1, Gal.18(2).930; k. kaumata heat of the dogdays, Polyaen.2.30.3: metaph., ho anthrôpos k. currish, churlish, Vulgate 1 Sa 25.3 (?). Adv. -kôs, spômenoi Heliod. ap. Orib.48.38 tit.; in doglanguage, opp. boïkôs, etc., Porph.Abst.3.3

II. of priests who had their meals at the public expense, Clitodem.11, Polem.Hist.78  
2. one who dines with a superior officer, Arist.Fr.551.

The common people and the prophets knew the facts:

Ezek 22:27 Her princes in the midst thereof are like wolves [YELLOW] ravening the prey,  o shed blood, and to destroy souls, to get dishonest gain.
Zeph. 3:3 Her princes within her are roaring lions; her judges are evening wolves; they gnaw not the bones till the morrow 

Epictetus, Works XLIII.

XLII. Instead of herds of oxen, endeavor to assemble flocks of friends about your house.
XLII As a wolf resembles a dog, so much does a flatterer, an adulterer, a parasite, resemble a friend. Take heed, therefore, that instead of guardian dogs, you do not inadvertently admit ravening wolves.

[All musicians were also called PARASITES and not allowed to feed on polite society]

The Deipnosophists of Athenaeus of Naucratis Book XIII: Concerning Women

"Hear, ye Styacs, vendors of twaddle, hypocritical mouthers of words who alone by yourselves gobble up everything on the platters before a wise man can get a share, and then are caught doing the very opposite of what you solemnly chant;" oglers of boys you are, and in that alone emulating the founder of your philosophy, Zeno the Phoenician, who never resorted to a woman, but always to boy-favourites.

Bdellolarunx, leech-throat, name for a greedy parasite

Mark 13:14 But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains:

Robert Ballard p 82. CLEMENT "Clement writessa; "He is a guest with us. For the apostle add again, "Teaching and admonishine one another in all wisdom, in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your heart to God." And again "whatsoeverye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and His Father.' this is our thankful revelry. And even if you wish to sing and play to the harp or lyre, there is no blame. Thous shalt IMITATE the righteous Hebrew king in his thanksgiving to God."

However, Clement is speaking of
HOW TO CONDUCT OURSELVES AT FEASTSMost city people took their meals at the kitchens in the Agora or Marketplace.

You will readily see that, as with many psalms and David's instruments, they were
known to arouse hostility and signal war: there was simply no sensical reason that anyone should have thought that instruments which arouse spiritual anxiety would be tolerated when Christ comes to be our only Teacher.

Godly people do not BEAT ON DRUMS when Christ speaks through the elders BECAUSE the pagans beat on drums: that would charge the historic scholarship with being stupid. We do not beat on drums when the preacher is sermonizing BECAUSE it would be ungodly and disgraceful.

In their wars, therefore, the Etruscans use the trumpet, the Arcadians the pipe, the Sicilians the pectides, the Cretans the lyre, the Lacedaemonians the flute, the Thracians the horn, the Egyptians the drum, and the Arabians the cymbal.

The one instrument of peace, the Word alone by which we honour God, is what we employ.

We no longer employ the ancient psaltery, and trumpet, and timbrel, and flute,
which those
expert in war and contemners of the fear of God
were wont to make use of also in the choruses at their
festive assemblies;

that by such strains they might raise their dejected minds.

But let our genial feeling in drinking be twofold, in accordance with the law.

For "if thou shalt love the Lord try God," and then "thy neighbour," let its first manifestation be towards God in thanksgiving and psalmody, and the second toward our neighbour in decorous fellowship.

For says the apostle, "Let the Word of the Lord dwell in you richly." 103 And this Word suits and conforms Himself to seasons, to persons, to places.

In the present instance He is a guest with us. For the apostle adds again, "Teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your heart to God." And again, "Whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and His Father." This is our thankful revelry.

And even if you wish to sing and play to the harp or lyre, there is no blame. 104 [At feasts]

Clement says "Imitate" David but David never led worship in the synagogue where music was outlawed or in the sacrificial systems which God did not command.  If David played the harp on his bed what authority would that be to play the harp in the synagogue?

Thou shalt imitate the righteous Hebrew king in his thanksgiving to God. "Rejoice in the Lord, ye righteous; praise is comely to the upright," 105 says the prophecy.

"Confess to the Lord on the harp ; play to Him on the psaltery of ten strings. Sing to Him a new song." And does not the ten-stringed psaltery indicate the Word Jesus, who is manifested by the element of the decad?

And as it is befitting, before partaking of food, that we should bless the Creator of all; so also in drinking it is suitable to praise Him on partaking of His creatures. 106 For the psalm is a melodious and sober blessing. The apostle calls the psalm "a spiritual song." 107

Gregory of Nyssa agrees that the "harp" FROM GOD is not FROM DAVID.

3. Now the music of the human instrument is a sort of compound of flute and lyre,

sounding together in combination as in a concerted piece of music.

For the breath, as it is forced up from the air-receiving vessels through the windpipe, when the speaker's impulse to utterance attunes the harmony to sound, and as it strikes against the internal protuberances which divide this flute-like passage in a circular arrangement, imitates in a way the sound uttered through a flute, being driven round and round by the membranous projections

X. That the Mind Works by Means of the Senses.

1. As the mind then produces the music of reason by means of our instrumental construction, we are born rational,

while, as I think, we should not have had the gift of reason if we had had to employ our lips to supply the need of the body-the heavy and toilsome part of the task of providing food.

As things are, however, our hands appropriate this ministration to themselves, and leave the mouth available for the service of reason.

2 35 . The operation of the instrument , however, is twofold; one for the production of sound, the other for the reception of concepts from without;

and the one faculty does not blend with the other, but abides in the operation for which it was appointed by nature, not interfering with its neighbour either by the sense of hearing undertaking to speak, or by the speech undertaking to hear;

for the latter is always uttering something, while the ear, as Solomon somewhere says, is not filled with continual hearing

P 82 AUGUSTINE "St. Augustine likewise encourages the singing of Psalms to the lyre or psaltery." pg. 82
Book ten. XXXIII.49 But the pleasures of my flesh -- to which the mind ought never to be surrendered nor by them enervated -- often beguile me while physical sense does not attend on reason, to follow her patiently, but having once gained entry to help the reason, it strives to run on before her and be her leader. Thus in these things I sin unknowingly, but I come to know it afterward.

50.  At other times, shunning over-anxiously this very deception, I err in too great strictness; and sometimes to that degree, as to wish the whole melody of sweet music which is used to David’s Psalter, banished from my ears, and the Church’s too; and that mode seems to me safer, which I remember to have been often told me of Athanasius Bishop of Alexandria, who made the reader of the psalm utter it with so slight inflection of voice that it was nearer speaking than singing.  Yet again, when I remember the tears i shed at the Psalmody of  Thy Church, in the beginning of my recovered faith; and how at this time, I am moved, not with the singing, but with the things sung, when they are sung with a clear voice and modulation most suitable, I acknowledge the great use of this institution.  Thus I fluctuate between peril of pleasure and approved wholesomeness; inclined the rather (though not as pronouncing an irrevocable opinion) to approve of the usage of singing in the church; that so by the delight of the ears, the weaker minds may rise to the feeling of devotion.  Yet when it befalls me to be more moved with the voice than the words sung, I confess to have sinned penally, and then had rather not hear music.  See now my state; weep with me, and weep for me, ye, who so regulate your feelings within, as that good action ensues.  For you who do not act, these things touch not you.  But, Thou, O Lord my God, hearken; behold, and see, and have mercy, and heal me, Thou, in whose presence I have become a problem to myself; and that is my infirmity.

In Psalm 149 Augustine utterly condemns out ward praise by performers and puts spiritual praise "in the hearts" and even upon thy bed:

6. "The saints shall exult in glory" (ver. 5). I would say somewhat important about the glory of the saints. For there is no one who loveth not glory.

But the glory of fools, popular glory as it is called, hath snares to deceive, so that a man, influenced by the praises of vain men, shall be willing to live in such fashion as to be spoken of by men, whosoever they be, in whatsoever way.

Hence it is that men, rendered mad, and puffed up with pride, empty within, without swollen, are willing ever to ruin their fortunes

by bestowing them on stage-players, actors, men who fight with wild beasts, charioteers. What sums they give, what sums they spend! They lavish the powers not only of their patrimony, but of their minds too.

They scorn the poor, because the people shouteth not that the poor should be given to, but the people to shout that the fighter with wild beasts be given to. When then no shout is raised to them, they refuse to spend; when madmen shout to them, they are mad too:

nay, all are mad, both performer, and spectator, and the giver.

This mad glory is blamed by the Lord, is offensive in the eyes of the Almighty. ...Thou choosest to clothe the fighter with wild beasts, who may be beaten, and make thee blush: Christ is never conquered; He hath conquered the devil, He hath conquered for thee, and to thee, and in thee; such a conqueror as this thou choosest not to clothe. Wherefore? Because there is less shouting, less madness about it.

They then who delight in such glory, have an empty conscience. Just as they drain their chests, to send garments as presents, so do they empty their conscience, so as to have nothing precious therein.

7. But the saints who "exult in glory," no need is there for us to say how they exult: just hear the verse of the Psalm which followeth: "The saints shall exult in glory,

they shall rejoice in their beds:" not in theatres, or amphitheatres, or circuses, or follies, or market places, but "in their chambers."

What is, "in their chambers"? In their hearts. Hear the Apostle Paul exulting in his closet: "For this is our glory, the testimony of our conscience."

For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to youward. 2 Cor. 1:12

Suneidesis (g4893) soon-i'-day-sis; from a prol. form of 4894; co- perception, i.e. moral consciousness; - conscience.

Suneido (g4894) soon-i'-do; from 4862 and 1492; to see completely; used (like its prim.) only in two past tenses, respectively mean. to understand or become aware, and to be conscious or (clandestinely) informed of: - consider, know, be privy, be ware of.

For we write none other things unto you, than what ye read or acknowledge; and I trust ye shall acknowledge even to the end; 2 Cor. 1:13

"On the other hand, there is reason to fear lest any be pleasing to himself, and so seem to be proud, and boast of his conscience. For every one ought to exult with fear, for that wherein he exulteth is God's gift, not his own desert.

For there be many that please themselves, and think themselves righteous; and there is another passage which goeth against them, which saith, "Who shall boast that he hath a clean heart, and that he is pure from sin?" There is then, so to speak, a limit to glorying in our conscience, namely, to know that thy faith is sincere, thy hope sure, thy love without dissimulation.

"The exultations of God are in their mouths" (ver. 6). In such wise shall they "rejoice in their closets," as not to attribute to themselves that they are good, but praise Him from whom they have what they are, by whom they are called to attain to what they are not, and from whom they hope for perfection, to whom they give thanks, because He hath begun.

Robert Ballard pg 83 Marvin R. Vincent , in his "Word studies in the New Testament" states "some thank that the verb has here its original signification of singing with an instrument. This IS its dominant sense in the Septuagint and both Basil and Gregory of Nyssa define a psalm as implying instrumental accompaniment."

NEVER:  A  psalm is a song and a song may be read, recited, sung or sung with instrumental accompaniment. The Bible always uses three words to meand Sing + Play + Instrument.  In fact the word does not MEAN with an instrument because most often an instrument is not named.

GREGORY OF NYSSA (died c394)

8 . Now since man is a rational animal,
instrument of his body must be made suitable for the use of reason;
as you may see musicians producing
their music according to the form of their instruments,

and not piping with harps nor harping upon flutes,

so it must needs be that the organization of these instruments of ours
should be
adapted for reason, that when struck by the vocal organs
it might be able to sound properly for the use of words.

As late as the fourth century, Gregory, bishop of Nyssa, gave this definition of psalm:

"There is a distinction between psalm, ode, praise, hymn, and prayer. A psalm is the melody of a musical instrument; and ode is a melodious expression made by the mouth with words.

This does not mean PLAY the melody. Tunes were derived from plucking the bow string or a lyre.


"The psalterion is a musical instrument making its sound from the upper parts of iits construction and the music from this instrument is called a psalm." (p. 29)

7. As there are "psalms," and "songs," and "psalms of song," and "songs of psalmody," it remains that we discuss the difference between these.

We think, then, that the "psalms" are those which are simply played to an instrument,

without the accompaniment of the voice, and (which are composed) for the musical melody of the instrument;

And thus much as to the letter of what is signified by these terms. But as to the mystical interpretation,

it would be a "psalm" when, by smiting the instrument, viz. the body, with good deeds we succeed in good action though not wholly proficient in speculation;

and a "song," when, by revolving the mysteries of the truth, apart from the practical, and assenting fully to them,

we have the noblest thoughts of God and His oracles, while knowledge enlightens us, and wisdom shines brightly in our souls; and a "song of psalmody," when, while good action takes the lead, according to the word,

The translators of the Septuagint used the Greek word "psallo" in its various forms.  In the Greek world it is USED meaning to "Smite the strings of a harp with the FINGERS but never with a PLECTRUM.  Because they spoke of "shooting forth hymns" is is ALWAYS translated as to SING.  If a harp is being plucked then psallo just means PLUCK: you must name what is to be plucked.  It is used meaning MELODY. But, we have just heard that when it means MELODY it includes ONLY the instrument WITHOUT the human voice.  You would be lying if you applied "psallo" to anything other than a simple harp.

There are are three terms: Singing, playing, name of instrument.  The fact that one PLAYS and instrument does not mean that PLAY means to play an instrument.

Vincent's: Word Studies Of The New Testament, Vol. III, pg. 269-270 "...The noun psalm (Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16; I Cor. 14:26), which is etymologically akin to this verb (psallo in I Cor. 14:15 DEM), is used in the New Testament of a religious song in general, having the character of an Old Testament psalm...

"Some think that the verb has here its original signification of singing with an instrument. This is its dominant sense in the Septuagint, and both Basil and Gregory of Nyssa define a psalm as implying instrumental accompaniment...

"But neither Basil nor Ambrose nor Chrysostom, in their panegyrics upon music, mention instrumental music, and Basil expressly condemns it. Bingham dismisses the matter summarily, and cites Justin Martyr as saying expressly that instrumental music was not used in the Christian Church. The verb is used here in the general sense of singing praise.

No, psalm is EVER used in the Septuagint of SINGING with an instrument.  In most cases the word is translated as "sing" and when a harp is intended it is named. Again, none of this was related to modern "performance music."  See Psalms in the LXX

Psalmos also appears in the LXX as equivalent to the Hebrew word neginah [5058]. This Hebrew term is used to describe a wide variety of songs. Neginah is translated by psalmos in Lam 3:14 (song), in Lam 5:14 (music) and in Ps 69:12 (song). It is striking to observe that in the LXX translation of Lam 3:14 and Ps 69:12, psalmos, or its verbal form, is used for songs that are not only uninspired but are in fact the product of the wicked, even drunkards, who mocked God and His word. The Hebrew term neginah is used elsewhere in the Hebrew Scriptures of: the songs of the wicked, Job 30:9 (song); the inspired praise of God, Psalm 61 title (Neginah-a song performed on a stringed instrument); and the uninspired praisd of the Lord composed by King Hezekiah, Is 38:20 (my songs).

        Lam 3:12 He hath bent his bow, and set me as a mark for the arrow.
        Lam 3:13 He hath caused the arrows of his quiver to enter into my reins.
        Lam 3:14 I was a derision to all my people; and their song all the day.
        Lam 3:15 He hath filled me with bitterness, he hath made me drunken with wormwood.
        Lam 3:16 He hath also broken my teeth with gravel stones, he hath covered me with ashes.
        Lam 3:17 And thou hast removed my soul far off from peace: I forgat prosperity.


Psalmos , ho, twitching or twanging with the fingers, psalmoi toxôn E.Ion173 (lyr.); toxêrei psalmôi [toxeusas] Id.HF1064 (lyr.).

Psalmoi toxôn does not mean "sing and play a harp" WITH a bow.  Psalmoi just means pluck or twang a bow.

toxêrei psalmôi [toxeusas]
[Furnished with the Bow]  +  [Twitching with the fingers] + [Shoot with the bow or metaphor Send forth a hymn]
3. c. acc. rei, shoot from a bow, metaph., discharge, send forth, t. humnous Pi.I.2.3 hath shot these arrows in vain, E.Hec.603
Pi.I.2.3 The men of old, Thrasybulus, who mounted the chariot of the Muses with their golden headbands, joining the glorious lyre, lightly shot forth their honey-voiced songs for young men, if one was handsome and had [5] the sweetest ripeness that brings to mind Aphrodite on her lovely throne. For in those days the Muse was not yet a lover of gain, nor did she work for hire. And sweet gentle-voiced odes did not go for sale, with silvered faces, from honey-voiced Terpsichore. But as things are now, she bids us heed [10] the saying of the Argive man, which comes closest to actual truth: “Money, money makes the man,” he said, when he lost his wealth and his friends at the same time.


Anti-psallô , A. [1] play a [2] stringed instrument [3] in accompaniment of song, a. elegois phorminga Ar.Av.218 .

Ar.Av.218 .Aristophanes, Birds
Epops rushes into the thicket.


From within; singing.

Chase off drowsy sleep, dear companion. [210]  Let the sacred hymn gush from thy divine throat in melodious strains; roll forth in soft cadence your refreshing melodies to bewail the fate of Itys, which has been the cause of so many tears to us both. [215] Your pure notes rise through the thick leaves of the yew-tree right up to the throne of Zeus, where Phoebus listens to you, Phoebus with his golden hair. And his ivory lyre responds to your plaintive accents; [220] he gathers the choir of the gods and from their immortal lips pours forth a sacred chant of blessed voices.


Pektis a stringed instrumnent, played with the fingers (not plēktron), shepard's pipe, pan's pipes, cage or net for catching birds.

With psallo you CANNOT use a guitar pick or play ANY other musical instrument.

A. anything to strike with:
1. instrument for striking the lyre, plectrum,
spear point.
You cannot play an instrument and sing psalms defined by psallo.

Krekon Krekô ,
2. strike
a stringed instrument with the plectron, magadin Diog.Ath.1.10 ; barbita D.H.7.72 : generally, play on any instrument, aulonAr.Av. 682 (lyr.): less freq.c.dat., krekeindonakiAPl.4.231 (Anyte): c. acc. cogn., pêktidôn psalmois k. humnon
Robert Ballard pg 90 "But god, speaking through His prophet, Isaiah says (8:20: "To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them."


Isa 8:19
And when they shall say unto you,
        Seek unto them that have familiar spirits,
        and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter:
                should not a people seek unto their God?
                for the living to the dead?  

The familiar spirit is a dry, empty wineskin. It serves as the echo chamber of the nebel which means 'VILE.' It has the same meaning as the harp and the sounding gongs in 1 Cor. 13.

The Wizzard is one who thinks that they can hear the Word of God "beyond the sacred page."  John called them sorcerers because they used rhetoric, singers and instrumentalists to STEAL the Word and money from others
Yiddeoniy (h3049) yid-deh-o-nee'; from 3045; prop. a knowing one; spec. a conjurer; (by impl.) a ghost: - wizard.

"In Isa 8:19 the
'obhoth and yidh'onim are spoken of those who 'chirp and mutter." These terms refer to the necromancers themselves who practiced ventriloquism in connection with their magical rites. In Isa 29:4 it is said 'Thy voice shall be as an 'obh, out of the ground.'... They are stamped in these passages, as in the Witch of Endor narrative, as deceivers practising a fraudulent art. By implication their power to evoke spirits with whom they were in familiar intercourse is denied." (Int Std Bible Ency., ency, p. 690)

H178  ’ôb obe From the same as H1 (Ab, Ab, Lord, Lord sayers: apparently through the idea of prattling a father’s name); properly a mumble, that is, a water skin (from its hollow sound); hence a necromancer (ventriloquist, as from a jar):—bottle, familiar spirit.

Pȳthon ,, I. the serpent slain, according to the myth, near Delphi by o, who was fabled to have been called Pythius in commemoration of this victory, Ov. M. 1, 438;
Stewart sculpture 2.4 the epithet derives from his boyhood battle against the Pythoness at Delphi, when "the lord o, the far-shooter / shot a strong arrow at her / and she lay there, torn with terrible pain" (Homeric Hymn to Pythian o 356-59).

Pȳtho ,
ūs, f., = Πυθώ,
I. the former name of Delphi and its environs, Tib. 2, 3, 27 (Python, Müll.); Luc. 5, 134.—Hence,
I. Pȳthĭcus , a, um, adj., = Πυθικός, another form for Pythius, Pythian: “o,Liv. 5, 21: “oraculum,id. 5, 15: “sortes,id. 5, 23: “divinatio,Val. Max. 1, 8, 10: “agon,Tert. adv. Gnost. 6.—
II. Pȳthĭus , a, um, adj., = Πύθιος, Pythian, Delphic, onian: Delphis prognatus Pythius o, Naev B. P. 2, 20; so, “o,Cic. Off. 2, 22, 77; “also incola,Hor. C. 1, 16, 6; “and deus,Prop. 2, 31 (3, 29), 16: “oraculum,Cic. Div. 1, 1, 3: “regna,” i. e. Delphi, Prop. 3, 13 (4, 12), 52: “antra,Luc. 6, 425: vates, i. e. the Pythoness, Pythia, Juv. 13, 199; cf. in the foll. —
B. Substt.
1. Pȳthĭa , ae, f., = Πυθία, the priestess who uttered the responses of the Delphic o, the Pythoness, Pythia, Cic. Div. 1, 19, 38; Nep. Milt. 1, 3. —
incantātĭo , ōnis, f. id.,
I. an enchanting, enchantment (post-class.): “magicae, Firm. Math. 5, 5: incantationum vires,” 

Verg. A. 6.98

But you, if pious minds by pray'rs are won,
Oblige the father, and protect the son.
Yours is the pow'r; nor Proserpine in vain
Has made you priestess of her nightly reign.
If Orpheus, arm'd with his enchanting lyre,
The ruthless king with pity could inspire,
And from the shades below redeem his wife;
If Pollux, off'ring his alternate life,

Amos and Jeremiah speak of the Marzeah connected with the wine, women and musical instruments. The Marzeah was a festival WITH and FOR the DEAD: Israel had a COVENANT WITH DEATH.

"The marzeah had an extremely long history extending at least from the 14th century B.C. through the Roman period. In the 14th century B.C., it was prominently associated with the ancient Canaanite city of Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), on the coast of Syria...

The marzeah was a pagan ritual that took the form of a social and religious association... Some scholars regard the funerary marzeah as a feast for--and with--deceased ancestors (or Rephaim, a proper name in the Bible for the inhabitants of Sheol)." (King, Biblical Archaeological Review, Aug, 1988, p. 35, 35)

"These five elements are:
........(1) reclining or relaxing,
........(2) eating a meat meal,
........(3) singing with harp or other musical accompaniment,
........(4) drinking wine and
........(5) anointing oneself with oil." (King, p. 37).

To the law and to the testimony:
        if they speak not according to this word,
        it is because there is no light in them. Isa 8:20
[19] et cum dixerint ad vos quaerite a pythonibus et a divinis qui stridunt in incantationibus suis numquid non populus a Deo suo requirit pro vivis a mortuis

-strīdō —, —, ere,

to make a shrill noise, sound harshly, creak, hiss, grate, whiz, whistle, rattle, buzz: stridentia tinguunt Aera lacu, V.: cruor stridit, hisses, O.: belua Lernae Horrendum stridens, V.: horrendā nocte (striges), O.: mare refluentibus undis, V.: aquilone rudentes, O.: videres Stridere secretā aure susurros, buzz, H.
H7442 rânan raw-nan' A primitive root; properly to creak (or emit a stridulous sound), 2. tremulous sound of a mast or pole "Shaken by the wind" also the sound of a torrent. Vibrate the voice TRILL which is the WOMEN'S sound of Halal above.

-cantus , ūs, m. id., 2. With instruments, a playing, music: “in nervorum vocumque cantibus,Cic. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; id. Rosc. Am. 46, 134: “citharae,Hor. C. 3, 1, 20: “horribili stridebat tibia cantu,Cat. 64, 264: “querulae tibiae,Hor. C. 3, 7, 30:
An incantation, charm, magic song, etc.: cantusque artesque magorum. Ov. M. 7, 195; 7, 201: “at cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis Umbrae ibant,Verg. G. 4, 471: “magici,
-pŏētĭcus , a, um, adj., = poiētikos,
poetic, poetical: “verbum,Cic. de Or. 3, 38, 153: “non poëtico sed quodam oratorio numero et modo,id. ib. 1, 33, 151: “di,represented by the poets,
Isa. 8:19 And when they shall say unto you, 
        Seek unto them that have familiar spirits,
        and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter:
        should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead?

[19] et cum dixerint ad vos quaerite a pythonibus et a divinis qui stridunt in incantationibus suis numquid non populus a Deo suo requirit pro vivis a mortuis

To the law and to the testimony:
        if they speak not according to this word,
        it is because there is no light in them. Isa 8:20

-Puthōn  cf. Puthō

I. the serpent Python, slain by o.
II. pneuma Puthōnos a spirit of divination, NTest.: ventriloquists eggastrimuthoi were called Puthōnes, Plut.
-Pu_thō , gen. ous, dat. oi, h(, Pytho, the region in which lay the city of Delphi, A. Puthoi eni petrēessēIl.9.405; “P. en ēgatheēOd.8.80, Hes. Th.499, etc.; of Delphi itself, Pi.P.4.66, 10.4, Hdt.1.54, etc. (Acc. to the legend, derived from the rotting of the serpent, h.Ap.372.
incantātĭo , ōnis, f. id.,
I. an enchanting, enchantment (post-class.): “magicae, Firm. Math. 5, 5: incantationum vires,Tert. Hab. Mul. 2.

in-canto , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. and n. *
I. To sing in, with dat.: “passer incantans saepiculae (i. e. in saepicula),App. M. 8, p. 210, 26. —
II. In partic.
A. To say over, mutter, or chant a magic formula against some one: QVI MALVM CARMEN INCANTASSET, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Plin. 28, 2, 4, § 17.—
B. Transf.
1. To consecrate with charms or spells: “incantata vincula,lovelcnots, Hor. S. 1, 8, 49.—
2. To bewitch, enchant: “quaesisti, quod mihi emolumentum fuerit incantandi (sc. illam)?App. Mag. p. 305: “incantata mulier,id. ib.: “pileum vetitis artibus,Amm. 14, 7, 7.

vincŭlo , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. id.,
I. to fetter, bind, chain: “multa animalia redimiculis gaudent, et phalerari sibi magis quam vinculari videntur,Ambros. in Psa. 118, Serm. 3, 6; Cael. Aur. Tard. 4, 8, 108.
, or (also in class. prose), contr., vinclum , i, n. id.,
I. that with which any thing is bound, a band, bond, rope, cord, fetter, tie (cf.: catena, manica, compes).
măgĭcus , a, um, adj., = magikos,
I. of or belonging to magic, magic, magical (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): “artes,Verg. A. 4, 493: “magicis auxiliis uti,Tib. 1, 8, 24: “arma movere,Ov. M. 5, 197: “superstitiones,Tac. A. 12, 59:vanitates,Plin. 30, 1, 1, § 1: “herbae,id. 24, 17, 99, § 156: “aquae,Prop. 4, 1, 102 (5, 1, 106): di magici, that were invoked by incantations (as Pluto, Hecate, Proserpine), Tib. 1, 2, 62; Luc. 6, 577: “linguae,” i. e. hieroglyphics, id. 3, 222; “but lingua,skilled in incantations, Ov. M. 7, 330; Luc. 3, 224: “cantus,Juv. 6, 610: “magicae resonant ubi Memnone chordae,mysterious, id. 15, 5.

măgĭcē , ēs, f., = magikē (sc. tekhnē),
I. the magic art, magic, sorcery (post-Aug.): pariter utrasque artes effloruisse, medicinam dico magicenque, Plin. 30, 1, 2, § 10; 30, 1, 2, § 7: “magices factio,id. 30, 1, 2, § 11.

And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee:
and he saith, I am not learned. Isa 29:12

Wherefore the Lord said,
        Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth,
        and with their lips do honour me,
        but have removed their heart far from me,
        and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men: Isa 29:13

   Therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people, 
        even a marvellous work and a wonder:
        for the WISDOM of their wise men shall perish,
        and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid. Isa 29:14
I. Sapientia Mart. 9, 6, 7: “sapisset,Plaut. Rud. 4, 1, 8), 3, v. n. and a. [kindr. with opos, saphēs, Sophia
and sophosA. skilled in any handicraft or art, clever
Sophia  A. cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, as in carpentry, tektonos, hos rha te pasēs eu eidē s. Il.15.412; of the Telchines, Pi.O.7.53; entekhnos s., of Hephaestus and Athena, Pl.Prt.32 1d; of Daedalus and Palamedes, X.Mem.4.2.33, cf. 1.4.2; in music and singing, tekhnē kai s. h.Merc.483, cf. 511; in poetry, Sol.13.52, Pi.O.1.117, Ar.Ra.882, X.An.1.2.8,

Sophos   A. skilled in any handicraft or art, clever, mostly of poets and musicians,
, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. E.IT1238 (lyr.), cf. Ar.Ra.896 (lyr.),

Sophis-tês , ou, ho, master of one's craft, adept, expert, of diviners, Hdt.2.49; of poets,
meletan sophistais prosbalon
Pi.I.5(4).28 , cf. Cratin.2; of musicians, sophistês . .
chelun A.Fr.314 , cf. Eup.447, Pl.Com. 140; sophistêi Thrêiki
Cergy Musicians.  panu thaumaston legeis s. Pl.R.596d;
later of the rhētores, Professors of Rhetoric, and prose writers
Robert Ballard:  Men truly have a zeal for God, but it may not be according to knowledge (Rom 10:2).

Those who have imposed instruments--machines for doing hard work--do so because they think that they can make themselves more appealing to God.  However, that implies that God has not been wise enough to define Himself inclusively and exclusively.

Romans 10:1 BRETHREN, my hearts desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.

Romans 10:2 For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God,
........... but not according to knowledge.

Romans 10:3 For they, being ignorant of Gods righteousness,
........... and going about to establish their own righteousness,
............have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.

3. agnoountes gar tēn tou theou dikaiosunēn, kai tēn idian zētountes stēsai, dikaiosunē tou theou oukh hupetagēsa

The claim is that people who have NEVER used instruments in the School of Christ are ignornat. No one works harder to defend themselves than instrumentalists which have no hint from Jesus that He needs help.

zēt-eō 4 search or inquire into, investigate, examine, of philosophical investigation,
equire, demand, 2. c. inf., seek to do . III. have to seek, feel the want of,

Submitting is the Greek Hupotasso (g5293) hoop-ot-as'-so; fRomans 5259 and 5021; to subordinate; reflex. to OBEY: - be UNDER obedience (obedient), put under, subdue unto, (be, make) subject (to, unto), be (put) in subjection (to, under), submit self unto.

Romans 10:4 For Christ is
........... the end of the law for righteousness
........... to every one that believeth.

What about people who spend so much time seeking to justify themselves from all of the instrumental sounds under a sacrificial system God did not command?

Romans 10:5 For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law,
        That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.

Next, Paul points to the musical idolatry at Mount Sinai:  there was no redemption for this idolatry.

Romans 10:6 But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise,
........... Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven?
........... (that is, to bring Christ down Romans above:)

Romans 10:7 Or, Who shall descend into the deep?
........... (that is, to bring up Christ again fRomans the dead.)

Romans 10:8 But what saith it?
........... The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart:
........... that is, the word of faith, which we preach;

But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart,
........... that thou
mayest do it. Deut 30:14

P. 90 Robert Ballard: God Himself pointed out, in Isaiah 55:8 that "My thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways My ways." Christians are NOT to withdraw themselves out of the world, nor disassociate themselves from its rightful activities, ad did those who followed the monastic-asthetic principle, which led them eventially and inevitably to exclude instruments as being "worldy."

All of the musical forms came out of the monastic orders working with the professional composers. They were not INCLUDED in connection with congregational singing in the Bible or church history in the public assemblies.

The clear command is that YOU don't use your thoughts or YOUR words.
Isaiah 58:12 And they that shall be of thee shall build the old waste places:
         thou shalt raise up the foundations of many generations;
        and thou shalt be called, The repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to dwell in. 
Isaiah 58:13 If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath,
        from doing thy pleasure on my holy day;
        and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the LORD, honourable;
        and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways,
        nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words:
Isaiah 58:14 Then shalt thou delight thyself in the LORD;
        and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth,
        and feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father:
        for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.
HO, every one that thirsteth,
        come ye to the waters,
        and he that hath no money;
        come ye, buy, and eat; yea,
        come, buy wine and milk WITHOUT MONEY
        and WITHOUT PRICE. Isa 55:1
2 Cor. 2:17 For we are not as many,
............ which corrupt the word of God:
............ but as of sincerity, but as of God,
............ in the sight of God speak we in Christ.
kapēl-euō,  A. to be a retail-dealer, drive a petty trade Hdt. 3.89  ta mathēmata sell learning by retail, hawk it about, Pl. Prt.313d , 2 Cor. 2:17, of prostitutes,
Plat. Prot. 313d  For among the provisions, you know, in which these men deal, not only are they themselves ignorant what is good or bad for the body, since in selling they commend them all, but the people who buy from them are so too, unless one happens to be a trainer or a doctor. And in the same way, those who take their doctrines the round of our cities, hawking them about to any odd purchaser who desires them, commend everything that they sell, and there may well be some of these too, my good sir, who are ignorant which of their wares is

good or bad for the soul; and in just the same case are the people who buy from them, unless one happens to have a doctor's knowledge here also, but of the soul. So then, if you are well informed as to what is good or bad among these wares, it will be safe for you to buy doctrines from Protagoras or from anyone else you please: but if not, take care, my dear fellow, that you do not risk your greatest treasure on a toss of the dice.

Eilikrineia (g1505( i-lik-ree'-ni-ah; from 1506; clearness, i.e. (by impl.) purity (fig.): - sincerity.

2 Co.1:12 For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to youward.

Sophia A. cleverness or skill in handicraft and art,  in music and singing, tekhnē kai s. h.Merc.483, cf. 511; in poetry,

Incline your ear, and come unto me:
        hear, and your soul shall live;
        and I will make an everlasting covenant with you,
        even the sure mercies of David. Isa 55:3
Matt. 11:28 Come unto me,
        all ye that labour
        and are heavy laden,
        and I will give you rest.
Click for the Laded Burden

i A. load, freight, cargo, Od.8.163, 14.296, Hes.Op. 631, Hdt.1.1, S.Tr.537, and later Prose, as PEnteux.2.11 (iii B. C.), Plu.Marc.14, Luc.VH1.34; epoiēsanto me ph., expld. as pepragmateumai, prodedomai, phortos gegenēmai, Call.Fr.4.10P.; ph. erōtos, of Europa on the bull, Batr.78, cf. Nonn.D.4.118.
 Epoiēsanto A. make, produce, first of something material, as manufactures, works of art, expld. as pepragmateumai, prodedomai, phortos gegenēmai,
A. Pragmateuomai work at at thing, labour to bring it about, take in hand, treat laboriously, be engaged in. Work at writing religious poetry for use around the shrine or Hieros the temple of Athena for the hierodoulo
     Hierodoulos  Nethinim 1 Esdras 1:2 especially of the temple courtesans at Corinth and elsewhere
      also male prostitutes.
Str.8.6.20, 6.2.6; Neokoros

B.  Prodidomi pay in advance, play false, be guilty of treachery, surrender

4. after Hom., of Poets, compose, write, p. dithurambon, epea, Hdt.1.23, 4.14; “p.
Represent in verse,or poetry, invent, represent, myths, comedy, tragedy 

Click for the meaning of REST.
Is. 55:8 For my thoughts are not your thoughts,
        neither are your ways my ways, saith the LORD.
Is. 55:9 For as the heavens are higher than the earth,
        so are my ways higher than your ways,
        and my thoughts than your thoughts.

If the musical discorders THINK then it cannot be from God: that is why the clear command is for the elders to teach that which has been taught.

WHY IS THAT, asks Peter as explained by Christ?

2Pet. 2:1 But there were
false prophets also among the people,
        even as there shall be false teachers among you,
        who privily shall bring in damnable heresies,
        even denying the Lord that bought them,
        and bring upon themselves swift destruction.
2Pet. 2:2 And many shall follow their pernicious ways;
        by reason of whom the WAY OF TRUTH shall be evil spoken of.

Aselgeia  demagogon  tōn dēmagōgōn” Arist.Pol.1304b22

II. licentiousness,peri tas sōmatikas epithumiasPlb.36.15.4  Lust toward boys Xen. Const. Lac. 2.13
Xen. Const. Lac. 2.13 The customs instituted by Lycurgus were opposed to all of these. If someone, being himself an honest man, admired a boy's soul and tried to make of him an ideal friend without reproach and to associate with him, he approved, and believed in the excellence of this kind of training. But if it was clear that the attraction lay in the boy's outward beauty, he banned the connexion as an abomination; and thus he caused lovers to abstain from boys no less than parents abstain from sexual intercourse with their children and brothers and sisters with each other [14] I am not surprised, however, that people refuse to believe this. For in many states the laws are not opposed to the indulgence of these appetites.
Lusting after Theaomaigaze at, behold, mostly with a sense of wonder, at a work
3. view as spectators, esp. in the theatre, Isoc.4.44; hoi theōmenoi the spectators, Ar.Ra.2, cf.Nu.518, al. (but also, onlookers, bystanders, Antipho 3.3.7)

Danny Corbitt: The 4-year ascetic experience of John Chrysostom (died 407) permanently damaged his health,20 and he was “twice deposed and sent into exile because of his asceticism which he wanted to impose on others.”21 Jerome (died 420) taught that a virgin shouldn’t even know what a musical instrument is22 and that no man should ever hear a woman sing.23 Augustine (died 430) thought that singing itself was a concession to weak brothers.24
Chysostom Letter to Theodore After His Fall

Where are they now who used to strut through the market place with much pomp, and a crowd of attendants? who were clothed in silk and redolent with perfumes, and kept a table for their parasites, and were in constant attendance at the theatre?

What has now become of all that parade of theirs? It is all gone;-the costly splendour of their banquets, the throng of musicians, the attentions of flatterers, the loud laughter, the relaxation of spirit, the enervation of mind, the voluptuous, abandoned, extravagant manner of life-it has all come to an end.
The musical discorders shoud be happy that these "libertarians" now do that in what they call "the worship service."


Nicetas in his works ' On Vigils' and ' On the good of Psalmody' illustrates further the similarity of ideals of private and corporate devotional hours in East and West c. A.d. 400 ; 
        and he was one of the pioneers of the newer feeling which allowed hymns
        other than those in Scripture
the Psalter above all,
        to form part of corporate Christian worship, though the prejudice against this died hard.'

"The authority of St. Ambrose, who himself wrote hymns for public worship, had no doubt great influence. The musical difficulty to their more general use was a real one. It was in monastic circles, then, that hymns proper took real root, and from their daily offices passed in the later Middle Ages into the Breviary of the ordinary clergy. The early Celtic monks in particular were active in the use and production of hymns; and from the 12th cent, onwards we can trace the periods of fresh revival in monastic religion by this spontaneous form of devotional expression—James Hastings, Encyclopedia of religion and Ethics, V12, 770-774

"Rome was always conservative in usages, as appears most clearly in its manner of reciting the Psalms, which were the staple of worship other than prayer. The Eastern form was antiphonal singing between two choirs, a method which took definite shape at Antioch about 350, and spread westwards rapidly — through Cappadocia, Constantinople, Milan. In Rome, as also in Africa, the old 'plain song'—with its simpler style of music—continued longer to prevail, probably seeming to the Roman mind, as to Augustine, to be 'better adapted to the sober gravity of Divine worship.' Net the practical advantages of the new system, especially as 'winning weaker brethren to devotion by the delight which it ministered to the ear,' were manifest; and ere Augustine's death in 430 the change in Rome had begun to act, though it took etfect only gradually

Following their ascetic map, it is no wonder that the Swiss reformer Zwingli banished even vocal singing from the churches.25 We speak of how these ascetics chanted, but we don’t chant.

That's false: there was no congregational singing during the time of Zwingli: being Bible literate he knew that none of the TEACHING the Word of Christ had any external musical content. After Zwingli was dead Calvin allowed some of the Psalms to be rewritten to make singing remotely possible. That violated the direct command not to "private interpret" of further expound. He responded to the masses used to attending secular performances in the great cathedrals. In fact both singing and harmony were developed by the monastic orders who had time to fiddle around.
300. Even in Egypt, where asceticism appeared earliest, as late as the end of the 4th cent, there were only two corporate daily seasons of worship, evening and morning. At Antioch we hear that c. 350 Bishop Leontins 'brought the congregations collected by the ascetics Flavian and Diodorus in the cemetery chapels, into the city churches,' and so introduced antiphonal singing, by two opposite choirs, into wider use. James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics p 770

2 The hymn-singing of the 'Lollards' was personal rather than in public worship, but illustrates the tendency of fresh personal religion to break into song.

Further, largely in consequence of this Biblicism, the reformation he directed was more radical. What Zwingli specially detested in the later growths which had buried this early Christianity was anything that could be called ' the worship of the creature.' Worship belonged to God alone, ' the God and Father ot our Lord and Saviour Jeans Christ.' He did not undervalue art or music in themselves—far from it—but, when they were so employed as to hinder an intelligent Creator, then to him they were anathema.  876.

In fact, no one did congregational singing with or without an instrument: if none of the Bible is metrical, and Calvin permitted some psalms (only) to be radically rewritten and set to meter to be sung in unison (only).  Zwingli knew that yu cannot obey the DIRECT COMMAND  to use one mind and one mouth to speak that which is written for our learning. All eastern "songs" were spoken or cantillated: chanted something like this:
^^^- ^^^- ^^^- ^^^
"Reformed' or Calvinitt worship,—The germ of this type is seen already in Zwingli  who made the Protestant emphasis on the Word of the gospel rather than its Sacraments determine the order and forms of public worship: such worship, too, was to him only a special mode of the worship of the whole Christian life, and here 'obedience is better than sacrifice' or any formal act of worship. Simplicity, then, in cnltns was hia practical role, in the interests of worship ' in spirit and in truth.'
Don't you wonder why all of the latter day musical idolaters pour down so much wrath on Zwingli who said it just like the Church in the Wilderness, all of the New Testament and the Campbells who knew that:

is A School of Christ
is reading and musing the Word of God.

However, the Catholic cathedrals which had been used for secular musical performances had a lot of church members wanting to sing instead of speak:
"In keeping with these principles, Calvin insisted on the value of congregational singing, as helping the soul to rise into the atmosphere of worship; but. he limited the contents of sacred song to the inspired Scriptural models, the Psalter in particular, adapted only verbally to musical melody
Catholicism built on the Jewish model restricted the singing or chanting to a clergy person: none of the Catholic orders permitted the congregaton to sing: indeed, you couldn't sing the commanded Biblical text nor accompany chanting with an instruments.

Notice, that you cannot begin something if people always sang to attract the weaker people by the lust of the ear:

"Another feature characteristic of the Protestant form of worship, one expressive of its concern for the active participation of the whole congregation, with a faith fully conscious of its proper objects of adoration, is vernacular singing, whether of psalms or of other forms of devotion.
        Here a mode of worship which in mediaeval Catholicism had been confined to the few,
        particularly those separated by vows to a specialized ' religious' life,
        was made part of common worship for all
James Hastings, Encyclopedia of Religion and ethics.       
The early church was called into assembly only to study the Bible.  However, the monastic system developed into a pool of people--parasites in the eyes of Erasmus--who spent every day in work or "worship." The singing and playing was made a part of the assembly of the working people began proving that it was not historical.

So, no one ever appealed to Scripture for singing as an act nor for the use of instruments. As with all ceremonial legalism,
"A special note of medieval worship, inherited from this later patristic a'ge, was the sense of sins calling for the constant 'propitiation' of God."

P. 96 Robert Ballard:
On Chrysostom

John Chrysostom Momily XII Colossians
I dare say you consider me offensive. For this too is a property of extreme
pervertedness, that even one that rebuketh you incurs your ridicule as one that is austere. Hear ye not Paul, saying, "Whatsoever ye do, whether ye eat or drink or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God"? (1 Cor. x. 31)

These writers do not speak about the church with the intention of REMOVING instruments: they always speak about how to conduct yourself in secular affairs.

"When then thou makest a marriage, go not round from house to house borrowing mirrors and dresses; for the matter is not one of display, nor dost thou lead thy daughter to a pageant; but decking out thine house with what is in it, invite thy neighbors, and friends, and kindred. As many as thou knowest to be of a good character, those invite, and bid them be content with what there is.

Let no one from the orchestra be present, for such expense is superfluous, and unbecoming.

See Clement Pedagogue 3

But ye do all to ill report and dishonor. Hear ye not the Prophet, saying, "Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice unto Him with trembling?" (Ps. ii. 11) But ye are wholly without restraint. Is it not possible both to enjoy pleasure, and to do so with safety?

Art thou desirous of hearing beautiful songs? Best of all indeed, thou oughtest not; nevertheless,

I condescend if thou wilt have it so: do not hear those Satanic ones, but the spiritual.

Art thou desirous of seeing choirs of dancers? Behold the choir of Angels. And how is it possible, saith one, to see them?

"If thou drive away all these things, even Christ will come to such a marriage, and Christ being present, the choir of Angels is present also. If thou wilt, He will even now work miracles as He did then; He will make even now the water, wine (John ii.); and what is much more wonderful, He will convert this unstable and dissolving pleasure, this cold desire, and change it into the spiritual. This is to make of water, wine.

Where pipers are, by no means there is Christ; but even if He should have entered,
He first casts these forth, and then He works His wonders.
What can be more disagreeable than this Satanic pomp?
        where everything is inarticulate, everything without significancy;
        and if there be anything
articulate, again all is shameful, all is noisome.
Reverent, god fearing people call it REVERENCE for that short period:
Hebrews 12:18 For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched,
        and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest,
Hebrews 12:19 And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words;
        which voice they that heard intreated that
``the word should not be spoken to them any more:
Hebrews 12:20 (For they could not endure that which was commanded,
        And if so much as a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned,
        or thrust through with a dart:
Hebrews 12:21 And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake:)
Hebrews 12:22 But ye are come unto mount Sion,
        and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem,
        and to an innumerable company of angels,
Hebrews 12:23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn,
        which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all,
        and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
Hebrews 12:24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant,
        and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
Hebrews 12:25 See that ye refuse not him that speaketh.
        For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth,
        much more shall not we escape,
        if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven:
Hebrews 12:26 Whose voice then shook the earth:
        but now he hath promised, saying,
        Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also heaven.
Hebrews 12:27 And this word, Yet once more,
         signifieth the removing of those things that are shaken,
         as of things that are made,
         that those things which cannot be shaken may remain.
If YOU make it, God will burn it: He cannot use and will not tolerate the offer of help.
Poieō, make, produce, first of something material, as manufactures, works of art, etc. (opp. prattein, Pl.Chrm.163b), also tōn ta kerea . . hoi pēkhees poieuntai the horns of which are made into the sides of the lyre, Hdt.4.192;
after Hom., of Poets, compose, write, p. dithurambon, epea, Hdt.1.23, 4.14; “p. theogoniēn HellēsiId.2.53; p. Phaidran, Saturous, Ar.Th.153, 157; p. kōmōdian, tragōdian, etc., Pl.Smp.223d; “palinōdianIsoc.10.64, Pl.Phdr.243b, etc.; “poiēmataId.Phd.60d: abs., write poetry, write as a poet,orthōs p.Hdt.3.38; “en toisi epesi p.Id.4.16, cf. Pl.Ion534b: folld. by a quotation, “epoēsas pote . .Ar.Th.193; “eis tinaPl.Phd.61b; “peri theōnId.R.383a, etc.
describe in verse,theon en epesinPl.R.379a; epoiēsa muthous tous Aisōpou put them into verse, Id.Phd. 61b; “muthonLycurg.100.
2. Procure  for oneself, gain,
3. of sacrifices, festivals, etc., celebrate,

Hebrews 12:28 Wherefore we receiving a
kingdom which cannot be moved,
        let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably
        with reverence and godly fear:
Hebrews 12:29
For our God is a consuming fire.
latr-euō , Elean latreiō (q.v.), to be in servitude, serve, enslaved.
There was no redemption for Israel when they rose up against God in musical idolatry well documented in all of the surrounding nations. God abandoned them to worship the STARRY HOST and sentenced them back to Babylon.

The end-time Babylon mother of whores is spiritual Babylon: she uses lusted after fruits (same as in Amos) as rhetoricians, singers and instrument players: John called the sorcerers and said that they would be cast alive into the lake of fire.  When you accuse godly people of musical discord they introduced, can there be any redemption:

Psalms 36:1 The transgression of the wicked saith within my heart,
        that there is no fear of God before his eyes.
Psalms 36:2 For he flattereth himself in his own eyes,
        until his iniquity be found to be hateful.
Psalms 36:3 The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit:
        he hath left off to be wise, and to do good.
Psalms 36:4 He deviseth mischief upon his bed;
        he setteth himself in a way that is not good; he abhorreth not evil.
Psalms 36:5 Thy mercy, O LORD, is in the heavens;
        and thy faithfulness reacheth unto the clouds.
Psalms 36:6 Thy righteousness is like the great mountains;
        thy judgments are a great deep:
        O LORD, thou preservest man and beast.
Psalms 36:7 How excellent is thy lovingkindness,
        O God! therefore the children of men put their trust under the shadow of thy wings.
Psalms 36:8 They shall be abundantly satisfied with the fatness of thy house;
        and thou shalt make them drink of the river of thy pleasures.
Psalms 36:9 For with thee is the fountain of life:
        in thy light shall we see light.
Psalms 36:10 O continue thy lovingkindness unto them that know thee;
        and thy righteousness to the upright in heart.
Psalms 36:11 Let not the foot of pride come against me,
        and let not the hand of the wicked remove me.
Psalms 36:12 There are the workers of iniquity fallen:
        they are cast down, and shall not be able to rise.
Con-turbo , āvi, ātum, 1, I. v. a., to throw into disorder or confusion, to confuse, derange, disorder, confound  B. Trop., to disturb, disquiet in mind or feeling: “valetudo tua me valde conturbat,Cic. Att. 7, 2, 2: plāga , . to exchange in confused multitudes,
Plāga , B. In partic., a blow which wounds or injures; a stroke, cut, thrust; a wound (class.).
Psalms 36:12 There are the workers of iniquity fallen:
        they are cast down, and shall not be able to rise.
It is not possible to be a Christian if you do not know the difference betwee a disciple and a ceremonial legalist.
It is not possible to be a Christian if you cannot undertand the standing orders for making disciples.
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
        All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations,
        baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:
        and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen
Christ repudiated instruments in the prophets as the MARK of people refusing to teach His word and delibertely starving people who thirst for the free water of the Word.  He cast out the musical minstrels 'like dung' and consigned the pipers (perverted Dionysus agents) who wanted Him to sing and dance at their initiation to the marketplace with all other commerce.

It is not possible to be a Church of Christ if you do not grasp that church is ekklesia or synagogue. Paul spoke of coming together, assemblying and gathering using "synagogue" words. There was no praise service in the
synagogue by direct command.  There is no record of music in the historic synagogue Jesus affirmed.  There is no praise service based on minimal reverence and Godly fear when Christ somes with His songs and sermons when the elders "teach that which has been taught" and refutes those who oppose it. 

On page 75 Winder is quoted trying to prove that instruments were used and approved very early in the church. He thinks that the Jews sang congregationally with instrumental accompaniment INSIDE the temple.  I fact the Levites were under the King and Commanders of the army: they stood in ranks to execute even a Levite who came near any holy thing or INTO any holy place. All of the sacriricial noise was mad in the outer court where they slaughtered tens of thousands of God's creatures believing that He could be appeased.


Hymnody developed systematically, however, only after the emperor Constantine legalized Christianity (AD 313); and it flourished earliest in Syria, where the practice was possibly taken over from the singing by Gnostics and Manichaeans of hymns imitating the psalms. The Byzantine Church adopted the practice; in its liturgy, hymns maintain a much more prominent place than in the Latin liturgy; and Byzantine hymnody developed complex types such as the kanon and kontakion (qq.v.; see also Byzantine chant). Saint Ephraem--a 4th-century Mesopotamian deacon, poet, and hymnist--has been called the "father of Christian hymnody." Britannica Online

In the West, St. Hilary of Poitiers composed a book of hymn texts in about 360. Not much later St. Ambrose of Milan instituted the congregational singing of psalms and hymns,
        partly as a counter to the hymns of the Arians,
        who were in doctrinal conflict with orthodox Christianity.
        In poetic form (iambic octosyllables in four-line stanzas),
        these early hymns--apparently sung to simple, possibly folk melodies--
        derive from Christian Latin poetry of the period. [not metrical]

LATER----long after the organ gave rise to polyphony
By the late Middle Ages trained choirs had supplanted the congregation in the singing of hymns. Although new, often more ornate melodies were composed and many earlier melodies were elaborated, one syllable of text per note was usual.

Some polyphonic hymn settings were used, usually in alternation with plainchants,
and were particularly important in organ music.
Does not say that Ambrose used the organ.

Congregational singing in the liturgy was re-established only during the Reformation, by the Lutheran Church in Germany.

The early chorale (q.v.), or German hymn melody,
was unharmonized and sung unaccompanied,
        although harmonized versions,
        used by varying combinations of choir, organ, and congregation,
        appeared later. 

Melody as tuneful did not exist until the Psalms (only) could be REwritten and set to meter for UNISION singing only.

Swiss, and later, French, English, and Scottish Calvinism promoted the singing of metrical translations of the psalter (see psalmody), austerely set for unaccompanied unison singing. English and Scottish Protestantism admitted only the singing of psalms. English metrical psalms were set to tunes adapted from the French and Genevan psalters. These were fairly complex melodies written on French metres. The English psalter used only a few metres, and the custom of singing each psalm to its “proper” tune was soon replaced by the use of a few common tunes. The common metre 8, 6, 8, 6 (the numbers give the number of syllables in each line), a form of English ballad metre, remains the archetypal English hymn metre.

ALL singing carries the idea of enchantment or soothsaying (the Levites) or sorcery (Rev 18) because it uses external means to alter the mind.

Arius, like Bardesan and Ephraem, used the genre of the theological song, music as propaganda. Besides the Thalia, Arius is said to have written and set to music songs for sailors, millers and travellers.73 Valentinus too had written psalms to spread his opinions.7

Augustine provides a vivid example of the way music was used to promote a theological cause in the acrostic song he wrote detailing the mistakes and wrongs of the Donatists.

As with many other Christian developments, it seems that heretics catalysed the emergence of the Christian hymn in the fourth-century.

That there really were significant new developments at this time is most easily seen later in the century, in the West. Augustine, among others, tells us about Ambrose's introduction of new musical practices from the East.

The Arian Justina, Valentinian's mother, was persecuting the orthodox congregation of Milan;

'The decision was taken to introduce hymns and psalms sung after the custom of the eastern Churches, to prevent the people from succumbing to depression and exhaustion.

From that time to this day the practice has been retained and many, indeed almost all your flocks, in other parts of the world have imitated it. It is clear that the new practices, introduced at Milan during a time of difficulty, were intended to appeal to the congregation, and that they were successful in doing so:

people sang 'with both heart and voice in a state of high enthusiasm' these characteristics had previously recommended similar practices to fringe groups: from an orthodox viewpoint, heretics, schismatics, and gnostics.(Kenneth Latourette, A History of Christianity, p. 760).


However, even earlier:

"In Gnostic circles religious poetry arose to compete with the Old Testament Psalms. Some Catholics therefore distrusted the composition of hymns after this pattern, on the ground that they might smack of heresy. Yet from at least the second century hymns were written by the orthodox which, like their Gnostic counterparts, employed the forms of Greek poetry...

Until near the end of the fourth century, in the services of the Catholic Church
only the Old Testament Psalms and
hymns or canticles from the New Testament were sung:

the other hymns were for personal family, or private use.
there were prepared versical paraphrases of the Psalms, hymns
with lines of equal length, and hymns which were acrostic." (Latourette, Christianity. p. 207).</i>
Still no melody (a series of single notes) and no harmony: the Greek Sumphonia (music) means sounding together: the unison speaking of that which is written for our learning in Romans 15
From Ephraim the Syrian and Aphrahat the Persian Sage

To Ephraim pertains the high and unique distinction of having originated-or at least given its living impulse to-
a new departure
in sacred literature; and that, not for his own country merely, but for Christendom.

From him came, if not the first idea, at all events the first successful example,
of making song an essential constituent of public worship,
and an exponent of theological teaching;
and from him it spread and prevailed through
the Eastern Churches
, and affected even those of the West.

To the Hymns, on which chiefly his fame rests, the Syriac ritual in all its forms owes much of its strength and richness;
and to them is largely due the place which Hymnody holds throughout the Church everywhere.

And hence it has come to pass that, in the Church everywhere, he stands as the representative Syrian Father, as the fixed epithet appended to his name attests-" Ephraim the Syrian,"-the one Syrian known and reverenced in all Christendom.

From a few lines of Proba's work can be seen the problems with this approach: little of what was created could justifiably be placed alongside the great works of the past, and since that was an implicit target the failure to meet it was embarrassing;

more pressingly, such Christianisations did not appeal to the highly educated, who preferred to read the imitated originals,

and did not appeal to Christians who would not otherwise have read the originals, who needed something written to their own culture and not to that of a past elite.

This kind of imitation had its brief flourishing at the time of the emperor Julian, who forbade Christians to teach pagan works, but had no lasting effect

People trying to impose instruments WILL NOT quote original sources including the context of the Bible.

Home Page
Musical Worship Index


<img src="/cgi-bin/Count.cgi?df=piney/counter_Robert.Ballard.Are.Instrumental.Performers.Parasites.html.dat">