The Restoration Movement Fulfilled In Jesus Christ 

by Edward Fudge
January - February, 2010

Posted in New Wineskins

"This tract was first printed in 1981. A few years later, several friends of the author contributed money for expenses and copies were mailed to 13,000 Churches of Christ in America, with another 3,000 copies sent to churches that requested bundles."

The Fire that Consumes.

I am happy to show that not a word of it is true.  If the church fell into apostasy--and no one can deny it--the restoration means to practice "church" the way it is defined beginning in the wilderness and by the historic Church of Christ before the apostasy.  In fact, two of the apostacies involved music and performance preaching after the time of Constantine..  

See Alexander Campbell and the Second Coming in Christ

Discovering our Roots: The Ancestry of the Churches of Christ
Richard T. Hughes and C. Leonard Allen.  

Kingdom Come, Embracing the Spiritual Legacy of David Lipscomb and James Harding,

Alexander Campbell: The Coming Of The Kingdom.  The Kingdom was established when Christ said it was: no millennial can have the soming of the kingdom without denying Christ.

1 / How It Started
Edward Fudge: Go with me to the early 19th century, to a devout Presbyterian minister and his godly, scholarly son, lately come separately to America. Disenchanted with the sectarianism which choked their church, they determined by God's grace to do better.

As a matter of truth, Thomas Campbell had the Declaration and Address when he got off the Ship. He had benefited from Calvin's Necessity of Revorming the Church Presented to the Dietat Spires, AD 1544.
Number Two
Number Three
Number Four
John Calvin: For where can I exert myself to better purpose or more honestly, where, too, in a matter at this time more necessary, than in attempting, according to my ability, to aid the Church of Christ, whose claims it is unlawful in any instance to deny, and which is now in grievous distress, and in extreme danger? 

But there is no occasion for a long preface concerning myself. Receive what I say as you would do if it were pronounced by the united voice
of all those who either have already taken care to restore the Church,
or are desirous that it
should be restored to true order.
I come now to ceremonies, which, while they ought to be grave attestations of divine worship, are rather a mere mockery of God. A new Judaism, as a substitute for that which God had distinctly abrogated, has again been reared up by means of numerous puerile extravagancies, collected from different quarters; and with these have been mixed up certain impious rites, partly borrowed from the heathen, and more adapted to some theatrical show than to the dignity of our religion.
No one tried to restore any first century church: the point was to REMOVE everything not necessary to conduct what the campbells called Church as "a school of Christ."  Worship was "reading and musing the Word of God." That was defined for the church in the wilderness.

Groups known as The Church of Christ existed long before especially in England. Now notice mocking of very bright and honorable men in many groups:

Edward Fudge mockingly and disparagingly:
        This country became their Promised Land -
        a territory ruled by sectarian giants 

        who lived in churches with great walls,
        but ripe nonetheless for the vengeance of the Lord,
        and ready to yield their spoils to the simple People of God.

The fact is, this country gave people the right to teach the Word of God as it had been taught. This was contrary to most denominational preaching which inculcated the rituals and beliefs of their particular Sect.  Edward would mock everyone by the many who failed and tried.

A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things.
No. I.

      Extract from the Minutes of the Baptist Missionary Association of Kentucky, began and held at the Town-Fork Meeting House, in Fayette county, on Saturday, the 11th September, 1824.

      "THE next meeting of this association will be in the first Baptist meeting house in Lexington, [126] on the 30th of July next, which will be on the fifth Saturday of that month, at eleven o'clock, A  M.

      "It is proposed also to have a meeting of all the Baptist preachers who can attend, on Friday, the day preceding the meeting of the association, at eleven o'clock, A. M. at the same place, for the purpose of a general conference on the state of religion, and on the subject of reform. All the ministers of the gospel in the Baptist denomination favorable to these objects, are invited to attend, and, in the spirit of Christian love, by mutual counsel, influence, and exertion, according to the gospel, to aid in advancing the cause of piety in our state.

      "It is obvious to the most superficial observer, who is at all acquainted with the state of Christianity and of the church of the New Testament, that much, very much is wanting, to bring the Christianity and the church of the present day up to that standard--In what this deficiency consists, and how it is to be remedied, or whether it can be remedied at all, are the points to be discovered and determined.In the deliberations intended,
Does that sound wicked?

Most often when people attack the Restoration Movement they are really attacking what they call the
ANTI-instrumental groups just because NOT using instruments needed no restoration in groups called The Church of Christ for 2,000 years.  Therefore, the attack is mocking that is not under the control of the mocker:
Jude 17 But, beloved, remember ye the words 
Jude 18 How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time,

        who should walk after their own ungodly lusts.
Jude 19 These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit.

Jude and others liberally quote the Book of Enoch which defines the FOR WHOM God will come in judgment are those Satan seduced using mixed-sex choirs, instrumental music and sexy apparel. This was used to seduce the faithful away from the Living Word and nothing has changed.

Enoch 7: 10 Then they took wives, each choosing for himself; whom they began to approach, and with whom they cohabited; teaching them sorcery, incantations, and the dividing of roots and trees. 

Epaeidô, contr. Att. epaidô , fut. A. -aisomai Ar.Ec.1153 , etc.; -aisô Ach.Tat.2.7 :--sing to or in accompaniment, Magos  2.sing as an incantation,  charms or incantations, Pl.Tht.157c; epaeidôn by means of charms,

Euripides, Electra. Set your step to the dance, my dear, [860]  like a fawn leaping high up to heaven with joy. Your brother is victorious and has accomplished the wearing of a crown . . . beside the streams of Alpheus. Come sing [865]  a glorious victory ode, to my dance.

Magos 3.enchanter, wizard, esp. in bad sense, impostor, charlatan, Heraclit.14, S.OT387, E.Or.1498 (lyr.), Pl.R.572e, Act.Ap.13.6, Vett. Val.74.17

Kali nikon καλλί-νι_κος Gloriously triumphant over one's enemies epithet of Helios, the glory of victory, An air for the flute, Helios, the sun-god. 2. Hêliou astêr, of the planet Saturn,
The actual name, "Lucifer," goes back to the Greeks, before the Romans. Socrates and Plato talk about this "god of light"; surprisingly, not in the context of Eos (god of Dawn), but -- as a morning star -- juxtaposed with the sun (Helios) and Hermes. This information can be found in Plato's Timaeus (38e) and in Edith Hamilton's Mythology." (Hebrew helel; Septuagint heosphoros, Vulgate lucifer)
Incantations and cutting of roots points to the sorcery word in Revelation 18: Circe the mother of harlots used magical songs along with drugs (induced by music) to seduce people and then turn them into swine.
Edward Fudge: Soon the trumpets sounded,
        the foes were thrown into confusion and turmoil,
        and the breezes hummed with the arrows of the invaders.
        Any adversary who waved his ordination papers or theological diplomas
        soon found that Alexander Campbell favored them as targets for his sharpest darts.

Thomas Campbell was shot because he served open communion to those not of his sect. Alexander was defacto disfellowshipped from the Baptists because of his teaching from the Bible.  I think it would be honorable to list some proof texts.  The enthroned clergy of the Scribes and Pharisees got a sharp prick from Jesus when He identified them as hypocrites (Scribes or writers and Pharisees songs/prayers for pay) by naming rhetoricians, singers and instrument players.  Campbell confronted little of the choir or musical worship team singers and none of instrumental music. Therfore, because the SECTS were virtually pure from such music, the point is meaningless since the ANTI-restorations have a instrumental music fetish.

Edward Fudge: The Virginia (now West Virginia) planter-scholar was sufficiently endowed financially to spend much time doing the things he enjoyed most. From his analytical mind and immense vocabulary flowed an impressive volume of teaching. Campbell published two papers, The Christian Baptist and The Millennial Harbinger. His public debates were impressive and always well-attended. He was in constant demand as a speaker throughout the bustling and ever-expanding land.

The Campbells and their comrades-in-arms made their own contribution to American Christianity (and to posterity worldwide). But they were by no means alone. More than a dozen such "restoration movements" began during these same years in America. Churches springing from this native stock dot the land today. And although each considers itself unique, if the worshippers ever bother to investigate one another they usually discover a number of their "distinctive" beliefs and practices to be held in common.

The First Great American Awakening which fed off witchcraft and Whitefield's theatrical preaching led to 4 new Quaker sects and 321 new congregational sects most of which were Baptists. They still count 146 named Baptist denominations.  Therefore, secting out is not uncommon. The Second Awakening which would have been seen as witchcraft in earlier days, led to many of the people being scooped up by the Baptist and Methodists who united to steal sheep: something like the NACC unity  movements.

God had indeed prepared the soil for the movement these men led, just as he prepares hearts and times throughout history. A spirit of expectancy prevailed throughout the land. Health-movements sprang up, back-to-nature advocates flourished. There were social utopian dreamers and planners of communes. 

Edward Fudge:
Campbell named his major journal The Millennial Harbinger, and he published it for nearly 40 years. The same expectant atmosphere breathed life into America's own "prophetic" movements, three of which grew up to become the Seventh-day Adventists, the Jehovah's Witnesses, and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons).

The Millerites were Baptists and were the target of Alexander's repudiating of all millenniel views.  Nor, is it ethical to compare the Church of Christ which always existed under that name with either of these sects.  The Mormons built on the charismatic witchery and not on the restoration principle.

Spiritual revival swept the land, wielding an influence so great it is remembered as the Second Great Awakening. When historians write of that revival, they nearly always speak of Cane Ridge, Kentucky. There the magnetism of fervent preaching drew people from many walks of life. With conviction of sin came strange physical demonstrations. Men and women jumped and jerked, "barked," shouted, and fell to the ground.

Those called the REFORMERS did not participate at Cane Ridge.  Alexander Campbell repudiated it.

The primary preacher at Cane Ridge was a young Presbyterian minister named Barton Warren Stone. Charged with evangelistic fervor, Stone denounced denominational divisions and called for a return to primitive Christianity. He taught his converts to call themselves simply "Christians." 

Armed with an outstanding intellect, Alexander Campbell was pursuing similar goals, identifying his people as "disciples of Christ." Later the two groups joined forces, fusing Stone's passion for religious revival with Campbell's for rational reform.

Alexander Campbell ridicules the notion that the "two groups joined forces" in 1831 because a few men shook hands.  This represented ONLY those who met, was rejected by most churches of Christ and delivered a thesis for just "working" or "meeting" together. The Disciples violated these "understandings" before the ink was dry. H. Leo boles record his grandfather's summary. These principles continued to guide those who became the Church of Christ and were rejected by the Disciples.
John Smith: "I have the more cheerfully resolved on this course, because the gospel is a system of facts, commands, and promises, and no deduction or inference from them, however logical or true, forms any part of the gospel of Jesus Christ. No heaven is promised to those who hold them, and no hell is threatened to those who deny them. They do not constitute, singly or together, an item of the ancient and apostolic gospel. While there is but one faith, there may be ten thousand opinions; and, hence, if Christians are ever to be one, they must be one in faith, and not in opinion. When certain subjects arise, even in conversation or social discussion, about which there is a contrariety of opinion and sensitiveness of feeling, speak of them in the words of the Scripture, and no offense will be given and no pride of doctrine will be encouraged. We may even come, in the end, by thus speaking the same things, to think the same things.
At the time Alexander Campbell was converting many of the Baptists in Kentucky.  In 1831 a small group of people gathered to discuss their respective congregations meeting together in the same building. This was based on a set of principles recorded by John Smith which those who became the Christian Church failed to live up to.  Alexander Campbell ridiculed the notion that a few handshakes meant that what became The Church of Christ had "joined" the Christian church. Maybe Stone should not have crowed.  To see that the groups were based on different views of Scripture and were never "joined" Click

J. F. Burnett denying any unity
The so Called Stone Campbell Movement

Edward Fudge: Today three groups of churches stand as descendants of the work of these men. One of these, the Disciples of Christ, is a fully-organized denomination. 

Two others, the independent Christian Churches and the Churches of Christ, have no formal denominational organization and are fundamentally alike except for the use of instrumental music in worship.

There are vast differences between the Christian Churches and the Church of Christ: even the use of instruments is based on a different view of Scripture. The High Church principle permeates many Church of Christ preachers who have been duped.  For instance, Edward Fudge wants us to build on and credit the historical movements.

While speaking for the Disiples, the following tests have been used by those Fudge has helped entice into the use of instruments.

Richard L. Hamm: The first is Scripture, which for Christians means, of course, the Holy Bible (which is to say the whole Bible: the Hebrew and Christian testaments).

The second is reason and the third is experience. We Disciples are quite appreciative of these sources. Our movement was born within the philosophical context of

John Locke who said that truth can be known through reason tempered with experience.
In this secular age in which we live, I'm afraid that many of us have increasingly depended on these two sources alone, but reason and experience are two valuable sources for understanding God.

No, John Locke never said that. What he said was that Christianity was reasonable once it was revealed but the best of human reasoning could never discover or aid the discover of truth.

In The Reasonableness of Christianity, John Locke put the focus on revealed truth and not on any other thing. Anything which we can EXPERIENCE or our HUMAN REASON are the products of a fallible human which is USUALLY WRONG. If human reason suggests something like the trinity or pagan music as worship do we trust the Bible or do we trust our own feelings.

The fourth is tradition. The Church has learned some things in the past two thousand years (that's right, the Church learned some things even before Alexander Campbell!). By looking to the Church's tradition (its history, its declarations, its collective wisdom) one can learn much about the nature of God and the nature of humankind. As the sage has said, one who does not learn history is doomed to repeat it. Studying the church's tradition is a way for us to learn some things the easy way!

The Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Living God,
uses these four sources
of revelation to teach us who God is and who we are.

2 / An Idealized Story
Edward Fudge: We humans seem to have a natural tendency to glamorize our past, reinterpret our miscalculations, rationalize our mistakes and develop an idealistic "history" in retrospect. The official chronicles of nearly every king of antiquity provide sufficient evidence for such a judgment. Religious movements generally do the same.

There is reason to think the popular account of the Restoration Movement of Campbell and Stone has also enjoyed cosmetic touches here and there. Literature and filmstrips used in outreach efforts often include an integral section on the movement's history. 
It tells a fascinating story of the one, true church - its glorious beginning, its early defection, and its marvelous restoration. The high points of the story are usually something as follows.
There originally was but one, true church. It was established by Jesus Christ in Jerusalem, on the Day of Pentecost about A.D. 33. At the first, the church enjoyed universal harmony and unity, teaching everywhere the same doctrine and maintaining identical practices. Pristine purity prevailed, and the gospel spread worldwide. Before the New Testament Scriptures were completed, however, another trend set in. Over the years the original church changed into something Jesus never envisioned and did not approve.

No one ever taught that: the Epistles are especially devoted to pointing out error in congregations and correcting them. Paul never gave any reason to go beyond being a synagogue which simply meant to teach that which had been taught.

Edward Fudge: This corruption touched almost every aspect of church life and work, the story says, but especially its name, form of worship, organization, government, and terms of admission or "plan of salvation." The Roman Catholic Church was the formal result of apostasy, in this account. Although there might have been some true Christians from the second or third centuries until the nineteenth in this view, their identity is practically unknown today.

The Protestant Reformation made an effort to turn things around, the story goes, but since it only sought to "reform" rather than to "restore," it did not go nearly far enough. It was therefore by and large a failure, its primary result being a multiplicity of denominations, each with its own peculiar set of errors.

Edward Fudge mockingly: In the nineteenth century, however, God was ready to restore his true church. Men such as Thomas and Alexander Campbell, Barton W. Stone, Elias Smith and Abner Jones were used by him in the effort. 
And their work, combined with that of others, "restored" the desired product - the New Testament Church, as pure and sweet as the day it was born!
The listening prospect is awed by the grandeur of this tale - as are those to whom Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses and others go with the identical outline but different details. But such a presentation raises several important if troublesome questions.

How, in light of Jesus' promise in Matthew 16:18-19, could his church have vanished from the face of the earth for most of the Christian era? Of what does the church's purity and unity consist in the New Testament - in every external form, or in its essential gospel and life? If the first, how does one account for the believers being called different "names" from the very first - "disciples" in Jerusalem, but "Christians" at Antioch?

I believe that Jesus and the apostles PROMISED defection. In fact Paul in 2 Thessalonians warns about people who do not love the truth (as written) will be sent strong delusions so that they BELIEVE a lie to be damned. If that happened in one congregation then that one needed restoring.  Lying Wonders is what Fudge and friends want to impose.
Teratourg-eô, A. WORK wonders, pseudôsti Sch.Pi.I.7(6).13.
    Pindar Isthmian 7 Odes: [1] In which of the local glories of the past, divinely blessed Thebe, did you most delight your spirit? Was it when you raised to eminence the one seated beside Demeter of the clashing bronze cymbals, flowing-haired [5] Dionysus? Or when you received, as a snow-shower of gold in the middle of the night, the greatest of the gods[20] then begin the victory [Nike: TRIUMPH OVER] procession with a sweet-singing hymn for Strepsiades; for he is the victor in the pancratium at the Isthmus, both awesome in his strength and handsome to look at; and he treats excellence as no worse a possession than beauty. [23] He is made radiant by the violet-haired Muses, and he has given a share in his flowering garland to his uncle and namesake 
The-ama , Ion. theêma , atos, to, ( [theaomai] )
A. sight, spectacleOpposite mathêma, [Learning the SOLE role of the Church]
of a sight which gives pleasure, theamata kai akroamata hêdista parecheis X.Smp.2.2 , cf. 7.5; orchêseis kai theamata

X.Smp.2.2 Xenophon, Symposium  II. When the tables had been removed and the guests had poured a libation and sung a hymn, there entered a man from Syracuse, to give them an evening's merriment. He had with him a fine flute-girl, a dancing-girl--one of those skilled in acrobatic tricks,--and a very handsome boy, who was expert at playing the cither and at dancing; the Syracusan made money by exhibiting their performances as a spectacle.
John Calvin who called for a Restoraton of the Church of Christ understood that Christ ordained the Church in the wilderness both inclusively and exclusively.

But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. Numbers 10:7

"For this office, to which they were appointed, was no servile one, as that they should blow the trumpets at the command of others; but rather did God thus set them over public affairs,

that the people might not tumultuously call their assemblies in the blindness and precipitation of passion, but rather that modesty, gravity, and moderation should be observed in them.

"We know how often in earthly affairs God is not regarded, but counsels are confidently discussed without reference to His word. He testified, therefore, by this employment of the priests,

that all assemblies, except those in which He should preside, were accursed.

"Profane nations also had their ceremonies, such as auguries, supplications, soothsayings, victims, because natural reason dictated that nothing could be engaged in successfully without Divine assistance;

but God would have His people bound to Him in another way, so that, when called by the sound of the sacred trumpets as by a voice from heaven, they should assemble to holy and pious deliberations. The circumstance of the place also has the same object.

The door of the Tabernacle was to them, as if they placed themselves in the sight; of God.

We will speak of the word dewm, mogned (synagogue) elsewhere. Although it signifies an appointed time, or place, and also an assembly of the people, I prefer translating it convention, because God there in a solemn manner, as if before His sacred tribunal, called the people to witness, or, according to appointment, proceeded to make a covenant with them.


For even now, if believers choose to cheer themselves with musical instruments, they should, I think, make it their object not to dissever their cheerfulness from the praises of God.

But when they frequent their sacred assemblies, musical instruments in celebrating the praises of God would be no more suitable than the burning of incense, the lighting up of lamps, and the restoration of the other shadows of the law.

The Papists, therefore, have foolishly borrowed this, as well as many other things, from the Jews.

Men who are fond of outward pomp may delight in that noise;

but the simplicity which God recommends to us by the apostle is far more pleasing to him. Paul allows us to bless God in the public assembly of the saints only in a known tongue, (1 Corinthians 14:16.)

The voice of man, although not understood by the generality,
assuredly excels all inanimate instruments of music; and yet we see what St Paul determines concerning speaking in an unknown tongue. [Paul uses the terms lifeless instruments or carnal weapons]

What shall we then say of chanting, which fills the ears with nothing but an empty sound?

Edward Fudge: Did not the Jerusalem church from the first show a willingness to modify externals to meet the needs, 
        first practicing a communal style which was later dropped? 

Edward misses the fact that most of the new disciples were pilgrims and still under the direction of the Apostles: they assembled at the temple court yard "because that's whre the people were" needed to be converted.
Acts 2:40 And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying,
        Save yourselves from this untoward [crooked] generation.
The crooked race or generation are defined in the Greek literature as Jesus defined the Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites by naming speakers, singers and instrument players.  John identified them as "fruits" working for the Babylon mother of Harlots (identified as Jerusalem also calle Socom).  The Crooked Generation use wine, women and instruments in their assemblies.
Acts 2:41 Then they that gladly received his word were baptized:
         and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.
Acts 2:42 And they continued stedfastly
        in the apostles’ doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.
Acts 2:43 And fear came upon every soul:
        and many wonders and signs were done by the apostles.
The church of Christ is never COMMUNAL in any church history: those who prospered for the week might give to the destitute but only of they were willing.

When the pilgrims stayed too long, their money ran out. Godly men were selected to make sure that especially the Grecian widows did not go hungry.
Acts 2:44 And all that believed were together, and had all things common;
Acts 2:45 And sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need.
Edward Fudge: Were they not governed by the apostles in the beginning, later adding deacons in fact if not in name when the occasion demanded? Did not Jewish believers (especially in Palestine) continue their Hebrew heritage of Mosaic customs, synagogue worship and structure something never imposed on Gentile churches as such?

Well, we just don't know do we. We do know that on the first day of the week when Jesus appeared to the "synagogue" of Christian.  And He showed up again on the next first day of the week when the believers "synagogued."  They did not meet in the Jewish synagogues and if they did all they would be EXPOSED to would be the reading of a portion of the Word of God.  No singing, no women leaders, no collection plate, no music.

And does not the New Testament show a diversity among Gentile churches, some functioning along a charismatic model (Corinth) while others had more formal structure (Ephesus, see I Timothy).

The epistles are not POSITIVE patterns but NEGATIVE correctives.  Paul correct what Edward wants to impose based on the imaginaiton of MEN OF INSIGHT. Paul warned about the Mad Women in Corinth who were notorious and after warning about the uncovered prophesiers said in 11:17 that "your assemblies (synagogues) do more harm than good." No. They were not charismatic.  Because most of them were transients they spoke many of the MINOR DIALECTS which are called "tongues."  Paul outlawed speaking in say "French" in an American church unless someone TRANSLATED.  He specificially outlawed the women speaking because they and effeminate males would break out in what Paul called wrath or "orge."

How does one account for the numerous divisions within the Restoration Movement, divisions which can in nearly every case be traced to disagreements over which external "marks" must be "restored"? 

We have noted that the Church of Christ is congregational, has no headquarters and therefore is never larger than an individual congregation.   All diversities came as a result of ignoring the restoration principle that a church is a school of Christ and worship is reading and musing the Word of God: that never changed from the Church in the wilderness.  Divisions are person driven and as long as you have two people left you will have two opinions.  However, Paul outlawed doubtful disputations in Romans 14 before he defined the assembly in terms of the synagogue.  It is only when people begin to add or impose their personal opinions that division occurs and personal opinions is called Dogma and not Doctrine. Dogma, for instance includes adding music to enhance or AID Christ.

The Church of Christ is probably different in each congregation.  However, NONE of them are denominations with a headquarter.  Edward Fudge and friends have worked very hart to create ANOTHER divison based on views which Bible-literate congregations will not accept. Therefore, I can and have attended any congregation without being EXCLUDED as long as I am not vocally divisive.  All of them will be Bible-centered, all with practice baptism, none of them will be instrumental and none of them will be led by women.

Because historically church used "one cup" or chalice, those who added G.C.Brewer's little shot glasses were the ones who sowed discord.  However, one can attend a one cup congregation without thinking that he is in a SECT.  How can you account for the several divisions? The same way you can account for the few congregations adding instrumental music under the tuturoing of Edward Fudge: he simply does not the Bible or church history.

Edward Fudge:   In a larger context, why have the different "restoration" groups 
        come up with different sets of New Testament distinctives, 
        along with other areas in which they overlap? 
        And how is it that these differences generally reflect either firm similarity to their respective backgrounds,
        or else reactions against them?

Edward Fudge: Death of a Distinctive?
While claiming that the Campbells refused to understand Church history, The Restoration Movement restored or solidified:
  • Dispensational distinctions: you cannot go to the curse of the law to import music
  • Non-instrumental assembly defended by all historic scholars.
  • The final name The Church of Christ which is historically almost universal
  • The right of God in Christ to Command, Example and infer: another almost universal view of history.
  • The demand that baptism (immersion) was necessary for the remission of Sins.
  • That Christ adds only those saved at baptism to His Church.
On the other hand, those who deny that anyone considered church history are wrong.
Why, regardless of background, do such groups almost always concern themselves with external, visible matters? Does anyone's "pattern," for example, include the "marks" Paul specifically lists in Philippians 3:3, all of which concern the heart? Might this be because visible externals are either to achieve, easier to check, and easier to use for self-justification?

Diversity of practice of the "externals" does not destroy the INTERNALS.  You are automatically EXCLUDED from any congregation following the Fudge recipe. 
Phil. 3:1 Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things to you,
        to me indeed is not grievous, but for you it is safe.
Phil. 3:2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.
Phil. 3:3 For we are the circumcision,
        which worship God IN the spirit,  [a place]
        and rejoice IN Christ Jesus,     [a person not replaceable by clergy]
        and have no confidence IN THE flesh.  [Singing, clapping, playing instruments or exposing women]
Phil. 3:4 Though I might also have confidence in the flesh.
        If any other man thinketh that he hath whereof he might trust in the flesh, I more
Those condemned as "summer fruits" were male prostitutes always implicated in religious music. These are the same ones used by the Babylon Mother of Harlots who uses skilled speakers, singers and instrument players John called sorcerers.

THUS hath the Lord God shewed unto me: and behold a basket of summer fruit. Amos 8:1

And he said, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A basket of summer fruit. Then said the Lord unto me, The end is come upon my people of Israel; I will not again pass by them any more. Amos 8:2

Keluwb (h3619) kel-oob'; from the same as 3611; a bird-trap (as furnished with a clap-stick or treadle to spring it); hence a basket (as resembling a wicker cage): - basket, cage.

As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit: therefore they are become great, and waxen rich. Je.5:27

Keleb (h3611) keh'leb; from an unused root mean. to yelp, or else to attack; a dog; hence (by euphemism) a male prostitute: - dog.

For dogs have compassed me: the assembly [multitude, swarm] of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet. Ps.22:16

Yea, they are greedy dogs which can never have enough, and they are shepherds that cannot understand: they all look to their own way, every one for his gain, from his quarter. Is.56:11

And I will appoint over them four kinds, saith the Lord: the sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the earth, to devour and destroy. Je.15:3

And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all. Rev 18:14

The Horae

Yet another version of Aphrodite as Triple Goddess,
        Agape 'love feast,'
        Irene 'peace,' and
        Chione 'snow queen.'
Irene was also a Goddess in her own right, and she had an attendant named Opora 'autumn.' The Horae who 'greeted' Aphrodite on the shores of Kyprus were her three high priestesses who carried her statue through the shallows, clothing it on the beach during her bathing and purification festival.

Irene was the Crone, bringer of the peace of death,
Agape the ruler of sacred sexual rites, and
Chione was the new year, born at Winter Solstice, unapproachable and serene.

Regarding the cultic associations and the Love-Feast, Rudolph comments:
...the ceremony only
superficially resembles the Christian eucharist,
rather continues older Greek and Hellenistic secret cults (like that of Eleusis and that of the god Sabazios,

in which the snake was worshipped as a symbol of the chthonic deity and fertility). For the Ophites After they joined the Baptists? After they left the Baptists? What of others who now occupy the same ground from which they began their quest? Are they God's people, even though they have not yet "arrived"? Has any of us "arrived"? Has God run out of Presbyterians (or Baptists, or Anglicans, or Catholics, or members of Churches of Christ) through whom he can do his work?

Aside from these biblical and theological questions, there is the simple matter of historical accuracy. Does this popularized history reflect what actually happened in those years of the 1800's? Would the restoration pioneers recognize themselves in our story? How would they tell what they were about and what they hoped to accomplish, if they were to tell the story?

The CORE of the Campbell's teaching had nothing to do with history: the point was that church was a school of Chrsit and worship was reading and musing the Word of God.  The Bible should be the creed and unique textbook. You didn't need to fabricate dogma nor with the authority of Romans 14 did you have to tolerate "doubtful disputations" which would be any IMPROVEMENT which came of of the human imagination.  We know what they wrote and reading Alexander is apparently above the pay grade of those who have declared warn on those who will not sing and dance when they pipe.

3 / Campbell's 4-Point Plan

Edward Fudge: The Campbells and their associates were not alone in pursuing simple Christianity. Although their restoration movement now seems easy to identify, it sprang from many different currents which sometimes mingled and sometimes crossed. Yet today's Churches of Christ represent the heritage of Alexander Campbell above that of his fellows, and his own early progression of thought is easy to summarize. His plan went something like this.

The millennium is surely coming soon.  [false]
  1. The world must be converted first.     [false]Such an understanding of God's victory necessarily required that the world be converted. All nations would soon accept Jesus Christ, Campbell believed, and the United States of America would probably lead the way. But division among Christians hindered the world's conversion, Campbell observed. He therefore reasoned that
  1. Campbell continued:
    There are some, indeed, who look for the almost immediate return of the Messiah, 
            and yet calculate on the conversion of the Jews and of many Gentile nations:
            but they will have them converted by sight rather than by faith,
            and upon that principle all the world will be converted to the belief
            that Jesus is the Christ when they see him coming from heaven in power and great glory.
                    But such a conversion will not be to salvation, but to condemnation.
                    They shall see him, and wail at his coming.

    But still the question returns, Will the Lord come before or after the Millennium? 

    It is decided that if he come so soon as 1843, 1847, or 1866,
            there can be no thousand years' triumph of Christianity,
            because the events that are to follow in instant succession upon his coming
            preclude the possibility of any further conflict between truth and error;
            nay, preclude the increase of the human family, and forever separate the righteous and the wicked.

    The structure of the earth is changed--new heavens and earth occupy its place--and instead of being with the Lord a thousand years on this earth, his people will be with him in a new earth to all eternity! This, then, is a summary way of settling the whole controversy about the literal or figurative return of the Lord before the Millennium.
  1. 3. Christians must unite if the world is to believe. Jesus' words rang heavy in Campbell' 10. But in the last place in the first Extra on Baptism for Remission of Sins, we exclude from the pale of Christianity of the Pedobaptists,
  1. none but such of them as "wilfully neglect this salvation, and who, having the opportunity to be immersed for the remission of sins, wilfully neglect or refuse"--"of such," indeed,

    but of none others, we say, "We have as little hope for them as they have for all who refuse salvation on their own terms of the gospel." 1st Extra, 1st ed. p. 53.

    With these ten evidences or arguments, I now put it to the candor of those who accuse us of inconsistency or change of views, whether they have not most evidently misrepresented us. Were it necessary we could easily swell these ten into a hundred.

    II. We shall now attempt to defend this opinion from the sectarian application of it:

Edward Fudge:Campbell was consumed with passion for what he imagined as the primitive purity of the church. He gazed fondly at a distant past and dreamed of an imminent future. For him, restoration was the path to that future.

These, then, were Campbell's themes: the coming millennium, the world's conversion, the unity of Christians, and the restoration of the ancient order.
        The first was his starting-point: the rest evolved one by one as means to that end.
        By such an arrangement the pioneer father wovd the salvation of the world."
The rise of this heresy which insists that Jesus utterly failed in His First Advent but with a little help from His friends (unity meetings, Tulsa, Jubilee etal) they PLANNED to be ecumenical and following the Pope's call for Jubilee 2000 to MAKE IT POSSIBLE for Jesus to have His SECOND ADVENT without failing AGAIN.

Joel's Army was part of this and people enlisted to hand out rewards and destroy the non-converts. The Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to one priest and said that she would return and KILL all of the Masons and Pagans.

Campbell denied that there could be a millenium fitted in between Miller's prophecy (and the Disciples belief), the conversion of the Jews and the DATE SET by Miller.

But, bless their heart they tried to do Jesus' work for Him. Guess it was worth SECTING OFF the real Campbell.

Campbell was not a POST millennialist because He proves that the Kingdom was established on the day of Pentecost.  If you read carefully and have read Revelation you will hear Campbell speak of a spiritual resurrection. In fact the SPIRITS who were beheaded to defend Christ AND His Word reigned with Him in white Robes.  The Second advent will come at the same time the earth is burned up: there will be no literal kingdom.
You should understand that Alexander Campbell taught that the The Kingdom of God. came on the day of Pentecost. On the Second Coming of Christ Alexander Campbell wrote:
4 / Chopping The Roots
Edward Fudge: Probably no one in the Churches of Christ today (or any other part of our restoration movement) shares Campbell's four basic views. The great disappointments of the nineteenth century burst many an optimistic bubble - particularly the bloody Civil War which divided most denominations as well as the country. Campbell's postmillennial hope was but one form of utopianism that dashed against

I am reminded of Edwards Musical Discorders who use Hezekiah's House Cleaning ceremony because it was polluted with assyrian vessels and instruments of pagan worship.  No Levite could enter into the Holy Places (type of church) even to clean out the garbage.  Afterward they went through the city tearing down all of the "denominational" altars or places of worship. Christ in Isaiah, Jeremiah and all of the prophets that God had not COMMANDED these animal sacrifices Edward's friends are using as a patternism for worship. See 2 Chronicles 29

Edward Fudge: God has given the men and women of our Restoration Movement certain valid insights, as even those outside our churches are free to say.
But it would be foolish and naive indeed for us to suppose that no dust has settled, no broken antiques have been closeted, no trash has been mixed mistakenly with the treasures. 
In the spirit of preserving what is good, therefore, and in hopes of a cleaner, fresher house, we offer the following modest suggestions.
Jesus gave us some rules for selecting:
Luke 11:52 Woe unto you, lawyers!
        for ye have taken away the key of knowledge:
        ye entered not in yourselves,
        and them that were entering in ye hindered.
Luke 11:53 And as he said these things unto them,
        the scribes and the Pharisees began to urge him vehemently,
        and to provoke him to speak of many things:

Jesus called the Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites by naming speakers, singers and instrument players.

God said that the imagination of we humans is only evil continueally

instrumental rejoicing which would destroy the Bible class purpose.
Second, one can preach his own historical movement or fellowship within church history instead of preaching Jesus Christ. God's kingdom is far greater than any religious movement, in any country in any century. Third, one can preach the theory of a pure church rather than preaching Jesus Christ. Given the power of sin, this is an impossible dream, since, as Jesus himself said, there will always be tares among the wheat.

One has only to read the Book of Acts to see the content of the earliest Christian preaching. That message concerned a Savior, not a competitive church system. Regardless of where they began, all roads for the earliest evangelists finally led to Jesus Christ. Today we must also preach the Son of God, not sinful men of the past or the present. Jesus must receive our primary attention, not merely passing reference. We must make Christ our central message if we intend to continue naming him on our signboards. Otherwise we will be guilty of false advertising, and in that we will fool no one but ourselves.

Edward Fudge:  3. We can relate to our historical heritage without losing our perspective. Although we like to say that the New Testament church was established on Pentecost in A.D. 33, and to say that is all we are, we simply cannot erase 1900 years of history as if it never transpired. What is known today as the "Churches of Christ," the "Christian Churches" or the "Disciples of Christ" had a historical beginning in nineteenth century America, under circumstances we have outlined above. That is unvarnished, historical fact. One may deny facts, or ignore them, but they will not go away.

We might say that we wish to be nothing more than simple Christians after the New Testament order - with all the risks and ambiguities that aspiration will involve. We might insist that "our" congregations are free under Christ alone - wondering whether the very pronoun "our" contradicts such a claim. We might scrupulously avoid linking local churches by any formal denominational structure - yet honestly acknowledging the informal interlocks, networks and influences that more or less control us all. Whatever we do, howh is glorious. 2 Cor. 3:11

Seeing then that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech: 2 Cor. 3:12
And not as Moses, which put a vail over his face,
        that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look
        to the end of that which is abolished: 2 Cor. 3:13

But their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth
.........the same vail untaken away the reading of the old testament;
.........which vail is done away in Christ. 2 Cor. 3:14

But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart. 2 Cor. 3:15
Nevertheless, when it
shall turn to the Lord, the vail shall be taken away. 2 Cor. 3:16
Until you are CONVERTED you will not be able to read WHOLE THOUGHT PATTERNS written in BLACK INK on BROWN paper.
Epi-strephô , pf.
c. Philos., cause to return to the source of Being, tinas eis ta enantia kai ta prôta
       Proteros and prôtos    II. of Time, former, earlier, children by the first or a former marriage,
roval as if it were a matter of works. They were trying but they were not trusting.

Not true: they were trying with all of their might to write their own doctrines specificially so that they did not have to teach the Word of God.  They were in fact ignorant of the Scriptures.  Jesus identified the Scribes and Pharisees as hypocrites pointing to speakers, singers and instrument players; 

Jesus never condemned anyone for obeying THE LAW.

The Pharisee is defined by Jesus along the following lines:
  1. They changed the Laws of God: by teaching THEIR doctrine instead of God's their worship was VAIN.
  2. They changed God's Word so that they COULD IGNORE the Words of God.
    "seeking scriptural support for their actions through a ramified system of HERMENEUTICS. It was due to this PROGRESSIVE tendency of the Pharisees that their interpretation of the Torah CONTINUED to develop and has remained a living force in Judaism. Catholic Encyclopedia, Pharisees.
  3. They make NEW RULES. One of them was MOUTH RELIGION which is attached to Ezecirc;môidian to play a tragedy, a comedy, id=Arist.; absol. to play a part, be an actor, id=Arist.
    2. to represent dramatically: hence to exaggerate, Dem.
    3. metaph. to play a part, to feign,

    Cantus as in singing "magical" songs had the same meaning because they used underhanded means to inclucate false doctrine.
In Hebrew, a hypocrite is:
Chaneph (h2611) khaw-nafe'; from 2610; soiled (i. e. with sin), impious: - hypocrite (-ical).
With hypocritical mockers in feasts, they gnashed upon me with their teeth. Ps.35:16
Laeg (h3934) law-ayg'; from 3932; a buffoon; also a foreigner: - mocker, stammering.
For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people. Is.28:11 
An hypocrite with his mouth destroyeth his neighbour:
but through knowledge shall the just be delivered. Pr.11:9
Therefore the Lord shall have no joy in their young men, neither shall have mercy on their fatherless and widows:
..........for every one is an hypocrite and an evildoer,
.......... and every mouth speaketh folly.
For all this his anger is not turned away,
.......... but his hand is stretched out still. Is.9:17
Matt 15:7 Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying,
Hypokrites (g5273) hoop-ok-ree-tace'; from 5271; an actor under an assumed character (stage-player), i.e. (fig.) a dissembler ("hypocrite"): - hypocrite.
Hupokrinô reply, make answer, of an oracle, 2. expound, interpret, explain [Peter outlawed this as private interpretation.] 2. deliver a speech, declaim, of orators and rhetoricians, represent dramatically,

Similar Words:
erôtikôn dramatôn 3. of an orator, use histrionic arts, exaggerate, ape, mimic, Mania or religious frenzy.
LATIN: canto I. Neutr., to produce melodious sounds (by the voice or an instrument), to sound, sing, play (class. in prose and poetry; to sing and play while the actor accompanies the song with gestures or dancing, C. Transf., of instruments, to sound, resound: 2. Of the singing pronunciation of an orator, to declaim in a singing tone, to sing, preach to deaf ears.
Edward Fudge:  And they were left out while the Gentiles were entering in (Rom. 9:30-33). Many in the Restoration Movement seem to have made the same mistake today, with equally tragic results.

One body can participate in only one group at a time.  Therefore, it should be noted that the Church of Christ in its roots excluded no one.  The continuing faithfulness to seeing Church as a school of the Bible and of Christ includes anyone who wants to study the Bible. Because it does not use any of the hypocritic arts such as the use of instruments, it does not exclude those who may understand that the mark of the instrument intended to silence the Word of Christ.

On the other hand, a focus on any of the millenniel views will exclude many.  Observing the Lord's Supper each First day of the Week does not exclude those the Presbyterians of the Campbell's background.  People have a choice and therefore liberty.  

Edward Fudge: Paul defended the Law, but he insisted that it had found its fulfillment in Jesus. He urged the Jews to see themselves standing in relation to the Law fulfilled (in Jesus), not try to find righteousness through fulfilling it themselves. Everything they tried to attain by keeping the Law, God offered freely through faith in Jesus. In this sense, Christ had become the end (goal - telos) of the Law, to all who believed in Jesus (Rom. 10:4).

But not by FAITH ONLY whereas Edward Fudge would sow massive discord among those who read and practice what the Bible clearly teaches: that there is no remission of sins for those who do not obey that form of doctrine.

Edward and all of those planning to sow discord appeal to the sacrificial system under the Law of Moses to justify the use of instrumental music (God called it noise).  If God turned them over to worship the starry host then isn't it worse than legalism to promote the practices quarantined ONLY inside the camp for animal sacrifices which God had not commanded.

Rom. 10:4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.
I am not aware of anyone in the Restoration Movement other than those who base instrumental music on the curse of the sacrificial system who base their worship patternism on the Law as twisted by the kings. Paul was repudiating the Jews who believed being under the Law of Moses made them righteousness. Paul never rejects obeying the commands of Jesus Christ.
Acts 10:34 Then Peter opened his mouth, and said, Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons:
Acts 10:35 But in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.
There would certainly be no "open fellowship" with those who worketh unrighteousness.

Probably beginning with Zwingli people have confused justification or righteousness with regeneration or the remission of sins. Paul cycles through the STEPS which naturally bring one to the point of salvation.
Rom 10:14
How then shall they call on him whom they have not believed?
........... and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard?
........... and how shall they hear without a preacher?
........... And how shall they preach, except they be sent?
Rom 10:15
as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them
............ that preach the gospel of peace,
............ and bring glad tidings of good things
Euaggelizo (g2097) yoo-ang-ghel-id'-zo; from 2095 and 32; to announce good news ("evangelize") espec. the gospel: - declare, bring (declare, show) glad (good) tidings, preach (the gospel).
CYCLE FOUR: those who HAVE believed HAVE obeyed the gospel
Rom 10:16
But they have not all obeyed the gospel.
............ For Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed our report?
Rom 10:17
So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

Rom 10:15 as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them
............ that preach the gospel of peace,
............ and bring glad tidings of good things
Mark 16:15 And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world,
............ and preach the gospel to every creature.

Rom 10:16 But they have not all obeyed the gospel

Mark 16:16 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved

For Esaias saith, Lord, who hath believed our report?

but he that believeth not shall be damned.

Rom 10:18
But I say, Have they not heard?
............ Yes verily, their sound went into all the earth,
............ and their words unto the ends of the world.
Rom 10:19
But I say, Did not Israel know?
............ First Moses saith, I will provoke you to jealousy
............ by them that are no people, and by a foolish nation I will anger you.
Rom 10:20
But Esaias is very bold, and saith,
............ I was found of them that sought me not;
............ I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me.
Rom 10:21
But to Israel he saith,
............ All day long I have stretched forth my hands
............ unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.
Edward Fudge:  May we close by making the same statement about the work begun by Thomas and Alexander Campbell and Barton W. Stone. Their best goals are fulfilled in Jesus Christ. All they ever promised, hoped for or sought after are found only through saving trust in him. As Paul said then to those who pointed with great pleasure to their "identity" as the People of God, so we believe he would say today to Churches of Christ, Christian Churches and the Disciples of Christ:
CHRIST is the end (goal - telos)
of the Restoration Movement,
to all who believe
in Jesus.

But, that would be silly when people BELIEVE in Jesus and refused to obey him.
Rom. 10:4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. 
However, being righteous by THE FAITH of Jesus Christ rejects the Law as giving righteousness. If you believe then you have the power to become the child of God.  However, Cornelius was a righteousl man but he needed someone to tell him words whereby he might be saved.  Peter commanded that he be baptized.
1Pet. 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,
        which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again
        unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,
1Pet. 1:4 To an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled,
        and that fadeth not away,
        reserved in heaven for you,
1Pet. 1:5 Who are kept by the power of God through faith
        unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
1Pet. 1:6 Wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, ye are in heaviness through manifold temptations:
1Pet. 1:7 That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perisheth, though it be tried with fire, might be found unto praise and honour and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ:
1Pet. 1:8 Whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory:

1Pet. 1:9 Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.
1Pet. 1:10 Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you:
1Pet. 1:11 Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ
        which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ,
        and the glory that should follow.
1Pet. 1:12 Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves,
        but unto us they did minister the things,
        which are now reported unto you by them
        that have preached the gospel unto you [you preach with WORDS]
        with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; [Jesus said My WORDS are spirit and life]
        which things the angels desire to look into.

1Pet. 1:13 Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind,
        be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you
        at the revelation of Jesus Christ;
1Pet. 1:14 As obedient children, not fashioning yourselves according to the former lusts in your ignorance:
1Pet. 1:15 But as he which hath called you is holy,
        so be ye holy in all manner of conversation;
1Pet. 1:16 Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy.
1Pet. 1:17 And if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man’s work, pass the time of your sojourning here in fear: 

1Pet. 1:21 Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; 
        that your faith and hope might be in God.
1Pet. 1:22 Seeing
        ye have purified your souls
        unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure heart fervently:
1Pet. 1:23 Being born again, not of corruptible seed,
        but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever.
1Pet. 1:24 For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away:
1Pet. 1:25 But the word of the Lord endureth for ever.
        And this is the word which by the gospel is preached unto you.
Mat 21:31 Whether of them twain did the will of his father? They say unto him, The first. Jesus saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That the publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you. Luke 7:29 And all the people that heard him, and the publicans, justified God, being baptized with the baptism of John.
Mat 21:32 For John came unto you in the way of righteousness, and ye believed him not; justified God,
but the publicans and the harlots believed him being baptized with the baptism of John.
and ye, when ye had seen it, repented not afterward, Luke 7:30 But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves,
that ye might believe him.

Believeth means Complieth

being not baptized of him.


2.09.10  6.04.11 245

<img src="/cgi-bin/Count.cgi?df=piney/counter_Restoration.Movement.Fudge.html.dat">