O. E. Payne North American Christian Convention

O. E. Payne was the father of the North American Christian Convention which sected out of the Disciples of Christ-Christian Churches beginning in 1927 and completed after the 1968 "restructure" and the DElisting by the Disciples in 1971: that was about the time Leroy Garrett began his "stealth" work in colleges which led to the so-called Stone-Campbell Movement.  What because Churches of Christ had ever been "uninioned" with the Stone Christians: the fact is that the Campbell's clear Biblical teaching virtually eleminated the Christian Churches in Kentucky.

Without Payne's publishing of a long list of historic examples of the use of the word "psallo" the conclusion, then and now, if lots of people plucked (psallo) bows, harps or other "strings only" that means that God commanded that the assembly of Christ use the same plucking, pulling or smiting as an ACT of worship.  Legalism is defined in the Greek world as the talent, learning, playing, practicing, performing and being judged on rhetoric, singing, playing instruments, acting or dancing.
True Worship Lactantius Book V
Him they love, him they defend, to him they afford all things which he shall wish for. Persius therefore deservedly ridicules superstitions of this kind in his own style: 

"With what bribe," he says, "dost thou win the ears of gods? Is it with lungs and rich intestines?

"He plainly perceived that there is no need of flesh for appeasing the majesty of heaven, but of a pure mind and a just spirit, and a breast, as he himself says, which is generous with a natural love of honour.

This is the religion of heaven-not that which consists of corrupt things, but of the virtues of the soul, which has its origin from heaven; this is true worship, in which the mind of the worshipper presents itself as an undefiled offering to God. [having A holy, personal spirit]

But we have already spoken of spectacles: there remains one thing which is to be overcome by us,
that we be not captivated by those things which penetrate to the innermost perception.
For all those things which are unconnected with WORDS, that is, pleasant sounds of the air and of strings, may be easily disregarded, because they do not adhere to its, and cannot be written.
But a well-composed poem, and a speech be-guiling with its sweetness, captivate the minds of men, [sorcery]
and impel them in what direction they please.
Hence, when learned men have applied themselves to the religion of God, unless they have been instructed by some skilful teacher, they do not believe.
For, being accustomed to sweet and polished speeches or poems, they despise the simple and common language of the sacred writings as mean.
There is not a single historic reference to PSALLO meaning to Play A Harp. Various forms of psallo or ode are different Greek or Latin Words. Because the instrumentalists have been taught primarily from O.E.Payne it should be known that there is NO example of playing (psallo) a harp not using two words or compound words. The psallo sowing of discord accuses God of being too ignorant to use compound words.

There is hardly an example of men plucking or smiting (psallo) a lyre or harp which is not connected to attempting to rob or seduce sexually and often homosexuality.

Psallo EXCLUDES anything but a string or hair plucked with the FINGERS: history is careful to exclude the plectrum or "pick." It is a violation of the word to include wind or percussion instruments.

Daniel Sommer who prevented the instrumentalists from confiscating the new brick building at Sand Creek wrote that long before the Disciples were called upon to justify sowing of discord:
Those disciples of Christ that began about sixty, years ago to advocate the use of instrumental music in worship professed to regard its use as expedient, or proper under the circumstances.

Then one George P. Slade, about the year 1876, made an effort to find divine authority for such music in worship.

A few years ago one J. B Briney made another effort to furnish authority for such music. About two years ago one O. E. Payne made another effort in the same direction, and the reader's attention is. now invited to my exposure of Payne's effort, as I wrote that exposure in three chapters for the Apostolic Review

Later: 3. Here I am reminded that something over forty years ago one Geo P. Slade copied from Greek dictionaries concerning the word psallo; and argued that the meanings of that word in all its forms meant instrumentation or the use of an artificial musical instrument. Bro Franklin, then serving as editor of the Review, published all that Slade wished to say, and then asked him to insert his definition into the Sacred Text. As I recollect Slade refused to do so, or was so slow about attempting it that Bro. Franklin made the attempt himself. And the result was something like this:

 "Which were written in the law and in the prophets and in the "musical instruments" concerning me." Luke 24:44. "For it is written in the book of" musical instruments. Acts 1:20.

    "A. possible result of the study of this book is the relegation of this often troublesome question to its proper realm— that of expediency." That was the "realm" to which Isaac Errett tried to relegate it,
        but Geo. P. Slade tried to find divine authority for it then Briney tried to find such authority for it, and now Payne has tried it

Actually, no ancient writer ever made the argument that psallo and psalmos permitted the use of instruments is worship. In fact, George P. Slade in 1878 was the first ever to argue that psallo or psalmos permitted the instrument even if the instrument is not mentioned. Early Christians never understood the context of Ephesians or Colossians to demand or permit instruments.

4.08.15 New Page 116

Click New Page 295

NEW  CLICK O. E. Payne 144 Below
New O.E.Payne p 315. Claims that Paul was unclear because he (nor the Spirit) had a word meaning SINGING and PLAYING an instrument. That is false: in the Greek text compound words are ALWAYS used unless they include SINGING and PLAYING and AN INSTRUMENT at the same time

Dozens of passages from THE BIBLE declare that instrumental music is sinful. The Bible tells DISCIPLES that it is so.

The Stark Warlick Debate 'sealed the separation in Henderson over the instrument."

The thesis or FOUNDATION of the NACC is that for the first time in recorded history PSALLO not only permits but COMMANDS that we (all apparently) play a musical instrument. The consequence is that one would be in mortal danger by not playing an instrument. This was the shift from expediency as the only "authority" until it was proved that to be expedient a thing must be lawful.

Instrumental Music is Scriptural (and commanded)
By O. E. Payne, The Standard Publishing Company, 1921

This book was sent to a select group of preachers thought to be "translatable" by the Commission On Unity

Sending out copies with "return to sender" (in this writer's collection) pasted in front "That you may have the advantage of these facts and use them in the interest of truth and unity to 'the breaking down of the middlewall of partition" and for the restoring of fellowship between those that use and those that do not use instruments in the church, this book is sent out, which after reading please return to The commission On Unity, Nashville Tenneessee.


The Boswell-Hardeman Debate: Recently I received the following communication:


Dear Sir and Brother:

We sent you last year a copy of O. E. Payne's book on the church music question for your consideration and to be returned after reading. We have not yet received the copy sent you, so we are writing to [7] request the return of the same. Fraternally,


I wonder who appointed this Commission on Unity or who has any right to make suggestions as to how unity can be brought about or maintained. If this commission has been appointed by any one or by any church, I would like to know who or which, because that individual or church should know what this commission is doing to promote unity. But if it is a self-appointed commission, as I believe it is, I have as much right to offer suggestions as any one. If this commission is calling in O. E. Payne's book on the church-music question in order to destroy it, it is working on the right line, and I want to commend them; but if it is calling in these books in order to give them to others and thus continue their circulation, I suggest a change of name for the commission. It should be called "The Commission on Division" instead of "The Commission on Unity." I doubt whether one church in fifty in this country uses the instrument in their worship. If this book is circulated and read and changes no one, it could not assist in bringing about unity, because we already have unity on that question in most of the churches in these parts; but if it changes some one and makes him believe that he ought to have the instrument in worship, cannot this commission see that this would bring about division. The instrument would be forced into the worship by these new converts made by Payne's book, which would drive out those it did not convert, and thus we would have division instead of unity as a result of this work. Surely this commission could not hope to change every one on this question with this book and thus get every one wrong; but if it did not change all, but changed any, it would cause division instead of unity. [8]

Why is it necessary to have a commission in order to circulate O. E. Payne's book on the church-music question? Is it possible that those who are doing this work are ashamed to come out in the open and do it as individuals, or are they trying to make the impression that some church or association of men and women are behind them in their divisive work? We know it is not necessary in this city to have the instrument in order to have unity on the music question, for it was demonstrated in the recent meeting at the Ryman Auditorium that even those brethren who use the instrument can unite with those that do not and sing without the instrument, for they did it in that meeting. The only way to have unity on this question is to stop circulating such literature as O. E. Payne's book and cease to encourage such a commission as the one that has sprung up in West Nashville.

I cannot comply with the request herein made to return the copy of the book claimed to have been sent to me, as I have no recollection of having seen it, and no member of my family remembers anything about it; but I will agree to send a copy of M. C. Kurfees' reply to O. E. Payne's book, if the commission will agree to use it as an antidote to the Payne poison. If this commission is true to its name and is really a commission on unity, it will accept this proposition and will circulate this reply to Payne's book by Brother Kurfees as extensively as it circulates the Payne book; but if this commission is not true to its name, then the church where the individuals composing the commission hold membership should promptly withdraw from them, in harmony with the plain command of the apostle where he says: "Mark them that are causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling, contrary to the doctrine which ye [9] learned: and turn away from them." (Rom. 16:17.)

While the foregoing says nothing about a debate, it was really the foundation for further correspondence, out of which grew the Nashville debate on the church-music question.

Payne's collection of examples


1. Tom Burgess in Documents on Instrumental Music reviewed. Psallo and Instrumental Music: Proofs do not prove anything but the gender conflicted of all historic religious music

See more on Strabo's definition of the worship of Apollo or Abaddon or Apollyon: his MUSES are the locusts or musical performers in the book of revelation.

2. Tom Burgess More Review of Plutarch: if Psallo authorizes "church music" it authorizes a homosexual gathering.

3. Tom Burgess on Moralia confirms the "Music-Heresy-Perversion" connection which has no historical exception. 10/20/04

4. Tom Burgess on John Chrysostom: are the anti-instrumentalists ignorant rurals? 10/21/04 What about Paul and Martin Luther and John Calvin and Zwingli and--everyone who believed the Bible as authority.

5. Tom Burgess on Kurfees versus Thayer and Grimm: Quotes from: G. C. Brewer, A Medley on the Music Question, Gospel Advocate, Nashville 1948. Burgess uses the same Krewson arguments. LATEST 11/06/05

p 106-107 O. E. Payne 
433 B.C. Herodotus (I, 155)
This noted traveler  and scholar, known as the father of history," and who was, as well, "the father of geography," chronicles the conqueror's decree for keeping the people of vassal states in subjection--a method in vogue to this day:

     "and bid them train their sons to play the cithara and to play the  lyre  [psallein] and to keep shop."

That is, forbid them the use of arms or weapons of war, lest they rise in rebellion

We submit that there is NO text, even the Bible, which is not distorted so that their arrow hits them in the kinder parts.

The REAL Heredotus:

Cyrus was told how to NEUTER captives to keep them under control. Power grabbing preachers who want to be MASTERS (Authoratative Teachers) have KEEPING THEM UNDER CONTROL is absolutely necessary less they grasp that Jesus died to pry the burden laders off our backs: the Laded Burdens are types of repeating songs which perform the act of WITCHCRAFT with a boiling pot of frog yes.
Grant, then, forgiveness to the Lydians, and to make sure of their never rebelling against thee, or alarming thee more,
send and forbid them to keep any weapons of war,
         command them
to wear tunics under their cloaks,
         and to put buskins upon their legs,

         and make them bring up their sons to cithern-playing (Kitharizein),
singing (psallein),
        and shop-keeping (Hucksterism). [Corrupting the Word]
So wilt thou soon see them become WOMEN instead of men,
and there will be no more fear of their revolting from thee."

Any kind of performing music when Jesus told us to SPEAK that which is written INTENDS to bring glory and more "Authority" to THE Alpah Male.  You will notice that the TRUTH is that Heredotus translated psallein as SINGING.

-[4] Ludoisi de sungnômên echôn tade autoisi epitaxon, hôs mête aposteôsi mête deinoi toi eôsi: apeipe men sphi pempsas hopla arêia mê ektêsthai, keleue de spheas kithônas -[khiton  David's garment] te hupodunein toisi heimasi kai kothornous hupodeesthai, proeipe d' autoisi -kitharizein te kai psallein kai kapêleuein [prostitutes, petty trade, playing tricks, corrupting] paideuein tous paidas. kai tacheôs spheas ô basileu gunaikas ant' andrôn opseai gegonotas, hôste ouden deinoi toi esontai mê aposteôsi."

The word kitharizo means to PLAY THE CITHARA and does not include singing.

-Kitharizô 1 [kitharis] to play the cithara, phormingi [Apollo, Abaddon, Apollyon] kitharize Il., Hes.; lurêi eraton kitharizôn Hhymn. (so that there can have been no great difference between the kithara, lura, and phorminx ); kitharizein ouk epistatai, of an uneducated person,

-Kithar-isis , eôs, hê, playing on the cithara, Pl.Prt.325e; k. psilê, i.e. without the voice, Id.Lg.669e, cf. Pae.Delph.15; aulêsis kai k. Phld.Mus.p.23 K.

The PSALLO word used to GRASP POWER is an Abaddon word from plucking the Bow String to kill you or plucking the Lyre to mollest you.

-Arassô ,of any violent impact, with collat. notion of rattling, clanging, as of horses, hoplais, pound in a mortar, strike with a shower of stones.
a). kitharēn strike the lyre, Orph.A.382; humnon, melos, etc., Nonn.D.1.15,440, etc.
2. c. dat. modi, arassein tina oneidesi, kakois, assail with reproaches or threats,
II. Pass., to be dashed against, dash one against the other
Pound in a mortar, “holmō a.Nic. Th.508

Croesus thought the Lydians would even so be better off than if they were sold for slaves, and therefore gave the above advice to Cyrus, knowing that, unless he brought forward some notable suggestion, he would not be able to persuade him to alter his mind. He was likewise afraid lest, after escaping the danger which now pressed, the Lydians at some future time might revolt from the Persians and so bring themselves to ruin.

p 107 O. E. Payne 

430 B. C. Euripides (Bacchae, 783f)
In the extract which I use, he says:
"And with their hands they twang [psallousi] the bow strings."

By absolute definition you can only twang a bowstring with your FINGERS: you can never use a plectrum or guitar pick when you twang a HARP string.  If you use a guitar pick on the basis of psallo you LIE against the meaning of words.  You cannot psallo a flute, trumpet, organ, drums or ANYTHING but a STRING.  It can have no application other than pluck a bowstring, a harp string or a hair. Psallo spoke of the slaves who PLUCKED a rope covered with red paint and filty when those who dallied around the speaking, singing, playing or selling the bodies of yount men and were LATE going to the ekklesia.  In the pattern used for the assembly of Christ, the psallo word identifies nasty men and disqualified them from speaking.
The Bacchae by Euripides total


-[775] Though I fear to speak my mind with freedom in the presence of my king, still must I utter this; Dionysus yields to no deity in might.


Already, look you! the presumption of these Bacchantes is upon us, swift as fire, a sad disgrace in the eyes of all Hellas. No time for hesitation now! away to the Electra gate! order a muster of all my men-at-arms, of those that mount fleet steeds, of all who brandish light bucklers,

of archers too that make the bowstring twang; for I will march against the Bacchanals. By Heaven this passes all, if we are to be thus treated by women.

êdê tod' engus hôste pur huphaptetai
hubrisma bakchôn, psogos es Hellênas megas.
all' ouk oknein dei: steich' ep' Êlektras iôn

pulas: keleue pantas aspidêphorous
hippôn t' apantan tachupodôn epembatas
peltas th' hosoi pallousi kai toxôn cheri
psallousi neuras, hôs epistrateusomen
bakchaisin: ou gar all' huperballei tade,
ei pros gunaikôn peisomesth' ha paschomen.

Psallous to touch sharply, to pluck, pull, twitch
Neura, A.string or cord of sinew, in Ep. usu. bowstring,

Bakchê , ,
Bacchante,A.Eu.25, S.Ant.1122 (lyr.), Ar.Nu.605, Pl. Ion534a, etc.: generally, Bakchê Haidou frantic handmaid of Hades, E.Hec.1077; b. nekuônId.Ph.1489 (lyr.).
2. as Subst., mad woman, esp. Bacchante,
= pornê, 
        porn-ê , , A.harlot, prostitute, Archil.142, Ar.Ach.527, etc. (Prob.from pernêmi,
        because Greek prostitutes were commonly bought slaves.)

I.Hades or Pluto (cf. Ploutôn), the god of the nether world, 

Mainas , ados, , ( [mainomai] )
raving, frantic, lussa v. l. in S.Fr.941.4; bakchêE.Ba.915 .
as Subst., mad woman, esp. Bacchante, Maenad, mainadiisêIl.22.460 , cf. h.Cer.386, A.Fr.382, S.OT212 (lyr.), etc.; of the Furies, A.Eu.500 (lyr.); of Cassandra, E.Tr. 173 (lyr.).
= pornê, Poll.7.203 cod. A, Hdn.Epim.83.
Act., causing madness, esp. of love, mainasornisPi.P.4.216 .

huperballô E.Ba.785 exceed all bounds, excess

Click for: The Twanging Bowstring is the background to external melody or the Greek PSALLO in Paul's writings.

Click For: Of the song to Deborah:

This was a warrior's song which was a boasting song. Here, the NIV supports the "musical" position without authority:

the voice of the singers [e] at the watering places. They recite the righteous acts of the LORD, the righteous acts of his warriors [f] in Israel. "Then the people of the LORD went down to the city gates. Judges 5:11NIV

e11 Or 'archers'; the meaning of the Hebrew
for this word is uncertain. f11 Or 'villagers'
p 107 O. E. Payne 
 424 B.C. Euripides *(Ion, 174)  I quote again from the same author, this time a more warlike defiance:

"the bow's fierce twanging [psalmoi] shall keep you off.'

Psalmos means twanging by plucking does not mean to play music.
Full Euripides Ion

But see, the early birds have left their nests,
And this way from Parnassus wing their flight.
Come not, I charge you, near the battlements,
Nor near the golden dome.
Herald of Jove,
Strong though thy
beak beyond the feather'd kind,
bow shall reach thee. Towards the altar, see,
A swan comes sailing: elsewhere wilt thou move
Thy scarlet-tinctured foot? or from my bow
[160] The lyre of Phoebus to thy notes attuned [sunoidos]
Will not protect thee; farther stretch thy wings;
Go, wanton, skim along the Delian lake,
Or wilt thou steep thy melody in blood.

Psallo has never and can never mean tuneful melodly: it may be blasphemy to say that the Spirit OF Christ nor Paul knew how to define "instrumental melody."

A.beautiful-sounding, “ōdaiE.Ion169 (lyr.); “histoiId.IT222 (lyr.).

P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid

She said, and from her quiver chose with speed
The winged shaft, predestin'd for the deed;
Then to the stubborn yew her strength applied,
Till the
far distant horns approach'd on either side.
bowstring touch'd her breast, so strong she drew;
Whizzing in air the fatal arrow flew.

At once the twanging bow and sounding dart
The traitor heard, and felt the point within his heart.
beating with his heels in pangs of death,
flying friends to foreign fields bequeath.

The conqu'ring damsel, with expanded wings,
The welcome message to her mistress brings.

Look, what strange bird comes onwards; wouldst thou fix
Beneath the battlements thy straw-built nest?
singing bow shall drive thee hence; begone,
Or to the banks of Alpheus, gulfy stream,
Or go to the Isthmian grove; there hatch thy young;

Psalmoi is twitching sound.
Erixousin shall bar or drive, to bar one's way
Toxon = bow
Toxon III. metaph., toxa heliou its rays, E.HF 1090; ampelinois toxois damentes,
            of the effects of wine, Pi.Fr.218; toxon merimnes Trag.Adesp.354; kottabos . .
            hon skopon es latagon toxa kathistametha for
shooting of liquor from the cup, Critias 2.2.
so that the offerings, and the temple of Phoebus, are not harmed. . . . and yet I am ashamed to kill you,
[180] for to mortals you bear the messages of the gods;
but I will be subject to Phoebus [Apollo, Abaddon, Apollyon] in my appointed tasks,
and I will never cease my service to those who nourish me.

p 107 O. E. Payne   429 B.C. Ion of Chios, 3. 3. (Bergk-Hiller-Crusius)

"Seven-stringed...formerly all the Greeks played (Epsallon] you as seven-toned instrument."
The Greek ALWAYS uses compound, instrument-specific words meaning to "play that instrument." NONE of these appear in the Bible. Do people really think that God was TOO IGNORANT to say what He meant?
Epi-psallō , A. play the lyre,S.Fr.60, Poll.4.58(Pass.); “melesi kai rhuthmois” 
                SING,tous humnousLXX 2 Ma.1.30:—30 - Then the priests sang the hymns.

A. play stringed instruments to, [“sumposion kataulein kai k.” Pass., have music played to one, enjoy music, ib.785e; of places, resound with music, Id.Ant.56.
2. Pass., to be buried to the sound of music, Procop.Pers.2.23.
3. metaph., katapsalletai . . ho dēmiourgos is drummed out, Porph.
  • hupauleô , play on the flute in accompaniment, melo. lusiôidos 1 one who played women's characters in male attire, 
  • Kha^rizō [Grace] 2. gratify or indulge a humour or passion,
    3. in erotic sense, grant favours to a man, Ar.Ec.629

Hab. 2:19 Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone,
        Arise, it shall teach! Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it.

Hab. 2:20 But the LORD is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him.

Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is.
Ephesians 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit;
Ephesians 5:19 Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
        singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;

kat-auleô A. charm by flute-playing, metaphor., se . . -êsô phobôi I will flute to you on a ghastly flute, E.HF871 (troch.):--Pass., of persons, methuôn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute, Pl.R.561c; k. pros chelônidos psophon to be played to on the flute with lyre accompaniment, II. in Pass., [ton monochordon kanona] parechein tais aisthêsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, Ptol.Harm.2.12: metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelômenoi 

2. c. gen. loci, make a place sound with flute-playing, resound with flute-playing, nêsos katêuleito Plu.Ant.56 

Plutarch, Anthony 56 Thus, all their forces being joined together, they hoised  sail towards the ile  of Samos. and there gave themselves to feasts and solace. For as all the kings, princes, and commonalties, people, and cities, from Syria unto the marrishes Maeotides , and from the Armenians to the Illyrians, were sent unto, to send and bring all munition and warlike preparation they could:
        even so all players, minstrels, tumblers, fools, and festers,
        were commanded to assemble in the ile  of Samos.
So that, where in manner all the world in every place was full of lamentations, sighs, and tears, only in this ile  of Samos there was nothing for many days' space but singing and piping, and all the theatre full of these common players, minstrels, and singing -men. Besides all this, every city sent an ox thither to sacrifice, and kings did strive one with another who should make the noblest feasts, and give the richest gifts. So that [p. 204] every man said, "What can they do more for joy of victory, if they win the battle, when they make already such sumptuous feasts at the beginning of the war ?" 

II. in Pass., [ton monochordon kanona] parechein tais aisthêsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, Ptol.Harm.2.12: metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelômenoi k
III. c. acc. rei,
play on the flute, ta mêtrôia Duris 16 J.:--Pass., to have played to one as an accompaniment on the flute,

Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, Book 14
book 14, chapter 35: ... estin, ho men gar hēdistos Anakreōn legei pou: psallō d' eikosi khordaisi magadin ekhōn, ō Leukaspi, su
But some people raise a question how, as the magadis did not exist in the time of Anacreon (for instruments with many strings were never seen till after his time), Anacreon can possibly mention it, as he does when he says-
      I hold my magadis and sing,
      Striking [psallō] loud the twentieth string,
      O Leucaspis.
But Poseidonius is ignorant that the magadis is an ancient instrument, though Pindarus says plainly enough that Terpander invented the barbitos to correspond to, and answer the pectis in use among the Lydians-
      The sweet responsive lyre
      Which long ago the Lesbian bard,
      Terpander, did invent, sweet ornament
      To the luxurious Lydian feasts, when he
      Heard the high-toned pectis.
However, Diogenes the tragic poet represents the pectis as differing from the magadis; for in his Semele he says-
      And now I hear the turban-wearing women,
      Votaries of the Asiatic Cybele,
      The wealthy Phrygians' daughters, loudly sounding
      With drums, and bull-roarers, and brazen-clashing
      Cymbals, their hands each striking in concert,
      Pour forth a wise and healing hymn to the gods.
 Likewise the Lydian and the Bactrian maids
      Who dwell beside the Halys, loudly worship
      The Tmolian goddess Artemis, who loves
      The laurel shade of the thick leafy grove,
      Striking the clear three-cornered pectis, and
      Raising responsive tunes upon the magadis,
      While flutes in Persian manner neatly joined
      Accompany the chorus.
p 116 O. E. Payne Catiline as his approved example

O.E. Payne p. 116 40 B.C. C. Crispi Sallust (Cati. XXV., II)

Sal. Cat. 25 In the number of those ladies was Sempronia, a woman who had committed many crimes with the spirit of a man. In birth and beauty, in her husband and her children, she was extremely fortunate; she was skilled in Greek and Roman literature; she could sing, play, and dance, [
Psallere, saltare] with greater elegance than became a woman of virtue
Psallo can be USED to Play a harp AND sing.  However, it is never so used in the assembly

docta, psallere [et] saltare
Sing, play, and dance] “Psallere, saltare.”  in the same account Cicero usles  saltare et cantare, these accomplishments were hardly regarded as respectable by the better classes.

Catiline was NOT a Greek

Canto , would have been used to sing and PLAY a Musical instrument I. Neutr., to produce melodious sounds (by the voice or an instrument), to sound, sing, play
C. Transf., of instruments, to sound, resound: “pastoris bucina cantat,Prop. 4 (5), 10, 30.cantabat fanis, cantabat tibia ludis,Ov. F. 6, 659 sq.—  III. In the lang. of religion, as v. n. or a., to use enchantments, charms, incantations, to enchant, to charm,
B. To call forth, produce by charms: “et chelydris cantare soporem,Sil. 8, 498: “cantata umbra,Luc. 6, 767.

The Latin does not use CANTO in Ephesians 5:19
19 lalountes heautois psalmois kai humnois kai ōdais pneumatikais, adontes kai psallontes kardia humōn kuriō,
Adontes just means SING or chantwithout instruments: If Adontes is to be accompanied we are so informed.
Adontes pros aulon ē luran sing TO

Lexis and all LOGOS speak words are the Opposite of ODE.
The Rest of The Story Payne and the instrumentalists see as a PATTERN

Sempronia  "and possessed many other accomplishments [instruments] that tend to excite the passions. But nothing was ever less valued by her than honor or chastity. Whether she was more prodigal of her money or her reputation, it would have been difficult to decide. Her desires were so ardent that she oftener made advances to the other sex than waited for solicitation. She had frequently, before this period, forfeited her word, forsworn debts, been privy to murder, and hurried into the utmost excesses by her extravagance and poverty. But her abilities were by no means despicable; she could compose verses, jest, and join in conversation either modest, tender, or licentious. In a word, she was distinguished by much refinement of wit, and much grace of expression.

Sal. Cat. 24 At this period, too, he is said to have attached to his cause great numbers of men of all classes, and some women, who had, in their earlier days, supported an expensive life by the price of their beauty, but who, when age had lessened their gains but not their extravagance, had contracted heavy debts. By the influence of these females, Catiline hoped to gain over the slaves in Rome, to get the city set on fire, and either to secure the support of their husbands or take away their lives
Cicero Catiline 2.10.22
There is a last class, last not only in number but in the sort of men and in their way of life; the especial body-guard of Catiline, of his levying; yes, the friends of his embraces and of his bosom; whom you see with carefully combed hair, glossy, beardless, or with well-trimmed beards; with tunics with sleeves, or reaching to the ankles; clothed with veils, not with robes; all the industry of whose life, all the labour of whose watchfulness, is expended in suppers lasting till daybreak.

2.10.23  In these bands are all the gamblers, all the adulterers, all the unclean and shameless citizens. These boys, so witty and delicate, have learnt not only to love and to be loved, not only to sing and to dance, but also to brandish daggers and to administer poisons; and unless they are driven out, unless they die, even should Catiline die, I warn you that the school [sēmĭnārĭus] of Catiline would exist in the republic. But what do those wretches want? Are they going to take their wives with them to the camp? how can they do without them, especially in these nights? and how will they endure the Apennines, and these frosts, and this snow? unless they think that they will bear the winter more easily because they have been in the habit of dancing naked at their feasts. O war much to be dreaded, when Catiline is going to have his bodyguard of prostitutes!

Notes commentary
imberbis: a mark of effeminacy; bene barbatos, full-bearded, doubtless a military affectation, as, until lately, the wearing of a mustache.
velis, veils, rather than the substantial toga, which was of unbleached wool. The whole description suggests foppishness and effeminacy.
saltare et cantare, these accomplishments were hardly regarded as respectable by the better classes.  
Page 116 Strabo I.2.3

Plutarch says that psallein had not ceased to mean to play a musical instrument, it is the veriest nonsense to longer pretend that had don so when the New Testament ws written.

Plutarch said no such thing.
Even the musicians teach how to play the harp [psallein], and the lyre and the fllute, lay claim to the same excellence."
Psallein MEANS to play harp or lyre but NEVER a wind or percussion instrument. The word is not PSALLO
Strab. 1.2.3 The [Stoics] of our day affirm that the only wise man is the poet. On this account the earliest lessons which the citizens of Greece convey to their children are from the poets;  Nay, even the professors of music, who give lessons  [di^daskō]
        on the harp -[
mousikoi psallein],
        lyre -[
lurizein  play on the lyre, “poiēmata],
pipe  [auleō  play on the flute,Phrugion aulēsen melos
ho Bakkheios rhuthmos ēuleito
-sophos  A.skilled in any handicraft or art, clever. mostly of poets and musicians, Pi.O.1.9, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. E.IT1238

Scribes and Pharisees are called hyoocrites: In Ezekiel 33 performance preaching, singing, playing instruments.

God HIDES from the WISE or sophists: speakers, singers and instrument players.

There will be NO wise or sophists in the School of Christ.
lay claim to our consideration on the same account, since they say that [the accomplishments which they teach are calculated to form and improve the character. It is not only among the Pythagoreans that one hears this claim supported, for Aristoxenus is of that opinion, and Homer too regarded the bards
aoidos a^, ho, (aeidō) A.singer, minstrel,
        enchanter  bard, eunoukhos, Hsch.; cf. doidos
as amongst the wisest of mankind. [Performers were called vulgar]

Of this number was the guardian of Clytemnestra, ‘to whom the son of Atreus, when he set out for Troy, gave earnest charge to preserve his wife,’ whom Ægisthus was unable to seduce, until ‘leading the bard to a desert island, he left him,’ and then

“ The queen he led, not willing less than he,
To his own mansion.3
As far as this goes, Eratosthenes, you are right enough; not so, however, when you not only deny that Homer was possessed of these vast acquirements, but represent poetry in general as a tissue of old wives' fables, where, to use your own expression, every thing thought likely to amuse is cooked up. I ask, is it of no value to the auditors of the poets to be made acquainted with [the history of] different countries, with strategy, agriculture, and rhetoric, and suchlike things, which the lecture generally contains.
p 122 O. E. Payne 

Payne is upset that Kurfees says that PSALLO is translated as SING.  In fact it is.  Payne doesn't grasp that psallo means to PLUCK and does not included the name of anything to be PLUCKED.  The translaters understood that Alexander was PLUCKING (psallo) the HARP STRINGS.  Psallo does not INCLUDE  the harp strings and therefor a different form is used.
"Thank of Alexander the conqueror "plucking" the vocal chords with a master touch, or, to use the definition deduced from Milligan by M.C.Kurfees, "plucking the chords of the heart":  He who can read "singing"" into the above can read "sprinkle" into "buried in baptism."
However, Kurfees does not say that the pervert, Alexander was SINGING.  It is proper to use psallo if you are plucking a bow string, a harp string or the pubic hair of a boy lover.  However, WHAT is to be plucked is always named.  OTHERWISE, Payne would have the act of plucking the bow string to send forth a singing arrow into a litteral heart.  It may be blasphemy to say that Paul and the Spirit of Christ were not smart to use a word which MEANS to "Pluck a Harp."  Paul said to psallo IN THE HEART.  In Colossians 3:16 Paul used the word GRACE which means the "divine influence in the heart" of what one is taught.

Even a simple simon would understand Paul to  Command: SPEAKING psalms, hymngs, spiritual songs (that which is written for our LEARNING: not performing]
        Command: Odeing and twanging IN THE HEART (a Place-

The man who was dying blessed me; I made the widow's heart sing. Jb.29:13

So my heart laments for Moab like a flute;
it laments
like a flute for the men of Kir Hareseth. The wealth they acquired is gone. Je.48:36

My heart laments for Moab like a harp,
inmost being for Kir Hareseth. Is.16:11

And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord Luke 1:46
And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. Lu.1:47

Acts 2:25 For David speaketh concerning him,
I foresaw the Lord always before my face,
         for he is on my right hand, that I should not be moved:
Ac.2:26 Therefore did my heart rejoice [internal]
        and my
tongue was glad;                   [external]
        moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope:

In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit,                                  [internal]
and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth,    [
that thou hast hid these things from the wise [Sophists: speakers, singers, instrument players]
and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes:
even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight. Lu.10:21

Plautus, Curculio CAPPADOX My spleen is killing me, my reins are in torment, my lungs are being torn asunder, my liver is being tortured, my heart-strings are giving way, all my intestines are in pain.

Hecuba Alas! a dreadful trial is near, it seems, [230] full of mourning, rich in tears. Yes, I too escaped death where death had been my due, and Zeus did not destroy me but is still preserving my life, that I may witness in my misery fresh sorrows surpassing all before. But if the bond may ask the free of things that do not GRIEVE them or WRENCH their heart-strings, you ought to speak in answer to my questions and I ought to hear what you have to say.  
Plutarch, Pericles Tom Burgess uses Pericles to authorize PLUCKING-in church, yet.
O.E.Payne agrees
: Apparently it is better to pluck harp strings to seduce a young man whose hairs had been plucked than to SPEAK for learning and "make the harp strings sing"-- a common understanding.

Plutarch, Lives Pericles 1 [4] Such objects are to be found in virtuous deeds; these implant in those who search them out a great and zealous eagerness which leads to imitation. In other cases, admiration of the deed is not immediately accompanied by an impulse to do it. Nay, many times, on the contrary, while we delight in the work, we despise the workman

as, for instance, in the case of perfumes and dyes; we take a delight in them

but dyers and perfumers we regard as illiberal and vulgar folk.

[5] Therefore it was a fine saying of Antisthenes, when he heard that Ismenias was an excellent piper:
all' anthrōpos,’ ephē, ‘mokhthēros: [wicked, knavish, rascally, perverse]: ou gar an houtō spoudaios ēn aulētēs

"But he's a worthless man," said he, "otherwise he wouldn't be so good a piper."

And so Philip [Philip of Macedon, to Alexander.] once said to his son, who, as the wine went round, plucked the strings charmingly and skilfully, "Art not ashamed to pluck the strings so well?" It is enough, surely, if a king have leisure to hear others pluck the strings, and he pays great deference to the Muses if he be but a spectator of such contests.
He didn't say PLUCK but "pluck the STRINGS". Paul commanded that we PLUCK the heart strings.

Useless barbarian phōn-ē , , battle-cry of an army, the cries of market-people, 4. of sounds made by inanimate objects, mostly Poet., “kerkidos ph.S.Fr.595; “suriggōnE.Tr.127 (lyr.); “aulōn”  loud talk, bragging

Rather: Plut. Per. 2 Labour with one's own hands on lowly tasks gives witness, in the toil thus expended on useless things, to one's own indifference to higher things...
     The men were alike in their virtues, and more especially in their gentleness and rectitude, and by their ability to endure the follies of their peoples and of their colleagues in office, they proved of the greatest service to their countries. But whether I aim correctly at the proper mark must be decided from what I have written

p 124-125 O. E. Payne 

85 A.D. Plutarch (Alex 67)
"the frequent strains of pipe and flute, of songs (odes) and lyre music (psalou). P. 125 "To enable the reader to compare, I place the above, and an excerpt from the apostle side by side, with an admonition from Hamleg: "Look here upon this picture--and then on this."
Paul -- A.D. 64:
Plutarch -- A.D. 85:
Payne: Speaking one to another in psalmos [twitching with the fingers] and humnos and spiritual ode,

adontes and psallontes with your heart to the Lord Eph. 5:19

pollē de mousa suriggōn kai aulōn ōdēs te kai psalmou kai bakkheias gunaikōn kateikhe panta topon,
Plutarch: Accordingly, after refreshing his forces here, he set out and marched for seven days through Carmania in a revelling rout.

The frequent strains of pipe and flute, of songes [odes]

and lyre music [psalmou] -- Alex 67
Ephesians 5:15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,
Ephesians 5:16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.
Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is.
conveying the rest of his friends and commanders, who were all garlanded and drinking.

Not a shield was to be seen, not a helmet, not a spear, but along
Paul:  Ephesians 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit;  [Word=Spirit John 6:63]
the whole march with cups and drinking-horns and flagons the soldiers kept dipping wine from huge casks and mixing-bowls and pledging one another others lying down;
Ephesians 5:19 Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody IN your heart to the Lord; while pipes and flutes, stringed instruments AND song, and revelling cries of women, filled every place with abundant music.
19 lalountes heautois psalmois kai humnois kai ōdais pneumatikais, adontes kai psallontes kardia humōn kuriō, pollē de mousa suriggōn kai aulōn ōdēs te kai psalmou kai bakkheias gunaikōn kateikhe panta topon,
1Corinthians 14:34 Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.

1Timothy 2:12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.
gu^naikoō ,
A.make effeminate, Ph.2.21 :—Pass., Hp.Epid.6.8.32; “parthenos oudepote gunaikoumenē

katekhō , gain possession of, be master of, possess, occupy, esp.of rulers,
It is a fact that ALL of the 1. plucking and 2. a and 3. harp are derived from sexual perversion.

Plut. Alex. 67.1 Accordingly, after refreshing his forces here, he set out and marched for seven days through Carmania in a revelling rout. He himself was conveyed slowly along by eight horses, while he feasted day and night continuously with his companions on a dais built upon a lofty and conspicuous scaffolding of oblong shape; and waggons without number followed, some with purple and embroidered canopies, others protected from the sun by boughs of trees which were kept fresh and green, conveying the rest of his friends and commanders, who were all garlanded and drinking.
[2] Not a shield was to be seen, not a helmet, not a spear, but along the whole march with cups and drinking-horns and flagons the soldiers kept dipping wine from huge casks and mixing-bowls and pledging one another, some as they marched along, others lying down; while pipes and flutes, stringed instruments and song, and revelling cries of women, filled every place with abundant music.
[3] Then, upon this disordered and straggling procession there followed also the sports of bacchanalian license, as though Bacchus himself were present and conducting the revel. 1 Moreover, when he came to the royal palace of Gedrosia, he once more gave his army time for rest and held high festival.

1 According to Arrian ( Anab. vi. 28, 1 f), this bacchanalian procession through Carmania rests on no credible authority.
[426] To recompense his soldiers for their recent distress, the king conducted them for seven days in drunken bacchanalian [new wineskins] procession through Karmania, himself and all his friends taking part in the revelry; an imitation of the jovial festivity and triumph with which the god Dionysus had marched back from the conquest of India. (Grote's 'History of Greece,' part ii. ch. xciv.)

Psalms 25:2 O my God, I trust in thee: let me not be ashamed, let not mine enemies triumph over me.
Psalms 41:11 By this I know that thou favourest me, because mine enemy doth not triumph over me.
Judas would try to Triumph Over Messiah: the Judas Bag was attached to a flute case.  This is the alarm or triumph over Christ outlawed for the Qahal, synagogue, ekklesia or Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness.

Plut. Alex. 67.2  ou kranos, ou sarisan, alla phialais kai rhutois kai thērikleiois para tēn hodon hapasan hoi stratiōtai baptizontes ek pithōn megalōn kai kratērōn allēlois proepinon, hoi men en proagein hama kai badizein, hoi de katakeimenoi. pollē de mousa suriggōn kai aulōn ōdēs te kai psalmou kai bakkheias gunaikōn kateikhe panta topon,

while pipes and flutes, stringed instruments and song, and revelling cries of women, filled every place with abundant music.
Music of pipes and flutes, stringed instrument and song
There is no MUSIC of any kind of instrument in the church

Mousa , A.Olumpiades M., Dios aigiokhoio thugateres” [always daughters!]
kanakhan . . theias antiluron mousas

ka^na^kh-ē A.sharp sound; esp. ring or clang of metal, gnashing of teeth, sound of flutes,
Theias  inspired
, on, A.responsive to the lyre or like that of the lyre

If I speak with the languages of men and of angels, but don't have love, I have become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal.
1Corinthians 13:1 Though I speak with the tongues
        of men and of angels,               (condemned)
        and have not charity, (Grace)   (condemned)
        I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

La^l-eō, Mark of the Locusts II.  chatter, Opposite. articulate speech, as of locusts, chirp, Theoc.5.34; mesēmbrias lalein tettix (sc. eimi), a very grasshopper to chirp at midday,  III.  of musical sounds, “aulō [flute] laleōTheoc.20.29; “di'aulou [flute] ē salpiggos l.”[trumpet] Arist. Aud.801a29; of Echomagadin lalein sound the magadis,  [double flute]
Bakkh-eia , ,
A.Bacchic frenzy, revelry,Bakkheias kalēsA.Ch.698, cf. E.Ba.232, Arist.Pol.1342b4; hēdonē dous es te B. pesōn (prob. for -eion) E.Ph.21; tēs philosophou manias te kai Bakkheias the madness and frenzy of philosophy, Pl.Smp.218b: in pl., Bacchic orgies, E.Ba. 218,1293.

Plut. Alex. 67.4 We are told, too, that he was once viewing some contests in singing and dancing, being well heated with wine, and that his favourite, Bagoas, won the prize for song and dance, and then, all in his festal array, passed through the theatre and took his seat by Alexander's side; at sight of which the Macedonians clapped their hands and loudly bade the king kiss the victor, until at last he threw his arms about him and kissed him tenderly.

See Tom Burgess Moralia 100: And among the barbarians the Celts also, though they have very beautiful women, enjoy boys more; so that some of them often have two lovers to sleep with on their beds of animal skins. As for the Persians, Herodotus says they learned the use of boys from the Greeks.
        King Alexander also was madly devoted to boys. Dicaearchus, at any rate, in his book On the Sacrifice at Ilium, says that he was so overcome with love for the eunuch Bagoas that, in full view of the entire theatre, he, bending over, caressed Bagoas fondly, and when the audience clapped and shouted in applause, he, nothing loath, again bent over and kissed him...

p 139 O. E. Payne 
Lucian wrote within  a century of the date when Paul wrote
160 A.D. Lucian (The Parasite, 17):
"And the other arts cannot serve their possessor without instruments; for it is impossible to play the flute (aulein[] without a flute, or play the lyre [psllein]without a lyre, or to ride horseback without a horse."

Aren'lt we lucky: the Greek world called sacrificial instrument players PARASITES.  Aulein MEANS to play+the+flute.  If you want to PLAY the flute you must HAVE a flute.
Lucian the Parasite:
17 Other arts, again, are useless to their professor unless he has his plant;
you cannot play [aulein] the flute [aulōn] if you have not one to play;
lyrical music requires a lyre,
Or you cannot play [psallein] a harp without a harp. [luras]
horsemanship a horse.

But of ours one of the excellences and conveniences is that no instrument is required for its exercise.
Other arts we pay, this we are paid, to learn. Further,, while the rest have their teachers, no one teaches sponging, it is a guift from Heaven, as Socrates said of poetry.

Si. Ah, I know nothing about that. But now look here: you22 know how common and mean are the beginnings of the other arts; that of sponging, on the contrary, is noble. Friendship, that theme of the encomiast, [praise singer] is neither more nor less, you will find, than the beginning of sponging.
Lucian is used as PROOF that Psallo DEMANDED plucking a musical instrument.  However, Lucian wrote in Attic Greek because he was a PARASITE and knew how to attract the more educated classes of the Civil and military.

Ar.Eq.522, Hippias (?) in PHib.1.13.24; “koraisMen.Epit.260; “psallein ouk eni aneu lurasLuc.Par.17:
Kore or Core   of maiden-goddesses, however old, as the Eumenides, A.Eu.68, S.OC127 (lyr.); the Phorcids, A.Pr.794; the Sphinx, S.OT508 (lyr.); the Fates, concubine, of a hetaira

You will notice that the word for PLAY the flute is aulein but the flute is the aulon
You will notice that the word for play the harp is not psallo but psallein and the harp is the luras.
Paul did say psallein THE luras: He said psallo in the HEART.  Heart may sound like Harp if you are careless.

Lucian the Parasite17 kai hai men allai tekhnai khōris organōn oudamōs kektēmenō hupēretein dunantai:
oute gar aulein eni khōris aulōn
oute psallein aneu luras
oute hippeuein aneu hippou:
hautē de houtōs estin agathē kai ou bareia tekhnitē, hōste huparkhei kai mēden ekhonti hoplon khrēsthai autē
—Prov., rhaon ē tis an khordēn psēleie 'as easy as falling off a log', Aristid.Or.26(14).31.



The Bible is filled with the antithesis between the performing clergy of all religions using music as the primary tool to fool the foolish by literally changing the thinking power of the mind so that it accepts that which is false if it is presented by the "Muses" or the "Graces."

II. Antithetical Parallelism--The thought of the first line is expressed by an antithesis in the second;
or is counterbalanced by a contrast in the second. This parallelism is very common in the Book of Proverbs:

(a) The tongue of the wise adorneth knowledge,
{BUT} The mouth of the fool blurteth out folly.

Prov., xv, 2.
(b) Soundness of heart is the life of the flesh,
{BUT} Envy is the rot of the bones.
--Proverbs 14:30.

The thoughts of the righteous are right,
BUT the counsels of the wicked are deceitful. Proverbs 12:5 (NKJV)

Proverbs 15:14 The heart of him that hath understanding seeketh knowledge:
        {BUT} the mouth of fools feedeth on foolishness.

Ephesians 5:7 Be not ye therefore partakers with them.
Ephesians 5:8 For ye were sometimes darkness,
        BUT now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:
Ephesians 5:9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;
     [The WORD is the only TRUTH]
Ephesians 5:10 Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.
Ephesians 5:11 And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness,
         BUT rather reprove them.
Ephesians 5:12 For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.
Ephesians 5:13 BUT all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever doth make manifest is light.
Ephesians 5:14 Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.
Ephesians 5:15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,
Ephesians 5:16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.
Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise,
         BUT understanding what the WILL of the Lord is. [The Word]
Ephesians 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess;
        BUT be filled with the Spirit; [The word of Christ John 6:63]
Ephesians 5:19
        How?    Speaking to yourselves
        What?   in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
        Where? singing and making melody IN your heart to the Lord;
Ephesians 5:20 Giving thanks always for all things
        unto God and the Father
        in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;
Matthew 11:25 At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise [sophos] and prudent [sunetos] , and hast revealed them unto babes.   [sunetos] “dusxunetou xuneton melosId.Ph.1506   I have many swift arrows in the quiver under my arm, [85] arrows that speak to the initiated. But the masses need interpreters.
melos kata melē limb by limb, dismember
Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, aphrōn  A. senseless, of statues, Colossians 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom;
BUT understanding what the WILL of the Lord is. John 6:63a It is the spirit that quickeneth;
the flesh [sarx] profiteth nothing: 
Ephesians 5:18 And be not saturated with wine,  wherein is excess;
      [Excess is  asōtia, prodigality, profligacy, Ep.Eph. 5.18 revel
    Plat. Rep. 560e  and purged of all these the soul of the youth that they have thus possessed and occupied, and whom they are initiating with these magnificent and costly rites,  they proceed to lead home from exile insolence and anarchy and prodigality and shamelessness, resplendent in a great attendant choir and crowned with garlands, and in celebration of their praises they euphemistically denominate insolence ‘good breeding,’ licence ‘liberty,’ prodigality ‘magnificence,’
sarx , the flesh, as the seat of the affections and lusts,  hēdonē, natural order Opposite to to supernatural.
     1Corinthians 1:26 For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise [sophos] men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called:
    1Corinthians 1:27 But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty;

The only "music" word: --khoros choir, band of dancers and singers, sumphōnia kai khoroiEv.Luc.15.25.
kat-auleô A. charm by flute-playing, methuōn kai katauloumenos  drinking wine to the strains of the flute to be piped down, ridiculed sophos  mantis  poets and musicians, Pi.O.1.9, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. en oiōnois, kithara, lawyers or professors
but be filled with the Spirit
[Word of Christ in Col 3:16]
John 6:63b the  WORDS that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.
Ephesians 5:19
How?            Speaking

Where?        to yourselves
Resource?  psalms,hymns, spiritual songs,
      [Rom 15 one mind and one mouth.]

How?           teaching
and admonishing
Where?       one another
Resource? psalms, hymns, spiritual songs,
[Rom 15 that which is written for our learning]
Effect?  singing and making melody
Where? IN your heart 
Effect?    singing with grace
  IN your hearts
Audience?  to the Lord; Audience?  to the Lord.
Ephesians 5:20 Giving thanks always for all things
        unto God and the Father
        in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;
Colossians 3:17 And whatsoever ye do in word or deed,
  do all in the name of the Lord Jesus,
  giving thanks to God and the Father by him.
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
Jesus SPOKE one hymn (as far as we know) and then WENT OUT.  This was a yearly event and "saying the Hallel daily is blasphemous."

One should never claim authority beyond Jesus' promise to be the Head of the Church until He comes again in physical form

O. E. Payne 144
Quoting Professor Heidel 190 A.D. "And it is fitting, before partaking of food, that we should bless thecreator of all; so that in drinking it is suitable to [psallein] praise Him with the harp on partrtaking of His Creatures. For the psalm (psalmos] is a melododious and sober blesssing. The apostle calls the psalm [psalmos] a spiritual song [ode]

Quoting Clement: The paragraph is Chapter IV.-How to Conduct Ourselves at Feasts.  Or OUT OF CHURCH:

In their wars, therefore, the Etruscans use the trumpet, the Arcadians the pipe, the Sicilians the pectides, the Cretans the lyre, the Lacedaemonians the flute, the Thracians the horn, the Egyptians the drum, and the Arabians the cymbal. The one instrument of peace, the Word alone by which we honour God, is what we employ.

We no longer employ the ancient psaltery, and trumpet, and timbrel, and flute,
which those
expert in war and contemners of the fear of God
were wont to make use of also in the choruses at their
festive assemblies;
that by such strains they might
raise their dejected minds.

But let our genial feeling in drinking be twofold, in accordance with the law. For "if thou shalt love the Lord try God," and then "thy neighbour," let its first manifestation be towards God in thanksgiving and psalmody, and the second toward our neighbour in decorous fellowship.

For says the apostle, "Let the Word of the Lord dwell in you richly." And this Word suits and conforms Himself to seasons, to persons, to places.

In the present instance He is a guest with us. For the apostle adds again, "Teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your heart to God." And again, "Whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and His Father." This is our thankful revelry.

And even if you wish to sing and play to the harp or lyre, there is no blame. [104 [Here instrumental music is allowed, though he turns everything into a type.]

"Thou shalt imitate the righteous Hebrew king in his thanksgiving to God. "Rejoice in the Lord, ye righteous; praise is comely to the upright,"  [105 Ps. xxxiii. 1-3.] says the prophecy.

"Confess to the Lord on the harp ; play to Him on the psaltery of ten strings. Sing to Him a new song."

And does not the ten-stringed psaltery indicate the Word Jesus, who is manifested by the element of the decad?

And as it is befitting, before partaking of food, that we should bless the Creator of all; so also in drinking it is suitable to praise Him on partaking of His creatures.  For the psalm is a melodious and sober blessing. The apostle calls the psalm "a spiritual song." 

Clement in  Pedagogue 3

Out of Church.

Such ought those who are consecrated to Christ appear, and frame themselves in their whole life, as they fashion themselves in the church  for the sake of gravity; and to be, not to seem such-so meek, so pious, so loving.

But now I know not how people change their fashions and manners with the place. As they say that polypi, assimilated to the rocks to which they adhere, are in colour such as they; so, laying aside the inspiration of the assembly, after their departure from it, they become like others with whom they associate. Nay, in laying aside the artificial mask of solemnity, they are proved to be what they secretly were.

After having paid reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within [the church] what they have heard. And outside they foolishly amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quavering, occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxication, and all kinds of trash.

They who sing thus, and sing in response, are those who before hymned immortality,-found at last wicked and wickedly singing this most pernicious palinode,

"Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die." But not to-morrow in truth, but already, are these dead to God; burying their dead, that is, sinking themselves down to death. The apostle very firmly assails them. "Be not deceived; neither adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor railers," and whatever else he adds to these, "shall inherit the kingdom of God." 

O. E. Payne 145
AD Peshito Syriac 1 Corinthians 14:15 "I will play (zammer) with the spirit and I will play (zammer) with the understanding also."
1Cor. 14:14 For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful.
1Cor. 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also: I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also.
Zamar never means to play an instrument unless that instrument is named: the word means to sing defined like pruning a vine to "divide or cut up a discourse or cantillation."
However, Psalm 33 does not NAME an instrument. Psalm 71 is a parallel: the psaltery is EVEN THY TRUTH.

Psa. 71:22 I will also praise thee with the psaltery,
even thy truth, O my God: unto thee will I sing with the harp, O thou Holy One of Israel.


Proverbs 15.2  lingua sapientium ornat scientiam os fatuorum ebullit stultitiam


  A. Since the tongue is an organ of speech, a tongue, utterance, speech, language:
2. The tongue or language of a people: “lingua Latina, Graeca,Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10: “Graeca et Latina lingua, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 6: “(Massilia) tam procul a Graecorum regionibus, disciplinis linguāque divisa,
Discī^plīna  instruction, tuition, teaching in the widest sense of the word (for syn.
cf.: ars, litterae, doctrina, scientia, cognitio  all that is taught in the way of instruction, philosophical doctrines, philosophical system
Opposite: 6. The tongue or reed of a flute, Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84.


There was a time when Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians and others could visit congregational meetings because NONE of them would have replaced the Word with Instrumental Performance.  When you pay an organist $5,000.00 a year in the mid 1800's you know that you are in the PERFORMANCE business.
This disunity began when the first melodion was forced into the first church.

Benjamin Franklin 1877

Against the notion that:

7. "Well, the churches generally are going into it, and it is 'a foregone conclusion that they will have and use the organ,' and it is useless to stand against it."
..........No "the churches generally" are not gone into it, nor are they going that way.
..........We do not know the number of churches in the United States;
..........but doubt not that six thousand would be a low enough estimate.

How many of them use the organ in worship? We do not know this with certainty, but probably not more than from [431] one hundred and fifty to two hundred, and certainly not five hundred. [1877]

The organ party is yet small, and would amount to but little, had it not found way into a few places of note and prominence. There are still whole States that have not an organ in the Church.

We think there is not one in use in Canada, not one in Virginia, Tennessee, nor Texas, that we have heard of; scarcely any in Kentucky, West Virginia, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and many other States. The organ is still the exception, not the rule; and the party is small. The main body are true to the great principles of reformation--to the divine purpose of returning to and maintaining, the original practice in all things.

That did not stop the Christian Standard from trying to TAKE the state of Tennessee:  That proves that Churches of Christ had NOT been taken.

Choate/Woodson note that like David Lipscomb, E. G. Sewell worked for the Gospel Advocate to earn a living

and preached for the Woodland Street Church in Nashville. He received little for his preaching. A new building was constructed in 1880 and Sewell was asked to preach there longer and devote more time.

"From the North, where the Society system was deeply imbedded in the churches, people moved into Nashville and many filled the Woodland Street church. By the end of 1882, a woman from Kentucky asked Sewell about forming an auxiliary society to the Christian Woman's Board of Missions. Sewel objected, and gave his reasons.

But as always, when a group in a congregation wants something, and the preacher stands in their way, there is only one thing to do: dismiss the preacher. Sewell was ousted and at the beginning of 1883, W. J. Loos, son of C. L. Loos, president of the Foreign Society, was hired. In the fall of that year young Loos attended the annual convention at Cincinatti, telling them with some embarassment that he was ashamed to admit he was from Tennessee for the churches of his state were doing nothing."

When he returned, Sewell refuted the false charges about Tennessee churches. Loos was check-mated and was replaced later by R. M. Giddens who "fanned the flames of Societyism." 

"The women were soon busily at work to form an auxiliary society. Sewell's pleas to Giddens went unheeded. During the following summer,

the women wrote letters to the churches of the state
asking funds be
sent to them
they could hire a State Evangelist. Before long, plans were laid
        to secure the services of A. I. Myhr.

"Lipscomb had agreed to publish information in the Advocate after being assured that evangelism was the goal. However, Giddens failed to get the work under the Woodland Street elders. J. C. McQuiddy who had helped raise the money and Sewell who was an elder were not consulted about Myhr.

Myhr made his goals clear about promoting the Society and Instrumental music
even though it would divide the churches. Myhr's goal, Lipscome believed, was to
"ostracize, boycott, and starve every preacher that does not APPROVE the society."

J. E. Choate and Adron Doran in The Christian Scholar note that:

In 1890 the first convention was called at Chattanooga to organize the state society. The only churches in the state of Tennessee were those who had already adopted the organ in their worship. The Christian Standard pumped up the news and "it is reported that the brethren in Nashville, Tennessee are desirous of entertaining our National Convention next year."

This of course was just two congregations. A survey showed that out of 2500 members in Nashville, less than one hundred wanted the society.
Lipscomb noted that among the Society people "the Bible is as popular as last year's almanac."

"The supporters of the missionary society organized the Tennessee State Missionary Convention on October 6, 1890, with one purpose in mind, as stated by J. H. Garrison. He said at that time:

"We will take Tennessee for organized mission work...within five years."
Christian Uniont 5. But, strange to say, it has been just at this point where there have been most frequent failures to live up to the high ideal. Instances of this failure are to be seen in the fierce opposition that was at one time waged against the use of instrumental music in public worship. This custom was held by some good brethren to be a violation of the principle that "Where the Scriptures speak, we speak; and where the Scriptures are silent, we are silent." Insisting on FAITH ONLY: This was of course to confound mere matters of method, or of expediency, with matters of faith and loyalty to Jesus Christ.... The same erroneous method of reasoning has been applied to the Sunday-school, to missionary organizations, to certain methods of observing the Lord's Supper, to the Christian Endeavor Society...    But there are other ways in which some have been disloyal to this high ideal. This ideal implies that Christianity consists, as it does, of faith in and devotion to Christ, and is pre-eminently a spiritual religion; that it is a life, rather than a system of doctrine,  Garrison Christian Union

Garrison was promoting that ALL OF CHRISTENDOM be united in a one-world organization to which no one must be disloyal.

He quotes
Rupertus Meldeniu 'In essentials, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity.'"[16] The tract containing this remarkable statement is believed to have appeared in the year 1627 or 1628.

Of course, Garrison considered INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC as Essential enough to justify sowing discord.
The clear proof was that there was NO UNITY when Instrumentalists broke that union and confiscated church property and told people to get over it or get out.  Warlick in 1902 reports the view: You will just submit or get out.
Some other able men came across the Atlantic, including J.H. Garrison, who had been for some years the editor of The Christian Evangelist. In London there were six congregations in the "Christian Association" (the name chosen for the new group) by the year 1888 55 and there were also the churches at Southampton, Chester, Southport, Liverpool and Birkenhead.

David King kept a watchful eye upon all their movements and published reports, and for some years published an occasional "Extra" of his Ecclesiastical Observer, the pages of which he utilised for strong criticism of the new efforts. In the first year's Extra, 1879, he pointed out three innovations in the Southampton Mission, all of which he considered to be wrong:- the use of instrumental music in the worship; open collections; and a choir not confined to the membership.56 Commenting on the Chester Mission, which claimed to have 96 members after one year, he marked, "We dare not do evil that good may come."57

A. I. Myhr was dispatched to Tennessee to head the new state society despite the protestation of David Lipscomb that Tennessee was not a destitute mission territory. Myhr and his supporters moved resolutely ahead to accomplish their mission.

"Their efforts met with some success and the intent was clear. Myhr was aggressive and abrasive in his operations. His actions were of such a nature, in promoting the missionary society, that he came under the direct attack of E. G. Sewel and David Lipscomb. And as later event proved, Myhr was no match for Lipscomb and the Gospel Advocate.

In 1902 the church at Newbern was taken over by society and organ people. The church, against Lipscomb's advice, sued to retain the property. Of course the society could muster a majority and won the lawsuit. The decision was handed down in 1905 that the trouble did not warrant the intrusion of the courts:

"The pro-organ party had said during the trial that
..........when the organ was used as a part of the worship, it was sinful;
..........but they defended it on the ground that it was an aid to worship.

Lipscomb, on the other hand, had insisted that it was a distinct service,
..........and when persisted in always supersedes and destroys congregational singing.

"The court, passing on this phase of the question,
..........said that the claim that the organ was not a part of the worship was untenable
..........and it could not be considered as merely an aid to worship."

The premise of the pro-organ people that the organ in worship and the Judge's decision that it was part of the worship had the court defining the action as sinful but not a court problem. By defining the instrumental music as "not worship" they looked silly but to do otherwise would have been self-condemnation to a terrible sin.


Debate between  J. Carroll Clark and Joe S Warlick: God authorizes Instrumental Music 1903 at Henderson, Tennessee
One of the most remarkable and historic debates in which Warlick participated was with J. C. Clark, November, 1903, in Henderson, Tennessee, where the church had been taken over by the digressives and the instrument installed. J. C. Clark, of Christian Church fame, was campaigning in West Tennessee, literally bombarding the churches on the instrumental music issue, an innovation threat to all the churches of Christ west of the Tennessee River. Through the solicitation of two young professors who were notable in the effort to stay the tide of digression—A. G. Freed and N. B. Hardeman—Joe Warlick was brought from Texas to Henderson to debate Clark. This debate stopped the music movement and had it not been held then, the history of churches in West Tennessee would have been very different. This debate saved the church from being swept into the Christian church movement.
That means that Churches of Christ were never IN the Christian Church Movement.

Doesn't that mean that the claim that churches of Christ SECTED OUT of the Christian Churches which were right to SECT out of the Disciples in 1927 is a falsehood INTENDED to continue the drum beat of deliberate discord.  Christians don't do that: only organized institutions and publishers do that "seeing godliness as a means of financial gain." It happens in Churches of Christ by men seeking to cut out TURF for themselves.
Clark p. 16 If I do not play, is it any of my business if another does?  Can I not hymn my praise, though another acts unlawfully If I stand there and am singing one her is playing a harp, does that interfere with my worship of Go? Not if I am worshiping as I should. What have they to do with my worship of god?  The whole thing comes from a devilish, domineering spirit, which, instead of worshiping God, has taken God's seat in judgment to control the praise others might bring  It is well enough to teach them: but "rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft and stubborness is as iniquity and idolatry." (1 Slam. 15:23)

Of course, no one in history did not know that you cannot do two things at the same time: worship IN THE SPIRIT is defined uniquely as giving attendance to the Word of Christ.  You cannot give attention to the WORD of Christ while someone is playing a harp.  Your brain works it's heart out trying to keep track of every buzz or clang around it: that disables the rational or spiritual nature.  No one was so foolish that the concept of the SERPENT from BRASS or bell metal absolutely takes the mind captive and allows them to fill it with falsehood or cause the worshiper to obey the LAW OF SILENCE which would be witchcraft-induced extortion.

V. That in the distinction made by Paul between hymns and psalms he authorized the use of instrumental music in the worship of the church.

A Psalm is a poem: a large number warrior attack chants. 
The name of psaltery entered Christian literature in the 3rd century B.C. translation of the Old Testament called the Septuagint where, in the Psalms, nebel was translated psalterion. Thus, Nebuchadnezzar's idolatrous ensemble included the Aramic psantria. Notice, also, that the book of Psalms has also become known as the Psalter (or psalterium), from the hymns sung with this harp. Source

So, it was the translators of the Septuatint who used the "Psa" based words knowing fully well that in the Greek world the message was making war or making perverted sex.  Not all of the book of psalms are psalms

Psalmos also appears in the LXX as equivalent to the Hebrew word neginah [5058]. This Hebrew term is used to describe a wide variety of songs. Neginah is translated by psalmos in Lam 3:14 (song), in Lam 5:14 (music) and in Ps 69:12 (song). It is striking to observe that in the LXX translation of Lam 3:14 and Ps 69:12, psalmos, or its verbal form, is used for songs that are not only uninspired but are in fact the product of the wicked, even drunkards, who mocked God and His word. The Hebrew term neginah is used elsewhere in the Hebrew Scriptures of: the songs of the wicked, Job 30:9 (song); the inspired praise of God, Psalm 61 title (Neginah-a song performed on a stringed instrument); and the uninspired praisd of the Lord composed by King Hezekiah, Is 38:20 (my songs).

-Psalmos , A. twitching or twanging with the fingers,  a BOWpsalmoi toxōn E.Ion173 (lyr.);
        “toxērei psalmō toxeusasId.HF1064 (lyr.)
II. mostly of musical strings, “pēktidōn psalmois krekon humnon” Aret.CA1.1.
2. the SOUND of the cithara or harp, Pi.Fr.125, cf. Phryn.Trag.11; “psalmos d' alalazei(anap.); there were contests in to psallein,
3. later, song sung to the harp, psalm, LXX 2 Ki.23.1,
al., Ep.Eph.5.19; “biblos psalmōnEv.Luc.20.42.

Sing TO A harp is never Psallo: Psal-tos , ē, on, A. sung to the harp,

Ala^l-azō  : (formed from the cry alalai): —raise the war-cry, Enualiō ēlalaxan
2. [select] generally, cry, shout aloud, Pi.l.c., E.El.855; esp. in orgiastic rites, A.Fr.57; of Bacchus and Bacchae, E.Ba.593 (in Med.), 1133, etc.; “ōloluxan hai gunaikes, ēlalaxan de hoi andres” 

II. rarely also of other sounds than the voice, sound loudly, “psalmos d' alalazeiA.Fr.57; “kumbalon alalazon1 Ep.Cor.13.1.—Poet. word, used by X. and in late Prose.
You accuse the Spirit OF Christ and Paul with being idiots: you MUST use two words or COMPOUND words to indicate PLAYING and A HARP:  Psallo FORBIDS anything but a STRING or a HAIR. That DESPISES the Word and that is called BLASPHEMY.
Psaō [a_, but always contracted],  II. crumble away, vanish, disappear, S.Tr.678 (s. v. l.). (psaō, psaiō, psauō, psairō, psēkhō, psōkhō,
Psaiō , A. = psaō (q. v.), rub away, grind down
Psal-ma , atos, to, A. tune played on a stringed instrument, 
Psal-mizō , A. sing psalms, and psal-mistēs , ou, ho, psalmist
Paul said to SPEAK psalms
Psalmokha^rēs , es, A. delighting in harp-playing, of Apollo,
Psalmōd-ia , A. singing to the harp,
Psalmōd-os , ho, A. psalmist, LXX Si.47.9 cod.Sin., 50.18.
Psal-tērion , to, A. stringed instrument, psaltery, harp,trigōna ps.Arist.Pr.919b12, cf. Hippias(?) in PHib.1.13.31, Apollod. ap. Ath.14.636f, Thphr.HP5.7.6, LXX Ge.4.21, al.
Psal-tēs , ou, ho,A. harper, Men.495, Hippias (?) in PHib.1.13.7, 25, Macho ap.Ath.8.348f, LXX 1 Es.5.42, Plu.2.67f, 223f, cf. “kitharistēs ē ps.SIG578.15 (Teos, ii B. C.); epith. of Apollo, AP9.525.24. [Oxyt. in Att., parox. in Hellenistic Gr., Choerob. in Theod.1.187H.]
Psal-tikos , ē, on, A. of or for harp playing, ps. organon a stringed instrument, Ath.14.634f (of the magadis; andra psaltikēn agathon a good harpist, Ael. ap. Ar.Byz.Epit.84.8.
Psal-tos , ē, on, A. sung to the harp, sung of, LXX Ps.118(119).54.
Psal-tria , , A. female harper, Pl.Prt. 347d, Ion Trag.22, Arist.Ath.50.2, Men.319.4, Plu.Caes.10, al.
Psaltōd-eō , A. sing to the harp, LXX 2 Ch.5.13.
Psaltōd-os , on, A. = psalmōdos, ib.1 Ch.9.33, 2 Ch.5.12, al., v.l. ib.Si.47.9.
Paul's simple commands
SPEAK (opposite to poetry or music) to one another to educate and comfort
Aeido and Psallo IN the heart directed TO God.

That is because both words speak of smiting, abrading, grinding (psallo-sop) and just making noise with not LOGOS content.  "Melody as tunefulness belongs to the 19th century."  And even now melody limits you to a series of single notes:  a melody in that world might just be one note ^^^   ^^^    .  "Singing" was making a noise as an ancient would hear "churchy" singing as screeching in screaming.  Paul's speak would be to HYMN or in the style of Hebrew cantillation.
Aeidō , .: hence of all kinds of vocal sounds, crow as cocks, Pl.Smp..223c; hoot as owls, Arat.1000; croak as frogs, Arist. Mir.835b3, Thphr.Sign.3.5, etc.; hoi tettiges [LOCUSTS] twang, of the bow-string, 'to crow too soon'  OPPOSITE. logos kalōs rhētheis, [SPEAK]
This COULD NOT be tuneful singing: it simply did not exist then and not appreciated even now unless it has the Voodoo beat.
Warlick: Brother Stark wants to know if, when praying in his closet, an old hen cackles outside, whether he should cease praying and go outside and compel the hen to quit cackling until he has finished his prayer. Of course not in that case. Neither does any one object to the organ playing on the outside when not in the worship. I now ask my brother whether he would continue his prayer if some one should go outside, get that old hen, bring her into his closet, and compel her to cackle while he worshiped, and thus compel him to cackle with her or else cease cackling entirely. He would, no doubt, leave his own closet in the possession to the two intruders. Does he say that he would object? But what could he do? Would not the man reply: "You will just submit or get out. You must not speak where God has not spoken; and I challenge you to show in all the Bible, from Genesis to Revelation, where God has said, `Thou shalt not bring a cackling hen into the sanctuary of the saints;' and, besides, does not David say: `Let everything that has breath praise the Lord?' This chicken has breath; let it praise the Lord?" My brother, how do you like this argument? It is precisely like what you offer in favor of the organ. If there is any difference, it is better than you can find for your proposition (31-32). Truth

Clark: [p. 18] Shall Alexander Campbell... say to the sweet singer or the wonderful musician: "Keep still and let expressive silence muse his praise?"  Shame on such dogmatism, when God has given us such varied talent. Who put the twelfth commandment into God's law, saying: "Thou shalt not have an instrument of music in the congregaton of the saints?" David, the destructive critic, when like the "man of sin," he sits in the temple of God, says: "Thou shalt not." That is the cornerstone of his departure--the foundation of his schism.  Their church is built upon it, and a few old fogies have made it a test of fellowship.  G od will shake their thounder out of them and put some lightning into them one of these days.

Christ in Habakkuk said:

Habakkuk 2:19 Woe unto him that saith to the wood,
        Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach! Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver,
        and there is no breath at all in the midst of it.
Habakkuk 2:20 But the LORD is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him.

TăcĕoI. a. [etym. dub.; perh. root tak-, tvak-, to be or make quiet, content; Sanscr. tucyati, to satisfy;
B  transf., for silere, of animals and things, concr. and abstr., to be still, noiseless, quiet, at rest
nec diu taceat procax locutio,”  plectra dolore tacent; “muta dolore lyra est,id. H. 15, 198:
Stop the self-speaking (Isaiah 58)
Stop the plectrum smiting the LYRE or mental anguish arousal.
Lyra ,  
I.a lute, lyre, a stringed instrument resembling the cithara, fabled to have been invented by Mercury and presented to Apollo, [Abaddon, Apollyon]
Sĭlĕo , ŭi (II. [select] Transf., to be still or quiet (opp. to being in action), to remain inactive, to rest, cease (in class. prose, for the most part only of things; cf. quiesco): et cycnea [Swan song] mele [melody] Phoebeaque [Abaddon, Apollyon] Carmina consimili ratione oppressa silerent,Lucr. 2, 506: “silent diutius Musae Varronis quam solebant,Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2

Silence the
Mūsa , ae, f., = Mousa,
I.a muse, one of the goddesses of poetry, music, and the other liberal arts. The ancients reckoned nine of them, viz.: Clio, the muse of history; Melpomene, of tragedy; Thalia, of comedy; Euterpe, of the flute; Terpsichore, of dancing; Calliope, of epic poetry; Erato, of lyric poetry; Urania, of astronomy; Polyhymnia, of the mimic

Mousa  A.Olumpiades M., Dios aigiokhoio thugateresIl.2.491, [Daughters: whatever the gender]
II. mousa, as Appellat., music, song, “m. stugeraA.Eu.308 (anap.); “euphamosId.Supp.695 (lyr.); “kanakhan . . theias antiluron mousasS.Tr.643 (lyr.); “Aiakō moisan phereinPi.N.3.28; tis hēde mousa; what strain is this
Paul commanded to SPEAK Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs (inspired).  A Hymn is a PRAYER according to the Greeks and Jesus and the apostles SPOKE (Dicto) a hymn.  Paul commands that we SPEAK the Psalms: in Romans 15 the command is to "use one mind and one mouth to teach that which is written for our LEARNING" or Comfort BY the Scriptures.  Singing has always been DISCOMFORTING to a large majority of the population because it is that elevated, feminine style associated with panic.

Paul, understanding the nature of the Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness and the direct commands of Jesus did not call the assembly a WORSHIP SERVICE.

Worship which is conducted in musical rituals comes from the orgies of Orpheus: Gregory Nazianzen notes:

"Nor are these Thracian orgies, from which the word Worship (threskia) is said to be derived; nor rites and mysteries of Orpheus, whom the Greeks admired so much for his wisdom that they devised for him a lyre which draws all things by its music. Nor the tortures of Mithras

The word in the Bible is:

Threskos (g2357) thrace'-kos; prob. from the base of 2360; ceremonious in worship (as demonstrative), i.e. pious: - religious.

Pure Religion is:

James 1:27 Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.

The Qahal, ekklesia, synagogue or church of Christ from the wilderness was only for Rest, Reading and Rehearsing the Word: Speaking the Word and MEDITATING (Mele) in the heart (not musical melody)
VIl. That it is positively commanded by the apostles and thus authorized by the Holy Spirit under the gospel dispensation.  This should end the conroversy--'Where God speaks, we will speak.'
The new mantra by men like Rick Atchley is that the goat and infant instrumental noise by the Jacob-cursed and God-abandoned Levites is now his COMMAND FOR INSTRUMENTAL PRAISE and he warns against DISOBEDIENCE.

Of course, the Greeks understood a HYMN as  a PRAYER: Jesus and the Spostles SPOKE (Dicto) A hymn and went out.  in Ephesians 5 Paul FIRST commanded that they SPEAK psalms, hymns and spiritual songs: these are all types of the BOOK of Psalms.  Psalms were Teaching Psalms telling the history of the Jew in poetic form but NOT metrical: you CANNOT sing the psalms.
This SPEAKING that which is written for our learning is FOR OUR LEARNING.

The word PSALLO has no connection with Instrumental Music: never at any time in recorded history.  WAY down the list, if you smite a lyre string you are not making 'instrumental music.'

The attack was mounted in Tennessee perhaps because of religious journalism fighting over turf: it is clear that the instrumentalists DEMANDED that everyone become INSTRUMENTALISTS or there would be no UNITY. This precipitated the

Summary:  The Boswell-Hardeman Discussion on Psallo June 1923
The Complete Boswell-Hardeman Discussion on Instrumental Music in Worship

It is a fact that the PSALLO FOUNDATION has not a single example meaning "instrumental music."  Only if you smite a harp string (instead of a bow-string or twange a pubic-hair) with your FINGERS and never with a plectrum.  The "plucking" examples of psALLO" are connected with APOLLO (Abaddon, Apollyon).  It is a fact that people are willing to SOW DISCORD and ATTACK godly people based on human comments and NEVER by honestly reading the TEXTS where psallo with the same root as SOP always has an UGLY connotation.  That is why Paul made it perfectly clear that Aoide and Psallo (both sorcery words) is IN THE HEART: The literature and the Bible has numerous examples of "making the heart strings sing." The parallel GRACE means the EFFECTS in the mind and action of SPEAKING that which is written for our learning.

The Debate backfired so the NACC was begun in 1927 as a convention separate from the Disciples.  However, the NACC churches were Disciples until the final straw of RESTRUCTURE in 1968.
Luke 11:49 Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute
The NACC's Instrumental Proof is really built upon the Law of the God-abandoned Civil-Military-Clergy Complex.
Ephesians 2:15 Having abolished in his flesh the enmity,
        even the law of commandments contained in ordinances;
        for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace;
Ephesians 2:16 And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross,
        having slain the enmity thereby:
Ephesians 2:17 And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.
Ephesians 2:18 For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.
Ephesians 2:19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners,
        but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;


God in the Law of Moses commanded ONLY two silver trumpets: these were to be used to send "sure signals" and were excluded in the assembly or Church in the wilderness.  God turned Israel over to worship the Starry Host and gave them Kings in His anger. God abandoned the nation to the Kings, kingdom, army, temple, animal sacrifices and commanded the Levites to PREVENT any godly person from coming near the instrumental noise.

And Solomon told out three score and ten thousand men to bear burdens, and fourscore thousand to hew in the mountain, and three thousand and six hundred to oversee (excel) them. 2Chr 2:2

2Chronicles 10:8 But he forsook the counsel which the old men gave him
        and took counsel with the young men that were brought up with him, that stood before him.
2Chronicles 10:9 And he said unto them, What advice give ye that we may return answer to this people, which have spoken to me, saying, Ease somewhat the yoke that thy father did put upon us?
2Chronicles 10:10 And the young men that were brought up with him spake unto him, saying, Thus shalt thou answer the people that spake unto thee, saying, Thy father made our yoke heavy, but make thou it somewhat lighter for us; thus shalt thou say unto them, My little finger shall be thicker than my father’s loins.
2Chronicles 10:11 For whereas my father put a heavy yoke upon you, I will put more to your yoke: my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.

The Levites were like slave drivers on a plantation: in this case builting a Tyre- or Babylon-like temple which God did not command.

And the men did the work faithfully: and the overseers of them were Jahath and Obadiah, the Levites, of the sons of Merari; and Zechariah and Meshullam, of the sons of the Kohathites, to set it forward; and other of the Levites, all that could skill of instruments [orgănum organon, of musick. [căno] 2Chr.34:12

ŏpus   Meaning WORK.

2Chronicles 29:35 And also the burnt offerings were in abundance, with the fat of the peace offerings, and the drink offerings for every burnt offering. So the service of the house of the LORD was set in order.

H5656 ‛ăbôdâh ‛ăbôdâh ab-o-daw', ab-o-daw' From H5647 ; work of any kind:—act, bondage, + bondservant, effect, labour, ministering (-try), office, service (-ile, -itude), tillage, use, work, X wrought.

Which has the same meaning as:
H11 ’ăbaddôn ab-ad-done' Intensively from H6 ; abstractly a perishing; concretely Hades:—destruction.
Because God had abandoned them to worship the Starry host because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.

Organon , to, (ergon, erdō) A.instrument, implement, tool, for making or doing a thing ; “polemika hopla te kai organaengine of war,
3. musical instrument, Simon.31, f.l. in A.Fr.57.1 ; ho men di' organōn ekēlei anthrōpous, of Marsyas, Pl.Smp.215c ; aneu organōn psilois logois ibid., cf. Plt.268b ; “o. polukhorda Id.R.399c, al.; “met' ōdēs kai tinōn organōn”  of the pipe,


Genesis 4:21 And his brother’s name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
Genesis 4.21 et nomen fratris eius Iubal ipse fuit pater canentium cithara et organo

H8610 tâphaś taw-fas' A primitive root; to manipulate, that is, seize; chiefly to capture, wield; specifically to overlay; figuratively to use unwarrantably:—catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, X surely, surprise, take.
H8611 tôpheth to'-feth From the base of H8608 ; a smiting, that is, (figuratively) contempt:—tabret.
Căno , ; Engl. chanticleer; kuknos, ciconice; Sanscr. kōkas = duck; Engl. cock], orig. v. n., to produce melodious sounds, whether of men or animals;

Ergon , 1   in Il. mostly of works or deeds of war, “polemēia e.Il.2.338, al., Od.12.116 ;
mega e., like mega khrēma, khermadion labe kheiri Tudeidēs, mega e. a monstrous thing, Il.5.303, cf. 20.286 ; phulopidos mega e. a mighty call to arms, 16.208.
Opposite logos,  Logos means THE REGULATIVE PRINCIPLE opposite rhetoric, singing or music.

"Other expressions of popular singing are the working songs, of which the early rabbinic literature speaks with contempt." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

Erdopharmaka taut' erdoisa khereiona mēte ti Kirkas Theoc.2.15: offer sacrifice,erdein..hierois epi bōmois  hierai bēssai Kirkēs 'faery'

Agora a^g, 1. public speaking, gift of speaking, mostly 3. place of assembly, of the agora, hieros k. Il.18.504 ; ho k. tou Zênos tôgoraiou Schwyzer 701 B6 (Erythrae, v B.C.); agoras k. (cf. kukloeis) E.Or.919; of the amphitheatre, D.C.72.19.

-Hieros I. filled with or manifesting divine power, supernatural,  hierai bēssai Kirkēs 'faery', Od.10.275; hi. ēmar, knephas, Il.8.66, 11.194; “phaosHes.Op. 339

Hom. Od. 10.261 [270] “So he spoke, but I answered him, and said:‘Eurylochus, do thou stay here in this place, eating and drinking by the hollow, black ship; but I will go, for strong necessity is laid upon me.’ “So saying, I went up from the ship and the sea. [275] But when, as I went through the sacred glades, I was about to come to the great house of the sorceress, Circe, then Hermes, of the golden wand, met me as I went toward the house, in the likeness of a young man with the first down upon his lip, in whom the charm of youth is fairest.

Kirkēs hixesthai polupharmakou es mega dōma,
polupharmakou paiō  

, 2. title of Apollo (later as epith., “Apollōni PaianiBCH11.94 (Hierocaesarea); “ō basileu P. . . ApollonBMus.Inscr.1151); “ Paiēon' aeidonh.Ap.517, [Aeido]
2. song of triumph after victory, prop. to Apollo, Il.22.391 sq.; “halōsimos p.A.Th.635, etc.; also, battle-song, “paian' ephumnoun semnon Hellēnes” 

4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16.
5. play amorously, “pros allēlousX.Smp.9.2; “meta tinosLXX Ge.26.8; of mares, Arist.HA572a30.
h.Ap.517 So the Cretans followed him to Pytho, marching in time as they chanted the Ie Paean after the manner of the Cretan paean-singers and of those in whose hearts the heavenly Muse has put sweet-voiced song. [520] With tireless feet they approached the ridge and straightway came to Parnassus and the lovely place where they were to dwell honored by many men. There Apollo brought them and showed them his most holy sanctuary and rich temple.
Hal-ōsi^mos , on, (halōnai) A.easy to take or conquer, of places and persons, Hdt.3.153, E.Hel.1622, Th.4.9: metaph., easily beguiled, X. Mem.3.11.11.
II. (halōsis) of or belonging to capture or conquest, paian ha. song of triumph on taking city, A.Th.635; baxis ha. tidings of capture, Ag.10.

Circe daughter of the Sun, sister of Aeetes, an enchantress, turns the companions of Odysseus into beasts: aughter of the Sun and Persé, or Perseïs, one of the ocean-nymphs. Circé is celebrated for her skill in magic arts, and for her knowledge of subtle poisons. Apollod. E.7.12 always associated with 

Magga^n-eia , , A.trickery, esp. of magical arts, Pl.Lg.908d; magganeiai kai epōdai ib.933a; “periapta kai m.Ph.2.267, Gal.11.792; “tēs Kirkēs m.

Epōdē  A. song sung to or over: hence, enchantment, spell,charm for or against.
hetair-os 2. courtesan, Hdt.2.134, Ar.Pl.149, Ath.13.567a,571d, etc.; opp. pornê (a common prostitute), Anaxil.22.1 ; opp. gametê, Philetaer.5 ; Aphroditê he. Apollod.Hist.17.
Homer, Iliad 9.[1] Thus kept the Trojans watch, but the Achaeans were holden of wondrous Panic [Phobus=Apollo], the handmaid [Hetaira] of numbing fear and with grief intolerable were all the noblest stricken. Even as two winds stir up the teeming deep, [5] the North Wind and the West Wind that blow from Thrace, coming suddenly, and forthwith the dark wave reareth itself in crests and casteth much tangle out along the sea; even so were the hearts of the Achaeans rent within their breasts. But the son of Atreus, stricken to the heart with sore grief,
    Phorminx , ingos, hê, A. lyre, freq. in Hom., esp. as the instrument of Apollo, phormingos perikalleos hên ech' Apollôn Il.1.603 , cf. 24.63, Od.17.270, Hes.Sc.203; of Achilles, phrena terpomenon phormingi ligeiêi kalêi daidaleêi Il.9.186 ; with seven strings (after Terpander's time), heptaktupos, heptaglôssos, Pi.P.2.71, N.5.24; antipsallôn elephantodeton ph. Ar.Av.219 (anap.).


Pharmakon [v. sub fin.], to/, A. drug, whether healing or noxious:
3. enchanted potion, philtre: hence, charm, spell, Od.4.220 sq., Ar.Pl.302, Theoc.2.15, PSI1.64.20 (i B. C.); “pharmakois ton andr' emēnenAr.Th.561; toiauta ekhō ph. such charms have I, Hdt.3.85, cf. Apoc.9.21.

Revelation 9:20 And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:  Musical instruments were idols or homes of idols.
Revelation 9:21 Neither repented they of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their fornication, nor of their thefts.

Epōdē , Ion. and poet. epa^oidē , A.  song sung to or over: hence, enchantment, spell, [A Laded Burden]

II.  apptly., = epōdos11, Poet.Oxy.661.21 (pl.).

Aeidō , .: hence of all kinds of vocal sounds, crow as cocks, Pl.Smp..223c; hoot as owls, Arat.1000; croak as frogs, Arist. Mir.835b3, Thphr.Sign.3.5, etc.; hoi tettiges [LOCUSTS] twang, of the bow-string, 'to crow too soon'  OPPOSITE. logos kalōs rhētheis, [SPEAK]

Brother Stark wants to know if, when praying in his closet, an old hen cackles outside, whether he should cease praying and go outside and compel the hen to quit cackling until he has finished his prayer. Of course not in that case. Neither does any one object to the organ playing on the outside when not in the worship. I now ask my brother whether he would continue his prayer if some one should go outside, get that old hen, bring her into his closet, and compel her to cackle while he worshiped, and thus compel him to cackle with her or else cease cackling entirely. He would, no doubt, leave his own closet in the possession to the two intruders. Does he say that he would object? But what could he do? Would not the man reply: "You will just submit or get out. You must not speak where God has not spoken; and I challenge you to show in all the Bible, from Genesis to Revelation, where God has said, `Thou shalt not bring a cackling hen into the sanctuary of the saints;' and, besides, does not David say: `Let everything that has breath praise the Lord?' This chicken has breath; let it praise the Lord?" My brother, how do you like this argument? It is precisely like what you offer in favor of the organ. If there is any difference, it is better than you can find for your proposition (31-32). Truth
Vĕnēfĭcĭum , ii, n. veneficus.
I.  A poisoning: “de veneficiis accusare,
II. The preparation of magic potions, magic, sorcery: subito totam causam oblitus est: “idque veneficiis et cantionibus Titiniae factum esse dicebat,Cic. Brut. 60, 217; cf.: “quosque veneficiis abstulit illa (Medea) suis,Ov. H. 6, 150; Plin. 18, 6, 8, § 41 sq.; 25, 2, 5, § 10; Petr. 128.
-Cantāmen , ĭnis, n. canto, III.; cf. cano, II.; cantus, II. B., and carmen; lit. a charming with words; hence, abstr. pro concr., I. a spell, charm, magic sentence, incantation (very rare), Prop. 4 (5), 4, 51magicum,” 
Măgĭcus   di magici, that were invoked by incantations (as Pluto, Hecate, Proserpine), linguae,skilled in incantations, Ov. M. 7, 330; Luc. 3, 224: “cantus,Juv. 6, 610: “magicae resonant ubi Memnone chordae,mysterious, “vanitates herbae
Cantĭo , ōnis, f. cano, lit. a singing, playing; hence meton. abstr. pro concr..
I. A song (rare; “mostly ante-class.),Plaut. Stich.  
II. An incantation, charm, spell, Cato, R. R. 160: “subito totam causam oblitus est, idque veneficiis et cantionibus Titiniae factum dicebat,Cic. Brut. 60, 217; App. M. 1, 10, p. 106, 27.
Praecento , I. to sing before, to offer consolation in song: “huic Epicurus praecentet, si potest, cum, etc.,Cic. Fin. 2, 29, 94 

The Chief Musician was the Slave Drive even of free Israelites.

Prae-pōno II. Trop., to set before or above, to prefer:
A. praepŏsĭtus , i, m., a prefect, president, head, chief, overseer, director, commander:
B. In partic., to place or set over as chief, commander, or superintendent, to place at the head of, intrust with the charge or command of; to appoint or depute as

Under Christ there can be no Chief Musician:

Matthew 20:27 And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant:
Matthew 23:11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.

No human can MAKE or FABRICATE any song, sermon, drama or comedy to ASSIST God: that would be pure legalism. FURTHERMORE, the fabricator is being paid when Jesus died to give us the free water of the Word (Isaiah 55 word is spirit) In Isaiah 57 Christ defined the Law of Silence for all DISCIPLES.  He outlawed seeking our own pleasure or speaking our own words (Isaiah 58)

In Isaiah 50 the Spirit OF Christ prophesied the pagan (Jewish) use of music to afflict Jesus.

Jesus made certain that there would be no Prophesiers with Instruments which is soothsaying and the performers are called Primus Parasitus

Prīmus B.  First in rank or station, chief, principal, most excellent, eminent, distinguished, noble   poëtae tradiderunt movisse aliqua circa rhetoricen

pŏēta , ae (POETES poiētēs.
I. In gen., a maker, producer (ante-class.): “nec fallaciam Astutiorem ullus fecit poëta,a contriver, trickster, Plaut. Cas. 5, 1, 7 you are just fit for it,
oratores et poëtae,
versificator quam poëta melior,Quint. 10, 1, 89:
pictoribus atque poëtis Quidlibet audendi semper fuit aequa potestas,
minimoque poëtā,
poëtam in scenā

poi-ētēs , ou, ho, A.maker,mēkhanēmatōn
II. composer of a poem, author,p. kōmōdiasPl.Lg.935e; “p. kainōn [NEW] dramatōn, tragōdiōn ktl.
b. composer of music, Pl.Lg.812d.

Circē [CHURCH], the daughter of the Sun ēs “gramen,” i. e. magical, poisoning, Prop. 2, 1, 53:
sea-nymph, distinguished for her magic arts,

The Absolute MARK of  a School of Christ:

1Peter 4:11 If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God;
        if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth:
        that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ,
        to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
The command of God was that the Levites stand in ranks with harps and swords and EXECUTE any godly person who came near any 'holy' thing or into any 'holy' place.  Therefore, Rick Atchley and the NACC claim that God's ABANDONMENT is their COMMAND.  Maybe so.

Contrary to being built upon the Jacob-Cursed and God-Abandoned Levites as with ALL of the "bible" examples, The Spirit OF Christ spoke through the PROPHETS to repudiate the Civil-Military-Clergy complex which He called robbers and parasites: a sacrificial instrument player IS the meaning of a religious parasite.  As Jesus made the prophecies more certain He commanded what EXCLUDED any of what He called hypocrites: speakers, singers or instrument players OUTLAWED for the church in the wilderness.
Matthew 28:16 Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them.
Matthew 28:17 And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted.
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
        All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name [singular] of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:
        and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

Peter said that Jesus of Nazareth made these prophecies MORE CERTAIN, no one can private interpret or further expound, and anyone who does not "speak that which is WRITTEN for our learning is a false teacher."  Jesus has DIRECTLY LIMITED what goes on in His kingdom which does not come with observation meaning religious observations.  That includes the PROPHETS and prohibiting the Law of Moses or the Laws of the Monarchy written, according to Christ, by "the lying pen of the Scribes."  There is NOTHING else to contribute without becoming a LEGALIST or a blasphemer: Blaspheming the Spirit OF Christ is saying that He taught something He did not.
Ephesians 2:20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;
Ephesians 2:21 In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord:
Ephesians 2:22 In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.
Jesus the Spirit speaking through John who identified the Babylonian Mother of Harlots (Revelation) who was the same SORCERESS identified by ALL religious musicians INTENDING to influence people beyond the Spirit Power Jesus put intoHis words.
Revelation 18:20 Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on HER.
Revelation 18:21 And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.
Revelation 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone [sound of the prostitute] shall be heard no more at all in thee;
Revelation 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.
Revelation 18:24 And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.

-psallō ONLY in a secondary sense
mostly of the strings of musical instruments, play a stringed instrument with the fingers, and not with the plectron, “psēlai kai krouein plēktrō
psa^lōLXX Jd.5.3, 1 Ep.Cor.14.15: aor. “epsēlaPl.Ly. 209b, etc., and in LXXepsa_laPs.9.12,

However, in Scripture you pluck a STRING with your fingers and NEVER with a guitar pick, the scholars knew that it meant to SING or speak. The SPEAKING is always to TEACH or communicate while the SINGING is directed TO GOD and not an audience.
Judges 5:1 Then sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day, SAYING,
Judges 5:3 Hear, O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes;
        I, even I, will SING unto the LORD;
[Psallo or h7891 from 7788 sing travel about as a harlot or merchant which is obviously excluded]
Psalm 9:11 Sing praises to Yahweh, who dwells in Zion, And declare among the people what he has done.
Psalm 9[11] psallite Domino qui habitat in Sion adnuntiate inter gentes studia eius
Praise h2167 striking with the fingers, from 2168 Zamar to trime a vine, prune.
                        touch the strings of an instrument
                        play upon a musical instrument
                        make music
                        accompanied with the voice
                        give praise, sing forth psalms
Sing is translated and never PLAY unless you name an instrument and a melody
1Corinthians 14:13 Wherefore let him that SPEAKETH in an unknown tongue pray that HE may interpret.
la^l-eō , 3. in later writers, = legō, speak, “lalei outhen tōn allōn zōōn plēn anthrōpou
II. chatter, OPPOSITE articulate speech, as of locusts, chirp, grasshopper or LOCUSTS
III. of musical sounds, “aulō [flute] laleōTheoc.20.29; of trees, v.supr.1.2; “di'aulou ē salpiggos [flute and harp] l.Arist. Aud.801a29; of Echo, D.C.74.14: also c.acc. cogn., magadin lalein sound the magadis,[harp] Anaxandr.35.
The churches did not have a PRAYER LEADER as liturgy.  The Churches never prayed OUT LOUD in the assembly. Therefore, the PRAYING is indifidually and not a group effort.

1Corinthians 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit,
        and I will pray with the understanding also:
I will sing [psalō] WITH the spirit, [pneuma breath]
        and I will sing [psalō] WITH the understanding [noos mind] also.

Don't blame the Spirit of Christ or Paul for being an IDIOT: They never say Psalō WITH a Harp.

Psalms 9:11 Sing praises TO the LORD, which dwelleth in Zion:
        declare [speak] among the people his doings.

Plat. Lysis 209b And, I suppose, when you take your lyre, neither your father nor your mother prevents you from tightening or slackening what string you please, or from using your finger [psēla] or your plectrum at will: or do they prevent you?
mousikōtatos ōn khata kheira dikha plēktrou epsalleAth.4.183d
kitharizō, Hdt.1.155,
prin men s' heptatonon psallon (sc. tēn luran)
psallein ouk eni aneu lurasLuc.Par.17:


What was historically, from the Wilderness onward,  Called the Church of Christ (the Rock) and most if not all historic scholars and founders of denominations CONFESSES the one who purchased the Church with His own blood.

Died C. 110 Ignatius to the Ephesians

And if those that corrupt mere human families are condemned to death, how much more shall those suffer everlasting punishment who endeavour to corrupt the Church of Christ, for which the Lord Jesus, the only-begotten Son of God, endured the cross, and submitted to death! Whosoever, "being waxen fat," and "become gross," sets at nought His doctrine, shall go into hell.

In like manner, every one that has received from God the power of distinguishing, and yet follows an unskilful shepherd, and receives a false opinion for the truth, shall be punished.

"What communion hath light with darkness? or Christ with Belial? Or what portion hath he that believeth with an infidel? or the temple of God with idols? " And in like manner say I, what communion hath truth with falsehood? or righteousness with unrighteousness? or true doctrine with that which is false?

Aristotle: Melody Deceives: "Poets also make use of this in inventing words, as a melody "without strings" or "without the lyre"; for they employ epithets from negations, a course which is approved in proportional metaphors..

The form of diction should be neither metrical nor without rhythm.
 If it is metrical, it lacks persuasiveness, for it appears artificial, and at the same time it distracts the hearer's attention, since it sets him on the watch for the recurrence of such and such a cadence..

According to Philo, the gods of the pagans exploit this weakness of men. For the sake of a better effect, and with the intention of more easily cheating their devotes, that they have set their lies to melodies, rhythms and meters.." Click for more.

J. W. McGarvey on the Organ

Nor does God permit us to drive some of the brethren from the church

to avoid doing what they believe to be sinful.
To do so
is to cause division in a way that God condemns. and if we thus sin,
he demands that
we be marked and avoided as schismatics.

So it matters not how the effort may result, it condemns us in the sight of God. If the brethren submit and debauch their conscience by doing that which they believe to be wrong, we sin against them and against Christ, says Paul. (1 Cor. 8: 12.)

If we drive them from the church which they have to leave to avoid condemning themselves in this way,

we are guilty of the sin of causing division,
to which we have referred.

In any event, therefore, our conduct is just as positively forbidden as is blasphemy or adultery.
O.E.Payne p 295

About the time the New Testament ws written, it (psallo) came to have the meaning of 'to sing to the music of the harp.' to celebrate the praise of God.  Examples--Eph. 5:19; Jas 5:13.

James 5:13 Is any among you afflicted? let him pray. Is any merry? let him sing psalms.

"The noun psalmos has  a similar meaning. In Euripides, Pindar, Aeschylus, in the Septuatint , and in Ephesians 5:19 and Col 3:16, it means  striking or twanging, and specificially, in Romans. 15:9 and in 1 Cor 14:15, striking the chords of a Musical instrument.

Psallo never means to sing TO a harp.  Psallo never means to strike a cord: when one plucks a string with the FINGER and never with a PLECTRUM it makes a "sound" but not music.
Eph. 6:12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers,  against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. 
Eph. 6:13 Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. 

We do NOT wrestle against flesh and blood:

Pallô, poise, sway a missile before it is thrown, sway, brandish, she drove it furiously, tripped on the shield-rim, quiver, leap, esp. in fearII. Pass., swing, dash oneself, Pi.N.5.21; vibrate, of strings, Pl.Phd.94c (psalloito ap. Stob.);  leap, bound, quiver, quake, phrena deimati pallôn S.OT153 (lyr.);

Pindar, Nemean 5[19] But if it is resolved to praise wealth, or the strength of hands, or iron war, [20] let someone mark off a long jump for me from this point. I have a light spring in my knees, and eagles swoop over the sea. The most beautiful chorus of Muses sang gladly for the Aeacids on Mt. Pelion, and among them Apollo, [Abaddon, Apollyon] sweeping the seven-tongued lyre with a golden plectrum, [25] led all types of strains. And the Muses  [sorcerers Rev 18]  began with a prelude to Zeus, then sang first of divine Thetis and of Peleus; how Hippolyte, the opulent daughter of Cretheus, wanted to trap him with deceit. With elaborate planning she persuaded her husband, the watcher of the Magnesians, to be a partner in her plot, and she forged a false story; [30] that Peleus had made an attempt on her [31] in Acastus' own bed. But the opposite was true; for she often begged him and coaxed him with all her heart, but her reckless words provoked his temper.

Euripides, Bacchae: Already like fire does this insolence of the Bacchae blaze up, a great reproach for the Hellenes. [780]  But we must not hesitate. Go to the Electran gates, bid all the shield-bearers and riders of swift-footed horses to assemble, as well as all who brandish the light shield and pluck bowstrings with their hands, so that we can make an assault against [785]  the Bacchae. For it is indeed too much if we suffer what we are suffering at the hands of women.

Strabo 10:3.16. Also resembling these rites are the Cotytian and the Bendideian rites practiced among the Thracians, among whom the Orphic rites had their beginning. Now the Cotys who is worshipped among the Edonians, and also the instruments used in her rites, are mentioned by Aeschylus; for he says,“O adorable Cotys among the Edonians, and ye who hold mountain-ranging instruments 
”and he mentions immediately afterwards the attendants of Dionysus:“ one, holding in his hands the bombyces,
         toilsome work of the turner's chisel,
        fills full the fingered melody,
        the call that brings on frenzy,
        while another causes to resound the bronze-bound cotylae (clanging cymbal)
 ”and again,“stringed instruments raise their shrill cry, and frightful mimickers from some place unseen bellow like bulls, and the semblance of drums, as of subterranean thunder, rolls along, a terrifying sound;

O.E.Payne p 315

p. 315 Prof. I.P.Postgate I feel clear that in the period of the Greek in which the New Testament was written, the Greek, psallo, generally means "sing and play': and therefore in Rom 15:9; 1 Corinthians 14:15, etc, the playing of an instrumental accompaniment is not precluded.  The English version 'sing' may in fact be viewed as as an incomplete rendering, excuseable from the fact  that we have no word suitable to render the complete notion of 'singing and playing' contained in the Greek..

That is absolutely false: ALL forms of playing and singing with a harp use TWO words or COMPOUND words.
   The Logos speak words such as LEXIS is the OPPOSITE to ODE and Psallo never means musical melody: Paul says that psallo is IN the heart meaning that it is silent. That is logical because the only once a week assembly was to read and understand the Word of God only.

Psallo never meant to SING and PLAY at any time in recorded history: Psao form of words were introduced into the Septuagint because they represented the idolatrous or warfare meaning of many Psalms.
Psallo meas to pluck or smite with the fingers but NEVER with a plectrum. If one plucks the hair of a young man Alexander might be plucking his lyre strings to seduce him.  If one plucks a bow string to make it twang to send forth a singing arrow then men like Apollon intended to "grind to bits" the heart of his enemy. Psallo is used of singing in the sense of (1) making the heart strings sing (silently) or (2) shooting forth a hymn.

God is not dumb: if He remotely intended that people sing and play a harp in His School of His Word He had two options:

1) In the psalms psallo or zamar means to pluck and the instrument must be named.
2) God and Paul understood that when playing or singing are intended there is ALWAYS a compound word for each instrument and each style of singing or cantillation.

3) Melody words in Hebrew and Greek mean to DISMENBER the Scriptures into syllables so that it can be easily READ and understood.
Psalmōd-ia , A. singing to the harp, Aristid.2.310J
Aristid.2.310J   And hence, O King, we are bound to recognize the error of the Barbarians, that thereby, since they did not find traces of the true God, they fell aside from the truth, and went after the desire of their imagination, serving the perishable elements and lifeless images, and through their error not apprehending what the true God is.

VIII. Let us turn further to the Greeks also, that we may know what opinion they hold as to the true God. The Greeks, then, because they are more subtle than the Barbarians, have gone further astray than the Barbarians; inasmuch as they have introduced many fictitious gods, and have set up some of them as males and some as females; and in that some of their gods were found who were adulterers, and did murder, and were deluded, and envious, and wrathful and passionate, and parricides, and thieves, and robbers. And some of them, they say, were crippled and limped, and some were sorcerers, and some actually went mad, and some played on lyres, and some were given to roaming on the hills,
canto ad manum histrioni, in comedy, to sing and play while the actor accompanies the song with gestures or dancing, III. In the lang. of religion, as v. n. or a., to use enchantments, charms, incantations, to enchant, to charm, exorcised by magic

1Corinthians 13:1 Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

Unless you SPEAK which is the opposite to ODE:

La^l-eō, Mark of the Locusts
II.  chatter, Opposite. articulate speech, as of locusts, chirp, Theoc.5.34; mesēmbrias lalein tettix (sc. eimi), a very grasshopper to chirp at midday, 
III.  of musical sounds, “aulō [flute] laleōTheoc.20.29; of trees, v.supr.1.2; “di'aulou [flute] ē salpiggos l.”[trumpet] Arist. Aud.801a29; of Echomagadin lalein sound the magadis,  [double flute]
XI. And after him they bring forward another god and call him Apollon. And they say that he is jealous and inconstant, and at times he holds the bow and quiver, and again the lyre and plectron. And he utters oracles for men that he may receive rewards from them. Is then this god in need of rewards? But it is an insult that all these things should be found with a god.
Psaltōd-eō , A. sing TO the harp,LXX 2 Ch.5.13.
2Chr. 5:13 It came even to pass, as the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one sound to be heard in praising and thanking the LORD; and when they lifted up their voice with the trumpets and cymbals and instruments of musick, and praised the LORD,
        saying [DICO
oratio dicta de scripto,] , For he is good; for his mercy endureth for ever: that then the house was filled with a cloud, even the house of the LORD;

[13] igitur cunctis pariter et tubis et voce et cymbalis et organis et diversi generis musicorum concinentibus et vocem in sublime tollentibus longe sonitus audiebatur ita ut cum Dominum laudare coepissent et dicere confitemini Domino quoniam bonus quoniam in aeternum misericordia eius impleretur domus Domini nube

con-cĭno , Act., to cause to sound together, in concert or harmoniously, to make concordant sounds, to sound, sing of, celebrate in song, magnify, etc.
Psal-tos , ē, on, A. sung to the harp, sung of,LXX Ps.118(119).54.
Psa. 119:54 Thy statutes have been my songs in the house of my pilgrimage.
cantābĭlis , e, adj. canto,
I. worthy to be sung, Cassiod. Var. 2, 40; id. 8, 9; Vulg. Psa. 118, 54.
Psa 118:54] cantabiles mihi erant iustificationes tuae in loco peregrinationis meae
lex C. In gen., a law, precept, regulation, principle, rule, mode, manner: “qui disciplinam suam legem vitae putet,
lex et ratio loquendi,Juv. 6, 453:citharae leges,Tac. A. 16, 4

Juv. 6, 453:
The literary men concede, the rhetoricians are beaten, the whole
Party is silent, not even the lawyer speaks or the auctioneer,
Not another woman. Such powerful utterance falls from her lips,
You might say it’s like the sound of dishes being struck, or peals
Of bells. No need for anyone to sound the trumpet, beat the gong:
She can come to the aid of the moon in labour, all on her own.
Even wise men claim one can have too much of a good thing;

There Are Those Who Fancy Musicians
If she likes music, no one whom the praetors hire for his voice
Will hang on to his clasp. Instruments are always in her hands,
Her web of sardonyx rings ever-flickering over the tortoiseshell
Lyre, the strings struck rhythmically by the quivering plectrum,
Which tender Hedymeles performs with: this she clasps, it’s her
Consolation, and she lavishes kisses on that beloved implement.

Tac. Ann. 16.4 First, he [Nero] recited a poem on the stage; then, at the importunate request of the rabble that he would make public property of all his accomplishments (these were their words), he entered the theatre, and conformed to all the laws of harp-playing, not sitting down when tired, nor wiping off the perspiration with anything but the garment he wore, or letting himself be seen to spit or clear his nostrils


7.16.13  3.24.15  133 4.14.15  141

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