Psallo and Instrumental Music

Tom Burgess in Documents on Instrumental Music: Psallo (Portland, Oregon: Scripture Supply house, 1966). Those trying to blame ANTI-instrumental churches for the massive discord deliberately created by ADDING instruments rest almost totally on the Greek word psallo. This word was never used in history until churches attempted to justify their already-created sectarianism in the year 1878.

Tom Burgess in Documents on Instrumental Music: Psallo (Portland, Oregon: Scripture Supply house, 1966).

See added notes 1.28.11

1. Tom Burgess in Documents on Instrumental Music reviewed. Psallo and Instrumental Music: Proofs do not prove anything but the "music-homosexuality" connection.

See more on Strabo's definition of the worship of Apollo or Abaddon or Apollyon: his MUSES are the locusts or musical performers in the book of revelation.

2. Tom Burgess More Review of Plutarch: if Psallo authorizes "church music" it authorizes a homosexual gathering.

3. Tom Burgess on Moralia confirms the "Music-Heresy-Perversion" connection which has no historical exception. 10/20/04

4. Tom Burgess on John Chrysostom: are the anti-instrumentalists ignorant rurals? 10/21/04 What about Paul and Martin Luther and John Calvin and Zwingli and--everyone who believed the Bible as authority.

5. Tom Burgess on Kurfees versus Thayer and Grimm: Quotes from: G. C. Brewer, A Medley on the Music Question, Gospel Advocate, Nashville 1948. Burgess uses the same Krewson arguments. LATEST 11/06/05

Charles Daily Northwest College of the Bible Part One ..... Part One A .....Part Two .... THRESKIA or CHARISMATIC

First: Words have definitions which are almost unique. However, in time they are used to idicate similar situations. Seventy english words may be used to translate one Hebrew word. The Hebrew word is never that flexible. Therefore, when compilers--not necessarily experts on every Bible word--pick an english word its true definition can only be understood from the context.

Another thing we think good to admonish thee of (gentle Reader) that we have not tied ourselves to an uniformity of phrasing, or to an identity of words, as some peradventure would wish that we had done, because they observe, that some learned men somewhere, have been as exact as they could that way. KJV Preface

The Greek word psallo means pluck but only with the fingers. Like us, the ancient writers knew that you can PLUCK many things with the FINGERS. You can pluck a bowstring, a carpenter's chalk line, a harp string or the servant in the perverted symposia could pluck excessive hair off the male harp-player who was also a prostitute. You CAN sing and pluck a harp string at the same time with your fingers but the musical sectarians will never find ONE recorded example in the Bible or in any Hebrew or Greek literature.

The word psallo specificially excludes plucking anything with a plectrum or any other instrument. This is because its "roots" are in plucking bowstrings with your fingers and make it twang to send forth a singing arrow to "grind to bits" the literal heart of the enemy. This is because psallo was not born of a musical concept. The root means to grind into a powder from which the word for SOP is also derived.

There is evidence that people spoke of singing as shooting forth a hymn and this concept was used to define shooting forth an arrow.

Second: WARNING! None of the context used to try to justify the horrors of already-accomplished discord and offense against God's children will ever define both singing and playing with one word. And the word playing or plucking will never be used by itself without specifying what is to be plucked or played.

Third: we have examined the text and context of all of the ancient writers used to prove what can never be proven. There is no exception to the fact that history writers always associate music and especially singing and playing instruments to prostitutes and sodomites. Charismatic ecstasy was the desired goal.

The danger of trying to prove that God actually commanded singing and playing instruments as a way to worship Him is that you land in the middle of documents defining "music" in warfare or pagan religionism whereas Christians do not worship in the threskia or orphic or musical ritual sense.

ALL of the proof texts from ancient scholars make this absolutely certain. Music was ranked above wine and other drugs as the DRUG OF CHOICE to bring on charismatic ecstasy or what Paul would define in Corinth as MADNESS.

Fourth: Psallo is never in the history of the world -- that this writer and others can find -- used to define singing externally AND plucking AND plucking a musical instrument. When one plucks a harp then psallo is ASSOCIATED with music but does not mean music. As time went on there was a discrete word used to define PLUCKING the HARP.

Peri-aidô, means to go about singing, iambeia but it also means "to be buzzed about" or "to be harped upon" or "repeated." When you beat the criminal with a rubber hose he "sings" but that is not authority for a superstitious, legalistic "act" of worship.

If you want to sing to the flute you CANNOT use psallo because you cannot pluck a flute with your fingers. Therefore, these wise people invented such words as:

Aul-ôidia song to the flute.

choro-kithareus, one who plays the cithara to a chorus which usually meant to Aphrodisias.

Play meant play the kithara but also meant to play the parasite because guitarists and singers were parasites having no useful role to play. That is why the church of Christ in its Apostolic Constitutions (c. 205) excluded instrument players from membership.

Praise Singing is Warfare Bluff.

ALL of the "instrumental" Psalms speak of tribal hatred. After all the "players" were under the king and commanders of the army and NOT the priests. Their songs and "noise" intended to create spiritual warfare to cause the enemy to panic and run. When "music" is forced into peacable churches the drugs or endorphins induced are INTENDED to create flight, fight or sexuality.

The "praise" of David as he "rose up to play" in the same sense of Mount Sinai most often meant "to make self vile." He believed that MAKING SELF VILE as a "praise word" pleased God because the "servant girls" honored him. However, David was separting the Ark of the Covenant from the original Tabernacle and moving it to a Jebusite High Place. This was because he was too fearful of God to return to Gibeon. The synagogue existed in the wilderness as the QAHAL. When people were called to the assembly with a blast of the trumpets it was for INSTRUCTION. Therefore, the word ALARM or TRIUMPH OVER which was blowing instruments and "making a joyful noise before the Lord" was OUTLAWED. Numbers 10:7. This alarm was not musical worship but the warrior's panic music. To their credit you will never hear of the people "making music" in the synagogue as "a school of the Bible." The best authorities declare that "there was never a praise service in the synagogue" as there was never one in the first churches.

The temple was the king's shrine and capital of the MONARCHY which violated God's will. The people did not "go to temple" and worship on the Sabbath: they remained in their immediate community to REST and hold "a holy convocation" which meant to read or rehearse the Words of God. REST does not mean "worship" in the image of Tom Burgess and the "music apologists" but REST--just cool it! In the Greek sense that Jesus died to give rest PAUO means almost exclusively "stop the preaching, stop the singing, stop the music."

Only then can you obey Paul's UNIQUE worship words which means to "give heed to the Words of Christ." That is because Jesus promised to build an ekklesia which is Greek just as Paul's various words for assembly is SYNAGOGUE which is Greek. The word CHURCH honors CIRCE or KIRKE the "holy whore" of Paul's Patmos vision. Circe seduced with music and magical encantations or "pharmacy" or sorcery. She will return to Sheol along with her musicians in Revelation 18:22.

It is important to note that those promoting "musical worship" do not grasp that there is no Biblical example of people involved in "congregational singing with instrumental accompaniment." That David might have praised God with a harp does not hint that he ever led the 'congregational worship.'

Furthermore, when they find instruments introduced into 'liturgy' this does not mean that the congregation sang while an organist "made music." The "congregation" was not allowed to participate except in saying the 'amen' or other response. When the Reformation RESTORED congregational singing of the Biblical Text they put the organs out along with the idols. Not even Catholics saw congregational singing consistent with the organist's patterned playing of bits and pieces.

When the organ was used it was not played to ACCOMPANY even priestly singing but to sound interludes or processionals. They were never outrageous enough to PLAY while the chanter was CHANTING or SPEAKING the Biblical Text and other statements.

Reviewed by Kenneth Sublett--No organization! E-mail

We do not extend our comments beyond reviewing Tom's book because it is seen as AUTHORITY by those who have not been able to find anything but condemnation of external rituals which detract from the "school of the Bible" which Jesus died to found to give us REST from the "spiritual anxiety created by religious rituals." Nothing good done by anyone can alter the nature of TRUTH of Scripture.

The musical churches are SECTARIAN in that they used the mental excitement of instrumental music to lift people to carry them away for their own purposes: this defines heresy. They are persistent: the Stone Campbell Movement is a new SECTARIAN movement which continues to try to 'peal off' weak people into their own movement.

See Charles Daily who is probably "the" authority depended on by churches which attempt to worship a Spirit God in the PLACE of the human spirit. They are willing to risk one of the most massive, intentional sowing of discord on false evidence. There are three parts to this review.

Tom Burgess wrote Documents on Instrumental Music fromCollege Press. This review is of pages 97-98.

It is easy to quote a proof text that PSALLO included instruments in the "Greek" after the Bible was written. Therefore, even if Paul says SPEAK and make melody IN THE HEART where the music concept is never included, a massive body of people are caught in their own "stumbling stone" and have to make a cottage industry out of proving that SECTARIANIZING peacable churches had massive Biblical and historical authority. Never mind that no one ever attempted to make this argument until the year 1878 after the "goods were damaged" and there was no way to return. This is consistent with about three dozen accounts of the 'Jubal' character being seduced by Satan to call holy people away from the presence of the Living Word.


Tom Burgess: The evidence given in the five previous chapters is overwhelming. It establishes conclusively that psallo did not undergo a change just prior to the New Testament so that it came to mean sing and sing only, In this chapter I want us to come face to face with an appeal to the court of last resort: the Greek scholars in whose writings we find the word psallo and its related forms used, at the time of the writing of the New Testament as well as during the first centuries of the church. p. 97

That's true: Psallo never meant to sing or play a harp or pluck a bow or pluck the hair off a priest of Cybele.  Psallo means to strike or smite something with your FINGERS and never with a PLECTRUM.  Psallo is generally used only of strings that can be struch whether the bow or the strings of a musical instrument. Psallo was used to indicate SING in all instances when an instrument was not named: Psallo never means both PLUCK and AN INSTRUMENT.  If tell someone to PLUCK you can never be sure of what they will PLUCK even if he didn't question your reading 101aa.

We will show that Psallo is not a MUSICAL term; it speaks of hostile warfare. One twangs a harp or a bow or one SHOOTS and arrow or SHOOTS a hymn. Nothing but hand-plucked strings are included, plectrums are excluded. The word is PLUCK. When the word is applied to singing hymns the evidence is clear that Psallo meant to "shoot out hymns."

Tom appeals to the "scholarly" material written for a profit and it would normally be in Attic and not Koine which DID change. PLUCK always meant pluck but psallo did not mean to shoot arrows unless the context was warfare. SHOOT always meant to shoot arrows but in the context of Apollo who is the Abaddon or Apollyon with his "locusts" or muses in the book of Revelation it meant to "shoot love arrows." The BEAST is Pan or Satan whose "horns" are musical and he shoots bisexually.

ALL musical terms and names of instruments speak of Satan's effort to steal worship, to innocent children and "jubilating" women, to warfare, to prostitues and Sodomites or to SERVICE--meaning hard bondage--ministering to the priests slaughtering tens of thousands of innocent animals as a fruitless way to find peace. They were prophetically musically mocking and they did, in fact, musically mock Him.

Psallo is not a MUSICAL TERM. Psallo demands that you CANNOT pluck with a plectrum. This directs you to the twanging bowstring which sent a singing arrow into the heart of the enemy. Psallo has the same base meaning as the SOP which Jesus ground up and hand fed Judas which MARKED him so that Satan filled him to betray Jesus. In its pure meaning it was the INSTRUMENT of Apollo or Abbadon or Apollyon where he shot literal and "love arrows" into his friends and enemies. Apollo was the controller of the MUSES or musicians as the LOCUSTS in the book of Revelation.

Music cannot be "cleansed" from its mark of warfare, homosexuality and the effeminate break down or Plato's gender-bleed when speaking or singing or playing actors (Sectarian Hypocrites) cease the SAY or SPEAK demanded by Paul and generic knowledge and begin to pontificate or musicate.

Euripides: Bacchae: 784;

Already like fire does this insolence of the Bacchae blaze up, a great reproach for the Hellenes. But we must not hesitate. Go to the Electran gates, bid all the shield-bearers and riders of swift-footed horses to assemble, as well as

all who brandish the light shield and
pluck bowstrings with their hands,
so that we can make an
assault against the Bacchae.

For it is indeed too much if we suffer what we are suffering at the hands of women.

The word PSALLO outlaws plucking ANYTHING with a plectrum because it is a WARFARE word usually associated with Apollo or Abaddon or Apollyon.

Twanging is:

> Teretisma , atos, to, a humming, twanging, phormingôn (harp).. chirruping of cicadas (these are the LOCUSTS of Revelation symbol of the Muses or musical performers)

The cymbals of Psalm 150 are:

Celacal (h6767) tsel-aw-tsal'; from 6749 redupl.; a clatter, i. e. (abstr.) whirring (of wings); (concr.) a cricket; also a harpoon (as rattling), a cymbal (as clanging): - cymbal, locust, shadowing, spear.

And David and all the house of Israel played before the Lord on all manner of instruments made of fir wood, even on harps (meaning TWANG), and on psalteries, and on timbrels, and on cornets, and on cymbals. 2S.6:5

The fir is a synonym for a lance or musical instrument as the Assyrians were the "tallest trees in Eden." Watch those trick parables God in Christ uses on the truth haters and brother disturbers.

Berowsh (h1265) ber-osh'; of uncert. der.; a cypress (?) tree; hence a lance or a musical instrument (as made of that wood): - fir (tree).

This is why trees can HOWL:

Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen; because the mighty are spoiled: howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; for the forest of the vintage is come down. Zec.11:2

Nebel (h5035) neh'-bel; or nebel nay'-bel; from 5034; a skin- bag for liquids (from collapsing when empty)

The Wineskin parable!

Nabel (h5034) naw-bale'; a prim. root; to wilt; gen. to fall away, fail, faint; fig. to be foolish or (mor.) wicked; causat. to despise, disgrace: - disgrace, dishonour, lightly esteem, fade (away, - ing), fall (down, -ling, off), do foolishly, come to nought, * surely, make vile, wither..

Nabal (h5036) naw-bawl'; from 5034; stupid; wicked (espec. impious): - fool (-ish, -ish man, -ish woman), vile person.

> Psalmos twitching or twanging with the fingers.
        2. the sound of the cithara or harp, Pi.Fr.125, cf. Phryn.Trag.11;

d' alalazei A.Fr.57.7 (anap.); there were contests in to psallein

1 Corinthians 13:1  Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

This was the clanging brass or the lamenting women minstrels performing a musical "ritual with the dead" condemned in Amos.

> Vincent: James 5:13. Is afflicted (kakopaqei). See on the kindred word kakopaqeia, suffering, ver. 10. Only here and 2 Tim. ii. 3, 9; iv. 5.

Let him sing psalms (yalletw). The word means, primarily, to pluck or twitch. Hence of the sharp twang on a bowstring or harp-string, and so to play upon a stringed instrument.

A psalm like a song is metrical and CAN be played:

Our word psalm, derived from this, is, properly, a tune played upon a stringed instrument.

However when you DO IT as in Psallo in the NEW TESTAMENT it means only to sing---in the heart which was known by Philo to be silent:

The verb, however, is used in the New Testament of singing praise generally. See 1 Corinthians xiv. 15; Rom. xv. 9.

> PSALLO: pluck the hair, twitch, twang, esp. of the bow-string, belos send a shaft twanging from the bow, a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark,

mostly of the strings of musical instruments, play a stringed instrument with the fingers, and not with the plectron,

Similar Greek: lichmaô -play with the tongue, of snakes,

Theoglôssos, on, with the tongue of a god, gunaikes, of poetesses,

Continuing with the VIOLENCE theme a related Greek word is:

Collusor (conl- ), o-ris, m. [colludo] . I. A companion in play, playmate (in good prose), II. (Acc. to colludo, II.) He who has a secret understanding with one to the injury of a third.

> Revello (similar Latin) to pluck or pull away, to pull or tear out, to tear off or away, to tear up, with the root, to disturb, violate

> Blituri , to, twang of a harp-string: hence of a meaningless sound, S.E.M.8.133, D.L.7.57, Artem.4.2, Gal.8.662. Perseus

Bliturizomai, Pass., sound like a harp-string

Parasitus, i, m., = parasitos, lit. one who eats with another; hence, parasiti Jovis, the gods, Phoebi, a player, actor, one who, by flattery and buffoonery, manages to live at another's expense, a sponger, toad-eater, parasite (syn. scurra) The tutelar deity of parasites was Hercules.

Rhetorical speakers, singers and musicians were ALWAYS parasites. They would do ANYTHING to, as they now say, "Save Souls."

> Klangê: ( [klazô] ):--any sharp sound, e.g. twang of the bow, scream of birds, esp. cranes,

to which are compared confused cries of a throng Il.2.100, 10.523;
grunting of swine
howling of
wolves and lions
hissing of serpents
baying of dogs [Homosexual Cynics made animal noises]

also, of musical instruments, of song, of Cassandra's prophecies
of the
scream of the Harpies, A.R.2.269. Perseus

> Toxeuô I. to shoot with the bow, II. shoot or hit with an arrow, to be struck by an arrow, 2. To shoot from a bow: METAPHOR to discharge, send forth, humnous, pan tetoxeutai belos

> Toxeuô shoot met., of the arrows of song hoi men palai -- rhimpha paideious etoxeuon meligaruas humnous I. 2.3

Aeidô I. to sing, Il., etc.:--then of any sound, to twang, of the bowstring, to whistle, of the wind, to sing, chant,

External singing meant to ENCHANTE or to arouse anxiety which could be TRAFFICKED as a spiritual feeling.

> Toxêrês 1 [arariskô] 1. furnished with the bow, toxikos, psalmos the twang of the bowstring,

Included psalmos , ho, twitching or twanging with the fingers, psalmoi toxôn toxêrei psalmôi [toxeusas]

the sound of the cithara or harp

This is why you CANNOT make melody into a MUSICAL noise. Isn't the Sectaianizing of the Restoration Movement proof that MUSIC means WARFARE?

> Klangê (klazô): scream, properly of birds, Od. 11.605; of animals,

as the squealing of pigs, Od. 14.412;
and of the
loud cry of warriors, Il. 2.100;
sharp twang of a bowstring, Il. 1.49. Perseus

> klazô Pan [is the bisexual half goat who uses music to engener PANIC.] He is the BEAST in revelation and his HORNS are defined as musical instruments. make a sharp piercing sound: as of arrows in the quiver, clash, rattle, whistle, klazousi kôdônes phobon ring forth terror [Phobon points to fear, sudden death: Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon], of the sea, roar, of the musician, kitharai, of Pan on his pipes, melisma luras (of the tettix) [Locusts in Revelation], shout aloud, ring forth [connection to the serpent as musical enchanter in the garden of Eden and "bell metal" and clanging bronze by Paul]. Zeus eklanxe brontan pealed forth thunder, less freq. of articulate sound.

Mantis eklanxen shrieked forth another remedy. The mantis are the PROPHESIERS Charles Dailey has discovered. klazôn sounding loudly the song of victory in honour of Zeus [The triumph-over musical attack on Je-Zeus (as the preachers now say]

Clangor, [clango] , a sound, clang, noise (mostly poet.) I. Of wind instruments: tubarum. II. Of birds (in crying or flying). III. Of dogs, a barking, baying

> P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid

She said, and from her quiver chose with speed
winged shaft, predestin'd for the deed;
........ Then to the stubborn yew her strength applied,
........ Till the far distant horns approach'd on either side.

The bowstring touch'd her breast, so strong she drew;
Whizzing in air the fatal arrow flew.
........At once the twanging bow and sounding dart
........ The traitor heard, and felt the point within his heart.

Him, beating with his heels in pangs of death,
flying friends to foreign fields bequeath.
........ The conqu'ring damsel, with expanded wings,
........ The welcome message to her mistress brings.

Euripides Ion

Strong though thy beak beyond the feather'd kind,
bow shall reach thee. Towards the altar, see,
A swan comes sailing: elsewhere wilt thou move

Thy scarlet-tinctured foot? or from my bow
The lyre of Phoebus [Apollo, Apollyon] to thy notes attuned
Will not protect thee; farther stretch thy wings;

Go, wanton, skim along the Delian lake,
Or wilt thou steep thy melody in blood.

Look, what strange bird comes onwards; wouldst thou fix
Beneath the battlements thy straw-built nest?

My singing bow shall drive thee hence; begone,
Or to the banks of Alpheus, gulfy stream,
Or to the Isthmian grove; there hatch thy young;

Mar not these pendent ornaments, nor soil
temple of the god: I would not kill you:
'Twere pity, for to mortal man you bear
message of the gods; yet my due task
Must be perform'd, and never will I cease
My service to the god who nurtured me.

The musical SECTARIANS had better decide WHICH god they are serving?

When both singing and playing are intended there were different words:

Psaltôideô, sing to the harp,
Psalmôidia, singing to the harp,
Aulôideô, sing to the flute.
Citharizo = kitharizô, to play on or strike the cithara,

LAW: you can play to a PSALM just as you can PLAY a song but PSALMOS had the "voice" as the first instrument of choice.

If an instrument to provide external melody is INTENDED it is NAMED.

Why go to so much trouble to deliberately SOW DISCORD by those who have learned how to worship god--as did Paul--in the human spirit?

Nevertheless, it couldn't matter less: In Romans 15 Paul defined the role of the synagogue and prohibited any form of PLEASURING which was lifting up. The word AOIDE carries this meaning. Then, they were to speak with ONE MIND and ONE MOUTH using 'that which was written." In Ephesians he uses the word SPEAK and you cannot speak and ode externally at the same time. Both the singing and melody were in the heart to prevent the "uncovered prophesying" by the women in 1 Cor 11:5. In Colossians they were to TEACH and ADMONISH and our evidence will show that only RECITING in using the normal inflections of the Greek language was for teaching rather than for entertainment.

Notice that Paul did not say SING and MAKE MELODY. Rather, he said SPEAK and then used a phrase which must be left together or you miss the point

Singing with MELODY in the heart has the same meaning as

Singing with GRACE in the heart because both were characteristics of POEMS which were RECITED and not sung in our sense of the Word.

Grace and Melody are more important than "music" in the Greek world where ceasing to recite Homer and sing him with instruments is connected with the Lesbos singers. A rhetorician who adds embellishments to the epic poems was sexually disturbed and would lead the audience into a sexual experience which they now call "spiritual."

"The true, highest melody, however, is that which is sung without any voice. It resounds in the interior of man, is vibrating in his heart and in all his limbs. Isaac Loeb Peretz (1912). Click Here for the rest of the story.

Plautus, Curculio CAPPADOX My spleen is killing me, my reins are in torment, my lungs are being torn asunder, my liver is being tortured, my heart-strings are giving way, all my intestines are in pain.

Hecuba Alas! a dreadful trial is near, it seems, [230] full of mourning, rich in tears. Yes, I too escaped death where death had been my due, and Zeus did not destroy me but is still preserving my life, that I may witness in my misery fresh sorrows surpassing all before. But if the bond may ask the free of things that do not GRIEVE them or WRENCH their heart-strings, you ought to speak in answer to my questions and I ought to hear what you have to say.

Cyprian writes:

It is not lawful, I say, for faithful Christians to be present; it is not lawful, I say, at all, even for those whom for the delight of their ears Greece sends everywhere to all who are instructed in her vain arts. One imitates the hoarse warlike clangours of the trumpet; another with his breath blowing into a pipe regulates its mournful sounds; another with dances,

and with the musical voice of a man, strives with his breath, which by an effort he had drawn from his bowels into the upper parts of his body, to play upon the stops of pipes; now letting forth the sound, and now closing it up inside, and forcing it into the air by certain openings of the stops;

now breaking the sound in measure, he endeavours to speak with his fingers, ungrateful to the Artificer who gave him a tongue. Why should I speak of comic and useless efforts? Why of those great tragic vocal ravings?

Why of strings set vibrating with noise? These things, even if they were not dedicated to idols, ought not to be approached and gazed upon by faithful Christians;

because, even if they were not criminal, they are characterized by a worthlessness which is extreme, and which is little suited to believers.

10. Let the faithful Christian, I say, devote himself to the sacred Scriptures, and there he shall find worthy exhibitions for his faith.

And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.Lu.1:47

Therefore did my heart rejoice, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope: Ac.2:26

All of the writers Tom Burgess quotes will connect instrument playing to the prostitutes or sodomites of the men's gatherings. If then he proves that melody means play an instrument then he has proved and approved what universally went with such effort..

Marriage was for producing children but both men and women engaged in homosexuality as a form of both pleasure and birth control. Much of this perverted "religion" which defined ALL feasts as getting drunk or "piped down with wine" was necessary to give chara (grace) to the lover listening to the musical forplay.

Even in the homosexual forums, if there was any need to discourse they dismissed the flute girls and boys and this automatically reduced the wine consumption. Why would a HOLY Spirit God approve of and command for the ekklesia or synagogue or church what was UNIVERSALLY a symbol of what prospective believers had just heard as he passed the sumposia or even the Agora or Marked Place which was the MARK Jesus placed on the clergy who were not true Jews and who were still afflicted with Dionysus (new wineskin) rituals.

First, there is NO exception to the rule that all music or musical instrument names in the Bible have roots tracked back to Satan, to warriors, to prostitutes or sodomites. The Biblical examples see instruments as MARKS of people who tell God they will not listen to His Word anymore.

"Its (pipe = to love passionately) was apparently a secular instrument and is never listed in the temple orchestra;

only in Ps. 150:4 it is mentioned in a religious (but not ritual) function.

Its ethos was not blameless at all, as we see from Genesis Rabbah 50: 'The angels said to Lot: 'There are players of the pipe (organ) in the country, hence it ought to be destroyed.'" Its rabbinical identification with the aboda, the flute of the notorious Syrian bayaderes, emphasizes the erotic element which already the Hebrew name suggests." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).


pcanteryn (h6460) pes-an-tay-reen'; or pcantheryn pes-an- tay-reen'; a transliteration of the Gr. yaltherion , a lyre: -- psaltery.

"The psaltery (psalterion, saltere, sauterie, Psalterium, Psalter, salterio) is an ancient intstrument seen in many forms. Early versions were simply a wooden board with gut strings stretched between pegs. The strings were plucked with fingers or by plectra

(the name might have derived from the Greek
psallein meaning plucked with fingers).

There, you see, psallein and psallo and all of the forms have a ROOT pointing to the plucking of of anything and not to edifying "music."

But, we noted that the word PSALLO does not permit the plectrum:

play a stringed instrument with the fingers, and not with the plectron,

"The name of psaltery entered Christian literature in the 3rd century B.C. translation of the Old Testament called the Septuagint where, in the Psalms, nebel was translated psalterion. Thus, Nebuchadnezzar's idolatrous ensemble included the Aramic psantria. Notice, also, that the book of Psalms has also become known as the Psalter (or psalterium), from the hymns sung with this harp. Source

If you will look at our collection of Psalms you will see that with the possible exception of Psalm 33, the HARP or other stringed instrument points to warfare, hatred or even forms of exorcism. This is not a problem for a CHRISTIAN who speaks the psalms as a way to TEACH what happened without adapting it as an act of worship called Smashing Baby's Heads. Can you imagine it: an advertizement at Tulsa for a Minister of Head Smashing?

Didn't you hear Paul absolutely DEMAND that you SPEAK the Psalms with ONE MIND and ONE VOICE?

Didn't you hear ANY of the early church literature which proves that they did NOT sing in our sense but chanted or spoke with the normal inflections of the language.

The nebel has the same meaning as the "familiar spirit" of the Witch of Endor: this was an empty wine or water skin and therefore produced an empty sound: a LIFELESS instrument. It also has the same meaning as the SOUNDING BRASS of 1 Cor 13 which was a device of the sorcerer or warrior to create panic on the superstitious:

Nebel (h5035) neh'-bel; or nebel nay'-bel; from 5034; a skin- bag for liquids (from collapsing when empty); hence a vase (as similar in shape when full); also a lyre (as having a body of like form): - bottle, pitcher, psaltery, vessel, viol

Nabel (h5034) naw-bale'; a prim. root; to wilt; gen. to fall away, fail, faint; fig. to be foolish or (mor.) wicked; causat. to despise, disgrace: - disgrace, dishonour, lightly esteem, fade (away, - ing), fall (down, -ling, off), do foolishly, come to nought, * surely, make vile, wither..

The pipe was invented and promoted by Jubal and not God.

And his brothers name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. Genesis 4:21


Tom Burgess: These Greek authors were contemporaneous with the Apostles and the church fathers. If psallo changed so that its sole meaning when the New Testament was written was vocal music (Cf. the claim of Kurfees in Example 1), then these writers will establish that fact. We have heard for over fifty years that they do establish that fact, I submit approximately twenty photocopies from nearly a dozen authors whose writings indicate that the instrument was not taken out of psallo or it s related forms!

One should not be surprised that we have lost the use of GAY. And PLAY at Mount Sinai included musical worship which included sexuality and sexual perversion. Psallo had an exclusive WARFARE or POLLUTING meaning long before someone saw the connection between PLUCKING or TWANGING (violently) a harp string and the bow. So they SHOT out HYMNS.

So the word BEGAN with no musical connection. Someone saw the MUSICAL, perverted rituals as warfare as indeed people held life and death contests between the flute and harp.

Should we be surprized that civilized STRAIGHT people of peace tried to disconnect psallo from its destructive roots.

Because Paul knew that the common playing of instruments among the pagans could NOT be sanitized. He, in fact, OUTLAWED the literal melody by insisting that MELODY be understood as GRACE necessary to SPEAK with one voice and one mind "that which is written" as the only way to GLORIFY God.

The Britannica says that

> Music is art concerned with combining vocal or instrumental sounds for beauty of form or emotional expression, usually according to cultural standards of rhythm, melody, and, in most Western music, harmony. On LIne Source

Historical conceptions The non-Western world

From historical accounts, it is clear that the power to move men has always been attributed to music; its ecstatic possibilities have been recognized in all cultures and have usually been admitted in practice under particular conditions, sometimes stringent ones. In the civilization of India, music was put into the service of religion from earliest times; Vedic�

> "Music with the Greeks, therefore, included, besides vocal and instrumental music, choral dancing, rhythmic motions, and various modes of harmony expressed in action, perhaps most particularly that part of education which we should now

classify as a striving for harmony (Kosmic unity) in life combined with aesthetic (art and human creativity),
contrast with intellectual and physical branches of study and development

It was culture of the essential person, the ego or soul,
whereas the
other two divisions care for and supply the needs of the mind and of the body. (Zondervan Pictorial Dictionary, Music p. 313).

If you can SPEAK and SING and PLAY "in your hands" all at the same time then does the MUSIC word have any meaning.

Try with all of your might but you will never find that MELODY means HARMONY. Tom Burgess wants Psallo to mean complex harmony.

Melody: A rhythmical succession of single tones, ranging for the most part within a given key.

You can do UNISON or SPEAKING or TEACHING using melody but you have NO Greek words to authorize HARMONY. "melody as tunefulness belongs to the 19th century" says the Britannica.

The word MUSIC is never used except of parties involving wine, women and music, and the end-time Babylon harlot worship using the MUSES under Apollo or Abaddon or Apollyon.

There is no Biblical use of the word MUSIC either with or without instruments. Jesus died to establish His ekklesia or synagogue or "school of the Bible." The Reformers and Restorers all recognized that, according to Thomas Campbell and others that church was "a school of Christ" and worship was READING and discussing and applying the Biblical text. In the direct command of Paul to the elders it must be "taught as it has been taught."

The MUSIC word always included wine drinking and almost demanded dancing. Therefore, Paul was not hinting about VOCAL MUSIC. On the contrary, he commanded SPEAKING or TEACHING and was very careful to put ODEING or singing in the heart. If it was used in an external sense it meant to pleasure people to lift them up in a form of charismatic ecstasy. Aeiro is almost identical and was derived from the sacrificial systems and meant to LIFT THEM UP TO CUT THEIR THROAT. Both words point to HERESY which means to use mental excitement to lift them up to carry them away for YOUR OWN USE. In most of the "scholarly" quotations this will be for EROTIC PURPOSES. The word Grace or chara points to homosexual worship. This is why the Bible REDEFINES all of the feeling words which were worshipped as gods or goddesses: Fate, Love, Hope, Life, etc.

In the Bible while words like psalmos or song points to metrical prose which means that it CAN be accompanied by an instrument, there is no exception to the rule that when singing with ADDED MELODY is intended the INSTRUMENT IS ALWAYS NAMED.

Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols Am.5:23

Melody of a viol might mean as few as three strings. You plucked the note to match the word. Nevertheless, melody could "switch hit" and bring on charismatic ecstasy so that the words were lost just as in 'musical' churches.

And as an incarnation of Lucifer, speaking of the king/queen of Tyre

And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot. Isa 23:15

How does one 'sing as a prostitute'? You will notice that MELODY never includes an instrument unless it is named:

Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody,

sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Isa 23:16

Now, look at Strabo and be warned that there are no scholars who do not associate singing with or without instruments in the public with the task of the lyre-girls (of whatever sex).

Music always facilites getting drunk or 'piped down with wine.' For a male to get up, sing and play instruments at the same time was proof that they were drunk or homosexuals seeking customers which was the last act of worship in the festivals which were always religious in nature.

This makes rational discourse impossible. Click to see Strabo Geography 9:3 for more of the MARK that people who add music as worship are intentionally paganizing: Apollo is Abaddon or Apollyon. His muses are the musicians of Revelation 18:22 and the LOCUSTS were once sentenced to the underworld because they slighted the MOTHER GODDESS. They were known as musical performers who had the power to hypnotize you or put you to sleep. The Mother Goddess is the "holy whore" in the writings of John.

Tom Burgess: STRABO

Examples 58 and 59 are our first witnesses to show how the words psallo and psalmos, and their related forms were used by contemporaneous writers of the New Testarrlent, Strabo lived from R, C. 55 to 24 A. D. He was an eminent geographer and historian, often mentioned by Josephus and Lucian, and was called by Plutarch, "The Philosopher, " His writings were contemporareous with the beginning of the New Testament period, He writes during the tirne covered by the gospels.

See our research notes on Strabo and others on music.

The Corinthians say (and the Lesbians agree) that the most marvellous thing that happened to him in his life was the landing on Taenarus of Arion of Methymna, brought there by a dolphin.

This Arion was a lyre-player second to none in that age; he was the first man whom we know to compose and name the dithyramb (dance music associated with cult of Dionysus) which he afterwards taught at Corinth.

And another resource on Strabo

Thus Pytho was renamed Delphi after the dolphin (delphis), and the Cretan cult of Apollo Delphinius superseded that previously established there by Earth (Gaea).

During the Archaic period (8th to 6th century BC), the fame of the Delphic oracle spread as far as Lydia in Anatolia and achieved pan-Hellenic status. The god's medium was the Pythia, a local woman over fifty years old, who, under his inspiration, delivered oracles in the main temple of Apollo.

The oracles were subsequently interpreted and versified by priests. Other oracles of Apollo existed on the Greek mainland, Delos, and in Anatolia, but none rivalled Delphi in importance.

Of the Greek festivals in honour of Apollo, the most curious was the octennial Delphic Stepterion, in which a boy reenacted the slaying of the Python and was temporarily banished to the Vale of Tempe.

Although Apollo had many love affairs, they were mostly unfortunate: Daphne, in her efforts to escape him, was changed into a laurel, his sacred shrub; Coronis (mother of Asclepius) was shot by Apollo's twin, Artemis, when Coronis proved unfaithful; and Cassandra (daughter of King Priam of Troy) rejected his advances and was punished by being made to utter true prophecies that no one believed.

In Italy Apollo was introduced at an early date and was primarily concerned, as in Greece, with healing and prophecy; he was highly revered by the emperor Augustus because the Battle of Actium (31 BC) was fought near one of his temples. In art Apollo was represented as a beardless youth, either naked or robed, and often holding either a bow or a lyre. Introductory notes from the Britannica about Apollo

And to the citharoedes18 they added both fluteplayers and citharists who played without singing,

who were to render a certain melody which is called the Pythian Nome. There are five parts of it: angkrousis, ampeira, katakeleusmos, iambi and dactyli, and syringes. Now the melody was composed by Timosthenes, the admiral of the second Ptolemy, who also compiled

The Harbours, a work in ten books;19 and through this melody he means to celebrate the contest between Apollo and the dragon, (Python)

setting forth the prelude as anakrousis,
the first onset of the contest as ampeira,
the contest itself as katakeleusmos,

the triumph following the victory as iambus and dactylus,

the rhythms being in two measures, one of which, the dactyl, is appropriate to hymns of praise, whereas the other, the iamb, is suited to reproaches (compare the word "iambize"),

and the expiration of the dragon as syringes, since with syringes (pipes) 20 players imitated the dragon as breathing its last in hissings.21 (pipings)

and that the Parnassians joined him and informed him of another cruel man named Python and known as the Dragon,

and that when Apollo shot at him with his arrows the Parnassians shouted "Hie Paean" 23 to encourage him

(the origin, Ephorus adds, of the singing of the Paean
which has been handed down as a
custom for armies just before the clash of battle);

and that the tent of Python was burnt by the Delphians at that time, just as they still burn it to this day in remembrance of what took place at that time.

But what could be more mythical than Apollo shooting with arrows and punishing Tityuses and Pythons, and travelling from Athens to Delphi and visiting the whole earth?

The Britannica Online notes of the languages:

Ancient Greek dialect that was the language of ancient Athens. Its closest relative was the Ionic dialect of Euboea. With the ascendance of the Athenian empire in the course of the 5th century BC, Attic became the most prestigious of the Greek dialects and as a result was adopted later as the standard language by the Macedonian kings. Moreover, it became in Hellenistic times the language of the Macedonian rulers in the Middle East and Egypt. This later phase of Attic is called Koine, a dialect common to all Greeks.

In literature, Attic is the dialect of Athenian comedy and, interspersed with Doric lyric elements, of tragedy. In the second half of the 5th century BC, it also became the dialect of Greek prose, not only for such Athenian writers as Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, Lysias, Isocrates, and Demosthenes but also for foreigners such as the orator and Sophist Gorgias of Leontini (Sicily).

During the Roman period, prose writers such as Plutarch and Lucian were Atticists: they preferred to use the classical Attic dialect of the 5th and 4th centuries BC, rather than the spoken Koine of their own time.

The "mincing- lisping" of the Attic fitted for poetry turned reciting into "singing." We have lots of evidence that this was a warning MARK of a sexual or homosexual message both transmitted and received by the "worshipers." This is why rhetoricians, sOPHISts (serpents), singers and musicians pretended to perform the role of SORCERY and I can see no difference now. All musicians who had assisted the priests in the going-out-of-style sacrificial altars were known as PARASITES. When the Levitical Warrior Musicians lost their jobs and still wanted to be paid they were called PARASITES.

On the other hand:

Koine is: a compromise language made up, usually, of several dialects of the same language but often relying heavily on one dominant dialect. It comes from the Greek koine ("common") and, as a proper noun, designates Attic Greek. Koines are characterized linguistically by expansion in content, by the admixture of several dialects, and by expansion in role. In fact, the initial stage in the standardization of a language is sometimes called "koineizing." Koines are never completely detached from the languages from which they issue. In all these respects koines differ from pidgins and creoles, which are limited in vocabulary and grammar, usually considered nonstandard, and represent the admixture of different languages, often from totally unrelated linguistic families.

We will look at Lucian later to prove that he spoke ATTIC and not Koine and that he associated playing the flute to fleecing the fat heads and simpletones. He said nothing profound but noted that:

You cannot play LYRIC music without a LYRE. Or you cannot PIPE without a PIPE as you cannot ride a horse without a horse. Yet, people are so life-force-predestinated to sow discord that they will lie about Lucian.

Info Please on "lyric": in ancient Greece, a poem accompanied by a musical instrument, usually a lyre. Although the word is still often used to refer to the songlike quality in poetry, it is more generally used to refer to any short poem that expresses a personal emotion, be it a sonnet, ode, song, or elegy.

In early Greek poetry a distinction was made between the choral song and the monody sung by an individual.

The "choral" is specificially repudiated as that which the Jews attempted on Jesus. Paul defines SPEAKING one to another.

"The monody was developed by Sappho and Alcaeus in the 6th cent. B.C., the choral lyric by Pindar later.
"Latin lyrics were written in the 1st cent. B.C. by Catullus and Horace.
"In the Middle Ages the lyric form was common in Christian hymns, in folk songs, and in the songs of troubadours.
"In the Renaissance and later, lyric poetry achieved its most finished form in the sonnets of Petrarch, Shakespeare, Spencer, and Sidney and in the short poems of Ronsard, Ben Jonson, John Donne, Herrick, and Milton.

Tom Burgess: In Example 58 Strabo uses the infinitive form of psallo--psallein, It is translated ''harp-playing.'' In example 59 psaltrias is used, This word refers to maiden-harpists who were usually girls of "easy virtue. "

See our notes about the MARK of the psaltery and the flute-girls and harp-girls who were male or female prostitutes and EXCITERS and "getting fluted down with wine" in the symposia which was home away from home while the wives had their own girl friends.

In defining the language of Strabo it is not important to understand WHEN he wrote but where and for whom he wrote. Strabo moved in the highest circles which, like modern scholarship, never gives up the LANGUAGE of the elite book readers. He clearly did not write for fishermen and world traders. His was the language of BOOKS and PERFORMANCE which contradicted the WORD of God where even if you have a Bible the understanding and command of Paul to Timothy was that you READ the word.

Aristot. Poet. 1447a Epic poetry, then, and the poetry of tragic drama, and, moreover, comedy and dithyrambic poetry, and most flute-playing and harp-playing, these, speaking generally, may all be said to be "representations of life."2 But they differ one from another in three ways: either in using means generically different or in representing different objects or in representing objects not in the same way but in a different manner. For just as by the use both of color and form people represent many objects, making likenesses of them— [20] some having a knowledge of art and some working empirically—and just as others use the human voice; so is it also in the arts which we have mentioned, they all make their representations in rhythm and language and tune, using these means either separately or in combination. For tune and rhythm alone are employed in flute-playing and harp-playing and in any other arts which have a similar function, as, for example, pipe-playing. Rhythm alone without tune is employed by dancers in their representations, for by means of rhythmical gestures they represent both character and experiences and actions.

2 The explanation of mimēsis, as Aristotle uses the word, demands a treatise; all that a footnote can say is this:—Life "presents" to the artist the phenomena of sense, which the artist "re-presents" in his own medium, giving coherence, designing a pattern. That this is true not only of drama and fiction but also of instrumental music ("most flute-playing and harp-playing") was more obvious to a Greek than to us, since Greek instrumental music was more definitely imitative. The technical display of the virtuoso Plato describes as "a beastly noise." Since mimēsis in this sense and mimētēs and the verb mimeisthai have a wider scope than any one English word, it is necessary to use more than one word in translation, e.g. mimētēs is what we call an "artist"; and for mimēsis where "representation" would be clumsy we may use the word "art"; the adjective must be "imitative," since "representative" has other meanings.

dithurambopoiētikē kai tēs 15 aulētikēs pleistē kai kitharistikēs

Aul-ētikos , ē, on,
A. of or for the flute, Pl.Ap.27b; “daktuloiPl.Com.211; “kalamosused for making flutes, Thphr.HP4.10.1, Sch.Il.Oxy.221ix12; “telosPlot.1.4.15:- (sc. tekhnē), h(, flute-playing, Pl.Grg.501e, Arist. Po.1447a15. Adv.“-kōs, dei karkinoun tous daktulousAntiph.55.15, cf. Plu.2.404f.
2. fitted for flute playing,psukhēPl.Hp.Mi.375b (Comp.).
ki^thar-istikos , ē, on,
A. skilled in citharaplaying, Pl.Hp.Mi.375b (in Comp. -ōteros), Ion540d, etc.: hē-kē (sc. tekhnē) art of cithara-playing, Id.Grg.501e, Arist.Po.1447a15. Adv. -“kōsPlu.2.404f.
en tois agōsin: Plato considers as a species of flattery only that kind of cithara-playing which was practised in the musical contests at the public festivals. On the other hand, he recognizes a variety of this music which may be helpful to the proper cultivation of the soul of the individual who practises it, and indeed may elevate his moral feeling. This he himself recommends in Rep. iii. 399 d f. Cithara-playing was a part of the education of all young Athenians

Plat. Hipp. Min. 375b Socrates
Well now, the more musical, whether with lyre or with flute,

ti de; kitharistikōtera kai aulētikōtera kai talla panta ta kata tas tekhnas

Strabo: born 64/63 BC, Amaseia, Pontus died AD 23?

"Greek geographer and historian whose Geography is the only extant work covering the whole range of peoples and countries known to both Greeks and Romans during the reign of Augustus (27 BC--AD 14).

Its numerous quotations from technical literature,
moreover, provide a remarkable account of the state of
Greek geographical science, as well as of the history of the countries it surveys.

"Strabo belonged on his mother's side to a famous family, whose members had held important offices under Mithradates V (around 150--120 BC), as well as under Mithradates the Great, the opponent of Rome (132--63 BC). His first teacher was the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, a former tutor of the sons of Pompey (106--48 BC) in Nysa (now Sultanhisar in Turkey) on the Maeander. He moved to Rome in 44 BC to study with Tyrannion, the former tutor of Cicero, and with Xenarchus, both of whom were members of the Aristotelian school of philosophy. Under the influence of Athenodorus, former tutor of Octavius, who probably introduced him into the future emperor's circle, he turned toward Stoical philosophy, the precepts of which included the view that one unique principle ceaselessly pervading the whole universe causes all phenomena.

The first Example from Strabo.

Eratosthenes Of Cyrene born c. 276 BC, Cyrene, Libya died c. 194, Alexandria, Egypt. After study in Alexandria and Athens, Eratosthenes settled in Alexandria about 255 BC and became director of the great library there.

Tom Burgess: In Example 58 Strabo uses the infinitive form of psallo--psallein, It is translated ''harp-playing.''

See more informaion about Strabo and the pagan connection to adding voice to instrument.

See a collection of information about Strabo and pagan music.

Strabo: Geography (1:2.3)

3 As I was saying, Eratosthenes contends that the aim of every poet is to entertain, not to instruct. The ancients assert, on the contrary, that poetry is a kind of elementary philosophy, which, taking us in our very boyhood, introduces us to the art of life and instructs us, with pleasure to ourselves, in character, emotions, and actions. And our School goes still further and contends that the wise man alone is a poet. That is the reason why in Greece the various states educate the young, at the very beginning of their education, by means of poetry;

not for the mere sake of entertainment, of course, but for the sake of moral discipline.

Why, even the musicians, when they give instruction in singing, in lyre-playing, or again flute-playing, lay claim to this virtue, for they maintain that these studies tend to discipline and correct the character.

hopou ge kai hoi mousikoi psallein kai lurizein kai aulein didaskontes

If a musicians gives lessons in lyre playing then this form of psallo means "harp-playing."
If an archer gave lessons in making the bow string twang to send out singing arrows then it means "bow plucking."

1. lyre playerphormigktas aoidan patēr emolen, euainētos OrpheusP. 4.176
phorm-iktēs , ou, Dor. phorm-miktas , o(,
A. lyre-player, of Orpheus, Pi.P.4.176 (v.l. -igktas); of Apollo, Ar.Ra.231 (lyr.); of Arion, AP9.308 (Bianor).
ki^tha^rōd-os , o(, (kithara, aoidos)
*A. [select] one who plays and sings to the cithara, Hdt.1.23, IG12.547, Pherecr.6.1, Phld.Mus.p.28K., etc.: as fem., “k. gunēAlciphr.3.33.

Strab. 8.3 "Come, thou clear-voiced Muse, Erato, begin thy song, voicing to the tune of thy lovely lyre the strain of the children of Samus,
  • aluros: "without the lyre" (entry in LSJ Middle Liddell)
  • aphormiktos: "without the lyre" (entry in LSJ Middle Liddell)
  • anaxiphormigx: "ruling the lyre" (entry in LSJ Middle Liddell Slater)
  • antiluros: "responsive to the lyre" (entry in LSJ Middle Liddell)
  • antipsallō: "to play a lyre in accompaniment to" (entry in LSJ Middle Liddell)
  • astelephos: "leathern case for a lyre," (entry in LSJ)
  • autolurizōn: "that plays the lyre to himself," (entry in LSJ)
  • dusphormigx: "unsuited to the lyre" (entry in LSJ Middle Liddell)
  • energmos: "a way of playing on the lyre," (entry in LSJ)
  • epipsallō: "play the lyre," (entry in LSJ)
lura [u^, ,
A. [select] lyre, a stringed instrument with a sounding-board formed of the shell of a tortoise (not in Il. or Od.), h.Merc.423, Margites 1, Pi.O.10(11).93, N.10.21, etc.; “kelados heptatonou lurasE.IT 1129 (lyr.); ton aneu luras thrēnon (since the dirge was accompanied by the flute) A.Ag.990 (lyr.); l. kai kithara (q. v.) Pl.R.399d, cf. Aristid. Quint.2.16: prov. onos luras (sc. akouōn), v. onos; anēr de pheugōn ou menei luras ktupon Ar.Fr.11 D.
II. [select] lyric poetry and music, Pl.Lg.809c, 809e.
III. [select] the constellation Lyra, Anacr.99, Arat. 269; Mousōn l., of the Pleiades, Pythag. ap. Arist.Fr.196.
ktu^p-eōII. causal, make to ring or resound, “khthonaHes.Sc.61; “tumpanaOpp.C.4.247: c. dupl. acc., ktupēse krata . . plagan (v.l. plaga) made it ring with a blow,
Hom. Od. 1.125 And a carver lifted up and placed before them platters of all manner of meats, and set by them golden goblets, while a herald ever walked to and fro pouring them wine. Then in came the proud wooers, and thereafter [145] sat them down in rows on chairs and high seats. Heralds poured water over their hands, and maid-servants heaped by them bread in baskets, and youths filled the bowls brim full of drink; and they put forth their hands to the good cheer lying ready before them.
[150] Now after the wooers had put from them the desire of food and drink,
        their hearts turned to other things, to song and to dance;
        for these things are the crown of a feast.
And a herald put the beautiful lyre in the hands of Phemius, who sang perforce among the wooers; [155] and he struck the chords in prelude2 to his sweet lay.

But Telemachus spoke to flashing-eyed Athena, holding his head close, that the others might not hear: “Dear stranger, wilt thou be wroth with me for the word that I shall say?
        These men care for things like these, the lyre and song,
        160] full easily, seeing that without atonement they devour the livelihood of another,
        of a man whose white bones, it may be, rot in the rain as they lie upon the mainland,
        or the wave rolls them in the sea.

toi ho phormizōn aneballeto kalon aeidein.

anaballō , B. more freq. in Med., strike up, begin to play or sing (cf. “anabolē11), “anaballeto kalon aeideinOd.1.155, 8.266, Theoc.6.20: abs., “anabaleoPi.N.7.77; “anabalouAr.Pax1269: c. acc., “eukhēn a. ErōtiPhilostr.Im.1.29.

You may hear this contention made not merely by the Pythagoreans, but Aristoxenus also declares the same thing. And Homer, too, has spoken of the bards as disciplinarians in morality, as when he says of the guard of Clytaemnestra: "Whom the son of Atreus as he went to Troy strictly charged to keep watch over his wife"; and he adds that Aegisthus was unable to prevail over Clytaemnestra

until "he carried the bard to a lonely isle and left him there -- while as for her, he led her to his house, a willing lady with a willing lover."

But, even apart from this, Eratosthenes contradicts himself; for shortly before the pronouncement above-mentioned, and at the very beginning of his treatise on geography, he says that from the earliest times all the poets have been eager to display their knowledge of geography; that Homer, for instance, made a place in his poems for everything that he had learned bout the Ethiopians and the inhabitants of Egypt and Libya, and that he has gone into superfluous detail in regard to Greece and the neighbouring countries, speaking of Thisbe as the "haunt of doves," Haliartus as "grassy," Anthedon as "on the uttermost borders," Lilaea as "by the springs of Cephisus"; and he adds that Homer never lets fall an inappropriate epithet.

Well then, I ask, is the poet who makes use of these epithets like a person engaged in entertaining, or in instructing? "The latter, of course," you reply; "but while these epithets have been used by him for purposes of instruction, everything beyond the range of observation has been filled, not only by Homer but by others also, with mythical marvels."

Eratosthenes, then, should have said that "every poet writes partly for purposes of mere entertainment and partly for instruction"; but his words were "mere entertainment and not instruction."

And Eratosthenes gives himself quite unnecessary pains when he asks how it contributes to the excellence of the poet for him to be an expert in geography, or in generalship, or in agriculture, or in rhetoric, or in any kind of special knowledge with which some people have wished to "invest" him.

Now the desire to "invest" Homer with all knowledge might be regarded as characteristic of a man whose zeal exceeds the proper limit, just as would be the case if a man -- to use a comparison of Hipparchus --

should hang apples and pears, or anything else that it cannot bear, on an Attic "eiresione"; so absurd it would be to "invest" Homer with all knowledge and with every art. You may be right, Eratosthenes, on that point, but you are wrong when you deny to Homer the possession of vast learning,

and go on to declare that poetry is a fable-prating old wife, who has been permitted to "invent" (as you call it) whatever she deems suitable for purposes of entertainment.

And according to him the Deity will manifestly be the author of evil, dwelling in sewers and worms, and in the perpetrators of impiety. The eruptions of fire in Sicily, moreover, confute the empty boasting of Empedocles, in that, though he was no god, he falsely almost gave himself out for one.

I laugh, too, at the old wife's talk of Pherecydes, and the doctrine inherited from him by Pythagoras,
and that of
Plato, an imitation of his, though some think otherwise.

But refuse profane and old wives fables (myths spun for "tutition"), and exercise thyself rather unto godliness. 1 Timothy 4:7

This flows out of Babylon: She then filled Agade's stores for emmer wheat with gold, she filled its stores for white emmer wheat with silver; she delivered copper, tin, and blocks of lapis lazuli to its granaries and sealed its silos from outside.

She endowed its old women with the gift of giving counsel,
she endowed its
old men with the gift of eloquence.
She endowed its
young women with the gift of entertaining,
she endowed its
young men with martial might,
she endowed its
little ones with joy.

The nursemaids who cared for (some mss. have instead: of) the general's children played the aljarsur instruments.Inside the city tigi drums sounded; outside it, flutes and zamzam instruments.

Its harbour where ships moored was full of joy. All foreign lands rested contentedly, and their people experienced happiness.

What, then? Is no contribution made, either, to the excellence of him who hears the poets recited? I again refer to the poet's being an expert in geography, or generalship, or agriculture, or rhetoric, the subjects in which the poet naturally "invests" the hearer with special knowledge.

1.2.6 And when [we find] the ancient writers making use of the expression ‘to sing,’ to designate eloquence of style, this in itself is an evidence that poetry is the source and origin of all ornamented and rhetorical language.

Poetry in ancient days was on every occasion accompanied by melody.
        The song or ode was but a modulated speech,
         from whence the words rhapsody, tragedy, comedy,1 are derived;
        and since originally eloquence was the term made use of
        for the poetical effusions which were always of the nature of a song,

        it soon happened [that in speaking of poetry] some said, to sing, others, to be eloquent;
        and as the one term was early misapplied to prose compositions,
        the other also was soon applied in the same way.
Lastly, the very term prose, which is applied to language not clothed in metre, seems to indicate, as it were, its descent from an elevation or chariot to the ground.2

6... But prose and discourse -- I mean artistic prose -- is, I may say, an imitation of poetic discourse; for poetry, as an art,

first came upon the scene and was first to win approval.

Then came Cadmus, Pherecydes, Hecataeus, and their followers, with prose writings in which they imitated the poetic art,

abandoning the use of metre but in other respects possessing the qualities of poetry.

Then subsequent writers took away, each in his turn, something of these qualities, and brought prose down to its present form, as from a sublime height.

In the same way one might say that comedy took its structure from tragedy, but that it also has been degraded -- from the sublime height of tragedy to its present "prose-like" style, as it is called.

And further, the fact that the ancients used the verb "sing" instead of the verb "tell" bears witness to this very thing, namely,

that poetry was the source and origin of style, I mean ornate, or rhetorical, style.

For when poetry was recited, it employed the assistance of song; this combination formed melodic discourse, or "ode"; and from "ode" they began to use the terms rhapsody, tragedy, and comedy.

Therefore, since "tell" was first used in reference to poetic "style" and since among the ancients this poetic style was accompanied by song, the tem "sing" was to them equivalent to the term "tell";

and then after they had misused the former of these two terms by applying it to prose discourse, the misuse passed over to the latter term also. And, from, the very fact that non-metrical discourse was termed "pedestrian" indicates its descent from a height, or from a chariot, to the ground.

Tom Burgess: ' In example 59 psaltrias is used, This word refers to maiden-harpists who were usually girls of "easy virtue. "

The term is usually FLUTE-GIRLS which was understood to be prostitutes.

The Musical Minstrels who wanted to perform their funeral music for the dead girl were CAST OUT by Jesus as one "ejects dung." This has a lot of meaning for those who want to bring the FLUTE-GIRLS back into the presence of God. We noted above that these words relate to WARFARE and not to "spiritual" music:

Psalmos twitching or twanging with the fingers. 2. the sound of the cithara or harp, ; psalmos d' alalazei A.Fr.57.7 (anap.); there were contests in to psallein

Like twanging the literal bow, twanging the harp among real males intended that the loser be murdered or skinned alive by the winner. Alalazei defines the musical minstrels and clanging cymbals.

Wail is Alalazo (g214) al-al-ad'-zo; from alale, (a shout, "halloo"); to vociferate, i.e. (by impl.) to wail; fig. to clang: - tinkle, wail

And he cometh to the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and seeth the tumult, and them that wept and wailed greatly. Mk.5:38

And when Jesus came into the rulers house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, Matt 9:23

THOUGH I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 1Co.13:1

"Long before Israel's existence, we find in Akkadian tablets the word halhallatu for 'double clarinet,' and we have many ancient representations of this instruments... Extremely popular for SECULAR purposes, the clarinet was played at WEDDINGS, BANQUETS, and FUNERAL. At funerals it served as accompaniment to the customary WAILING women; this is the meaning of Matt. 9:23. The chief characteristics of the clarinet were: popularity, juxtaposition with hand drum and lyre, expression of extreme emotionalism, and symbolic meaning of FERTILITY and RESURRECTION." (Int. Std. Bible Dict., p. 472).

T. Maccius Plautus, Miles Gloriosus, or The Braggart Captain

Now I will disclose to you both the subject and the name of the play which we are just now about to act, and for the sake of which you are now seated in this mirthful place , "Alazon" is the name (86)

This city is Ephesus; then, the Captain, my master, who has gone off hence to the Forum, a bragging, impudent, stinking fellow, brimful of lying and lasciviousness, says that all the women are following him of their own accord. Wherever he goes, he is the laughingstock of all; and so, the Courtesans here--since they make wry mouths at him, you may see the greater part of them with lips all awry Alazon is the name:

alazôn, "the boaster," he says, was the Greek name of the play. It is not known who was the Greek author from whom Plautus took this play, which is one of his best.

3 , in Greek, of this Comedy; the same we call in Latin. "the Braggart" (Gloriosus).

Aristotle, Athenian Constitution

These then are the matters administered by the Council. Also ten men are elected by lot as Restorers of Temples, who draw 30 minae1 from the Receivers and repair the temples that most require it; and ten City Controllers, [2]

five of whom hold office in Peiraeus and five in the city;

it is they who supervise the flute-girls and harp-girls and lyre-girls to prevent their receiving fees of more than two drachmas,

and if several persons want to take the same girl these officials cast lots between them and hire her out to the winner.

And they keep watch to prevent any scavenger from depositing ordure (dung) within a mile and a quarter of the wall;

and they prevent the construction of buildings encroaching on and balconies overhanging the roads, of overhead conduits with an overflow into the road, and of windows opening outward on to the road;

and they remove for burial the bodies of persons who die on the roads, having public slaves for this service.

See Aristot. Ath. Pol. 7.3. A drachma (say 9 1/2d. or 1 franc) was a hundredth part of a mina (say 4 pounds.)


An Italian god of agriculture, and especially of manure, hence called son of Stercutus ("the dunger"--i. e. Saturn). He also appears as a forest-god with prophetic powers, and as father of Faunus ( Verg. Aen.viii. 48). In Latin legend he plays a prominent part as a warlike hero, the earliest king of Latium, of great wealth, who was finally changed into a woodpecker (picus) (ib. 187- 190). According to Ovid ( Met.xiv. 320-396), this was because he spurned the love of Circe and was faithful to the beautiful nymph Canens. Probably Picus was originally the woodpecker, the symbol of Mars as giver of fertility and warlike prowess, and from this symbol there was developed a separate deity.

Mr. G. Wrote Alexander Campbell in 1851 defending the position adopted by Tom Burgess:

"Music exerts a mysterious charm upon man--it takes captive the citadel of life--carries him out of himself, and leads him where it will. The shrill fife and the rattling drum, inspire the soldier just about to enter into battle, with a zeal and daring which no hardship can overcome, and no danger intimidate, and causes him to rush headlong into the thickest of the combat, regardless of consequences.

If martial music thus inspires the worshippers of Mars, will sacred music do less for the humble followers of the meek and lowly Jesus--the worshippers of the true and living God?

No! It will not. It will inspire them, too, with zeal and courage, and impel them on to resist--not flesh and blood with instruments of death, but principalities and powers--spiritual wickedness in high places, with the armor of God and the sword of the Spirit. G."

Tertullian speaks of the spectacles or shows as pagan worship.

For the amphitheatre [Though this was probably written at Carthage, his reference to the Flavian theatre in this place is plain from the immediate comparison with the Capitol.] is consecrated to names more numerous and more dire [To the infernal deities and first of all to Pluto. See vol. I. note 6, p. 131, this Series.] than is the Capitol itself, temple of all demons as it is.

There are as many unclean spirits there as it holds men.
To conclude with a single remark about the
arts which have a place in it, we know that its two sorts of amusement have for their patrons Mars and Diana.

Chapter XIII. Idolatry Clings To the Shows and Funeral Festivals

We have, I think, faithfully carried out our plan of showing in how many

different ways the sin of idolatry clings to the shows,

in respect of their origins, their titles, their equipments, their places of celebration, their arts; and we may hold it as a thing beyond all doubt, that for us who have twice [Bunsen, Hippol. Vol. iii. pp. 20-22.] renounced all idols, they are utterly unsuitable.

"Not that an idol is anything," (1 Cor. viii. 4.) as the apostle says, but that the homage they render is to demons, who are the real occupants of these consecrated images, whether of dead men or (as they think) of gods.

Before looking at Strabo: Geography (14.2.26), we should look at the context which is more important to understanding why paul put BOTH the singing and melody in the heart.

Strabo, Geography

[9] The Halex River, which marks the boundary between the Rhegian and the Locrian territories, passes out through a deep ravine;

and a peculiar thing happens there in connection with the grasshoppers, that although those on the Locrian bank sing, the others remain mute.

As for the cause of this, it is conjectured that on the latter side the region is so densely shaded that the grasshoppers, being wet with dew, cannot expand their membranes,

whereas those on the sunny side have dry and horn-like membranes and therefore can easily produce their song.

And people used to show in Locri a statue of Eunomus, the cithara-bard, with a locust seated on the cithara. Timaeus says that Eunomus and Ariston of Rhegium were once contesting with each other at the Pythian games and fell to quarrelling about the casting of the lots; so Ariston begged the Delphians to cooperate with him, for the reason that his ancestors belonged to the god and that the colony had been sent forth from there;

and although Eunomus said that the Rhegini had absolutely no right even to participate in the vocal contests, since in their country even the grasshoppers, the sweetest-voiced of all creatures, were mute, Ariston was none the less held in favor and hoped for the victory; and yet Eunomus gained the victory and set up the aforesaid image in his native land, because during the contest, when one of the chords broke, a grasshopper lit on his cithara and supplied the missing sound.

Strabo, Geography 14:2.

[16] Then to Halicarnassus, the royal residence of the dynasts of Caria, which was formerly called Zephyra. Here is the tomb of Mausolus,32 one of the Seven Wonders, a monument erected by Artemisia in honor of her husband; and here is the fountain called Salmacis, which has the slanderous repute, for what reason I do not know, of making effeminate all who drink from it. It seems that the effeminacy of man is laid to the charge of the air or of the water;

yet it is not these, but rather riches and wanton living, that are the cause of effeminacy.

II. [21] Then one comes to Iasus, which lies on an island close to the mainland. It has a harbor; and the people gain most of their livelihood from the sea, for the sea here is well supplied with fish, but the soil of the country is rather poor. Indeed, people fabricate stories of this kind in regard to Iasus: When a citharoede was giving a recital, the people all listened for a time,

but when the bell that announced the sale of fish rang, they all left him and went away to the fish market, except one man who was hard of hearing.

The citharoede, therefore, went up to him and said: "Sir, I am grateful to you for the honor you have done me and for your love of music, for all the others except you went away the moment they heard the sound of the bell."

And the man said, "What's that you say? Has the bell already rung?" And when the citharoede said "Yes," the man said, "Fare thee well," and himself arose and went away. Here was born the dialectician Diodorus, nicknamed Cronus, falsely so at the outset, for it was Apollonius his master who was called Cronus, but the nickname was transferred to him because of the true Cronus' lack of repute.

A citharoede One who played the cithara and sang to its accompaniment. There are ALWAYS different words when singing is connected to PLAYING and they are always vile fellows.

[26] Alabanda is also situated at the foot of hills, two hills that are joined together in such a way that they present the appearance of an ass laden with panniers. And indeed Apollonius Malacus, in ridiculing the city both in regard to this and in regard to the large number of scorpions there, said that it was an "ass laden with panniers of scorpions." Both this city and Mylasa are full of these creatures, and so is the whole of the mountainous country between them.

Alabanda is a city of people who live in luxury and debauchery, containing many girls who play the harp.

[28] When the poet says,

Masthles in turn led the Carians, of barbarian speech, we have no reason to inquire how it is that, although he knew so many barbarian tribes, he speaks of the Carians alone as "of barbarian speech," but nowhere speaks of "barbarians." Thucydides, therefore, is not correct, for he says that Homer "did not use the term 'barbarians' either, because the Hellenes on their part had not yet been distinguished under one name as opposed to them"; for the poet himself refutes the statement that the Hellenes had not yet been so distinguished when he says,

My husband, whose fame is wide through Hellas and mid-Argos.51 52 And again,

And if thou dost wish to journey through Hellas and mid-Argos. Further, if they were not called "barbarians," how could they properly be called a people "of barbarian speech?"

We will add other quotes but we assure you that if Tom Burgess collects ten thousand references to MUSIC it will be in the PERFORMANCE sense of the word and not in the Biblical sense. Music will always have the charismatic or perverted sexual meaning because MUSIC induces endorphins which produce the effects of FIGHT, FLIGHT or SEXUALITY. People use it because it is an ATTRACTANT and because it feels good. God forbid that deep down in the pit of the sectarian's souls there is not a DELIBERATE attempt to stear people away from the Word of God. Remember that the serpent in the garden was not a snake: he/she was a musical enchanter, bisexual. Click for more on Serpent or Devil Worship.

See our summary of music as madness

See that scholars reject this meaning of psallo

Furthermore, the VENUE was not in church but in pagan assemblies where they believed that music and homosexuality "bound flesh and spirit together."

This was the 100% environment of the WORLDLY SOUP. Therefore, as the Bible always does it will POINT to these carnal concepts and show that Christianity is COUNTER CULTURAL or it cannot be Christian.

Musical Worship Index

Restoration Movement Index

The Stone Campbell Movement a new heresy to discord

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