Authorize Musical Instruments
This is a recent research into the Latin uses of the word "Psallo." In its PRIMARY use in the Greek and Latin Texts. 7.16.14
Everett Ferguson Congregational Singing in Early Church
SPEAK "that which is written for our Learning"
IN the heart. Meaning Keep it Silent
is the OPPOSITE
which means to enchant.
Psallo is a word often connected to Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon. He
carried his bow and made the string "twang" to send forth a sinning
arrow into the literal heart of enemies. He also carried the Lyre which
he "plucked" intending to send forth a Love Arrow into his male of
Abaddon or Apollyon has been unleased from the pit and is the leader of
the LOCUSTS which we understand to be the MUSES as his musical worship
team. The muses are known in the literature as dirty adulteresses who
become SHEPHERDESSES at Apollo's Worship Center at Delphi and Corinth.
Psallo is USED primarily as:
psallō pluck, pull, twitch,ps. etheiranpluck
: esp. of the bow
, toxōn kheri psallousi neurastwangthem
; kenon kroton
; ek keraos ps. belossend
a shaft twanging from the bow,
When used of musicalinstruments
Psallo means play or pluck II.
mostly of the strings of musical instruments, play a stringed instrument with the fingers, and not with the plectron:
Jesus said MY WORDS are SPIRIT and LIFE. As the antithesis to the "spirit" as a person or people
Ventus , B. personified as deities, the winds: te, Apollo sancte, omnipotens Neptune, invoco; Vosque adeo, Venti! Turpil. ap. Cic. Tusc. 4, 34, 73 Lucr. 5, 1230 (1228); cf. Ov. H. 17 (18), 37.
The air: imber et ignis,
The BREATH of a god, inspiration: spiritum Phoebus [Apollo, Abaddon, Apollyon] mihi, Phoebus artem Carminis Carmen , dedit, poetic spirit or inspiration,
Mark 6.7 He called to himself the
twelve, and began to send them out two by two; and he gave them
authority over the unclean spirits.
Hor. C. 1, 7,
23;Q. Horatius Flaccus, Odes (ed. John
Let others Rhodes or Mytilene sing,
or Corinth, set
Two seas, or [Baccho] Thebes, or
[Apollo] Delphi, for its king
Each famous, or Thessalian Tempe
There are who make chaste Pallas' virgin
The daily burden of unending
And search for wreaths the olive's rifled
The praise of Juno sounds from
many a tongue,
Telling of Argos' steeds, Mycenae's
and certain women who had been
healed of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary who was called Magdalene,
from whom seven demons had gone out;
OF God is the BREATH
of God and not a "people."
Psallo marks as Lawless those who used a "guitar pick", beat on a drum or blew a flute.
The Phrase: psallere saltare elegantius,
ē-lēgo , āvi, 1, v. a., I.to convey away (from the family) by bequest, to bequeath away,
The Phrase: cantare et psallere jucunde,
pulso I. Lucr. 4, 931), to push, strike, beat (cf.: tundo, ferio, pello).
Of musical instruments: chordas digitis et pectine eburno, to strike, play upon, Verg. A. 6, 647: chelyn, (harp) Val. Fl. 1, 139: pectine nervos, Sil. 5, 463: cymbala, Juv. 9, 62.
A. In gen., to urge or drive on, to impel, to set in violent motion, to move, agitate, disturb, disquiet:
C. To drive away, remove, put out of the way
Psalmus , = psalmos,
I. In gen., to play [psalmus] upon a stringed instrument; esp., to play upon the cithara, to sing to the cithara: psallere saltare elegantius, Sall. C. 25,
Elego I. to convey away (from the family) by bequest, to bequeath away,
Sal. Cat. 25 In the number of those ladies was Sempronia,
a woman who had committed many crimes with the spirit of a man. In
birth and beauty, in her husband and her children, she was extremely
fortunate; she was skilled in Greek and Roman literature; she could
sing, play, and dance,
with greater elegance than became a woman of virtue, and possessed many
other accomplishments that tend to excite the passions. But nothing was
ever less valued by her than honor or chastity.
jūcundus (jōcundus ), a, um, adj. jocus, I. pleasant, agreeable, delightful, pleasing (syn.: gratus, blandus; class.): est mihi jucunda in malis et grata in dolore vestra erga me voluntas,
verba ad audiendum
The Graces as Muses were "blue-eyed blond musical prostitutes." They were Abaddon-Apollyon's Praise Team.
mălus , evil, wicked, injurious, destructive, mischievous, hurtful : carmen, i. e. an incantation, Leg. XII. Tab. ap. Plin. 28, 2, 4, ง 17: abi in malam rem, go and be hanged! burdensome, plagis
male tibi esse malo quam molliter, I would rather you should be unfortunate than effeminate, Sen. Ep. 82, 1: cantare et psallere, Suet. Tit. 3:
The Phrase: gratus
considered it paradoxical that music should be regarded as veneration
of the gods
while musicians were paid for performing this so-called
veneration. Again, Philodemus held as
self deceptive the view that music mediated religious ecstasy. He saw the entire
condition induced by the noise of
cymbals and tambourines as a disturbance of the spirit.
significant that, on the whole, only women and effeminate men fell into this
of value could be attributed to
it was no more
than a slave
of the sensation of pleasure, which
satisfied much in the same way
that food and drink did.
; The New Hermeneutics or the Kairos Time
Grātus or kharis religion beloved, dear, acceptable, pleasing, agreeable Herophile Phoebo grata and: superis deorum gratus (Mercurius) et imis, carmina, id. C. 1, 15, 14; 3, 11, 23: artes, id. ib. 4, 13, 22: error mentis, favorite, darling: deserving or procuring thanks Grata testudo Jovis, [G1361 Diotrephes]
testūdo Hermes made the first lute or lyre from a tortoise-shell while still in his crib. He is a type of Jubal. 1. Of any stringed instrument of music of an arched shape, a lyre, lute, cithern
Mercŭrĭus , ii, m., = Hermēs, as a herald, the god of dexterity; in speaking, of eloquence; the
bestower of prosperity; the god of traders and thieves; the presider
over roads, and conductor of departed souls to the Lower World:
Mercury or Hermes (Kairos) while still in his cradle scouped out a
turtle and made the first lyre: the turtle should be graceful that it
would be worshipped even today for its contribution Diotrephes
He gave this harp to Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon who is YOUR musical worship leader even today.
G1361 Diotrephes dee-ot-ref-ace' From the alternate of G2203 and
G5142; Jove nourished; Diotrephes, an opponent of
Trepho (g5142) tref'-o; a
prim. verb (prop.
threpho, but perh. strength. from the base of 5157 through the
to stiffen, i.e.
fatten (by impl. to cherish
[with food, etc.], pamper, rear): - bring up, feed, nourish treph๔ similar words mean that
the was RAISED
UP by Zeus.
Hor. Ars 395 Orpheus, the priest and interpreter of the gods, deterred the savage
race of men from slaughters and inhuman diet; hence said to tame tigers
and furious lions: Amphion
too, the builder of the Theban wall, was said to give the stones motion
with the sound of his lyre, and to lead them whithersoever he would, by
Pythia cantica Hor. Ars 414,
songs like the hymns which were sung in honor of Apollo, by the chorus
in some comedies. A player, called Pythaules, played during the
intervals when the chorus left off singing.
in the sense of the Graces
and Muses who were musicians under Apollo or Abaddon at Delphi where the
Phythian serpent was worshipped. Other forms are:
c. dat. rei, rejoice at, take pleasure in a thing
[sing and dance], hē
or rhythmic movement with song
more freq. song
, suriggos ekhōnthe note
klagg-ē twang of the bow howling of wolves and lions, baying of dogs, also, of musical instruments of song k. aēdoneios
As "doctors of the Law take away the key to knowledge" Everett Ferguson
quotes a lot of Scripture and church history but misses the rest of the
story not part of his thesis.
Churches and theologians have
probably spend more time trying to justify the use of music in the
assemblies of Christ than teaching the lost. That is because the
of the eyes and ears looks in vain for the use of any kind of "music"
in connection with God's people from Genesis to Revelation. To
contrary, the Word asssociates musical instruments with Lucifer,
warriors threatening the enemy, unauthorized sacrificial exorcism,
prostitutes and Sodomites.
LEAVEN from ACU requested Teresa D. Welch, an instrumentalist to review Danny Corbitt's Missing More than Music.
Teresa does not endorse the ANTI-instrumentalists rehash as well as
they might have hoped. Danny says that Paul and Silas sang hymns because
they would not have their musical instruments with them. I have
worked on the HYMN word from Greek and Latin text and found that there
was two VENUES of performing hymns.
In the Bible sense a Hymn is a prayer from recorded Scripture.
When Hymns are SUNG the literature adds a word for SING and HYMN
When Hymns are accompanied with instruments they most often identify
Dionysus or Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon) as the "gods" being praised.
See the two major PSALLO words which are never DEFINED. Instead,
I will show how the words are used having several meanings. If we
twang a bowstring to send forth a singing arrow into a literal heart
then PSALLO would obligate the instrumentalists because there is very
little about twanging a HARP string and then the examples are ugly or
Lynn Anderson The Beginning of Musical Idolatry
Danny Corbitt and Matt Dabbs Psallo ripening issues
Danny Corbitt Refuting Everett Ferguson Psallo, Psalmos, Psalmus, Psalma
John T. Willis 2. "Sing" is vocal; "make melody" is instrumental. Psalms 33:2-3;
144:9; 149:1, 3 make this crystal clear. Amos 5:23 further verifies
People forget that God turned Israel over to worship the starry host
because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. The Levites were under the
KING and the COMMANDERS of the army: they made war and not worship. We
will examine these passages in context.
Danny Corbitt Refuting Everett Ferguson Psallo, Psalmos, Psalmus, Psalma
Quick Added Notes 4.06.13
all of the pagan sects in Rome such as those of Dionysus and
Orpheus. Both could be pointed out on the days when types of foods
were available or prepared in the marketplace or the pagan temples in
the Agora: in Athens it was quite separated from the Ekklesia for word-only
discussions. The men who translated the Septuagint or LXX were aware
that the PSALLO-based words pointed to making war or making strang love
in the marketplace. Any lawful citizen able to attend the assembly was
swept up by slaves using a red, polluted rope and driven to the ekklesia
for instruction only.
A gang of slaves, called Scythians, carrying
ropes dipped in red ochre
(miltos, hence Miltiades, i.e. the Red-Haired) would travel through the
city on the days the Ecclesia was to meet, and would lash those
citizens not in attendance with their ropes. With garments thus
stained, shamed citizens could legally carry out no business
visited the meeting grounds of the Ecclesia on the hill called the Pnyx.
-psallō , fut. so miltokharēs skhoinos psallomenē a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark, AP6.103 (Phil.):
-Phur๔ I. to mix
something dry with
something wet, mostly with a sense of mixing so as to soil or defile, to be doomed to have one's
hair defiled with earth, II. metaph. to mingle together, confuse, bioton ek pephurmenou kai thēriōdous diestathmēsato from a confused and savage state, E.Supp. 201.
Agora a^g, as, Ion. agorē , ēs, hē, (ageirō): 2.
2Corinthians 2:14 Now thanks be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in Christ,
business of the agora
public speaking, gift of speaking, mostly in pl., eskh' agoraōn withheld him from speaking, generally, provisions, supplies,
agoraios, hē, market-day, IGRom.4.1381 (Lydia). (The distn. agoraios vulgar, agoraios public speaker, drawn by Ammon., etc., is prob. fictitious.)
Agorazō a^g, fut. asō Ar.Lys.633,
Men. 828:frequent the agora, hai gunaikes a. kai kapēleuousi Hdt.2.35, 4.164, cf. Arist.Ph.196a5, Com.Adesp.710; occupy the market-place, Th.6.51.
and maketh manifest the savour of HIS knowledge by us in every place.
2Corinthians 2:15 For we are unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish:
2Corinthians 2:16 To the one we are the savour of death unto death;
and to the other the savour of life unto life. And who is sufficient for these things?
2Corinthians 2:17 For we are not as many,
polus great, mighty, megas kai pollos egeneo Hdt.7.14, cf. E.Hipp.1; ho p. sophistēs, stratēgos
which corrupt the word of God:
stra^tēg-os 5. an officer who had the custody of the Temple at Jerusalem, ho s. tou hierou Ev.Luc. 22.52, Act.Ap.4.1, J.BJ6.5.3.
but as of sincerity, but as of God,
in the sight of God
speak we in Christ.
to be a retail-dealer, drive a petty trade, Hdt.1.155, 2.35, Isoc.2.1
The Psallo based words MARK a church, Kirke, or Circe: it is the mark of marketimereligion.
You remember that Jesus cast the pipers inducing singing or lamenting
or dancing into the MARKETPLACE along with all of the other
merchandisers: there SHALL NOT--CANNOT be a Canaanite or Trader in the
House of God
metaph., k. ta prēgmata, of Darius, Hdt.3.89; k. ta mathēmata sell learning by retail, hawk it about, Pl. Prt.313d; k. ton logon tou theou 2 Ep.Cor.2.17; adultery
Zech 14:21 Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness
unto the Lord of hosts: and all they that sacrifice shall come and take
of them, and seethe therein:
and in that day there shall be no more the
Canaanite in the house of the Lord of hosts.
Kennaniy (h3669) ken-ah-an-ee'; patrial from
Kenaanite or inhabitant of Kenaan; by impl. a pedlar (the Canaanites
standing for their neighbors the Ishmaelites, who conducted mercantile
caravans): - Canaanite, merchant, trafficker.
H3667 kena‛an ken-ah'-an From H3665 ; humiliated; Kenaan, a son of Ham; also the country inhabited by him:Canaan, merchant, traffick.
Mercātor , ōris, m. id.,
a trader, merchant, esp. a wholesale dealer (opp. to caupo, a retailer; class.).
B.A buyer, purchaser: signorum, Cic. Verr. 1, 20, 60: veneni, Juv. 13, 154.
The word CHURCH does not define the Ekklesia:
kuklos of the circle which hunters draw round their game,
3 place of assembly, of the agora, hieros k. Il.18.504; ho k. tou Zēnos tōgoraiou
b. crowd of people standing round, ring or circle of people,
Eur. Hipp. 953 Continue then your confident boasting, take up a
diet of greens and play the showman with your food, make Orpheus your
lord and engage in mystic rites, holding the vaporings of many books in
 For you have been found out. To all I give the warning: avoid men
like this. For they make you their prey with their high-holy-sounding
words while they contrive deeds of shame.
The Dionysus worshipers are those who do "evil things in
the dark." Paul silenced them and everything which did not contribute to
PEACE AND EDIFICATION which in this case is ONLY Education by "using
one mind and one mouth to speak that which is written for our learning"
(Romans 15). Disciples are students or learners and musical performances
and speaking in tongues are identified by the same word for SPEAK.
Theseus compares Hippolytus to the Orphics, an ascetic religious sect
that ate a vegetarian diet and had a reputation for hypocrisy.
Bakkh-euō , A. celebrate the mysteries of Bacchus, Hdt.4.79.
Eur. IT 1243
Lovely is the son of Leto,
whom she, the Delian, once bore in the fruitful valleys,
golden-haired, skilled at the lyre; and also the one who glories in her
For the mother, leaving the famous birth-place, brought him from the
ridges of the sea to the heights of Parnassus
, with its gushing waters, which celebrate the revels for Dionysus.
The only role of the Ekklesia or synagogue is to teach "that which is
written for our learing." In romans 15 the method is to "use one mind
and one mouth." The "tongue" of this mouth is defined as the opposite
of the tongue of a wind instrument.
There is no singing in the tuneful sense in the Bible related to spiritual people.
In This paper David makes it certain that the Psalms are NARRATED to
teach the unaltered Word of God for the purpose of INSTRUCTION.
Direct commands, examples and necessary inferences since church is a
school for disciples is that the Word of God is spoken clearly and
Hebrew singing or rhymic prose had no fixed meter: "Since
in all languages a sentence changes its meaning by mere intonations
without adding or removing nounds, verbs or particles, the Syrian
scholars who laid the fundament of correct language discovered a way by devising accents...
and since these accents are a form of musical modulation, there is no
possibliity of learning them except by hearing and through tradition
from the master's tongue or the pupils hear. It follows from Bar
Hebraeus' statement that the main concern was to secure an unadulterated and unadulterable version of the text
This required (a) correct vocalization and (b) correct intonation.
(p.87) " Nor is there a constant number of feet in a verse. Hebrew
poetry is poetic p;rose. "Hebrew prosedy differes fundamentlly from classical prosody. No poem is written according to a repeating meter scheme.
Classical verse is mechanical; Hebrew verse is dynamic (p 89. Music in Ancient Western Orient
The word Law or nomos defines a legal form of performance dedicated most often to Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon)
The godly Jews who rested on the Prophets (by Christ) understood:
law and to the
they speak not according to this word,
it is because there
is no light in them.
The key word used to justify what has already taken place is the Greek
"psallo." Psallyohas no musical connection but was used by the
scholars translating the Septuagint (LXX). In the Greek world the
"musical" concept derived from Apollo's (Abaddon, Apollyon's) bow which
twanged to send forth "singing" arrows into the literal heart. His lyre
was used to send forth "love arrows." Making the heart strings
"shooting forth hymns" derives from its warfare and perverted
application in pagan religions.
The translators of the LXX clearly understood that it was because of
musical idolatry at Mount Sinai that God had turned them over to
worship the starry host. When the elders demanded a King like the
nations God knew that they wanted to worship like the nations. He
warned them and abandoned them.
The influence of the Catholic church restores a priesthood and of
course what they call "Levitical singers."
The Qahal, synagogue or Church of Christ was ordained in the wilderness
to Rest, read and rehearse the Word. This quarantined the godly people
from the always Sun or heavenly body worship among the canaanites and
LACKING ANY BIBLICAL COMMAND, EXAMPLE OR REMOTE INFERENCE OF
INSTRUMENTS IN THE EKKLESIA OR SYNAGOGUE, PSALLO IS THE LAST RESORT.
Although it simply means to strike or smite a string with your fingers,
in the Bible it is always translated to SING. If an instrument is
intended it is named.
The Hebrew Scholars who translated the LXX or Septuagint used 'psallo'
words because they understood that the only true psalms or mizmor
EXCLUDED instruments unless they identify a function of the
God-abandoned sacrificial system. Then ONLY Levites were permitted to
make noise but never close to any holy thing and never IN the Holy
Place which pictured the Ekklesia or Synagogue when those who accepted
the blood sacrifice Chirst and were baptized in the 7-foot deep laver
could enter into the Holy Place.
Most of the other Psalms are historical and are useful for SPEAKING in
order to TEACH and admonish. Many of the other types of songs were used
(remember Gideon) to threaten the enemy. Halal or praise means to
make yourself vile: because the Israelites had been turned over to
worship the starry host without God's Theocratic rule, the noise was a
threat to rob, sodomize and the murder the enemy. Music was ALWAYS from
tribal times to validate the superiority of the Alpha Male aka pulpit
pastor of mega churches.
FIRST LOOK AT THE INTERMEDIATE LEXICON AS SUMMARY.
You will note that a different word is used for SINGING in the Old and New Testament:
to touch sharply, to pluck, pull, twitch, Aesch.; toxou neuran ps. to twang the bow-string, Eur.; belos ek keraos ps. to send a shaft twanging from the bow, Anth.; so, skhoinos miltophurēs psallomenē a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark, id=Anth.
to play a stringed instrument with the fingers, not with the plectron, Hdt., Ar., Plat.
later, to sing to a harp, sing, NTest.
In Psalm 41 it was prophesied that Judas would not be able to triumph
over Messiah: that act is excluded from the synagogue and excludes
"vocal or instrumental rejoicing" including elevated forms of
speech. The Judas bag was always attached to a flute case for
carrying the mouth pieces of wind instruments. At the last supper
Jesus had ground the SOP for him as the mark that Satan had entered him.
, but always contracted],
, inf. psēn
: impf. contr. 3sg. prob. apepsē
): fut. psēsō
: aor. epsēsa
, (kat-, peri-
:Med., freq. in compos. with apo
: Pass., aor. epsēthēn
) LXX Je.31(48).33
(i A. D.): pf. epsēsmai
. Later authors sts. use the contr. by a_
instead of ē,
: rub, wipe,
tis omphalētomos se . . epsēse kapelousen;
l. c.; polish, PHolm.3.19
; rub smooth,
austaleas d' epsēse parēidas
l. c.; of solderers, PLond.3.1177.285
(ii A. D.).
intr., crumble away, vanish, disappear, S.Tr.678
(s. v. l.). (psaō, psaiō, psauō, psairō, psēkhō, psōkhō,
and perh. psiō, psōmos,
seem to be different enlargements of ps-,
which corresponds to ps-
in Skt. psā ดti, bhes-
in Skt. babhasti
'crush, chew, devour', bhasman
Psallo by itself just means to PULL with your fingers and
NEVER with a plectrum.
In a GODLY sense as used in the Bible it is always translated
as to sing. While Apollo (the Psallo message) plucked his lyre to shoot
forth love arrows, the godly people used it for the "shooting" word in
"shooting forth hymns."
"And so the lyre-player [psaltees] not
rudely nor inelegantly put the curb on Phillip when he tried to
dispute with him about the way to strike [psalles] the lyre
[psalteerion]. -Moralia, p. 67F.
Phrynichus says in The Phoenician Women, '
With plucking [psalmoisin]
of the strings they sing [aeidontes]
their lays in answering strains." -The
Deiphnosphists, XIV. 635, Translated by Gulick, Vol. 6, p.
FIRST: A. psalō LXX Jd.5.3,
aor. epsēla Pl.Ly. 209b,
etc., and in LXX epsa_la Ps.9.12, al.:
1 Cor 14:15
ti oun estin; proseuxomai tō pneumati, proseuxomai
de kai tō noi: psalō tō pneumati, psalō de kai
Judg. 5:1 Then SANG
Deborah and Barak the
of Abinoam on that day, SAYING,
Judg. 5:2 Praise [kneel] ye the LORD for the AVENGING of
Israel, when the
people willingly offered themselves.
Judg. 5:3 Hear, O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes; I, even I,
unto the LORD; I will SING praise to the LORD God of Israel.
1Cor. 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will
pray with the understanding also:
I will SING
with the spirit,
will SING with the understanding
(mind, spirit) also.
Of tightening a bow string or a lyre string with your FINGERS: excludes
using a PLECKTRON, it does not mean "play + the + harp
Plat. Lysis 209b And, I suppose, when you take your lyre,
neither your father nor your
mother prevents you from tightening or slackening what
please, or from using your finger or your plectrum at will: or
prevent you? Oh, no. Then whatever can be the reason, Lysis, why they
do not prevent you here,
All of the uses speak of "handling" a string of any kind.
Psa. 9:11 SING praises to the
which dwelleth in Zion:
among the people his doings.
Psalm 9. For he who avenges blood remembers them.
He doesn't forget the cry
(clamor=applause, shout, loud sounds to afflict)
twitch, ps. etheiran pluck the hair,
kai psall' etheiran kai katoiktisai straton.
Xerxes  And with your fingers tear the robe which
Chorus Anguish, anguish!
Xerxes Pluck out your locks, and lament our host.
Chorus With clenched nails, with clenched nails, with
ALL of the NACC
"plucking" terms speak of vile older men pluckiing the harp to
seduce a young male whos hairs had been plucked. Tom Burgess
implicates the pluckers but refused to quote the full story.
Plutarch, Lives  Such objects are to
be found in virtuous deeds; these implant in those who search them out
a great and zealous eagerness which leads to imitation.
In other cases, admiration of the deed is not immediately accompanied
by an impulse to do it. Nay, many times, on the contrary, while we delight in the work, we despise the workman
for instance, in the case
of perfumes and dyes; we take a delight
in them but dyers and perfumers we regard
and vulgar folk
Therefore it was a fine saying of
Antisthenes, when he heard that Ismenias was an excellent piper: But
he's a worthless man," said he, "otherwise he
wouldn't be so good a piper."
Philip [Philip of Macedon,
once said to his son, who, as
went round, plucked the strings
charmingly and skilfully, "Art not ashamed to pluck the
strings so well?" It is enough, surely, if a king have
to hear others pluck the strings, and he
pays great deference to the Muses if
he be but a spectator of
THIRD: Psallo is primarily
making war: grinding the enemy into SOP.
the bow-string, toxōn kheri psallousi neuras twang them, E.Ba.784; kenon kroton Lyc.1453;
ek keraos ps. belos send a shaft twanging
from the bow, APl.4.211 (Stat.
Why would Christ the Spirit permit a VIOLENCE and
POLLUTION--LADEN word to be used to permit evil people to ATTACK His
people when He died to give them REST from religion?
FOURTH: so miltokharēs skhoinos psallomenē a carpenter's red line, which is
twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a MARK,
presumption of these Bacchantes is upon us,
swift as fire, a sad disgrace in the eyes of all Hellas. No time for
hesitation now! away to the Electra gate! order a muster of all my men-at-arms,
mount fleet steeds, of all who
of archers too that make the bowstring twang; for I will
against the Bacchanals. By Heaven this passes all, if we are to be
thus treated by
to touch sharply, to pluck,
A.string or cord of sinew,
of a torsion-engine, IG22.554.15.
4. withe, to bind.
Baru-phthoggos , on, A. loud-roaring, leōn h.Ven.159, B.8.9; deep-lowing,
of cows, Arist.GA787a33; b. neura loud-twanging bowstring, Pi.I.6(5).34; deep-toned,
Pind. I. 6 Just as we mix the second bowl of wine when the men's symposium is
flourishing, here is the second song of the Muses for Lampon's children
and their athletic victories: first in Nemea, Zeus, in your honor they
received the choicest of garlands,  and now in honor of the lord of
the Isthmus and the fifty Nereids, for the victory of the youngest son,
Phylacidas. May there be a third libation of honey-voiced songs to pour
over Aegina in honor of Zeus Soter of Olympia.
Bakkhē A. Bacchante, A.Eu.25, S.Ant.1122
(lyr.), Ar.Nu.605, Pl. Ion534a,
etc.: generally, Bakkhē Haidou frantic handmaid of Hades,
E.Hec.1077; b. nekuōn Id.Ph.1489
, h(, (mainomai
)The Mad Women of Corinth (1Cor 11)
are well documentd.
as Subst., mad
woman, esp. Bacchante, Maenad
, mainadi isē
, cf. h.Cer.386
etc.; of the Furies
of Cassandra, E.Tr. 173
= pornē, Poll.7.203
cod. A, Hdn.Epim.83
, esp. of love, mainas ornis
brought the maddening bird to men for the first time, and she taught
the son of Aeson skill in prayerful incantations
so that he could rob
Medea of reverence for her parents
and a longing for Greece
would lash her, her mind on fire,
whip of Persuasion.
This is never used of a carpenter's line used to mark a line in the
Greek text, but of the polluted rope used to MARK men who dallied
around the singing, playing, speaking in the marketplace.
The Agora or
Marketplace: Hebrews says we have to go OUTSIDE of the Camp /
Agora to find Jesus to be His Disciple and find REST.
Jesus consignes the Pipers, singers (lamenters) and dancers to the
marketplace. The polluted psallo rope MARKS anyone who hangs around the
public speakers, singers, and other MERCHANDISE peddlers. Paul called
"corrupting the Word" selling learning at retail. Therefore, the
PSALLO word first used by the Disciples /Christian churches in 1878
(without scholarly support) MARKED them.
FIFTH gunaikas ex andrōn psogos psallei, kenon toxeuma
the polluted rope used to DRIVE those who dallied around the singing
boys and girls in the marketplace where they sold radishes and the
bodies of young men. When they were forced to the Ekklesia (church)
they were MARKED. They were fined and not permitted "fellowship."
Jesus consigned the
pipers, singers and
dancers to the marketplace: they were the persistent Dionysus
Abomination of Desolation who plagued the Temple.
Milto๔ n the ROPE covered with red chalk with which they swept LOITERS out of the
Agora to the Pnyx (The ekklesia was
on the Pnyx: dalliers around the music girls disqualified them from
I. to soil or defile, be
doomed to have one's hair defiled with earth,
to mingle together, confuse, th๊ri๔dous (beasts) from a confused and savage state,
Beluo-sus (bell- ), a, um, adj. [id.]
, abounding in beasts or monsters: Oceanus, _ast; Hor. C.
4, 14, 47; so Avien. Ora Marit. 204.II. of men,
beast-like, wild, savage, brutal, Lat. bellui_nus, Eur.,
to th. the animal nature, Eur.
2. in Pass. also to
mix with others, have dealings with him,
- Mito-omai , Med., A. ply the woof in
weaving, AP6.285 (Nicarch.): metaph., phthongon
mit๔sasthai let one's voice sound like a string,
2. in Pass. also to mix with
others, have dealings with him, Plat.
Thērion , to (in form Dim. of thēr),
wild animal, esp. of such as are hunted, mala gar mega thērion ēen, of a stag, Od.10.171, 180 (never in Il.); in Trag. only in Satyric drama, S.Ichn.147 (dub. in A.Fr.26): used in Prose for thēr, X.An.1.2.7, Isoc.12.163, etc.; of the spider's prey, Arist.HA623a27; freq. of elephants, Plb.11.1.12, al.: pl., beasts, opp. men, birds, and fishes, h.Ven.4, Hdt.3.108.
as a term of reproach, beast, creature, , cf. Eq.273; kolaki, deinō thēriō Pl.Phdr.240b;
hē mousikē aei ti kainon thērion tiktei
ti kainon th๊rion tiktei
A. Mousikos, musical,
ag๔nes m. kai gumnikoi choroi te kai ag๔nes ta mousika music,
B. aei always
II. of persons, skilled in music, musical,
X.l.c., etc.; poi๊tikoi kai m. andres Pl.Lg.802b ; kuknos [minstrel] kai
alla z๔ia; peri aulous - professional musicians, mousikos kai mel๔n po๊t๊s, use with
singing, skilled in speaking before a mob. Melody,
C. kainos , esp.
of new dramas, the representation of the new tragedies,
(Aphrodisias dedicated to Aphrodite (ZOE); comedy, sexual love,
pleasure, a woman's form of oath, Aster or Venus
D. Tikto mostly of
E. of Rhea one of
the zoogonic or vivific principles
Phur-aō 2. metaph., malakēn phurasamenos tēn phōnēn pros ton
ebadizen making one's voice supple,
i.e. soft, towards one's lover
Guin / Ryan Christian to see that the BEAST means "A new style of
song or drama" the hunting is erotic.
They hoped that John wore SOFT clothing.
- Con-fundo mingle,
or mix together.
to confound, to force people together in speech. b.Trop.,
to disturb, disconcert, confound,
Meton 2. Esp., with the
idea of confounding, disarranging, to confound,
confuse, jumble together,
bring into disorderb.
Trop., of intellectual
confusion, to disturb, disconcert, confound, perplex
- Clamor: I. A loud call, a
shout, cry; of men
and (poet.) of animals (very freq. in all periods and species of
composition) B. In partic., a friendly call, acclamation, applause:
A. ply the woof in weaving,.):
metaph phthoggon mitōsasthai let one's voice sound like a string,
Surig-mat๔d๊s, A. like the sound of a pipe,
1. Women and
A. blamable fault, blemish, flaw, lampoon
of Poets, compose, write, p. dithurambon, epea, Hdt.1.23, 4.14; p. theogoniēn Hellēsi Id.2.53; p. Phaidran, Saturous, Ar.Th.153, 157; p. kōmōdian, tragōdian,
4. Kenos 2. empty, fruitless,
kena eugmata eipōn Od.22.249 throw without
eballon Bakkhiou toxeumasi kara gerontos, of the cottabus,
metaph, of songs and words, Pi.I.5(4).47; so kardias toxeumata S.Ant.1085;
Men whose voices name the outstanding island of Aegina
their fatherland, built long ago  as a tower for lofty excellence
to ascend. My swift tongue has many arrows, to shout the praises of
Soph. Ant. 1085 There, now, are arrows for your heart, since
you provoke me, 
launched at you, archer-like, in my anger. They fly trueyou
from their burning sting. Boy, lead me home, so that he may
rage against younger men, and learn to keep a quieter tongue
a better mind within his breast than he now bears.Exit Teiresias.
SIXTH: never "MEANS" to PLAY
on a HARP: Psallo means pluck but you must define WHAT is to be
plucked. You will find that all of these are of the gender
II. mostly of the
strings of musical
instruments, play a stringed instrument with the FINGERS,
and not with the plectron, psēlai kai krouein tō plēktrō
IT EXCLUDES: Psallo
and STRIKE with a Plektron
But some people raise a question how, as the magadis
did not exist in the time of Anacreon (for instruments with many
strings were never seen till after his time), Anacreon can possibly
mention it, as he does when he says-
I hold my magadis and sing,
Striking [psallō] loud the twentieth string,
But Poseidonius is ignorant that the magadis is an ancient instrument, though Pindarus says plainly enough that Terpander invented the barbitos to correspond to, and answer the pectis in use among the Lydians-
The sweet responsive lyre
Which long ago the Lesbian bard,
Terpander, did invent, sweet ornament
To the luxurious Lydian feasts, when he
Heard the high-toned pectis.
However, Diogenes the tragic poet represents the pectis as differing from the magadis; for in his Semele he says-
And now I hear the turban-wearing women,
Votaries of the Asiatic Cybele,
The wealthy Phrygians' daughters, loudly sounding
With drums, and bull-roarers, and brazen-clashing
Cymbals, their hands each striking in concert,
Pour forth a wise and healing hymn to the gods.
Likewise the Lydian and the Bactrian maids
Who dwell beside the Halys, loudly worship
The Tmolian goddess Artemis, who loves
The laurel shade of the thick leafy grove,
Striking the clear three-cornered pectis, and
Raising responsive tunes upon the magadis,
While flutes in Persian manner neatly joined
Accompany the chorus.
l. c., et ibi Sch.; ean tis psēlas tēn nētēn epilabē Arist.Pr.919b15;
mousikōtatos ōn khata kheira dikha plēktrou epsalle Ath.4.183d;
kitharizō, Hdt.1.155, SIG578.18 (Teos, ii B. C.); prin men s' heptatonon psallon (sc. tēn luran) Ion Eleg.3.3:
Hdt. l. c., Ar.Eq.522,
Hippias (?) in PHib.1.13.24; korais Men.Epit.260;
psallein (pluck) ouk eni aneu luras (Lyre) Luc.Par.17:Prov.,
rhaon ē tis an khordēn psēleie 'as easy as falling off a log',
Mousikos II. of persons, skilled
musical, X.l.c., etc.; poiētikoi kai m. andres Pl.Lg.802b;
III. of things, elegant, delicate, brōmata Diox.1;
hēdion ouden, oude -ōteron Philem.23;
harmonious, fitting, trophē mesē kai m., ton Dōrion tropon tēs tukhēs hōs alēthōs hērmosmenē
17:3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw
a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of
names of blasphemy,
having seven heads and ten horns.
Th๊rion , to (in form Dim. of th๊r), wild animal in Satyric drama, was called sikinnis or sikinnon. IV.
Astron., the constellation Lupus,
III. as a term of reproach, beast, creature
in honour of Sabazios,
The Old Wineskin god even at Mount Sinai.
The beast is: h๊ mousik๊ ae iti kainon th๊riontiktei
240 has mingled with most of them some
temporary pleasure; so, for instance, a flatterer is a horrid
and does great harm, yet Nature has combined with him a kind of
pleasure that is not without charm, and one might find fault with a
courtesan as an injurious thing, and there are many other such
creatures and practices which are yet for the time being very pleasant;
but a lover is not only harmful to his beloved
kolax , a^kos, o(, A. flatterer, fawner,
parasite, Eup.159.1, Antisth. ap. D.L.6.4.
in later Gr., =
, Moer. p.113
a term of reproach, beast,
creature, h๊ mousik๊ aei ti kainon th๊rion tiktei
A. Mousikos, musical,
ag๔nes m. kai gumnikoi choroi te kai ag๔nes
ta mousika music,
II. of persons, skilled in music,
musical, X.l.c., etc.; poi๊tikoi kai m. andres ; kuknos [minstrel] kai
alla z๔ia; peri aulous - professional musicians, mousikos kai mel๔n po๊t๊s, use with
singing, skilled in speaking before a mob. Melody,
Of the phrase
B. aei always
esp. of new dramas, the representation of the new
tragedies, (Aphrodisias dedicated to Aphrodite (ZOE); comedy,
sexual love, pleasure, a woman's form of oath, Aster or
Venus or ZOE.
mostly of the mother
E. of Rhea
one of the zoogonic or vivific principles
 But pardon the Lydians,
and give them
this command so that they not revolt or pose a danger to you:
forbid them to possess weapons of war,
and order them to wear tunics
under their cloaks and knee-boots on their feet,
and to teach their
sons lyre-playing [kitharizein]
and song [psallein] and dance and shop-keeping. [kapēleuein]
And quickly, O
king, you shall see them become women instead of men, so that
not fear them, that they might revolt.
be a retail dealer, drive a petty trade, sell learning by retain, hawk
it all about. k. ton LOGOS
tou theou (GOD) 2 Ep.Cor.2.17; k. tēs hōras anthos or tēn hōran, of prostitutes,
Seee Isaiah 55 for
Christ's promise of the free water of the Word not to be sold.
2 Cor 2. For
we are not as so many, peddling the word of God. But as of sincerity,
but as of God, in the sight of God, we speak in Christ.
See Isaiah 58
where Christ outlawed seeking our own pleasure or
speaking our own words. There is nothing to traffick.
Acts 15:21 For Moses, from times long past,
has his preachers in every town,
reading his law in the
Synagogues every Sabbath.
Adultĕro, I. Fig., to
falsify, adulterate, or give a foreign nature to a thing,
to counterfeit: laser adulteratum cummi aut sacopenio aut fabā fractā, Plin. 19, 3, 15, ง 40:
jus civile pecuniā, Cic. Caecin. 26: simulatio tollit judicium veri idque adulterat, id. Lael. 25, 92; id. Part. 25, 90: adulterantes verbum, Vulg. 2 Cor. 2, 17.Poet.
of Proteus: faciem,
I. a falsely assumed appearance, a false show, feigning,
shamming, pretence, feint, insincerity,
deceit, hypocrisy, simulation,
(class. and very freq.; cf. imitatio). under pretence of a
divine command, Tac. H. 2, 61.
In gen., a showing, exhibition, display
A. An idle show, vain display,
pomp, parade, ostentation (the
predom. signif. of the word)
[313d] For among the
provisions, you know,
in which these men deal, not only are they themselves ignorant
good or bad for the body, since in selling they commend them all, but
the people who buy from them are so too, unless one happens to be a
trainer or a doctor.
And in the same way, those who
doctrines the round of our cities,
hawking them about to any odd
purchaser who desires them,
commend everything that
they sell, and
there may well be some of these too,
my good sir, who are ignorant
which of their wares is
"Corrupting the Word" is "selling lerning at retail, adultery."
507 it is not without grounds that he has courted the
shade, for, in his
opinion, nothing is more difficult than to cultivate the comic Muse;
but very few secure her favours. Moreover, he knows
that you are fickle by nature and betray your poets when they grow old.
 What fate befell Magnes, when his hair went white? Often enough
had he triumphed over his rivals; he had sung in all
keys, played (psallōn) the lyre
SEVENTH: 2. later, sing to a harp,
LXX Ps.7.18, 9.12,
There is no harp in any of these Psalms
Psa. 7:6 Arise, O LORD, in thine anger,
lift up thyself because of the
rage of mine enemies:
and awake for me to the
judgment that thou hast commanded.
Psa. 7:7 So shall the congregation of the people compass thee about:
for their sakes therefore return
thou on high.
Psa. 7:8 The LORD shall judge the people: judge me, O LORD,
to my righteousness, and according to mine integrity that is in me.
Psa. 7:13 He hath also prepared for him
the instruments of death;
he ordaineth his arrows against
All plucking or playing words implicate warfare.
Psa. 7:17 I will
praise the LORD according
and will sing praise to the name
of the LORD most
Praise is always confessing God and His Word.
Confĭtĕor , fessus, 2 (arch. II.
Esp., after the Aug. per., sometimes, to reveal, manifest, make known, show.
In eccl. writers, to confess, own, acknowledge: Christum, Prud. steph. 5, 40. With dat.: tibi, Domine, Vulg. Psa. 137, 1: nomini tuo, id. ib. 141, 8.Absol., Cypr. Ep. 15.confessus , a,
9. psallite Domino qui habitat in Sion adnuntiate inter gentes studia eius
EIGHTH: tē kardia Ep.Eph.5.19; tō pneumati
PLAYING and AN INSTRUMENT always uses a
compound word such as:
2. inclination, desire, purpose, as the seat of
feeling and passion, as rage or anger, oidanetai kradiē Kholō Il.9.646;
Notice the semicolon
tē kardia Ep.Eph.5.19; tō pneumati Is IN THE PLACE of the heart
Speak one to another
Singing AND psalloing
This would be a common expression to readers:
The man who was
dying blessed me;
I made the widow's heart
So my heart
laments for Moab like a flute;
like a flute for the men of Kir Hareseth.
they acquired is gone. Je.48:36
My heart laments
for Moab like a harp,
being for Kir Hareseth. Is.16:11
And my spirit
hath rejoiced in God
and my tongue was glad;
my flesh shall rest
in hope: Ac.2:26
In that hour
Jesus rejoiced in spirit,
heaven and earth, that thou hast
hid these things from the wise
and prudent, and
unto babes: even so, Father;
for so it
seemed good in thy sight. Lu.10:21
Plautus, Curculio CAPPADOX
My spleen is killing me, my reins are in torment, my lungs are being torn asunder, my liver is being tortured, my heart-strings
giving way, all my intestines
are in pain.
Alas! a dreadful trial is near, it
seems,  full of mourning, rich in tears. Yes, I too escaped death
where death had been my due, and Zeus did not destroy me but is still
preserving my life, that I may witness in my misery fresh sorrows
surpassing all before. But if the bond may ask the free of things that
do not GRIEVE them or WRENCH their heart-strings,
ought to speak in answer to my
questions and I ought to hear what you have to say
NYSSA (died c394)
8 . Now since man is a rational animal,
the instrument of his body must be made suitable for the use of reason;
as you may see musicians producing their music
according to the form
and not piping
so it must needs be that
organization of these instruments of ours should be adapted for reason, that when struck by
organs it might be able to
sound properly for the use of words.
2. And as some skilled musician, who may have been deprived by some
affection of his own
voice, and yet
make his skill known,
melody with voices
his art by the
aid of flutes or of the lyre,
so also the human mind being a discoverer of all sorts of conceptions, seeing that it is unable, by the mere
reveal to those who hear
motions of its understanding, touches, like some skilful composer,
makes known its
thoughts by means
A RELIGIOUS SENSE, AS OPPOSED TO MAKING WAR
Psalmus , i, m., = psalmos, i. q. psalma, I. a psalm (eccl. Lat.; cf.: carmen, hymnus), Tert. adv.
Prax. 11; Lact. 4, 8, 14; 4, 12, 7; Vulg. Isa. 38, 20.Esp.,
the Psalms of David, Vulg. Luc. 20, 42; id. Act. 13, 33 et saep
Kat-auleō ,A. charm by
flute-playing, tinos Pl.Lg.790e, cf. R.411a; tina Alciphr.2.1:
se . . -ēsō phobō I will flute to you on a ghastly
(troch.):Pass., of persons, methuōn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the
strains of the flute, Pl.R.561c; k. pros khelōnidos psophon to be played to on the flute
with lyre accompaniment,
2. make a place sound with flute-playing,
Thphr.Fr.87: Pass., resound
with flute-playing, nēsos katēuleito Plu.Ant.56.
II. in Pass., [ton monokhordon kanona parekhein tais aisthēsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute
ridiculed, gelōmenoi kai -oumenoi
Eph. 5:18 And be not drunk [methuōn] with wine, wherein is excess;
Hymns are prayers: you cannot be worshiping God if you
are getting eraptured over the boy and girl singers always a mark of
gender confusion by the leaders.
but be filled with the Spirit;
(The Word of Christ Col 3:16; John 6:63)
Eph. 5:19 Speaking to yourselves
\ in psalms and hymns and spiritual
singing and making melody in your heart to
Eph. 5:20 Giving thanks [praying] always for all things unto God and
in the name of our
Lord Jesus Christ;
stringed instruments to, [sumposion kataulein kai k. Pass., have music played to one, enjoy
music, ib.785e; of places, resound
2. Pass., to be buried to the sound of music,
3. metaph., katapsalletai . . ho dēmiourgos is drummed out,
Hab. 2:19 Woe unto him that saith
to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach! Behold,
there is no breath at all
in the midst of it.
Hab. 2:20 But the LORD is in his holy
temple: let all the earth keep silence before him.
Greek word psallo simply means to pluck. It was first used
to pluck a bow string or a harp string or the excess hair on a male
prostitute. When you suddenly let go the meaning includes to hurt or
grind the enemy into a fine powder.
With no authority for
tools of worship, the Greek word PSALLO is used to show that God
actually commanded musical worship. This is not true.
Summary: An inspired passage
from the Bible
written as prose was not written so that it could be accompanied with
a mechanical instrument.
an inspired passage
written in a poetic
form can be "spoken in the heart", spoken out loud, sung, or played
with a mechanical accompaniment.
we mean that we can use it to meditate, speak, sing or sing with an
this definition we do not
demand that either be done.
when Paul told the
early Christians to speak
the psalms one to another he knew that a psalm could be chanted by a
group while prose is not usually suitable. The psalms which he
commaned are from the Greek noun
(g5568) psal-mos'; from 5567; a set piece of
i.e. a sacred ode (accompanied with the voice, harp or other instrument; a "psalm");
collect. the book of the Psalms: - psalm. Comp. 5603 (an ode).
Proponents of musical
rituals insist that a
"psalmos" necessarily includes a mechanical instrument. However, look
again at the definition from Strong's even though scholarship denies
that it included instruments at the time:
- A sacred (inspired) ode
- or other Instrument
The Britannica or Click Here
"Music, like the word, also
may have symbolic meaning. The basic elements out of which musical
symbolism is built are sounds, tones, melodies, harmonies,
- and the various
- among which
is the human voice.
Sound effects can have a numinous
(spiritual) character and may
be used to
bring about contact with the
realm of the holy. A specific tone may
call one to an awareness of the holy, make the holy present, and produce an experience of
This may be done by
means of drums, gongs, bells,
The ritual instruments
can, through their shape
from which they are made, have symbolic
Uitoto in Colombia, for example, believe that all
of their ancestors are contained in the
drums. (See liturgical music BM
[10.3.9] But I must now
investigate how it comes about that so many names have been used of
one and the same thing, and the theological element contained in
this is common
both to the Greeks and to the barbarians,
connection with the relaxation of a
festival, these rites
being performed sometimes with religious frenzy, sometimes without it;
sometimes with music, sometimes not; and
secret, sometimes openly.
it is in accordance with
the dictates of nature that this should be so, for, in the first place, the relaxation draws the mind away from human occupations
and turns the
real mind towards that which is divine; and,
secondly, the religious frenzy seems to afford a kind
inspiration and to be
very like that of the soothsayer; and,
thirdly, the secrecy with which
rites are concealed induces reverence for the divine, since it
imitates the nature of the divine, which is to avoid being perceived by our human senses;
dancing as well as rhythm
melody, at the same time, by the delight it
affords and by its
us in touch
with the divine, and this for the following reason;
although it has been well
said that human beings
then act most like the gods
when they are doing good
better say, when they are
happy; and such happiness
consists of rejoicing, celebrating festivals, pursuing
philosophy, and engaging in music;
perverted when musicians turn their art to sensual delights at symposiums
and in orchestric and scenic performances and the like,
should not lay the blame
upon music itself, but should rather examine the nature of our system
of education, since this is based on music.
AUGUSTINE: on the Morals of the
riducules them for believing that the gods came
and other things
abrading (making melody
with them). Augustin uses figurative language much like Paul's
warning that our melody must never be external but in the
on the Psalms noted
that making melody external is a work which David always performed
trying to find God whom he believed had become lost:
the Lord upon the harp: on the harp and with the voice of a Psalm" (ver. 5). Praise Him
not with the
voice only; take up
that ye may not
only sing, but work
who singeth and worketh,
- maketh melody with psaltery
and upon the harp.
Augustine makes the
see what sort
of instruments are next spoken of, in figure: "With ductile trumpets
also, and the sound of the pipe of horn" (ver. 6). What are ductile
trumpets, and pipes of horn?
are of brass: they are drawn
hammering; if by
hammering, by being beaten,
shall be ductile trumpets, drawn
out unto the praise of God,
if ye improve when in tribulation: tribulation is hammering,
improvement is the being drawn out. Job was a ductile trumpet.
When one speaks to teach and
another Paul outlaws the nerve-frazzling forms of instrumental pagan
"singing" where external singing was always a secular act. The
spiritual form of worship was to teach the inspired word with
in the heart. In a parallel passage to the Colossians, the "melody"
means with "grace" in the heart. When one speaks with a "lilting
they are speaking melodiously or gracefully - but not with an
makes it clear that the
"psalmos" which is to be sung is accompanied with the instrument of
the "harp of God" or the fruit of the lips. The verb form "psallo" or the method
of making the melody is in
the heart gracefully.
Paul had not made this
distinction there would have been no difference between the carnal
worship of the pagans and the "in spirit and in truth" worship which
Jesus accetps. If he had not made the distinction there would have
been no difference between the pagan singing in the Corinthians pagan
temples with instruments and Christian speaking or chanting which is
a Christian group activity.
wrote as late as 1878 that:
do not think anyone has ever claimed
authority from Scriptures to use
the organ in worship.
They only claim it is not condemned. It is used as an assister in
worship...Prayer, praise, thanksgiving and making melody in the heart
(mind) unto the Lord are acts of worship ordained of God, but no
authority do we find for the organ."
cannot, therefore, have much
confidence in modern efforts of musical churches to "evangelize"
everyone into theatrical performance which can never be "worship in
spirit and in truth." Only as a last resort, having abandoned the
Bible, is "contending over words" used to force people into something
they would never promote to the point of creating a sectarian
division between God's people.
should be noted that if "instruments" are inherent in the word psallo then
each singer must have their
own instrument or they cannot
psallo. If all human
experience is not adequate, it may
help to summarize some of the evidence which denies that psallo gives
the authority for instrumental worship. First, look at one of the
yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and
making melody in your heart to the Lord; Ephesians 5:19
are all the inspired
text of the Bible and are therefore "Spirit" or the product of Jesus
Christ as Spirit or Word.
Hymns "was that part of the Hallel consisting of Psalms
113-118; where the verb itself is rendered 'to sing praises' or
'praise' Acts 16:25; Heb 2:12. The Psalms are called,
'hymns,' by Philo;
Josephus calls them 'songs
can settle the issue
quickly and you can move on. Psallo does not meant just "play the
harp." If Psallo still meant to sing a song with
musical accompaniment then Paul said:
Speaking (teaching, dialoguing)
to yourselves in psalms and
hymns and spiritual songs,
(singing) and (singing with
Lord; Ephesians 5:19
don't accuse the Holy
Spirit of Christ with being confused!
is this typical
parallelism which says:
Speaking to yourselves
in psalms and hymns and
just says in another
melody in your
to the Lord;
object was not what we call
"worship" or God-directed, it was one-another directed to teach and
will see that
was an act of the
community and it cannot
be done by one person to a group any more than speaking or dialog can
be a team
"filling up with the
Spirit" or "the Word of Christ" in Colossians 3:16 the actions are:
informed of the
words of Christ (Spirit Eph 5:18; John 6:63),
speak those words one to another,
the result will be teaching and warning one another,
we will honor Christ by recycling His Words back to Him or else they
are void (Isa 55)
and there will be unity which can come only through unison-type
dialog and singing.
at What Messiah
Would bring to the World.
Isaiah 11 Messiah would not
be filled with a "little person" other than Himself. He was and is
full Deity. Rather, Isaiah predicted that the Spirit which rested
upon Him would be the mental disposition of God:
the spirit of the Lord
shall rest upon him, the spirit
wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel
and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord; Isaiah 11:2 and
spirituality or "quick
understanding" in the
was the APPROVED PATTERN:
The Spirit of Wisdom would rest on Jesus before He began to SPEAK in
the synagogues and PREACH in all of the cities.
left that Spirit in His
Words. Later, Isaiah defines a process much like that defined by Paul
in his "singing" passages.
for me, this is
my covenant with them, saith the Lord; My spirit that is upon thee,
words which I have
mouth, shall not
depart out of thy
mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy
out of the mouth of thy
seeds seed, saith the
for ever. Isaiah 59:21
supplies all of our food
stuffs for both body and soul. This form of presenting Christ's
revelation is not new to Paul; it appears throughout the Word.
Ephesians 4 and 5 Paul
described the assembly of the pagans where wine, singing,
instrumental music and dancing was used to create an artificial
"spirit" so that they "prophesied." We would hear this as speaking
tongues. In chapter 4
and 5 Paul also shows that God pours out His wrath by the use of
wrathful men who are identified by the modern form of
out-of-your-mind charismatic preaching, shouting, hand waving and
dancing across the stage. The Church Fathers identified as God
inducing an effete principle, as with Saul, and this was supposed to
cause people to just consider him mad.
be ye not
unwise (egotistical, ignorant, lacking understanding as in 1 Cor
14:20), but understanding what the will (what Jesus taught) of the
Lord is. Ephesians 5:17
be not drunk
with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit;
Speaking (speaking or dialoging)
to yourselves in psalms
and making melody in your heart to the Lord;
uses humnos regularly for the OT Psalms."
before the time of Paul
there was often a clear distinction between the melody of the song
and the musical instrument.
Aristotle, Rhetoric notes
"having gone and having
conversed with him,"
I conversed with
him."Also the practice of Antimachus is useful, that of describing a
thing by the qualities it does not possess; thus, in speaking of the
hill Teumessus,1 hesays,
little windswept hill;
in this way amplification may be carried on ad
method may be applied to things good and bad, in whichever way it may
also make use
of this in inventing words, as a melody "without strings" or "without the lyre"
his shepherd care, in joy at his songs,
were also spotted lynxes,  and there came, leaving the vale of
Othrys, a pride of tawny lions, and the dappled
fawn stepping beyond the tall fir-trees with its light foot 
- danced to your lyre-playing,
- rejoicing in your joyful melody.
to attain this object, both the lyre-master
and his pupil
use the notes
because of the
distinctness of its strings, assigning to the notes of the song notes in tune with
as to divergence of sound
and variety in the notes of the harp,
sound the one
and the composer of the
when there results a
combination of low and high notes, of slow and quick time, of sharp and
i.e. the notes (single) of the
instrument must be in
accord with those of the singer's voice [melody].
"The tune, as composed by the
poet, is supposed
to have comparatively
notes, to be in slowish
and low down in the register;
variation, which he
notes, is in quick time, and high up
in the register." (England.)
the only clue we have to
process by which in a preharmonic age different
characteristics can be ascribed to
scales identical in all but pitch,
to be found in
Greek musical sounds,
as it does to the
evident sensitiveness of the Greek ear to differences in VOCAL
have only to observe the
compass of the Greek scale to see that in the MOST ESTEEMED modes it
is much more the compass
of SPEAKING 'than of singing voices.
normally at a much
higher pitch than that
of the speaking voice, but there
reason, outside the
peculiar nature of modern
music, why this should be so.
is highly probable that all
modern singing would strike a classical Greek ear as an OUTCRY; and in any case such
pitch as are inconsiderable in modern singing are extremely emphatic
in the speaking
that they might
well make all the difference to an ear unaccustomed to organized sound beyond the speaking
much that Aristoxenus
and other ancient authorities say of the character of the modes (or
keys) tends to confirm the view that that character depends upon the
position of the mese or keynote within the general compass. Thus
Aristotle (Politics, v. (viii.) 7, 1342 b. 20)
that certain low-pitched modes suit the voices of old men,
thus we may conjecture that
even the position of tones and semitones might in the Dorian and
Phrygian modes bring the bolder portion of the scale in all three
genera into the best regions of the average young voice,
and Lydian might lead the voice to dwell more upon semitones and enharmonic intervals, and so
account for the heroic character
of the former and the SENSUAL character of the latter (Plato,
Republic, 398 to 400).
Pausanias, Description of Greece
There is a statue of
Pronomus, a very great favorite with the people for his playing on
the flute. For a time flute-players had three forms of the
flute. On one they played
Dorian music; for Phrygian
melodies flutes of a
pattern were made; what is
called the Lydian mode was played on flutes of a third kind. It was
devised a flute
suited for every kind of
was the first to play on the same instrument
music so vastly
different in form
the fire begin at the top,
and spread to the rest -- his head, his face, his phiale, his kithara, his foot-length tunic?
direct my soul to the form of the god, and my mind sets his likeness
before my eyes, his face so gentle, his stone neck so soft, his
girdle across his chest that holds his tunic in place, so that some
of it is drawn taut, other parts allowed to billow out. Did not the
whole composition soothe the spirit to rest?
he seemed like one singing
- (PLUS) and one could
hear him strumming, so they say, at
blessed ears that did so!
For his song was in praise of our country. And I see him as if
pouring a libation from his golden bowl . . . and as the fire spreads
it destroys first the Apollo, almost touching as he does the roof,
then the other statues,
the portraits of the Founders, the sparkling
stones, the graceful
noted that the Greek demands
speaking to one another in a liturgical sense, while the pagans used
singing, instrumental and dancing groups to perform for the paying
audience. This was a violation of the
Christian principle of a "one another" ministry.
Theologial Dictionary of
the New Testament notes that:
"In the NT
there is still no
differentiation between ode,
humnos. e.g., in
Col.3:16 or Eph.5:19, in contrast to a later time,
came to be used only for biblical songs (apart from the Psalms) used
the NT passages we may
gather the following elements in the concept or the Christian ode as
also confirmed from other sources.
5:19 is Ode
(g5603) o-day'; from 103; a chant or "ode" the gen. term for any
Odai are the cultic songs
community. They are not sung
by the individual, but by the community
a piece with
this is the anonymity or the early authors, as also the attachment to
OT tradition. Only in the 2nd century are the authors sometimes
mentioned. In the Didascalia, 2, p..5.29, we can still read: 'It thou
desirest hymns, thou
hast the Psalms of David."'
And He says by
another: "Depart from me; the sound of thine hymns, and the psalms
of thy musical
instruments, I will not
The ode is inspired.
shown by the
epithet pneumatikos, though it does
indicate more generally its
religious character. . . . With the inspiration
or hymns is linked
their improvisation, e.g., in I
C. 14:26 (cr. Acts 4:24); Tert. adv. Marc., 5,b; Apolog. 39,18."
(Note: and condemned, we might add).
Acts 1:20 psalmos is the book of Psalms
and in Rom. 15: sing is psallo.
- "Psallo is best translated by chant,
- not sing.
Greeks sharply distinguish chanting
- from singing (tragoudi).
first is a sacred activity;
- the second, a secular
one. In English,
unfortunately, the distinction is not sharp.. Constantine Cavarnos
The Head must be in charge as
the only performer
(See the above table):
the word of Christ dwell in you richly in
teaching and admonishing
one another in psalms
and hymns and spiritual songs,
included) with grace
(divine influence) in your hearts
to the Lord. Colossians 3:16
And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do
all in the name of
the Lord Jesus, giving
thanks to God and the
Father by him.
is not confused about
pagan singing to enthuse or exhilarate but connectes it to external
teaching of God's Word and internal singing to God:
give thanks unto the Lord; call upon his name:
known his deeds among the people. Psalm 105:1
- Sing to the LORD, for he has done
this be known to all the world. Isaiah 12:5
Definitions Used in the
are defined by how they
are used in the Bible. If one sings a psalm with the accompaniment of
a harp then the person is singing with a harp. By analogy, if one is
eating "wine" from the cluster and it is obviously not intoxicating.
It it bubbles in the vat and exhilarates and then intoxicates then
this wine is intoxicating. The same is true of psallo.
very oldest of
these psalms, a number of which point to David as their author,
were originally individual
emanated from personal
were, in later
times, employed for congregational use..." Int Std Bible Ency., The
Religion of Israel.
might add that the preamble
such as: "Upon the harp" or "To the tune of Lilly of the Valley" were
added to the simple poems after
death because they were the personal property of the composer, just
as American Indian chants belong to them alone.
have no evidence of
congregational singing with instrumental accompaniment as worship in
the Bible. The clergy performed the music in the Temple before the
priests while the "congregation" even outside of the walls fell and
"worshipped" when they heard the trumpet blast.
common people were put
outside the gates or "outside the
where they met
God while the temple, sacrificial or civil-state rituals were taking
There was no
praise service in the
Zodhiates': Lexical Aids To The
New Testament, pg.
1769 "...Actually a touching, and then a touching of the harp or
other stringed instruments with the finger or with the plectrum; later known as the instrument itself, and finally it became
was assigned to the song
which they sang with the instrument. Therefore, if you want to add
secular melody you need to specify the instrument. Paul did: he
called it the heart and not the harp)
latest state of its
meaning, 'psalm,' was adopted in the Septuagint.
all probability the psalms
of Ephesians 5:19; Colossians 3:16 are the inspired psalms of the
certainly designates these on all other occasions when it occurs in
the New Testament, with the one possible exception of I Corinthians
would agree with the idea that in Corinth they were singing the
self-composed songs of paganism which didn't need both mind and
should also be noted that
the Septuagint also takes a dim view of most musical passages while
other versions can be distorted to see God giving approval. For
instance in the Septuagint or LXX:
strum away on your harps like David and improvise on musical
instruments. Amos 6:5 NIV
excel in the sound of musical instruments;
they have regarded them
as abiding, not as fleeting
pleasure." Amos 6:5 LXX
knowing that Amos was
condemning the marzeah
which was a festival with
ancestor or god we
might see him condemning the idleness and not the music. However,
Jesus read the LXX and would have known that Amos was condemning
religious festivals which had no abiding value. At the same time they
neglected the Scriptures. This symbol of music and an idle disregard
of the Word are common themes in the notes which follow. Jesus would
call the "vain worship" at best because they invented and improvized
and it was, therefore, by the rules of men.
Dialog with Trypho
the Jew translates this passage--
- Who applaud at the sound of the musical instruments;
reckon them as stable, and not as fleeting.
drink wine in bowls, and anoint
themselves with the chief
they are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph.
came that we might
"anoint" ourselves with His words so that we might teach or educate
or admonish one another with the
melody (grinding to bits) left
in the human heart.
here, is used as a metaphor for those who anoint
wine, music, and effeminate perfume because they see their external
body as the lasting part and neglect the spirit or mind.
Word Studies Of
The New Testament, Vol.
III, pg. 269-270 "...The noun psalm
(Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16; I Cor. 14:26), which is etymologically akin to
this verb (psallo
in I Cor. 14:15 DEM), is used in the New Testament of a religious
song in general, having the character of an Old Testament psalm...
that the verb has
here its original signification of singing with an instrument. This
is its dominant sense in the Septuagint,
Gregory of Nyssa define a psalm
as implying instrumental accompaniment...
neither Basil nor
Ambrose nor Chrysostom,
in their panegyrics upon music, mention instrumental music, and Basil
condemns it. Bingham
dismisses the matter summarily, and cites Justin Martyr as saying expressly
music was not used in the Christian Church. The verb is used here in
the general sense of singing praise."
AND HOWSON: "Throughout
passage there is a contrast implied between the Heathen
and the Christian practice, q.d. When you meet, let your
enjoyment consist, not in
fulness of wine, but fulness of the Spirit; let your songs be, not
the drinking-songs of heathen feasts, but psalms and hymns; and their
accompaniment, not the music of the lyre,
but the melody of
heart; while you
sing them to the praise. not of Bacchus or Venus, but of the Lord Jesus
enjoins: (1) Speaking TO ONE ANOTHER in psalms and hymns and
spiritual songs; (2) singing (adontes)
melody (psallontes, psalming) with your
heart TO THE LORD. (One is done
and lips, the other with the heart.)
Playing and singing
or praising was a
When, you hear this it is not "music" but you look
down to see where the arrow "made melody right into your bleeding
P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphoses See more by Clicking
wretched as my case doth seeme, yet have I left me mo
thou for all thy happinesse canst of thine owne account.
after all these corses yet I still doe thee
the ende of these same wordes the twanging of the string
letting of the Arrow flie was clearly heard:
- Made every one
save Niobe afraide. Hir
heart was so
sorrowe hardned, that she grew more bolde. Hir daughters tho
standing all with mourning weede and hanging haire before
brothers coffins. One of them in pulling from the sore
- An Arrow
sticking in his heart,
sanke downe upon hir
PSALLO: From psao, to rub, to wipe; to
handle, to touch (Thayer): Liddell and Scott.- I. To
touch sharply, to pluck, pull. twitch;
- to send a shaft twanging
from the bow;
- so, schoinos
a carpenter's red line,
is twitched and then let suddenly
go, so as to leave a mark. II.
play a stringed
instrument with the fingers, not
sing to the harp,
connection is that the BOW
was a musical type instrument which SHOT OUT ARROWS. It is a fact
that they also spoke of SHOOTING OUT HYMNS. Therefore, there is NO
musical content in Psallo and that is why Paul said "keep it in your
CANNOT include an
instrument because the Greek word psalmODIA meant to sing with a
harp. A harpIST or fluteIST defines other words and the musical
performers claimed to be sorcerers but were known as
THAYER: Shows that psalms,
hymns and spiritual
songs are not
psalmos, ode: ode
is the generic
psal. and hum. are specific,
designating a song which took its general
the O.T. 'Psalms' (although not
restricted to them, see 1
Cor.14:15,26), the latter a song of praise. (Note: these were also
songs of ecstasy sung with the mind disengaged)
idea of psalm is a musical
that If hum. praise to God, ode
is the general word for song, whether accompanied or unaccompanied,
whether of praise or on any other subject.
it was quite possible for
the same song to be at once psalmos,
humnos and ode
(Bp. Lightft. on Col-3:16). See Trench,
Syn, Syn. sec. lxxviii.)
Thayer: a. To pluck off, pull
out: the hair. b. To cause
to vibrate by
touching, to twang; spec. to touch or strike the chord, to touch the strings
of a musical
instrument, to play the harp, etc.;
idea is not
to "make music" because Psallo is restricted to touching or yanking
ONLY with the fingers.
for zamar and much oftener for nagan; to sing to the music of
the harp; (Condemned: see
the N.T. to sing a hymn,
to celebrate the praise
of God in song,
Jas.5:13; Eph.5:13; Rom.15:9; 1 Cor.14:15 .
of Psallo: 1.
From psao, to rub, to wipe; to
handle, to touch. 2. To touch
sharply. 3. To pluck off, or pull out, as the hair. 4. To pull,
twitch, as a carpenter's line. 5. To twang the bow-string. 6. To send
an arrow twanging from the bow. 7. To twang the strings of a musical
instrument. 8. To play the harp or other stringed instrument with the
fingers. 9. To sing to the accompaniment of the harp or other
(whether accompanied or not,
context it was not in
New Testament times and
Currently used of chanting
word is derived from the
word yavw (psao),
which in ancient Greek originally meant to rub, to
wipe; to handle,
touch (Thayer references Aeschylus, d. 456 BC). .. later in
"Classical Greek", "psallo" meant to pluck off, to cause to vibrate
by touching, to twang
(ref. to Euripades, d. 406 BC), or to touch, to strike the chord, to
twang the strings (ref. Aristotle, d. 322 BC), to play on a stringed
instrument, to play the harp (ref. Aristotle again, Aratus, 270 BC,
and Plutarch*, d. AD 120). * Other writers of Classical Greek
contemporary with the
N.T. age also used the word in reference to the playing of an
instrument (Strabo, Josephus, Lucian),
clear distinction between the "Classical Greek" of these and other
Greek" in which the N.T. is written.
Thayer makes a distinction
between the Classical Greek usage of "psallo,"
and the Koine
use of the word and says, "In the N.T. to sing a
hymn, to celebrate the praises
of God in song."
15:9 (immediate context: Rom. 15:7-12)
. and for the
Gentiles to glorify God for His mercy; as it is written, "Therefore
will give praise to Thee among the Gentiles,
I will sing to Thy name."
is best translated by chant,
not sing. The Greeks sharply distinguish
chanting (psalmodia) from singling (tragoudi).
first is a sacred (chanting or speaking)
activity; the second, a secular (singing) one.
English, unfortunately, the
distinction is not sharp, and the word singing is frequently employed
to refer to the sacred activity of chanting.
Greek would never,
say tragoudo (I sing),
two terms have
connotations and associations which are worlds apart --
first is related to the earthly
second to the heavenly."
to James D. Bales of
Harding University, September 22, 1959, from Constantine Cavarnos, of
the Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 113 Gilbert
Road, Belmont 78, Massachusetts.)
letter to the St. Anthony
Guild concerning the Greek word psallo
has been referred to
me, an editor of the new
English Catholic version of the Old Testament. You ask the question:
the use of
mechanical instruments of music inhere
in the Greek word Psallo as used in the New
meaning of this word in the
New Testament usage is simply 'I sing a sacred
in honor of God."'
(Letter to Dr. James D. Bales from Father Stephen Hartdegen, C.P.M.,
Holy Name College, Franciscan House of Studies, 14th & Shepherd
Streets, NE, Washington 17, DC)
and Gingrich on Psallo: "Abs sing/praise
stand amazed at the scholarship in the Arndt-Gingrich lexicon. It is
my understanding that under the direction of Dr. Gingrich you are now
revising that lexicon. On the word psallo,
since Thayer, Green, Abbott-Smith, etc., limit
the New Testament meaning to sing praises,
reasoning that brought
Doctors Arndt and Gingrich to insert
"to the accompaniment of the harp" in relationship to Romans 15:19;
Ephesians 5:19; and 1 Corinthians 14:15. Further, why is the phrase
excluded in relationship to James 5:13. (Hugo McCord to Dr. Frederick
Response: It was so kind of you
to take the time
to make your inquiry regarding the word psallo.
I see by comparison with Bauer's first edition that the editors of
A.-G. have incorporated the
- obvious Old Testament
the metaphorical usage of the New
make this mistake, and we will be sure to correct
it in the revision. I
doubt whether the
archaeologists can establish the use of the harp in early Christian
revision of the
Arndt/Gingrich lexicon gives this definition of psallo: . . . This
process continued until
in Modern Greek means 'sing' exclusively . . .
no reference to instrumental accompaniment . . .
"Psallo, 'play on a harp,' but in the NT, as in Jas-5:13
are forced to contend
over words when words are used to force God to say what He never said
but rather refuted throughout the Bible's reference to
get personal: this is
not about what you are allowed to do. That is not my job. It is about
honestly handling the Words of Christ the Spirit. If we mishandle the
word psallo then our conclusions will be wrong and the division
always created over music between "internal" thinkers and "external"
thinkers will never end.
Click for more
will see that all Bible properly read and all of the external
witnesses prove that worship singing was without instruments.
Counter added 10/31/04
12.01.07 1213 11.18.10 8000 4.06.13 9175 6.19.14 9450 7.16.14 9484