Instrumental Music In Worship - Psallo and Melody

3. 30.16 All musical terms and names of instruments point to sorcery or witchcraft. That is because the witch of Endor used an old wineskin stretched over a hole in the ground as her "familiar spirit." Bone flutes made a sound the earliest witch doctor understood to create the laded burden or "spiritual anxiety" through rituals performed by cunning craftsmen or sophists: rhetoricians, singers, instrument players, actors, dancers or even prostitute who could "bring you into the presence of the gods" -- for a price.

Jude 3 Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation,
        it was needful for me to write unto you,
        and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for THE FAITH
        which was once delivered unto the saints.
Jude 4 For there are certain men crept in unawares,
        who were before of old ordained to this condemnation,
        ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness,
        and denying the
                only Lord God,
                our Lord Jesus Christ.  [Trinitarian Antichrists according to John]
Jude 5 I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this,
        how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt,
        afterward destroyed them that believed not.
Jude 6 And the angels which kept not their first estate,
        but left their own habitation,
        he hath reserved in everlasting chains
        under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.

Apollon or Abaddon has been unleashed: he is the only personified SPIRIT and he is the leader of the muses in Revelation 18.  The speakers, singers, instrument players and all religious craftsmen are called SORCERERS who HAD once deceived the whole world.  John says that THEY WILL BE CAST ALIVE INTO THE LAKE OF FIRE.



Deut. 18:9 When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations.
Deut. 18:10 There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch,

hărĭŏlus  soothsayer, prophet, prophetess
somnĭo , to dream; to dream of or see in a dream, to dream, i. e. to think idly or vainly, to talk foolishly:
psaltrĭa , ae, f., = psaltria, . a female player on the cithara, a lutist, ineptias, Col. 1, 8, 2: ah stulte! tu de Psaltriā me somnias Agere, Ter. Ad. 4, 7, 6; Plaut. Pers. 2, 3, 5.Absol.: vigilans somniat
portenta non disserentium philosophorum sed somniantium, Cic. N. D. 1, 8, 18.

Deut. 18:11 Or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer

A Charmer is an Abomination
, ōris, m. incanto, I. an enchanter, wizard (post-class.), Tert. Idol. 9; Isid. 8, 9, 15; Mos. et Rom. Leg. Coll. 15, 1, 2.

consŭlo (a). In the lang. of religion, to consult a deity, an oracle, omens, etc.: Apollinem de re, Cic. Leg. 2, 16, 40: deum consuluit auguriis, quae suscipienda essent, Liv. 1, 20, 7: deos hominum fibris, Tac. A. 14, 30 fin.: Phoebi oracula, Ov. M. 3, 9; Suet. Vesp. 5: Tiresiam conjectorem, Plaut. Am. 5, 1, 76:

Cantus A. Prophetic or oracular song: veridicos Parcae coeperunt edere cantus, Cat. 63 cf. Tib.
B. An incantation, charm, magic song, etc.: cantusque artesque magorum.
cantus e curru Lunam deducere tentat,
2. With instruments, a playing, music: in nervorum vocumque cantibus, Cic. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; id. Rosc. Am. 46, 134: citharae, Hor. C. 3, 1, 20: horribili stridebat tibia cantu, Cat. 64, 264: querulae tibiae,

This was outlawed for the Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness.
These ăb-ōmĭnor are always MARKED semimares, Liv. 31, 12, 8
  Signs or wonders "  Liv. 31, 12, 8 Along with "plundering" the temples, among the Sabines, a child of uncertain sex was born, while another was found whose sex, at the age of sixteen, could not be determined. All these disgusting and monstrous creatures seemed to be signs that nature was confusing species; but beyond all else the hermaphrodites caused terror,... In addition, they directed that a hymn be sung throughout the city by thrice nine maidens, and that an offering be made to Queen Juno.

Galli A form gallantes, as if from gallare, "to rave like a priest of Cybel," is cited from Varro (ap. Non. p. 119Non., 5). In their wild, enthusiastic, and boisterous rites the Galli recalled the legends of the Corybantes (q.v.). According to an ancient custom, they were always castrated (spadones, semimares, semiviri, nec viri nec feminae), and it would seem that, impelled by religious enthusiasm, they performed this operation on themselves... Other names, however, are of distinctly Semitic affinities; Rhea perhaps=the Babylonian Ri (Mulita or Mylitta), and Nana more certainly=the Babylonian Nana, modern Syrian Nani.  Nana motherof Attis

2Chr. 29:27 And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar.
        And when the burnt offering began, the song of the LORD began also with the trumpets,
        and with the instruments ordained by David king of Israel.

Hezekiah stopped the sacrifice of infants with the instrumental noise of the Levites who were an old Egyptian Infant burning priesthood.  As soon as Hezekiah died the sacrifices to Moloch began all over again. And THIS IS THE PATTERN of those LYING IN WAIT TO DECEIVE

Below: God say this just BEFORE and just AFTER Hezekiah's Plague Stopping Exorcism. This is recorded in 2 Chronicles 29: it is the PATTERN a "spirit" commanded Rick Atchley etal to impose "instrumental praise".  Spiritus in Latin defines the personified spirit as that of Apollon or Abbadon.


The practice in the wilderness, tyre and Jerusalem 


Judas  was a thief: his bag or box was
always attached to the spotted flute case.

                 He is defined as the familiar friend of Jesus in Psalm 41. He would try to ALARM or TRIUMPH over Jesus: this is a MARK. It was outlawed in the Church of Christ in the Wilderness as vocal or instrumental rejoicing or any speaking beyond the Word

And God WATCHED the prophesied and fulfilled Musical Worship Team
Trumpet, drums, flute, cymbals and castinets with buffoons
Psallo permits ONLY smiting a string with your FINGERS: not a plectrum
Psallo and SOP have the same root meaning.


Revelation 18F: they are all called Sorcerers who HAD once deceived the whole world.

Instrumental music in Christian worship is not authorized by the Greek word PSALLO. Christian worship is in the spirit or by the spirit. The spirit is the mind or innermost being of the person. Because Christ lives in the heart by faith, it is not paossible to worship Him nor be aided in worship by things which appeal to the human senses.   Psallo speaks of literal shooting of arrows into the literal heart or shooting out LOVE ARROWS. The only "musical" concept speaks of "shooting out hymns" as a metaphor. All of the Greek resources prove that when people induce or LIFT yoou with spiritual excitement they are inducing a real or virtual sexual climax: Carol Wimber makes the explicit claim and the body gyrating proves that evil men are USING your for their own experience.

4.30.11 John T. Willis 2. "Sing" is vocal; "make melody" is instrumental. Psalms 33:2-3; 144:9; 149:1, 3 make this crystal clear. Amos 5:23 further verifies this reality.  People forget that God turned Israel over to worship the starry host because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. The Levites were under the KING and the COMMANDERS of the army: they made war and not worship. We will examine these passages in context.

5.02.11 See Danny Dodd and Royce Ogle on Legalism

Revised 4.28.11

The Direct commands, examples and necessary inferences since church is a school for disciples is that the Word of God is spoken clearly and never musically.

Hebrew singing or rhymic prose had no fixed meter:
"Since in all languages a sentence changes its meaning by mere intonations without adding or removing nounds, verbs or particles, the Syrian scholars who laid the fundament of correct language discovered a way by devising accents... and since these accents are a form of musical modulation, there is no possibliity of learning them except by hearing and through tradition from the master's tongue or the pupils hear. It follows from Bar Hebraeus' statement that the main concern was to secure an unadulterated and unadulterable version of the text This required (a) correct vocalization and (b) correct intonation. (p.87) " Nor is there a constant number of feet in a verse. Hebrew poetry is poetic p;rose. "Hebrew prosedy differes fundamentlly from classical prosody. No poem is written according to a repeating meter scheme.

Classical verse is mechanical; Hebrew verse is dynamic (p 89
Music in Ancient Western Orient Curt Sachs

The word Law or nomos defines a legal form of performance dedicated most often to Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon)

The godly Jews who rested on the Prophets (by Christ) understood:
To the law and to the testimony:
        if they speak not according to this word,
        it is because there is no light in them. Isa 8:20
They also understood that Christ did not speak through the Monarchs or priests who conducted civil rituals like other nations. There is no command for music in the Law and the testimony by the Spirit of Christ (Rev 19:10) repudiates everything which interfers with the teaching of "that which is written for our learning." (Rom 15)

Cantillation Jewish Encyclopedia

"These conventionalities of pitch result in an elementary form of song, and thus became early known as "singing to speech" ( accentus). But when a larger audience is addressed the assistance of a sing-song utterance in marking this accent or prosody, and rendering the precise interdependence of the successive words unmistakable, has been recognized by all who have ever had to speak in the open air or in a large building, and has been from the earliest ages adopted for the public recitation of sacred texts.

Christ commanded the Holy Convocation on the First and Seventh days of festivals. This came to be each Sabbath or Rest day. We have the direct command, the example in Nehemiah, the example by Jesus, the command of all of the New Testament.

Synagogue singing

"It has been shown in the article Cantillation (Jew. Encyc. iii. 537b) that the desire to read the Scriptures in the manner indicated in Neh. viii. 8 has from time immemorial resulted in the use of some sort of musical declamation for the passages uttered aloud in the synagogue. For reasons very similar to those there discussed, the prayers and praises equally with the lessons have always been thus musically declaimed; and this declamation... the absence of instruments from the synagogue in no way modified the system of the song itself. This presented little that to modern ears would appear worthy the name of melody, being, like the Greek melodies which have been deciphered, entirely of the character of a cantillation; that is, a recitation dependent on the rhythm and sequence of the words of the text instead of on the notes of the tune, and influenced by the syntactical structure of the sentence instead of by the metrical form of the musical phrase. Nor would the style of singing, nasal, shrill, and alternately full of intricate graces and of sudden pressures on emphatic notes, altogether commend itself to Western ears as graceful or harmonious.

"The Lyre, according to its primary significance, may by the psalmist be used figuratively for the Lord; accordingly to its secondary, for those who continually strike the chords of their souls under the direction of the Choir-master, the Lord. And if the people saved be called the lyre, it will be understood to be in consequence of their giving glory musically, through the inspiration of the Word and the knowledge of God, being struck by the Word so as to produce faith.

"You may take music in another way, as the ecclesiastical symphony at once of the law and the prophets, and the apostles along with the Gospel, and the harmony which obtained in each prophet, in the transitions of the persons. --(Clement of Alexandrian allegorizes instrumental music, Stromata, Book VI, Chapt XI, Ante-Nicene, II, p. 500).


Aristotle: Melody Deceives: "Poets also make use of this in inventing words, as a melody "without strings" or "without the lyre"; for they employ epithets from negations, a course which is approved in proportional metaphors..

The form of diction should be neither metrical nor without rhythm.
 If it is metrical, it lacks persuasiveness, for it appears artificial, and at the same time it distracts the hearer's attention, since it sets him on the watch for the recurrence of such and such a cadence..

According to Philo, the gods of the pagans exploit this weakness of men. For the sake of a better effect, and with the intention of more easily cheating their devotes, that they have set their lies to melodies, rhythms and meters.." Click for more.


The command is to understand THE WILL OF THE LORD and then SPEAK "that which is written for our learning" (Rom 15).  The singing and melody is in the heart: the word psallo is never used of musical melody in the Greek literature. The purpose is to teach and admonish with the Word of Christ. Peter affirms that the prophets by the Spirit of Christ and the prophecies made more perfect by Jesus and left for our "memory" by the apostles.  This is what David thought:

Psalms 9:1  I will praise thee, O LORD, with my whole heart; I
         will shew (narate) forth all thy marvellous works.

David praised the works of God and not the works of the "worship team." To praise or glorify God you must use the record of HIS WORKS or "that which is written for our learning" Rom. 15. David praised WITH his heart.

Narro , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. for gnarigo (gnarigavit, Fest. p. 95) from gnarus; Sanscr. gnā, know; Gr. gignōskō; cf.: nosco (gnosco), ignoro, to be the subject of talk, it is said of me, thee, etc I. to tell, relate, narrate, report, recount, set forth (syn.: memoro, nuntio, trado).
narrare, to inform one's self, learn:
II. Transf., in gen., to say, speak, tell: Hence, narro tibi, I tell you, I assure you, in fact, seriously, a form of asseveration:
Greek h3035 Yadayaw-daw'  A primitive root; used only as denominative from H3027 ; literally to use (that is, hold out) the hand; physically to throw (a stone, an arrow) at or away; especially to revere or worship (with extended hands); NOT WAVING ARMS

H5608 sphar saw-far' A primitive root; properly to score with a mark as a tally or record, that is, (by implication) to inscribe, and also to enumerate; intensively to recount, that is, celebrate:commune, (ac-) count, declare, number, + penknife, reckon, scribe, shew forth, speak, talk, tell (out), write

Mīrābĭlis (I. sup. mirabilissimus, Col. 6, 36, 3 MSS.), e, adj. miror, to be wondered at, wonderful, marvellous, extraordinary, admirable, strange
II. Esp. (eccl. Lat.).
B. Miraculous: mirabilia opera Altissimi solius, Vulg. Eccli. 11, 4: facta, id. Jer. 5, 30 et saep.Hence,
A. Subst.: mīrābĭle , is, n., a miracle, wondrous deed (eccl. Lat.): et faciet Dominus mirabile, Vulg. Exod. 9, 4.Mostly plur.: cras faciet Dominus inter vos mirabilia, Vulg. Jos. 3, 5: videntes mirabilia quae fecit, id. Matt. 21, 15 

Eccl 11:4. Do not boast about wearing fine clothes, nor exalt yourself in the day that you are honored; for the works of the Lord are wonderful, and his works are concealed from men.


gignōskō , Dor. (Epich.9, Pi.O.6.97), Aeol., Ion., and after Arist. ginōskō , but gignōskō in early Att. Inscrr., as IG12.127.19 (kata-), etc.: fut. dupl. acc., perceive or know another to be . also ho g. one who knows, a prudent perso
Isoc. 15 192 These, then, are my views as to the relative importance of native ability and practice. I cannot, however, make a like claim for education; its powers are not equal nor comparable to theirs. For if one should take lessons in all the principles of oratory and master them with the greatest thoroughness,
        he might, perhaps, become a more pleasing speaker than most,
        but let him stand up before the crowd and lack one thing only,
        namely, assurance, and he would not be able to utter a word.

O my God: unto thee will I sing with the harp, O thou Holy One of Israel.
        [Which means] My lips shall greatly rejoice when I sing unto THEE;
        and my soul, which thou hast redeemed. Psalms 71:23

Why is it so difficult to distinguish between singint unto God and singing unto an admiring and paying audiende.

Psalms 71:24 My tongue also shall talk
        of THY righteousness all the day long:
        for they are confounded, for they are brought unto shame, that seek my hurt.

Mĕdĭtor to think or reflect upon, to muse over, consider, meditate upon; neutr., to think, reflect, muse, consider, meditate; to design, purpose, intend, B. Thought upon, meditated, weighed, considered, studied:




Isa 8:16 Bind up the testimony, seal the law among my disciples

Isa 8:19And when they shall say unto you,
        Seek unto them that have familiar spirits,
        and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter:
                should not a people seek unto their God?
                for the living to the dead

To the law and to the testimony:
        if they speak not according to this word,
        it is because there is no light in them. Isa 8:20

See a detailed study of Psallo in the literature: it never means to play a harp.
The Beginning of Musical Idolatry: Part Two of Lynn Anderson review.  Isaiah 30 sees it as the sounds of God repaying his enemies driving them into "hell" with wind, string and percussion instruments.

Lynn Anderson  Psallo justifies Instrumental Music and sowing of Discord. REVISED 9.13.08 to organize rough thoughts.
Musical worship is always lifted from the Sacrificial system. However, this was added as a curse because Israel refused to listen to the Word of God.  Instruments have always MARKED people who try to silence God and His Word.

Music is said to have been brought by Lucifer as "the singing and harp playing prostitute" into the garden of Eden. Music is always the identifying MARK of those who refuse to listen to God.

The synagogue or church in the wilderness outlawed both vocal and instrumental rejoicing which signalled important events.

The only hint used by those imposing music as totally irrational in the synagogue or "school of the Bible" make use of the word psallo translated "make melody" once but also translated as "with grace" in the parallel passage. The word PSALLO is firstly a "making war" word as a musical instrument is "a machine for doing hard work" and creating the shock and awe to panic the enemy warriors.  In the "singing" sense it is seen as a metaphor for "making the heart strings sing" or "shooting forth hymns."

The revival of Judaism appeals to the curse of the Monarchy and the sacrificial system as they "slaughtered" types of their gods using noise of exorcism never called music.

That the monarchy, king, temple and sacrificial system was added as a curse upon those "turned over to worship the starry hosts" (Acts 7) is proven over and over by the Old Testament record.
Ephesians 5 has the Greek PSALLO in verse 19 and this has been translated as MAKING MELODY.  However, you will NEVER find the word PSALLO translated as MELODY: that is why Paul used the word GRACE in Colossians 3:16.  Either PSALLO does not belong here or Paul placing it in the HEART as opposed to EXTERNAL musical melody defines away all music concepts for the assembly.

Poems were composed by "religious poets" and they ALWAYS spoke of myths and never of REAL history.  All of these religious operatives among males were catamites or male homosexuals often emasculated to serve as "ministers of the gods."  In the following Quotation it is Apollo who is the chief proponent of 'twanging' both the bow and lyre to send out love arrows into his favorite friend. That is why the Mother of Harlots in Revelation 17 uses the "lusted after fruits" as rhetoricians, singers and musicians. John called them SORCERERS in Revelation 18. The musical-homosexual "worship" was believed to "bind the flesh and spirit together."

Here is Apollo to the left:

The word MELODY in all of thee Greek Texts point to the perverted worship of Apollo or the Apollyon of Revelation and the muses or some other goddess such as Aphrodite:

4. The god of song and music. We find him in the Iliad (i. 603) delighting the immortal gods with his play on the phorminx during their re past ; and the Homeric bards derived their art of song either from Apollo or the Muses. (Od. viii. 488, with Eustath.) Later traditions ascribed to. Apollo even the invention of the flute and lyre (Callim. Hymn, in Del. 253 ; Plut. de Mus.\ while the more common tradition was, that he received the lyre from Hermes. Ovid (Heroid. xvi. 180) makes Apollo build the walls of Troy by playing on the lyre, as Amphion did the walls of Thebes. Respecting his musical contests, see marsyas, midas.

And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all. Rev 18:21
And the voice of harpers, and musicians [Muses], and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee; Rev 18:22

And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived. Rev 18:23
And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth. Rev 18:24
-Pindar, Pythian 3 The prosperity of men does not stay secure for long, when it follows weighing upon them in abundance. [107] I will be small when my fortunes are small, great when they are great. I will honor in my mind the fortune that attends me from day to day, tending it to the best of my ability.[110] But if a god were to give me luxurious wealth, I hope that I would find lofty fame in the future. We know of Nestor and Lycian Sarpedon, whom men speak of, from melodious words which skilled craftsmen join together. Through renowned songs excellence [115] gains a long life. But few find that easy to accomplish.
-Homeric Hymns

To Artemis

[1] I sing of Artemis, whose shafts are of gold, who cheers on the hounds [catamites], the pure maiden, shooter of stags, who delights in archery, own sister to Apollo with the golden sword. Over the shadowy hills and windy peaks [5] she draws her golden bow, rejoicing in the chase, and sends out grievous shafts. The tops of the high mountains tremble and the tangled wood echoes awesomely with the outcry of beasts: earth quakes and the sea also where fishes shoal. But the goddess with a bold heart [10] turns every way destroying the race of wild beasts: and when she is satisfied and has cheered her heart, this huntress who delights in arrows slackens her supple bow and goes to the great house of her dear brother Phoebus Apollo, to the rich land of Delphi, [15] there to order the lovely dance of the Muses and Graces. There she hangs up her curved bow and her arrows, and heads and leads the dances, gracefully arrayed, while all they utter their heavenly voice, singing how neat-ankled Leto bare children [20] supreme among the immortals both in thought and in deed.

Hail to you, children of Zeus and rich-haired Leto! And now I will remember you and another song also.

-Kelad-einos , ē, on,
A. sounding, noisy, Zephuros Il.23.208; Artemis 16.183 (para ton gignomenon en tois kunēgiois keladon Sch. ad loc.); and so keladeinē alone, Il.21.511; of Dionysus, AP9.524.11; aulōnes h.Merc.95; surigx Opp.H.5.455: neut. pl. as Adv., potamoi keladeina rheontes A.R.3.532:Pi. has Aeol. form keladennos , epea k. highsounding verses, P.3.113; ompha Pae.5.46; k. Kharites the loud-voiced Charites, P.9.89; k. hubris noisy insult, I.4(3).8.

-Pindar, Pythian 2
Other kings have other men to pay them the tribute of melodious song, the recompense for excellence.

[15] The voices of the men of Cyprus often shout the name of Cinyras, whom golden-haired Apollo gladly loved, [17] Cinyras, the obedient priest of Aphrodite.

The word melody is never a translation of PSALLO: that is why Paul demanded that the "psallo" be in the PLACE of the heart or spirit: the same place the GRACE resides in Colossians 3.
-kela^d-eō , Sapph.4, E.IT1093 (lyr.); 3pl. -eonti Pi.P.2.15: fut. -ēsō Terp.5, Pi.O.2.2, E.HF694 (lyr.), -ēsomai Pi.O.10(11).79: poet. aor.
A. keladēsa B. 15.12, A.Ch.609 (lyr.), E.Hel.371 (lyr.): (kelados):Ep. and Lyr. (Trag. and Com. only in lyr. and anap., exc. Theopomp.Com.40: late in Prose, Aq.Is.49.13, Philostr.VA6.17, Ps.-Luc. Philopatr.3) Verb (cf. keladō), sound as flowing water, udōr psukhron k. Sapph.l.c.; kuma keladoun Orac. ap. Aeschin.3.112.
2. of persons, shout aloud, atar keladēsan Akhaioi, in applause, Il.23.869; eme dei k. Pratin. Lyr. 1.3, cf. B.l.c.; keladeonti amphi Kinuran phamai Pi.P.2.15: c. acc. cogn., k. humnous Terp.5, cf. Pi.N.4.16 codd.; nomon Id.Pae.2.101; hadumelē kosmon k. Id.O.11(10).14; [boas, paianas, E.Ion93, HF l.c.
3. of various cries, e.g. of a new-born babe, A.Ch.609; of the swallow, Ar. Pax801, Ra.684; of the grasshopper, Theopomp. Com.l.c.; of the cock, ex eunas k. crows from his perch, Theoc.18.57; of bells, ring, tinkle, E.Rh.384; of the flute, k. phthoggon kalliston Id.El.716; of the sea, Ar.Th.44.
II. trans., sing of, celebrate loudly, tina Pi.O.1.9, 2.2,6.88, E.IT1093, Ar.Ra.1527; temenos B. 13.21, cf. E. Tr.121; tina amph' areta Pi.P.2.63.

-keladō , Ep. form of keladeō, used in part. only,
A. sounding, par potamon keladonta Il.18.576, cf. B.8.65, Posidipp. ap. Tz.H.7.661; plēto rhoos k. Il.21.16, cf. Theoc.17.92; Zephuron keladont' epi oinopa ponton Od.2.421; ponton k. Ar.Nu.284 (anap.); Boreēs k. Q.S.8.243.
Keladeontiamphi Kinuran pharmai

-Phm , h, Aeol. and Dor. phama , I. utterance prompted by the gods, significant or prophetic saying, A. a.12, Pi.O.7.10;
-Pindar Olympian 7. [1] As when someone takes a goblet, all golden, the most prized of his possessions, foaming with the dew of the vine from a generous hand, and makes a gift of it to his young son-in-law, welcoming him with a toast from one home to another, [5] honoring the grace of the symposium and the new 1 marriage-bond, and thereby, in the presence of his friends, makes him enviable for his harmonious marriage-bed; [7] I too, sending to victorious men poured nectar, the gift of the Muses, the sweet fruit of my mind, I try to win the gods' favor [10] for those men who were victors at Olympia and at Pytho. That man is prosperous, who is encompassed by good reports. Grace, which causes life to flourish, looks with favor now on one man, now on another, with both the sweet-singing lyre and the full-voiced notes of flutes. [13] And now, with the music of flute and lyre alike I have come to land with Diagoras, singing the sea-child of Aphrodite [Lucifer, Aster, Zoe] and bride of Helios,
4. phamai songs of praise, Pi.P.2.16 ; phama philophorminx A.Supp.697 (lyr.), cf. Th.866 (anap.)
kelad-e 3. of various cries, of the grasshopper, cock, bells, ring, thinke, of the flute
-phthogg-os , o( (both Poet. and Prose), A. any clear, distinct sound, esp. voice of men, Il.5.234, etc.; of the Sirens,
speech, Hellados phthoggon kheousan A.Th.73; ph. emmetros, opp. peza, poetical speech, Phld.D.3.13; utterance, saying,
2. of musical sounds, lōtos phthoggon keladei E.El.716 (lyr.); luras Pl.Lg.812d, etc., cf. phthoggous alurous thrēnoumen Alex. 162.6 (anap.).
b. pl., notes on a musical instrument; strings of lyre,
-Pindar Pythian 2. 1 Great city of Syracuse! Sacred precinct of Ares, plunged deep in war! Divine nurse of men and horses who rejoice in steel! For you I come from splendid Thebes bringing this song, a message of the earth-shaking four-horse race [5] in which Hieron with his fine chariot won the victory, and so crowned Ortygia with far-shining garlands--Ortygia, home of Artemis the river-goddess: not without her help did Hieron master with his gentle hands the horses with embroidered reins. [9] For the virgin goddess who showers arrows [10] and Hermes the god of contests present the gleaming reins to him with both hands when he yokes the strength of his horses to the polished car, to the chariot that obeys the bit, and calls on the wide-ruling god who wields the trident. Other kings have other men to pay them the tribute of melodious song, the recompense for excellence. [15] The voices of the men of Cyprus often shout the name of Cinyras, whom golden-haired Apollo gladly loved, [17] Cinyras, the obedient priest of Aphrodite.
This includes the word MANIA or madness Paul warned about in Corinth.
This is the SELF-pleasing which Paul EXCLUDED from the ekklesia, synagogue or school of the Bible in the NOT singing passages.

See First Corinthians chapter one: Paul usually identifies the pagan ritualism before he defines the church as NOT arousing you but treating you as a student.  If Jesus would not try to sexually stimulate you with music, those hirelings cannot be following Jesus.

Here are the sophists who have been ELEMINATED.  Sophis-teia , h, A. sophistry, D.S.12.53, Plu.2.78f, D.L.2.113, etc.; opp. sophia, Ph.1.10; s. mantik, of Balaam, ib.609; title of work by Hermagoras of Amphipolis, Stoic.1.102: acc. to Poll.4.50, a barbarism.

-Mantik, Mania [mainomai] ) madness, sphodra hdon katechousa  
II. enthusiasm, inspired frenzy, m. Dionusou para E.Ba.305;
apo Mousōn katokōkhē te kai m. Pl.Phdr. 245a; theia m.,
Opposite sōphrosunē anthrōpinē, ib.256b, cf. Prt.323b, X. Mem.1.1.16;
tēs philosophou m. te kai bakkheias Pl.Smp.218b.
III. passion, erōtikē m. Id.Phdr.265b; maniēn maneis aristēn Anacreont. 59.2: freq. in pl., Pi.O.9.39, N.11.48, E.HF835; eggus maniōn elaunei Id.Heracl.904 (lyr.); maniē tinos mad desire for . . , Hermesian.7.85.
Music or charismatic arousal is OPPOSITE to:
sōphrosunē  A. soundness of mind, prudence, discretion sanity, opp. mania, X.Mem. 1.1.16, cf. Act.Ap.26.25.
2. moderation in sensual desires, selfcontrol, temperance

All music terms point to enchantment or sorcery: devices to obscure the truth for profit.
-Plato Phaedrus. [245a] ills is found. And a third kind of possession and madness comes from the Muses. This takes hold upon a gentle and pure soul, arouses it and inspires it to songs and other poetry, and thus by adorning countless deeds of the ancients educates later generations. But he who without the divine madness comes to the doors of the Muses, confident that he will be a good poet by art, meets with no success, and the poetry of the sane man vanishes into nothingness before that of the inspired madmen.

Music arouses the erotic:-Ert-ikos A. of or caused by love, .
-melos a love song, melos B. esp. musical member, phrase: hence, song, 3. melody of an instrument Apollo's Harp
3. melody of an instrument, phormigx d' au phtheggoith' hieron m. ēde kai aulos Thgn.761; aulōn pamphōnon m. Pi.P.12.19; pēktidōn melē S.Fr.241
The command to SPEAK is the opposite of music:
. Epic or Dramatic verse, Pl.R.379a, 607a, al.; [m. ek triōn sugkeimenon, logou te kai harmonias kai rhuthmou ib.398d.

Prophesying by Miriam and the Levite musicians is defined as SOOTHSAYING.

A. = katokhē, possession, tēs khōras Anon. ap. Suid.; mental grasp, tōn eirēmenōn Zeno Stoic.1.58.
II. being possessed, inspiration, theia moira kai katokōkhē Pl.Ion536c; apo Mousōn k. Id.Phdr.245a, cf. Ph.1.174, al., Dam.Isid.32:the forms katakōkhē, -imos are late and incorrect; cf. anokōkhē, sunokōkhē.

-Homer Ion [536c] and you have plenty to say:
        for it is not by art or knowledge about Homer that you say what you say,
        but by divine dispensation and possession;
        just as the Corybantian worshippers are keenly sensible
        of that strain alone which belongs to the god whose possession is on them,
        and have plenty of gestures and phrases for that tune, but do not heed any other.
        And so you, Ion, when the subject of Homer is mentioned, have plenty to say, but nothing on any of the others.
OPPOSITE sphrosun anthrpin meaning having control over the sensual desires, temperate, self-controlled, moderate, chaste, sober, 2. moderation in sensual desires, selfcontrol, temperance
-Homer Odyssey 23. [10] Then wise Penelope answered her:
        Dear nurse, the gods have made thee mad,
        they who can make foolish even one who is full wise,
                and set the simple-minded in the paths of understanding;
                it is they that have marred thy wits,
                though heretofore thou wast sound of mind.

Jesus revealed the same thing.

Luke 10:21 In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, t
        hat thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent,
                and hast revealed them unto babes: even so,
                Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight.
-sophos , ē, on, A. skilled in any handicraft or art, clever, Margites Fr.2; but in this sense mostly of poets and musicians, Pi.O.1.9, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. E.IT1238 (lyr.), cf. Ar.Ra.896 (lyr.), en oiōnois, kithara, E. IT662, 1238 (lyr.)
Acts 25. [24]  As he thus made his defense, Festus said with a loud voice, "Paul, you are crazy! Your great learning is driving you insane!" [25]  But he said, "I am not crazy, most excellent Festus, but boldly declare words of truth and reasonableness.

-Aristophanes, Clouds Just.

-Perseus:Aristoph. Cl. 961 I will, therefore, describe the ancient system of education, how it was ordered, when I flourished in the advocacy of justice, and temperance was the fashion. In the first place it was incumbent that no one should hear the voice of a boy uttering a syllable; and next, that those from the same quarter of the town should march in good order through the streets to the school of the harp-master, naked, and in a body, even if it were to snow as thick as meal. Then again, their master would teach them, not sitting cross-legged, to learn by rote a song, either pallada persepolin deinan or teleporon ti boama  [shriek, cry] raising to a higher pitch the harmony which our fathers transmitted to us. But if any of them were to play the buffoon, or to turn any quavers, like these difficult turns the present artists make after the manner of Phrynis, he used to be thrashed, being beaten with many blows, as banishing the Muses. And it behooved the boys, while sitting in the school of the Gymnastic-master, to cover the thigh, so that they might exhibit nothing indecent to those outside; then again, after rising from the ground, to sweep the sand together, and to take care not to leave an impression of the person for their lovers. And no boy used in those days to anoint himself below the navel; so that their bodies wore the appearance of blooming health. Nor used he to go to his lover, having made up his voice in an effeminate tone, prostituting himself with his eyes. Nor used it to be allowed when one was dining to take the head of the radish, or to snatch from their seniors dill or parsley, or to eat fish, or to giggle, or to keep the legs crossed.
-boa_ma , atos, to/, (boaō) Dor for boēma (which occurs in D.C.51.17),
A. shriek, cry, khamaipetes b. A.Ag.920; loud strain, tēleporon ti b. luras Lyr.Adesp.102.
-Harmonia IV. in Music, stringing, ha. toxou kai luras Heraclit.51, cf. Pl.Smp.187a: hence, method of stringing, musical scale, Philol.6, etc., Nicom.Harm.9; esp. octave, ek pasōn oktō ousōn phōnōn mian ha. sumphōnein Pl.R.617b; hepta khordai ha. Arist. Metaph.1093a14, cf. Pr.919b21; of the planetary spheres, in Pythag. theory, Cael.290b13, Mu.399a12, etc.
2. generally, music, autō de rhuthmō mimountai khōris ha. Id.Po.1447a26.
Logos. The ACT of speaking is logik-os , , on, ( [logos] ) the organs of speech
A. of or for
speaking or speech, logik, h, speech,
OPPOSITE to mousik
MANTIC or AROUSAL singing or music is OPPOSITE SANE or self-controlled.
And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; Eph 5:18
Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,

singing and making melody
in your heart to the Lord; Eph 5:19
Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; Eph 5:20

Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God. Eph 5:21

First: The word "drunk" is "methuo." one did not drink wine without a flute girl. If conversation was intended they sent the flute-girl out so they could be rational. It more often means to be FLUTED DOWN with passion or pride.  Paul points to lots of classical writings which prove that SINGING and DRINKING WINE always went together: they pointed to the male symposium where "that crooked generation" sang skolion songs while the flute-girl or harp-girl provided music and sex.

Secondly: The word psallo from which we get "melody" speaks exclusively of warfare. For that reason, when Paul used it he insisted that it be something in the heart: making melody or singing with GRACE in your heart.

Thirdly: Any instrument made of wood would be outlawed. David tried to awaken his harp as Habakkuk spoke of trying to get wooden idols to be their teacher.

Fourtly: The word therefore authorized only twanging with the fingers: a plectrum is excluded. Pipes or percussion instruments would be excluded because they have no relationship to the twanging bow of Apollo: the father of musical harmony, thieves and liars.

Psall [psa]

I. to touch sharply, to pluck, pull, twitch, to twang the send a shaft twanging from the bow,
a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark [on loiters]

This was the red, polluted rope used to MARK those who loitered in the marketplace where Jesus consigned the pipers, singers and dancers. Whey they were forcefully driven to the ekklesia for INSTRUCTION ONLY they would bear the MARK of the pagan, perverted religion.

Click to see where PSALLO is the MARK of paganism.

Playing an instrument WITH THE FINGERS ONLY must include the name of the instrument.

Fifthly: because Paul was a scholar we know that he had a word to use if he remotely included playing an instrument with a plectrum:


1. to strike the web with the kerkis, to weave, Eur.
2. to strike the lyre with the plectron, Anth.:--generally, to play on an instrument, Ar.

3. of any
sharp noise, bon pterois kr. id=Ar.

We might end the argument by noting that Paul directly commands SPEAK "that which is written" as the activity of the Christian ekklesia, synagogue or school of the Bible. To make this simplier we might look at the meaning of "singing" at the time which was not a musical performance:

Psalmus , i, m., = psalmos, i. q. psalma,
I. a psalm (eccl.
Lat.; cf.: carmen, hymnus), Vulg. Isa. 38, 20.--Esp., the Psalms of David
A. psalmoi toxn
E.Ion173 (lyr.);

I forbid you to approach the walls and the golden house. I will reach you with my bow, herald of Zeus, though you conquer [160] with your beak the strength of all other birds. Here comes another, a swan, to the rim of the temple. Move your crimson foot elsewhere! Phoebus' lyre, that sings with you, [165] would not protect you from my bow. Alter your wings' course; go to the Delian lake; if you do not obey, you will steep your lovely melody in blood. [170] Ah, ah! what is this new bird that approaches; you will not place under the cornice a straw-built nest for your children, will you? My singing bow will keep you off.

Toxon  Bow implicates  galliambus , i, m. [3. Gallus, II. A.] , I.a song of the priests of Cybele,

B. toxrei psalmi [toxeusas] Id.HF1064 (lyr.).

Toxeuo A.shoot with the bow,tinosat a mark
2. metaph., Ers e toxeus'autonE.Tr.255 ; h turannis pantothen toxeuetaiis aimed at, Id.Fr.850 .

Ers mostly sexual passion, goddess of love, Aphrodites,
Hecuba What! Phoebus' virgin-priestess, to whom the god with golden locks granted the gift of maidenhood?
Talthybius[255]  The dart of love has pierced his heart, love for the frenzied maid.
2.  Metaphor Shoot out or send forth a hymn
Pindar, Isthmian 2.[1] The men of old, Thrasybulus, who mounted the chariot of the Muses with their golden headbands, joining the glorious lyre, lightly shot forth their honey-voiced songs for young men, if one was handsome and had [5] the sweetest ripeness that brings to mind Aphrodite on her lovely throne. [6] For in those days the Muse was not yet a lover of gain, nor did she work for hire. And sweet gentle-voiced odes did not go for sale, with silvered faces, from honey-voiced Terpsichore. But as things are now, she bids us heed [10] the saying of the Argive man, which comes closest to actual truth: [11] Money, money makes the man, he said, when he lost his wealth and his friends at the same time

Humnos A. hymn, ode, in praise of gods or heroes.

The HYMNS commanded for the believer consists os the HALLEL PSALMS and does NOT include singing them for entertainment and excludes that which is NOT "that which is written" (Rom 15)
Paul commands SPEAK and even the ODE was not lyrical and not metrical. That is because all of the SINGING terms point to enchantment used as MIND CONTROL to cheat others.

Canto I. Neutr., to produce melodious sounds (by the voice or an instrument), to sound, sing, play (class. in prose and poetry; rare in Cic.)

2. Of the singing pronunciation of an orator, to declaim in a singing tone, to sing, drawl: si cantas, male cantas, si legis, cantas

C. Hence, because the oracles were of old uttered in verse, of any mysterious, prophetic, or warning utterance, to predict, warn, point out, indicate, make known, say

III. In the lang. of religion, as v. n. or a., to use enchantments, charms, incantations, to enchant, to charm,

Canorus adj. [canor] , of melody, melodious, harmonious: quiddam habere canorum, a melodious voice: modi, Iu.: vox ... nec canora, not sing-song: nugae, mere jingling, H.--Sing n. as subst, melody, charm (in speaking): illud in voce. --Producing melody, sounding melodiously, musical, euphonious: orator: chorus, song and dance, Iu.: Aeolides, i. e. Misenus, O.: animal (gallus): aves, V.: olor, Pr.: fides, H.: aes, i. e. tubae, V.

A Cappella Worship Leader
Aquinas, Thomas Praise Singing.
Praise Songs as Christian Voodoo
Ancient Pagan Praise Leader
Music as Brainwashing
Latter Rain, praise teams, praise singing, charismatic
Praise Worship Ploughs the Ground Hosea 10:ll
Rubel Shelly Praise and Thanksgiving
Rubel Shelly Psalm 106
See how CHARISMATIC music was born of sodomy preferably in the form of Pederasty.

See that ZOE is Eos or Helios or Aphrodite or Lucifer: the singing and harp-playing prostitute.

See how it works out when the "children and effeminate rule over you."
See more notes on a cappella. YOU ARE HERE
See Edward Fudge on A Cappella
Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)

The word elegos is probably not Greek, but borrowed from the Lydians, and means a plaintive melody accompanied by the flute.

How it happened that the word was applied to elegiac poetry, the earliest representatives of which by no means confined it to mournful subjects, is doubtful. It may be
........ that the term was chosen only in reference to the musical setting,
........ the elegy having originally been accompanied by the flute

The Old Testament leaves a universally bad taste when instrumental music or any kind of body work is used to try to worship God whom people believed responded to human, carnal appetites. Under the kings, Israel worshipped like the nations and was destroyed like the nations. This was in fulfilment of the sentence imposed upon Israel when they rose up to play in musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. God then "turned them over to hard bondage" to "serve the hosts of Heaven." This star worship was of Osiris for over 400 years in Egypt, was the worship of Israel at Mount Gerezim condemned by Amos 5, 6 and 8 and later imposed upon the temple-state under Solomon along with the rest of the "gods."

The "musicians" were Labor Leaders or Overseers or Excellers:

The "chief musicians" or "musical Levites" were "overseers":

And Solomon told out three score and ten thousand men to bear burdens, and fourscore thousand to hew in the mountain, and three thousand and six hundred to oversee (excel) them. 2Chr 2:2

And the men did the work faithfully: and the overseers of them were Jahath and Obadiah, the Levites, of the sons of Merari; and Zechariah and Meshullam, of the sons of the Kohathites, to set it forward; and other of the Levites, all that could skill of instruments of musick. 2Chr.34:12

"Other expressions of popular singing are the working songs, of which the early rabbinic literature speaks with contempt." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

Perhaps the musicans should go out to the construction sites and cheer up the workers. Didn't the musicians magically raise the rocks to build Thebes to give the workmen rest? But, the construction forman would probably call the law because you it be dangerous.

Those who "set forward" the work of the temple excelled which means:

Nacach (h5329) naw-tsakh'; to glitter from afar, to be eminent as a superintendent, especially of the Temple services and its music; also to be permanent, to excel, chief musician, singer, overseer, set forward. (The Worship team or Minister of Music is the overseer or anxiety inducer).

Of which, twenty and four thousand were to set forward the work of the house of the Lord; and six thousand were officers and judges: 1Chr.23:4

Another description shows that the musical worship teams were the overseers of the group:

Paqiyd (h6496) paw-keed'; from 6485; a superintendent (civil, military or religious): - which had the charge, governor, office, overseer, [that] was set.

Now it came to pass, that at what time the chest was brought unto the kings office by the hand of the Levites, and when they saw that there was much money, the kings scribe and the high priests officer came and emptied the chest, and took it, and carried it to his place again. Thus they did day by day, and gathered money in abundance. 2 Chr.24:11

Of the sons of Asaph, the singers were over the business of the house of God. Ne.11:22b

Business is:

Melakkah (h4399) mel-aw-kaw'; from the same as 4397; prop. deputyship, i. e. ministry; gen. employment (never servile) or work (abstr. or concr.); also property (as the result of labor): - business, * cattle, * industrious, occupation, (* -pied), * officer, thing (made), use, (manner of) work ([man], -manship).

What we call "Worship" was hard labor of bondage imposed at Mount Sinai

David, together with the commanders of the army, set apart some of the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun for the ministry of prophesying, accompanied by harps, lyres and cymbals. Here is the list of the men who performed this service: 1 Chronicles 25:1

Abodah (h5656) ab-o-daw'; from 5647; work of any kind: - act, bondage, / bondservant, effect, labour, ministering (-try), office, service (-ile, -itude), tillage, use, work, * wrought

Abad (h5647) aw-bad'; a prim. root; to work (in any sense); by impl. to serve, till, (caus.) enslave, etc.: - * be, keep in bondage, be bondmen, bond-service, compel, do, dress, ear, execute, / husbandman, keep, labour (-ing man), bring to pass, (cause to, make to) serve (-ing, self), (be, become) servant (-s), do (use) service, till (-er), transgress [from margin], (set a) work, be wrought, worshipper.

The tribe of Levi was to carry the burden for the people in a new secular kingdom. When they are playing instruments of David during the burning phase the common people are excluded under penalty of death. The Levites and another class of workmen had tens of thousands of animal carcasses to burn. Those who are said to "worship" did so by falling on their face: singing with instruments is never called an act of worship.

The backgroud of Psallo is a millitary or warrior background. Instruments were "sounded" to panic the enemy into running like a coward but they were not used to "worship" which always occurs "in spirit" or in the mind. Anything which disturbs this "in mind" worship is a hindrance and not a help.

Organum Vitr. 10, 1.--Of musical instruments, a pipe,. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 et saep.--Of hydraulic engines, an organ, water-organ: organa hydraulica,

Gen 4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
manipulate, figuratively to use unwarrantably:--catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, X surely, surprise, take.

H8608 taphaph to
drum, that is, play (as) on the tambourine:taber, play with timbrels.
H8611 tpheth to'-feth From the base of H8608 ; a smiting, that is, (figuratively) contempt:--tabret. MEANING HELL

Organon , to, ( [ergon, erd] ) I. an implement, instrument, engine of any kind 12.--Of military or architectonic engines (whereas machina denotes one of a larger size and more complicated construction) GET DATA FROM APOC1WATCHERS.HTML

  [Erg], 1. in Il. mostly of deeds of war, polemaerga, 3.a hard piece of work, a hard task, Il.: also, a shocking deed or act,
A. instrument, implement, tool, for making or doing a thing
3.musical instrument, ; met'ids kai tinn organn Phld.Mus.p.98K. ; of the pipe, Melanipp.2, Telest.1.2

Scholars have aptly called musical performance "the idolatry of talent." And as a result, God is remade in the image of secular man.

Augustine on the Psalms noted that making melody external is a work which David always performed trying to find God whom he believed had become lost:

"Make melody unto the Lord upon the harp: on the harp and with the voice of a Psalm" (ver. 5). Praise Him not with the voice only; take up works, that ye may not only sing, but work also.

He who singeth and worketh,
maketh melody with psaltery and upon the harp.

In Hebrew, the "bow twangs" or "harp sounds" or "spear clanks" were defined by a word which is used or both "instrument" and "Weapon":

Keliy (h3627) kel-ee'; from 3615; something prepared, i. e. any apparatus (as an implement, utensil, dress, vessel or weapon): - armour ([-bearee]), artillery, bag, carriage, / furnish, furniture, instrument, jewel, that is made of, * one from another, that which pertaineth, pot, / psaltery, sack, stuff, thing, tool, vessel, ware, weapon

The New Testament also has some negative comments about music and defines "singing" and "melody" in a radically new way: that already common among the Koine-speaking common people. The word for "melody" is derived from "grinding to bits" and the "sop" which Jesus fed Judas whose "bag" was for holding the mouthpieces (reeds) of wind instruments; it is derived from "speaking in tongues" plus "of the world."

Paul defined these "lifeless instruments" or "carnal weapons" by words showing that they were destructive, could both guard and pacify the lambs with the bow or could attract the SEEKERS with musical and dramatic performance. The classical writers show how low the word had sunk.

Furthermore, there is no command, example or inference that Jesus wanted us to worship with instruments -- or singing sentimental poetry for that matter --which the classical writers considered human works added to simple one-another singing where "singing" was reciting the already-composed songs and already-preached sermons. However, the make-work principle has governed most religion, beginning in the Garden of Eden.

As proof of the Scripture's inspiration, each and every effort to force it to approve of music as the works of human talent and hands fails. Human authority, however, is usually derived from books which are notorious for misquoting the historical writers such as Clement of Alexandria.

Therefore, another dodge which must flow from a shallow understanding and application of Scripture, is to show that those who consider musical worship as sinful but do not consider musical instruments in the home as sinful and are therefore inconsistent. The obvious bait and switch is to say that if instruments are not sinful in the home then you must be consistent (smart) and allow instruments in the worship -- while you enjoy the "performance."

Instrumental music in worship is often defended by the fact that we use instruments in the home. However, we have to ask:

"Is eating steak for the Lord's Supper sinful?" Overwhelmingly, "Yes." "Is eating steak to recover from the musical worship Sunday "worship" sinful?" Overwhelmingly, "No." Well, this just proves that you are inconsistent " No. It just means that we have discernment. Music is not wrong within itself. In worship it, by definition, takes the place of the Words of Christ.

The principle is not legal: Jesus doesn't care what you eat. However, if you eat steak because it tastes good or sing performance music for the audience during the Lord's Super you are showing little concern for the participants and for the Lord whom it is supposed to honor as we "silently search for leaven" in our own life.

Paul illustrates short periods out of the week to come together, sit down, shut our mouths and learn from Him. We eat the Lord's Supper with unleavened bread and unleavened fruit of the vine to honor Jesus and not the old, legalistic mediating clergy Whom Jesus replaced. Please get it: you cannot do both! Jesus said that the clergy loaded the "pack animals" down with "anxiety created by religious ritual" but He came to give us "rest and to take our ease" from such Spirit-wounding warfare.

But in some dictionaries, the word "psallo" demands the use of instruments.

"Psalm" is a Greek and not a Hebrew word. The Hebrew simply means "praise" and does not include an instrument unless one is specified:

Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. Am.5:23

Lucifer is the "Babylon whore" of the end-time religion. In Tyre, he/she was a harp-playing prostitute who wanted to be remembered "as a male."

And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot. Isaiah 23:15

"Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Isaiah 23:16

Singing "as a harlot" or warrior meant "taking up a harp."

P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid

She said, and from her quiver chose with speed
The winged shaft, predestin'd for the deed;
Then to the stubborn yew her strength applied,
Till the far distant horns approach'd on either side.
The bowstring touch'd her breast, so strong she drew;
Whizzing in air the fatal arrow flew.
At once the twanging bow and sounding dart
The traitor heard, and felt the point within his heart.
Him, beating with his heels in pangs of death,
His flying friends to foreign fields bequeath.
The conqu'ring damsel, with expanded wings,
The welcome message to her mistress brings.

In this SOUNDING or OVERSEEING the bow, string and arrow shaft twang "musically" just before your heart spouted blood and you accompanied it with the "drumming" of your dying feet.

If "instruments" are inherent in the word psallo then each singer must have their own instrument or they cannot psallo. If all human experience is not adequate, it may help to summarize some of the evidence which denies that psallo gives authority for legalistic, performance mechanical worship. First, look at one of the examples:

(external) Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
(internal) singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; Ephesians 5:19

You cannot help notice that the "operative" command is not to sing or make melody but to teach or preach by speaking. Teach is the same word as preach. If the preacher won't let you play the flute while he preaches then God won't be happy with you if you have a team of "sister singers" trying to seduce Him while He is speaking.

We can settle the issue quickly and move on. If Psallo means to sing a song with musical accompaniment then Paul said:

Speaking (teaching, dialoging) to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
and (singing with instruments) in your heart to the Lord; Ephesians 5:19

Or shouldn't we understand this as typical parallelism which says:
to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, 

Which says in parallel way to emphasize and guard against misunderstanding:
        singing and making melody
in your heart to the Lord; Ephesians 5:19

What this already meant to the Psalm writers was that one sings to god when one praises God which is to tell what He has done:

O give thanks unto the Lord; call upon his name:
........make known his deeds among the people. Psalm 105:1

Sing to the LORD, for he has done glorious things;
........ let this be known to all the world. Isaiah 12:5

What this meant to Jesus

We know that Jesus disparaged the Jewish clergy as "children playing musical games." They tried to pipe to artificially induce the choral dancing madness into Him. The associated words connecting the PAIS as the leaders of the musical procession also are associated with sodomy as an end product of the charismatic effor.

We know that Jesus did not "psalm" but hymned:

Humneo (g5214) hoom-neh'-o; from 5215; to hymn, i.e. sing a religious ode; by impl. to celebrate (God) in song: - sing an hymn (praise unto).

We know that "psalming" is not mentioned in any gospel account but it is used of both Jesus and others to speak of what was recorded in the Psalms. These were poetic records of the history of the Jews. Only later did the Jews set them to music:

And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, Luke 20:42

Even "unspiritual" Psalms would be suitable for the Christian assembly if we understood the activity in Paul's words to "teach and admonish." To teach the Jewish history would not be to endorse all of it.

We know that Jesus denied the value of David's "singing" by using the word "saith"--

Lego (g3004) leg'-o; a prim. verb; prop. to "lay" forth, i.e. (fig.) relate (in words [usually of systematic or set discourse.

We know that when these hymns were sung in a collective sense they were not solos or performances for others (see more below):

Odai are the cultic songs of the community. They are not sung by the individual, but by the community gathered for worship

What this meant to Paul

Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister (public servant) of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers: Romans 15:8

And that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written,

(external) For this cause I will confess to thee among the Gentiles,

(internal) and sing unto thy name. Romans 15:9

Paul understood singing in this two-part method of teaching one another with the Biblical text while the singing is directed to God. He said the same thing to the Ephesians and Colossians.

What this meant to some early disciples who understood Paul literally

This demands both a horizontal (one to another) teaching process, and a vertical (to God) process. The horizontal process is audible; the vertical process is silent:

First, some early groups understood this literally: speaking to one another to memorize, or speak already-memorized Biblical text, was to teach the Words of Christ which already filled the mind and heart of the people.

Second, the singing and melody was "in the heart" and it was directed "to God."

What this must mean for our worship

If we have any concern for the Psalmist, for Jesus' experience and teaching and for Paul, we must show regard for Christ Who inspired the Word. The Biblically-defined task remains the same: the collective assembly must be to teach one another the Words of Christ and God does not need to be instructed nor entertained. The result will be the education of the collected group and this, in turn, sings to and gives glory to God.

We will see further that the "oding" was an act of the community and it cannot be done by one person to the congregation any more than speaking or dialouging can be a one-person preaching performance.

From "filling up with the Spirit" or "the Word of Christ" in Colossians 3:16 the actions are: be informed of the words of Christ (Spirit John 6:63), speak those words one to another, the result will be teaching and warning one another, we will honor Christ by recycling His Words back to Him or else they are void and there will be unity which can come only through unison-type dialog and singing.

Looking at What Messiah Would bring to the World.

In Isaiah 11 Messiah would not be filled with a "little person" other than Himself as full Deity. Rather, Isaiah predicted that the Spirit which rested upon Him would be:

And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord; Isaiah 11:2 and spirituality or "quick understanding" in the next verse.

Paul defined the Holy Spirit (to us) as the Mind of Christ (1 Corinthians 2). Christ left that Spirit in His Words. Later, Isaiah defines a process much like that defined by Paul in his "singing" passages.

Christ supplies all of our food stuffs for both body and soul. This form of presenting Christ's revelation is not new to Paul; it appears throughout the Word.

The Spirit which flowed out from the 'belly" was the Word of God which if ignored by substituting "another" spirit you are substituting another Christ and another gospel.
HO, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no money; come ye, buy, and eat; yea, come, buy wine and milk without money and without price. Isaiah 55:1
Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? and your labour for that which satisfieth not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good, and let your soul delight itself in fatness. Isaiah 55:2
Incline your ear, and come unto me: hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David. Isaiah 55:3
Christ is the witness, leader and commander to lead the nations or unbelievers to Himself as the only Holy God Incarnated in flesh. 
Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people. Isaiah 55:4
Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knowest not, and nations that knew not thee shall run unto thee, because of the Lord thy God, and for the Holy One of Israel; for he hath glorified thee. Isaiah 55:5
Paul demands that we fill up with Spirit or the Word of Christ because it is terminal presumptiousness to believe that you can interpret better than the Holy Spirit.
Seek ye the Lord while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near: Isaiah 55:6
For my thoughts are not your thoughts,
   neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord. Isaiah 55:8
For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts. Isaiah 55:9
The water comes down, does its creative work and returns to the clouds or else life would cease. The same is true of God's words: if we don't use and return His Words to Him our "singing" is vain. Jesus called this "vain religion."
For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater: Isaiah 55:10
So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it. Isaiah 55:11
Feeding on the Word allows us to enjoy the peace and unity Paul spoke of. The "heart" of God's creation can then sing and clap their hands.
For ye shall go out with joy, and be led forth with peace: the mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands. Isaiah 55:12
God's people will prosper and God alone will get the glory. However, music is often called "the shawms of a dying civilization."
Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of the briar shall come up the myrtle tree: and it shall be to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off. Isaiah 55:13

In the New Testament

First, the word "psallo" originally carried the idea of the twanging sound made by a bowstring, stretched hide or gut or anything which would vibrate or make a grinding sound when put through the mill. Musical devices were often produced from polluted animals which died of themselves and could not be used for religious purposes. For instance, the hide of a goat left when the decayed body could be slipped out without damage to the skin could be made into a lyre or drum.

I have a flute made from a deer bone the dog drug up, gnawed, buried, dug up, and allowed to weather. I had to pollute it by boring holes and when I blew the sound was not a "god" inside but the noise of my own foul, polluted breath.

Until in the last century scholars did not know that the New Testament was written in Koine Greek: the language of the marketplace and not the classical Greek writers.

When the New Testament was written, psallo did not include musical instruments primarily because of the universal association between musical instruments and pagan religion which always attracted worshippers (secular seekers) by the display of female or effeminate male musical or dramatic talent.

Second, we can understand PSALLO by how the New Testament writers used the word. That is, the use of "singing" does not include a form of entertainment to solicit customers as it had in paganism; it is used as a parable for teaching the gospel message or anything taught by the Spirit of Christ.

Third, we can understand psallo by the fact that none of the credible translations include the musical instrument. To claimthat the Greek it included instruments" discounts two thousand years of Biblical scholarship.

Fourth, the very definition of every single musical term in both the Old and New Testament carries a very destructive, negative meaning, and are derived from even worse Hebrew and Greek roots. This includes the Hebrew word translated melody.

Fifth, if psallo includes musical instruments then the apostles rejected the command of Christ and their own letters because we have no clear statement that they "psalloed upon a harp." To the contrary, Paul implicates musical instruments in speaking in tongues which was part of the "get drunk with wine" and music of Greek religion.

Six, The early church clearly understood that psallo did not include instruments and was horrified and always deliberately divided by those who tried to introduce them. Many of those who introduced instruments were deliberately chasing away those who interfered with their role in the churches.

PSALLO as used and translated in the New Testament:

The word psallo occurs five times in the New Testament: Romans 15:9; 1Cor 14:15 (twice); Eph 5:19; and James 5:13. Without an exception, all the standard translations, King James, English Revised, American Standard, and Douay (Roman Catholic), render psallo as "sing, sing psalms, sing praise, make melody." Again to quote Paul:

The Solution to Warfare Against Jesus with Music

Cycle One

Cycle Two

15:1 WE then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.

15:10 And again he saith, Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with his people.

Romans 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification.

Romans 15:3 For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me.

15:11 And again, Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles; and laud him, all ye people.


For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning (teaching), that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope. Romans 15:4

And again, Esaias saith, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles trust. Romans 15:12
Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus: Romans 15:5
Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost. Romans 15:13
That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify (tell of His works) God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Romans 15:6
And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that ye also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another. Romans 15:14
Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister (deacon) of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers: Romans 15:8
Nevertheless, brethren, I have written the more boldly unto you in some sort, as putting you in mind, because of the grace that is given to me of God. Romans 15:15
And that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written, For this cause I will
(2) that the offering (bloodless sacrifice) up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost. Romans 15:16
(1) confess to thee among the Gentiles, and
(1) That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God,
(2) sing unto thy name. Romans 15:9
ministering the gospel of God,

In Luke Luke 20:42 psalmos is the book of Psalms; in Rom. 15:9 sing is psallo.

This is quite identical to the pattern of Psalm 105:

make known his deeds among the people. Psalm 105:1
O give thanks
call upon
unto the Lord
his name:
talk (h7878) ye of all his wondrous works. Psalm 105:2


unto him

sing psalms

unto him:

Glory ye

in his holy name:

let the heart of them rejoice

that seek the Lord. Psalm 105:3

In Paul's other letters, the teaching or confessing is to others while the "singing" or melody is directed toward God. To direct the talent to the "audience" is changing the Christ-ordained direction of information flow. The result was to speak to the god (generic word used) which was to speak into the air. From the classical writers we know that the demons or angels inhabited the air and that people sang or spoke in tongues to them.

This was a prophecy that Lord Jesus Christ would "sing unto the Gentiles." It would be outrageous for the Incarnate God of the universe to bring in a band to help teach the gospel. He used a form of "singing" which was speaking in a style which would carry to the outermost edges of the crowd. This was called cantillating. It was reserved for the collective assembly. This "singing" happens when anyone ministers the gospel:

That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God,

that the offering up of the Gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the Holy Ghost. Romans 15:16

We know that Jesus chanted the traditional hymns during Passover (a family institution) but He never "sang" nor did He play instruments and He wouldn't dance to the clergy's tune.

This was also God's message to the Jews. The singing was not to the "congregation" but to the Lord as the result of teaching His Word to the congregation or the world. Much of this inspired sermonized and versivied material is presented in an easily-remembered form of poem or song:

O give thanks unto the Lord; call upon his name:
........ make known his deeds among the people. Psalm 105:1

Sing to the LORD, for he has done glorious things;
........ let this be known to all the world. Isaiah 12:5

However, God had already condemned the people with Zemar which was to prune the vine:

I will make it a wasteland, neither pruned nor cultivated, and briers and thorns will grow there. I will command the clouds not to rain on it." Is.5:6

One of the reasons was, according to Amos, their daily religious festivals at which they worshipped their own appetites:

And (you have) the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts:

but they regard not the work of the Lord, neither consider the operation of his hands. Isaiah 5:12

Of Jesus "singing to the Gentiles"

First, Again, Jesus never played a musical instrument while He taught eternal truth.

Second, Jesus specificially repudiated the Jewish clergy as being little children because they "piped" and tried to force Him to sing and dance just as the women of Dionysus worshipped even in Jerusalem. Jesus never "psalloed" but "hymned" after Passover. This was not singing but reciting one of the Psalms.

Conclusion: Paul did not understand "singing to the Gentiles" as including a musical instrument. He defined it as to "fill up with the Spirit" or "the Words of Christ" and then let it pour out to those who had never heard the gospel.

If instruments would remotely aid the evangelistic effort then Paul didn't know about it.

For a fuller discussion of Jesus Singing to the Gentiles

The next passage which translates psallo as sing is:

What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also: I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also. 1 Corinthians 14:15

The "spirit" for this action is the already-revealed Words of Christ (Col 3:16; John 6:63) or they are freshly-inspired information which the entire fellowship urgently needs. This urgent message from God must be spoken in clear, understandable words. The style was not modern harmony but cantillation or urgent speaking. There is no clue that any inspired person existed in the church in Corinth. Therefore, the "spirit" or Mind of Christ or Words of Christ must come from teachings they have heard or portions of Scripture being circulated.

Paul has already disparaged instruments in 1 Corinthians 13:1 by equating them to speaking in tongues. The background is that he also uses the terms gongs booming and cymbals clanging to speak to the instruments used to create the "prophesying" he mentioned in 1 Cor. 11:5 outside of the assembly. This was a pagan form of ecstatic speech or speaking in tongues. These terms are quite identical to the "familiar spirit" of the witch of Endor and the singing is recognized in the classical writers as "prophesying" or pretending to get a message from the gods.

Unless any of these people were inspired, Paul demanded that they sit down and be silent. If there happened to be one inspired person in the assembly he must speak or sing his revelation one at a time but there must be another inspired person to guaranteed with two witnesses that he wasn't singing his own composition or preaching out of his own mind. Because there isn't a clue that anyone in Corinth was inspired, Paul does not really command any form of singing except to oneself.

The melody or "twanging" which people might try to insert into his revealed message is defined by Paul: He said to "twang or pluck" with the spirit and "twang or pluck" with the understanding. This means the thinking nature of the brain as well as the spirit or "mental disposition" of the mind or brain.

Conclusion: This leaves no room for twanging a harp or a twanging musical worship team because he did not say: "Twang with the harp" or "Twang with a team" unless that team is inspired and therefore knows something which is not readily available to all through the free Word.

The next use of psallo is in Ephesians 5:

In Ephesians 4 and 5 Paul described the assembly of the pagans where wine, singing, instrumental music and dancing was used to create an artificial "spirit" so that they "prophesied." We would hear this as speaking in tongues. In chapter 4 and 5 Paul also shows that God pours out His wrath by the use of wrathful men who are identified by the modern form of out-of-your-mind charismatic preaching, shouting, hand waving and dancing across the stage. The Church Fathers identified this as God inducing an effete principle, as with Saul, and this was supposed to cause people to just consider him mad.

On the other hand, either in or out of the "when you all come together" sense, Paul defined a radically new form of "music" which was the same Jesus-way of teaching the revealed Words of God.

If Paul was not speaking of "in the assembly" then there is no authority for any form of singing "in church." Therefore, there would be no authority for instruments. Then ask:"Why would you deliberately with malice aforethought divide a congregation over something you agree is not covered by inspiration?"

I think that the answer is: "Because I have lost faith in inspiration. I have tried the right-wing patterns of rough meanness, and the left-wing paradigms of slick meanness and they both leave me cold."

Let me suggest a new pattern: Just read and dialog (usually translated as preach) the total Word from Genesis to Revelation without taking out little tidbits to make sermons and songs in your own image. This allows the Spirit of Christ to do His work whether one-hour-a-week patterns develop or not.

Paul certainly would not be speaking of a casual conversation because no sane person would try to teach the Words of Christ in the coffee shop with a hot-wired chorus or musical instrument -- they would haul you off and lock you up.

Paul defined that which the Ephesians should not do by defining a co-participation in an assembly in contrast to evidence from the classical writer's testimony of singing groups and musical instruments to "induce" the "spirit." The motive was singular: to strip you of your money before you could get out of town because the "prophetesses" ("worship" singers) knew that the message was obtained by ventriloquism and, in fact, the business deal went sour and you lost money.

And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them. Ephesians 5:11

For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret. Ephesians 5:12

Paul defined the meaning of unfruitful works in First Corinthians where he mentions singing without musical instruments after he has equated speaking in tongues with an attempt to teach or lead with musical instruments:

For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful. 1 Corinthians 14:14

He did not say "when I pray in an unknown tongues." This meant that Paul's "inner man" would be disconnected from his understanding so who could tell what was happening.

By ommiting "instruments" as that upon which the melody was to be made and by equating instruments to speaking in tongues or unfruitful works -- which we know was usually done in the darkness of the pagan temples -- Paul absolutely repudiates musical instruments.

We know exactly what happened as the "mysteries" were administered behind closed doors. The singing, dancing, instrumental music and even wine broke down the walls between the sexes and it was a carnal gathering. Whether we can touch or not, performing women in non-sedantary pastoring roles with beauty and clothes and gesture become the focus of the seekers; you cannot see Christ through a veil of beauty and talent. That's why Jesus liked the closet and the rural setting with sheep alongside quiet waters.

Wherefore be ye not unwise (egotistical, ignorant, lacking understanding as in 1 Cor 14:20), but understanding what the will (what Jesus taught) of the Lord is. Ephesians 5:17

And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; Ephesians 5:18

(external) Speaking (speaking or dialoging) to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,

(internal) singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; Ephesians 5:19

"Philo uses humnos regularly for the OT Psalms."

We noted that the Greek demands speaking to one another in a liturgical sense, while the pagans used singing, instrumental music and dancing groups to perform for the paying audience. This was a violation of the Christian principle of a "one another" ministry.

The Theologial Dictionary of the New Testament notes that:

"In the NT there is still no precise differentiation between ode, psalmos, and humnos. e.g., in Col.3:16 or Eph.5:19, in contrast to a later time, when ode (canticum) came to be used only for biblical songs (apart from the Psalms) used in liturgy. From the NT passages we may gather the following elements in the concept or the Christian ode as also confirmed from other sources.

(Our note: Sing in Ephesians 5:19 is Ode (g5603) o-day'; from 103; a chant or "ode" the gen. term for any words sung)

"a. Odai are the cultic songs of the community. They are not sung by the individual, but by the community gathered for worship...

Of a piece with this is the anonymity or the early authors, as also the attachment to OT tradition. Only in the 2nd century are the authors sometimes mentioned. In the Didascalia, 2, p..5.29, we can still read: 'It thou desirest hymns, thou hast the Psalms of David."'

"b. The ode is inspired. This is shown by the epithet pneumatikos, though it does indicate more generally its religious character. . . . With the inspiration or hymns is linked their improvisation, e.g., in I C. 14:26 (cr. Acts 4:24); Tert. adv. Marc., 5,b; Apolog. 39,18." (Note: and condemned, we might add).

In Acts 1:20 psalmos is the book of Psalms and in Rom. 15: sing is psallo.

"Psallo is best translated by chant,
........ not sing.

The Greeks sharply distinguish chanting (psalmodia)
........ from singing (tragoudi).

The first is a sacred activity;

the second, a secular one. In English, unfortunately, the distinction is not sharp. Constantine Cavarnos

Singing self-composed songs with literal or psudo-instruments (complex harmony) is of the KOSMOS or the earth. On the other hand, group singing of the revealed message with no special improvizing and talent-display is Spiritual.

The pagan prophetesses and the rare male performed the music for the paying worshipper while they (he) drank wine to enhance the sexual or "fertility" feelings created by the temple musicians. The sexual content was not just "show and tell" but the act was consummated by a prophetess. This was sold by the male proprietors-for-life of the temple as "knowing their god personally." The word melody or Greek Psallo was derived from words meaning to stretch, twist, grind to bits and is somewhat like the sop Jesus ground off to give Judas as a supernatural sign.

Therefore, Paul used common Greek words in a new way of the common people as opposed to the theatrical temples. They were to treat the "women" as mothers or sisters and not as musical-dramatic performers or sex-objects who, when unveiled, urged and invited sexual feelings if not consumation. Wine was excluded because wine inherently creates a distorted mind almost identical to that created by music as it creates endorphins or a morphine-like drug. Paul specificially placed the melody or "breaking or grinding" in the heart or mind because the task was to teach and admonish. By defining the instrument upon which the melody took place Paul excluded any non-spiritual musical instrument. He defines such instruments as lifeless or carnal.

As a move of desperation by those who are bent upon forcing instruments upon a peacful church, it is denied that Ephesians and Colossians has anything to do with the assembly. They why, in the name of consistency, use these passages to say that the silence gives us positive, evin audible, authority to fill in the hole in the donut the Holy Spirit left?

The parallel in Colossians equates "being filled with the spirit" to "let the word of Christ dwell in you." Jesus said in John 6:63 that "Spirit and Life" are contained within His Words. That eleminates my words as a singing resource, as Paul told the Corinthians, unless I am an inspired prophet. Using the image of a collected body, Paul warned the Colossians about putting on excernal, ceremonial garments of the prophetess just as he warned against wine as the mind-altering "spirit":

Put on therefore, as the elect (called out body) of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness (this eleminates performance), longsuffering; Colossians 3:12

Forbearing one another, and forgiving one another, if any man have a quarrel against any: even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye. Colossians 3:13

The body cannot function is some human tries to be the "head" or the "mediator." Each member of any collected group must figuratively be dressed with humility and meekness. This doesn't sound like either a professional performance or like a casual meeting of two enemies.

And above all these things put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness. Colossians 3:14

And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful. Colossians 3:15

Now, we don't try to make "peace in the heart" into an external ritual. Rather, internalizing peace and harmony destroys any spirit of dominance so that the "one another" edification can take place (isn't called "worship").

The church (gathered or ungathered) is the body of Christ. Therefore, if Jesus Christ is really with us when we do our "music" shouldn't we honor Him by singing His words? If we meet to honor Robert Frost and put Robert Frost off to one side and then fill the evening by quoting our own poems haven't we committed fraud? Didn't we us use Robert or Jesus as a "bait and switch" scam to get the people there to worship us?

The Head must be in charge as the only performer (See the above table). The "body" isn't prepared to "teach" or edify until it has equipped itself with God's Holy (adjective, not first name) Spirit or the Mind of Christ. Paul's command is not followed if we "fill up" with the words of a sentimental poetess but:

Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom;

(external) teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
internal) singing (no instruments included) with grace (divine influence) in your hearts to the Lord. Colossians 3:16

And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him. Colossians 3:17

But he that prophesieth speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort. 1 Cor 14:3

Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs are the names for different Old Testament Psalms or the Biblical text revealed by the Spirit of Christ. Amos condemned inventing instruments and composing songs just as the church for hundreds of years insisted that "singing" has value only if it is from the inspired record. Many churches continue the practice.

In not a single word of these versions is psallo translated as meaning to perform on instruments of music. All modern versions, such as Goodspeed, Weymouth, Moffatt, and Knox, all translate psallo essentially the same as the standard translations. The men who gave us these versions, both standard and modern, are among the world's most competent Greek scholars; if the playing on mechanical instruments of music is expressed in the meaning of the word psallo, as used by the New Testament writers, is it not exceedingly strange that these translators failed to so render it?

"The Greek Catholic Church, with more than one hundred million members, does not use instrumental music in its service (except in some American churches to compete). Of all people they ought to know whether psallo includes mechanical instruments. Their conclusion is that it means simply to sing. Nor do many groups outside of the grasp of Hollywood -- especially many presbyterians and even seventh-day animal sacrificers throughout the world who clearly know from the Hebrew that music has no place.

James 5:13

GO to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you. James 5:1

Somehow we doubt that this is an act of worship. Should we set aside a period of wailing and howling for all of those who support the plant and buildings and grounds? James then spoke in the context of singing:

Take, my brethren, the prophets, who have spoken in the name of the Lord, for an example of suffering affliction, and of patience. James 5:10

Behold, we count them happy which endure. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy. James 5:11

But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnation. James 5:12

Wouldn't we be cruel to sing Psalms when 20% of the congregation is on anti-depressents in order to survive "anxiety created by religious ritual" or otherwise suffering or being afflicted?

Is any among you afflicted? (undergoing hardship) let him pray. Is any merry? let him sing psalms (psallo). James 5:13

This is during our daily lives. If we are happy we probably don't wait until we can sing in an "authorized" way by getting out of the bathtub and finding a harp. "Singing" is the fruit of the heart or spirit -- it cannot be a hyped-up "worship" ritual.

James again translates psallo for us: He does not say sing and sing with a harp. Sing is the complete action; the material of the simple singing is the Psalms.

The next verse confirms that the sick must send for the elders of the church:

Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: James 5:14

Or is this an "act of worship?" Well, James probably says nothing about the use of psallo to authorize instrumental music in the modern church, howling by the rich or a "faith-healing" act of worship.

The Definitions Used in the New Testament

Words are defined by how they are used in the Bible. If one sings a psalm with the accompaniment of a harp then the person is singing with a harp. By analogy, if one is eating "wine" from the cluster then it is obviously not intoxicating. It it bubbles in the vat and exhilarates and then intoxicates then this wine is intoxicating. The same is true of psallo.

"The very oldest of these psalms, a number of which point to David as their author, are not liturgical congregational hymns, but were originally individual prayer-songs, which emanated from personal experience, but were, in later times, employed for congregational use..." Int Std Bible Ency., The Religion of Israel.

We might add that the preambles such as: "Upon the harp" or "To the tune of Lilly of the Valley" were added to the simple poems after death because they were the personal property of the composer, just as American Indian chants belong to them alone.

(Note: we have no evidence of congregational singing with instrumental accompaniment as worship in the Bible. The clergy performed the music in the Temple before the priests while the "congregation" even outside of the walls fell and "worshipped" when they heard the trumpet blast.)

Zodhiates': Lexical Aids To The New Testament, pg. 1769 "...Actually a touching, and then a touching of the harp or other stringed instruments with the finger or with the plectrum; later known as the instrument itself, and

finally it became known as

the song sung (Note: this says that psallo was assigned to the song which they sang with the instrument. Therefore, if you want to add secular melody you need to specify the instrument. Paul did: he called it the heart and not the harp)

with the musical accompaniment.

This latest state of its meaning, 'psalm,' was adopted in the Septuagint.

"In all probability the psalms of Ephesians 5:19; Colossians 3:16 are the inspired psalms of the Hebrew Canon. The word certainly designates these on all other occasions when it occurs in the New Testament, with the one possible exception of I Corinthians 14:26..." (Our Note: this would agree with the idea that in Corinth they were singing the self-composed songs of paganism which didn't need both mind and spirit engaged.)

It should also be noted that the Septuagint also takes a dim view of most musical passages while other versions can be distorted to see God giving approval. For instance in the Septuagint or LXX:

You strum away on your harps like David and improvise on musical instruments. Amos 6:5 NIV
"who excel in the sound of musical instruments;

they have regarded them as abiding, not as fleeting pleasure." Amos 6:5 LXX

Without knowing that Amos was condemning the
marzeah which was a festival with and for the dead ancestor or god, we might see him condemning the idleness and not the music. However, Jesus read the LXX and would have known that Amos was condemning religious festivals which had no abiding value. At the same time they neglected the Scriptures. This symbol of music and an idle disregard of the Word are common themes in the notes which follow.

It is self evident: if you are singing sentimental poetry you are defacto ignoring the words of Christ.

Jesus would call this "vain worship" at best because they invented and improvized and it was, therefore, by the rules of men.

Justin's Dialog with Trypho the Jew translates this passage--

Who applaud at the sound of the musical instruments;
they reckon them
as stable, and not as fleeting.
Who drink wine in bowls, and anoint themselves with the chief ointments,
but they are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph.

Vincent's: Word Studies Of The New Testament, Vol. III, pg. 269-270 "...The noun psalm (Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16; I Cor. 14:26), which is etymologically akin to this verb (psallo in I Cor. 14:15 DEM), is used in the New Testament of a religious song in general, having the character of an Old Testament psalm...

"Some think that the verb has here its original signification of singing with an instrument. This is its dominant sense in the Septuagint, and both Basil and Gregory of Nyssa define a psalm as implying instrumental accompaniment...

"But neither Basil nor Ambrose nor Chrysostom, in their panegyrics upon music, mention instrumental music, and Basil expressly condemns it. Bingham dismisses the matter summarily, and cites Justin Martyr as saying expressly that instrumental music was not used in the Christian Church. The verb is used here in the general sense of singing praise."

CQNEYBEARE AND HOWSON: "Throughout the whole passage there is a contrast implied between the Heathen and the Christian practice, q.d. When you meet, let your enjoyment consist, not in fulness of wine, but fulness of the Spirit; let your songs be, not the drinking-songs of heathen feasts, but psalms and hymns; and their accompaniment, not the music of the lyre, but the melody of the heart; while you sing them to the praise. not of Bacchus or Venus, but of the Lord Jesus Christ." (P.775, n. 5.)

Ephesians 5:19 enjoins: (1) Speaking TO ONE ANOTHER in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs; (2) singing (adontes) and making melody (psallontes, psalming) with your heart TO THE LORD. (One is done with voice and lips, the other with the heart.)

PSALLO: From psao, to rub, to wipe; to handle, to touch (Thayer): Liddell and Scott.- I. To touch sharply, to pluck, pull. twitch; to twang the bow-string; to send a shaft twanging from the bow; so, schoinos miltophures psallomene a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then let suddenly go, so as to leave a mark. II.

To play a stringed instrument with the fingers, not with the plectron.
to sing to the harp,
, N.T.

THAYER: Shows that psalms, hymns and spiritual songs are not necessarily different:

(Sym. humnos, psalmos, ode: ode is the generic term;
psal. and hum. are specific,

the former designating a song which took its general character from the O.T. 'Psalms' (although not restricted to them, see 1 Cor.14:15,26), the latter a song of praise. (Note: these were also songs of ecstasy sung with the mind disengaged)

"While the leading idea of psalm is a musical accompaniment,
and that If
hum. praise to God, ode is the general word for song, whether accompanied or unaccompanied, whether of praise or on any other subject.

Thus it was quite possible for the same song to be at once psalmos, humnos and ode (Bp. Lightft. on Col-3:16). See Trench, Syn, Syn. sec. lxxviii.)

Thayer: a. To pluck off, pull out: the hair. b. To cause to vibrate by touching, to twang; spec. to touch or strike the chord, to touch the strings of a musical instrument, to play the harp, etc.;

Sept. for zamar and much oftener for nagan; to sing to the music of the harp; (Condemned: see below)
In the N.T.
to sing a hymn, to celebrate the praise of God in song, Jas.5:13; Eph.5:13; Rom.15:9; 1 Cor.14:15 .

Evolution of Psallo: 1. From psao, to rub, to wipe; to handle, to touch. 2. To touch sharply. 3. To pluck off, or pull out, as the hair. 4. To pull, twitch, as a carpenter's line. 5. To twang the bow-string. 6. To send an arrow twanging from the bow. 7. To twang the strings of a musical instrument. 8. To play the harp or other stringed instrument with the fingers. 9. To sing to the accompaniment of the harp or other stringed instrument.

10. To sing (whether accompanied or not,
and in Christian context
it was not in New Testament times and for some centuries later).

11. Currently used of chanting

"This word is derived from the word yavw (psao), which in ancient Greek originally meant to rub, to wipe; to handle, touch (Thayer references Aeschylus, d. 456 BC). .. later in "Classical Greek", "psallo" meant to pluck off, to cause to vibrate by touching, to twang (ref. to Euripades, d. 406 BC), or to touch, to strike the chord, to twang the strings (ref. Aristotle, d. 322 BC), to play on a stringed instrument, to play the harp (ref. Aristotle again, Aratus, 270 BC, and Plutarch*, d. AD 120). * Other writers of Classical Greek contemporary with the N.T. age also used the word in reference to the playing of an instrument (Strabo, Josephus, Lucian),

but scholars universally recognize a clear distinction between the "Classical Greek" of these and other writers,
and the "Koine Greek" in which the N.T. is written.
Thus Thayer makes a distinction between the Classical Greek usage of "psallo," and the Koine use of the word and says, "In the N.T. to sing a hymn, to celebrate the praises of God in song."

This is disputed by Tom Burgess. Click for the facts

Romans 15:9 (immediate context: Rom. 15:7-12)

. . . and for the Gentiles to glorify God for His mercy; as it is written, "Therefore I will give praise to Thee among the Gentiles, And I will sing to Thy name."

"Psallo is best translated by chant, not sing. The Greeks sharply distinguish chanting (psalmodia) from singling (tragoudi). The first is a sacred activity; the second, a secular one. In English, unfortunately, the distinction is not sharp, and the word singing is frequently employed to refer to the sacred activity of chanting. A Greek would never, never say tragoudo (I sing), instead of psallo; the two terms have connotations and associations which are worlds apart -- the first is related to the earthly realm, the second to the heavenly." (Letter to James D. Bales of Harding University, September 22, 1959, from Constantine Cavarnos, of the Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 113 Gilbert Road, Belmont 78, Massachusetts.)

"Your letter to the St. Anthony Guild concerning the Greek word psallo has been referred to me, an editor of the new English Catholic version of the Old Testament. You ask the question: 'Does the use of mechanical instruments of music inhere in the Greek word Psallo as used in the New Testament?' The answer is no. The meaning of this word in the New Testament usage is simply 'I sing a sacred hymn in honor of God."' (Letter to Dr. James D. Bales from Father Stephen Hartdegen, C.P.M., Holy Name College, Franciscan House of Studies, 14th & Shepherd Streets, NE, Washington 17, DC)

Arndt and Gingrich on Psallo: "Abs sing/praise Js.5:13, M-M."

Continually I stand amazed at the scholarship in the Arndt-Gingrich lexicon. It is my understanding that under the direction of Dr. Gingrich you are now revising that lexicon. On the word psallo, since Thayer, Green, Abbott-Smith, etc., limit the New Testament meaning to sing praises, I would appreciate the reasoning that brought Doctors Arndt and Gingrich to insert "to the accompaniment of the harp" in relationship to Romans 15:19; Ephesians 5:19; and 1 Corinthians 14:15. Further, why is the phrase excluded in relationship to James 5:13. (Hugo McCord to Dr. Frederick W. Danker)

Response: It was so kind of you to take the time to make your inquiry regarding the word psallo. I see by comparison with Bauer's first edition that the editors of A.-G. have incorporated the

obvious Old Testament meaning
into the
metaphorical usage of the New Testament.

Bauer did not make this mistake, and we will be sure to correct it in the revision. I doubt whether the archaeologists can establish the use of the harp in early Christian services.

The revision of the Arndt/Gingrich lexicon gives this definition of psallo: . . . This process continued until

psallo in Modern Greek means 'sing' exclusively . .
with no reference to instrumental accompaniment . .

Moulton and Milligan: "Psallo, 'play on a harp,' but in the NT, as in Jas-5:13 = "sing a hymn."

The Bible and Melody or a Drug-Producing Process

Thayer noted of Old Testament "Melody" the Hebrew is zamar and much oftener for nagan; to sing to the music of the harp. We need to follow this clue to nagan's use in the Old Testament often as a synonym for playing or polluting:

Every musical idea in both the Old and New Testaments is based on roots denoting "to make vile, to pollute, to prostitute, to abrade, to grind to bits (as in sop), to panic the enemy or to sound the keynote so that everyone follows the leader." When the "congregation" assembled, this role for music was outlawed in God's command to Moses for the silver trumpets (Numbers 10:7). This is why Paul insisted that melody be in the heart to change the spirit and not be an attack upon the body. When musical harmony sounds "spiritual" and the hair rises on the back of your neck you have been attacked by dis-harmony or a dangerous drug which, in the words of one "pastor," is like LSD slipped into the communion juice but a bit slower.

The scholar quoted above equated Zamar and Nagan as the playing of musical instruments. The Scriptures are also careful to equate Nagan and Halal or Chalal as polluting persons or things with musical melody. This is based upon the fact that making and playing musical instruments were labor-intensive and works related efforts to triumph over or exercise control over people. Brass was hammered, twisted, rolled, wound into a tube and perforated. By analogy, a shofar with added holes to change the tone was polluted. Instruments were made of animal hides which had been pounded, twisted and stretched until they could produce the magical tones sold as the voice of the gods, demons or angels living inside the old wineskin.

First, look at some examples which equate Strong's h5059 to h2490 to define players on musical instruments:

The singers went before, the players on instruments followed after; among them were the damsels playing with timbrels. Psalm 68:25

Players in this verse in Hebrew:

Nagan (h5059) naw-gan'; a prim. root; prop. to thrum, i. e. beat a tune with the fingers; espec. to play on a stringed instrument; hence (gen.) to make music: - player on instruments, sing to the stringed instruments, melody, ministrel, play (-er, -ing..

Naga (h5060) naw-gah'; a prim. root; prop. to touch, i. e. lay the hand upon (for any purpose; euphem., to lie with a woman); by impl. to reach (fig. to arrive, acquire); violently, to strike (punish, defeat, destroy, etc.): - beat, (* be able to) bring (down), cast, come (nigh), draw near (nigh), get up, happen, join, near, plague, reach (up), smite, strike, touch.

Science tells us that almost all pleasure is first produced by pain. Music strikes or abrades us, we create morphine-like drugs to kill the pain and then we have some left over to give us the "thrill" which comes from listening to music or lying with a woman.

As well the singers as the players on instruments shall be there: all my springs are in thee. Psalm 87:7

Players in this verse is the Hebrew:

Chalal (h2490) khaw-lal'; a prim. root [comp. 2470]; prop. to bore, i. e. (by impl.) to wound, to dissolve; fig. to profane (a person, place or thing), to break (one's word), to begin (as if by an "opening wedge"); denom. (from 2485) to play (the flute): - begin (* men began), defile, * break, defile, * eat (as common things), * first, * gather the grape thereof, * take inheritance, pipe, player on instruments, pollute, (cast as) profane (self), prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound.

Chalah (h2470) khaw-law'; a prim. root [comp. 2342, 2470, 2490]; prop. to be rubbed or worn; hence (fig.) to be weak, sick, afflicted; or (causat.) to grieve, make sick; also to stroke (in flattering), entreat: - beseech, (be) diseased, (put to) grief, be grieved, (be) grievous, infirmity, intreat, lay to, put to pain, * pray, make prayer, be (fall, make) sick, sore, be sorry, make suit (* supplication), woman in travail, be (become) weak, be wounded.

Note: the circular dance of David was the same one they tried to force upon Jesus and that of the Dionysus women or effete men was a circular dance in imitation of an animal giving birth . When they became dizzy they were told (and sold) that the gods had invaded them just as exhilaration in worship is the new test of worship in the presence of God.

Halal praise is means much the same as Chalal. In the "like the nations prophets" which we see turning poor Saul into "another man" which means to "pervert" him from a pastoral person to a warrior to lead Israel into a like the nations civil state. These prophesiers believed that perversion and driving themselves into insanity was proof of the spirit of their god.

David and others often pretended insanity to declare themselves innocent before God -- not even God can condemn a crazy man:

Halal (h1984) haw-lal'; a prim. root; to be clear (orig. of sound, but usually of color); to shine; hence to make a show, to boast; and thus to be (clamorously) foolish; to rave; causat. to celebrate; also to stultify: - (make) boast (self), celebrate, commend, (deal, make), fool (- ish, -ly), glory, give [light], be (make, feign self) mad (against), give in marriage, [sing, be worthy of] praise, rage, renowned, shine.

Heylel (h1966) hay-lale'; from 1984 (in the sense of brightness); the morning-star: - lucifer.

For instance, of David trying to seduce the enemy into helping him:

And he changed (perverted) his behaviour before them, and feigned himself mad (h1984 halal) in their hands, and scrabbled (drummed marks) on the doors of the gate, and let his spittle fall down upon his beard. 1 Samuel 21:13

Have you noticed that singers and speakers "soar away," go into a charismatic fit, and get so violent with words that they actually froth at the mouth like a mad dog.? This spittle of David was:

Riyr (h7388) reer; from 7325; saliva; by resemblance broth: - spittle, white of an egg.

This can not easily happen when a person remains in their right mind and speaks with a normal, sane tone of voice.

Second, see the examples equating the musicians to the players as polluters or prostitutes because they used music to overpower the people for their own profit.

Third, see that melody and playing on instruments are the same.

Fourth, see that melody in Hebrew carries the same meaning as to "prune your vines" to "take your inheritance" as players, flute players, harp players and this is even related to Lucifer. Of the king of Tyre representing Lucifer:

Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Isaiah 23:16

Melody in Hebrew is: Zimrah (h2172) zim-raw'; from 2167; a musical piece or song to be accompanied by an instrument: - melody, psalm.

Zamar (h2168) zaw-mar'; a prim. root [comp. 2167, 5568, 6785]; to trim (a vine): - prune.

Melody works because it makes the hair stand up on the back of your neck and arms and makes a cold chill run up and down your spine. Don't believe it when the change agents tell you that you have been professionally moved into the presence of God and have known Him personally or sexually. This is recognized by medical science as a "drug high" which produces fight, flight or sexual fantasies -- right there in what we call "worship."

Camar (h5568) saw-mar'; a prim. root; to be erect, i. e. bristle as hair: - stand up, tremble.

Fifth, see that melody in Greek is identical to melody in Hebrew:

Melody in Greek is: Psallo (g5567) psal'-lo; prob. strengthened from psao , (to rub or touch the surface; comp. 5597); to twitch or twang, i.e. to play on a stringed instrument (celebrate the divine worship with music and accompanying odes): - make melody, sing (psalms)

Psocho (g5597) pso'-kho; prol. from the same base as 5567; to triturate, i.e. (by anal.) to rub out (kernels from husks with the fingers or hand): - rub.

Psomion (g5596) pso-mee'-on; dim. from a der. of the base of 5597; a crumb or morsel (as if rubbed off), i.e. a mouthful: - sop.

This was the "Lucifer" connection because Judas was the change agent of Satan and would not triumph over Jesus with wind instrument. Rather, when Jesus fed Judas the sop He so twitched, twanged or rubbed him into powder that he went out and hanged himself and was made into a visual aid, a spectacle of God's triumph over him.

Sixth, you noted that melody, triturating or rubbing things raw or into powder is related to the SOP which Jesus fed Judas. The Judas Bag was a bag or chest "to carry the mouthpieces of wind instruments." Judas symbolically connected the musical principle to money collection. This in turn is connected to the money chests in the temple which were called "trumpets." Psalm 41 predicts that Judas would not "triumph over" Messiah where triumph means to blow wind instruments and make a joyful noise. This was clearly prohibited in Numbers 10:7 after Israel fell back into the Egyptian form of musical worship.

The Judas Bag hangs from the flute case to the left. The phallic pole was to keep the performers from falling from the influence of new wine from a new wineskin. In the classical writers, wine was used because wine and music always went together while trying to call the gods into your presence.

Conclusion: This is why Paul demanded that melody be in the heart. Furthermore, there is not a shred of evidence for the use of harmony which dates to about the same period as the introduction of musical instruments. Harmony imitates musical instruments, becomes addictive and calls for larger doses including a multi-horsepower pipe organ or a Rock or Rap band.

Melody In the Classics and Church Fathers

The classical writers knew from the Greek and the pagan music which destroyed the spiritual mind that those who considered musical melody as proof of the presence of the god were mistaken. In keeping with psallo and its grinding to powder roots, the following quotation shows why musical melody carried such a destructive message:

"Again, if you prefer to test the presence of God by the agreeable effects on the hearing, and not sight, or smell, or taste,

harps get their strings and pipes their bones from animals; and these become musical by being dried, and rubbed, and twisted.

So the pleasures of music, which you hold to have come from the divine kingdom,

are obtained from the refuse of dead animals, and that, too, when they are dried by time, and lessened by rubbing, and stretched by twisting.

Such rough treatment, according to you, drives the divine substance from living objects; even cooking them, you say, does this. Why then are boiled thistles not unwholesome? Is it because God, or part of God, leaves them when they are cooked? ST.AUGUSTIN: ON THE MORALS OF THE MANICHAEANS, Ch 16,46

Augustine in his comments on -Psalm XCVIII allegorized melody or the works of human hands included in the use of literal musical instruments. Simple singing is just returning God's words to Him. However, adding the harp is the labor-intensive work of the instrument, of learning the human skill, of performing of it and of the listeners working to interpret it as Paul would say, like speaking in tongues. Augustine points out correctly that instruments were "works" or inventions or improvizations added to the simple chanting of the Word to teach. These works were to stop the plagues in two cases where authority is uncler. In order to keep the people from dying, David performed his own works to atone for his own sins of counting the people.

5. "Make melody unto the Lord upon the harp: on the harp and with the voice of a Psalm" (ver. 5).

Praise Him not with the voice only;
take up works, that ye may not only sing, but work also.
He who singeth and worketh,
maketh melody with psaltery and upon the harp.

"Now see what sort of instruments are next spoken of, in figure: "With ductile trumpets also, and the sound of the pipe of horn" (ver. 6). What are ductile trumpets, and pipes of horn?

Ductile trumpets are of brass: they are drawn out by hammering; if by hammering, by being beaten,

ye shall be ductile trumpets, drawn out unto the praise of God, if ye improve when in tribulation: tribulation is hammering, improvement is the being drawn out.

This is Augustine's way of saying, "Make the melody in your heart and not upon clanging brass or tinkling cymbals."

Nothing in worship could be more works-intensive than musical performance. Behind any voice or the ability to play an instrument lies talent developed by many years of difficult and skilled training. And the classical writers acknowledged that entertainment was a legitimate role for that talent. A metalsmith has no office in the "worship" of the church just because he is talented and highly trained.

When the "team" sings or plays it is doing labor-intensive work. Many groups even force electricity to amplify their works many fold. By early definition, instruments and weapons come from the same Hebrew word because they were both ways to gain an advantage over your enemy by using the elements of the KOSMOS.

Then, whatever its claim, music attempts to perform worship for another child of God.

And to what end? Are the worshippers closer to God? Alexander Campbell said that one individual cannot bring another individual any closer to God than he is. Are the people closer to God by virtue of their talent which sets them above their brothers? Are they more moral? No. In fact, they have been abraded, however "spiritual" it sounds, and in fact the more spiritual it sounds the more proof we have that we have been injected with a morphine-like drug.

Aristotle Politics 1339a:

1. whether for amusement and relaxation, as one indulges in sleep and deep drinking (for these in themselves are not serious pursuits but merely pleasant, and 'relax our care,' as Euripides says;

owing to which people actually class music with them and employ all of these things,

sleep, deep drinking and music, in the same way,
and they also place
dancing in the same class);

2. or whether we ought rather to think that music tends in some degree to virtue (music being capable of producing a certain quality of character just as gymnastics are capable of producing a certain quality of body,

music accustoming men to be able to rejoice rightly);
or that it contributes something to intellectual entertainment and culture (for this must be set down as

3. a third alternative among those mentioned). Now it is not difficult to see that one must not make amusement the object of the education of the young;

for amusement does not go with learning--learning is a painful process.

"Melody" in a "musical" sense does not require instruments.

He placed singers before the altar, to make sweet melody with their voices. Ecclesiasticus 40: 9.

He gave beauty to the feasts, and arranged their times throughout the year, while they praised God's holy name, and the sanctuary resounded from early morning. Ecclesiasticus 40: 10.

Then the sons of Aaron shouted,

they sounded the trumpets of hammered work, they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High. Ecclesiasticus 50:16

And the singers praised him

with their voices in sweet and full-toned melody. Ecclesiasticus 50:18

Aristotle, Rhetoric" Melody Deceives "for instance "having gone and having conversed with him," or, "having gone, I conversed with him."Also the practice of Antimachus is useful,

that of describing a thing by the qualities it does not possess; thus, in speaking of the hill Teumessus, hesays,

There is a little windswept hill;

"for in this way amplification may be carried on ad infinitum. This method may be applied to things good and bad, in whichever way it may be useful.

"Poets also make use of this in inventing words, as a melody "without strings" or "without the lyre"; for they employ epithets from negations, a course which is approved in proportional metaphors..

The form of diction should be neither metrical nor without rhythm.

If it is metrical, it lacks persuasiveness, for it appears artificial, and at the same time it distracts the hearer's attention, since it sets him on the watch for the recurrence of such and such a cadence..

Of the different rhythms the heroic is dignified, but lacking the harmony of ordinary conversation; the iambic is the language of the many, wherefore of all meters it is most used in common speech;

but speech should be dignified and calculated to rouse the hearer.

Plato: Apology of Socrates and Crito crito,17.2 speaking directly to the charismatic prophesying being practiced by the women in Corinth:

hoi korubantintes: here a species of madness seems to be indicated,

under the influence of which men
......imagined that they heard the flutes
......that were used in Corybantian revels.
......and the song of the bacchanals in Eur. Bacch. 123-127,
Corybantes, wearing helms three-rimmed,
......Stretched skins to make my drum's full round;
......Then they, in hollowed caves, lithe-limbed,
......With drums, and, with the flute's shrill sound
......Full Phrygian, bacchic ditties hymned.

This is Paul's meaning of "clanging brass and tinkling cymbals" which, in church, was equated to speaking in tongues.

Herodotus Histories speaks of the "the interpreter" which must always accompany the prophetess as she "spoke in tongues" under the influence of music or poisonous gas from a hole in the ground, and as she uncovered her head to prove her innocence:

"Periander, who disclosed the oracle's answer to Thrasybulus, was the son of Cypselus, and sovereign of Corinth. The Corinthians say (and the Lesbians agree) that the most marvellous thing that happened to him in his life was the landing on Taenarus of Arion of Methymna, brought there by a dolphin.

This Arion was a lyre-player second to none in that age;
he was the
first man whom we know to compose and name the dithyramb (dance-music for Dionysus)
which he afterwards
taught at Corinth.

This was the triumphant hymn to Dionysus or Bacchus which the Jewish clergy tried to force Jesus into. If they could get Him to sing and dance they would have convinced everyone that He was not a spiritual person, much less God Himself.

"Additionally, human observation seems to reinforce the truth that God knows what He's doing. Without instruments people tend to sing better, pay attention to the words better, and generally get more internally from the singing portion of the worship service.

With instruments people tend to listen to the instrument rather than sing, ignore the words of the song, and come away mostly with only an appreciation of pretty music. But whether humans can make good sense of God's command really isn't the point; God has commanded, can we refuse?

I can go on forever adding evidence that the idea of melody or instrumental music as worship is inconsistent with the demand to teach and admonish one another and the fact that priestly performers have been outlawed by the death of Lord, Jesus Christ. Those who attempt to stand between the worshipper and their God as mediators (as worship teams clearly claim) have, little by little whittled away the Biblical evidence which shouts in their face.

You will have to wonder why people who know better deliberately distort the truth. I suppose that those who lust to introduce instruments into non-musical churches have really already "transferred their allegiance" and intend to take the "buildings and grounds" with them. I believe that this is grand theft.

If the argument hangs upon psallo and instruments are added, understand that you have forces working among you that will be hard to resist. This is true because your own forces have been broken down by the demand that "to be Christian you must not argue with my position" as we "bread down the walls" using the promise Keepers plan of the effete trying to undergo a masculine journey. And the fact that you have not resisted the first wave of the introduction of feminine and effeminate, pagan-like worship teams to perform for you just encourages the "camel" to move in and take over. The "Trogan Horse" has probably already been filled with those intending to take away your inheritance and the Word of God while good men sleep. I know. I know. Mixed metaphors again.

Never, never, never, never, never give up: the race has just started and the crown will go to those who have lawfully prepared and run the race

Musical Worship Index

Home Page


Counter added 11/15/04 6629 Rev 7.16.07 707  Rev 6.10.07 737  11.30.07 907  9.25.08 11.21.10 14468 3.03.11 15014 4.27.11 15256  7.20.11 15428  3.30.16  16626

<img src="/cgi-bin/Count.cgi?df=piney/counter_MusMelody.html.dat">