Musical Worship Teams Overseers of the Flock

Kenneth L. Sublett

Musical worship teams may be a revival of ancient pagan choirs, orchestras and drama teams. Rubel Shelly, in Faith Matters, has given women of a searching sector of churches of Christ the permission to be ministers, perform solo singing (preaching with a tune), reading Scripture, testifying in plenary (full and unstricted) assembly.

The following topics are growing "files" of research data on many aspects of ancient attempts to attract, appease or overcome the fertility gods with singing and musical instruments. The earliest writings honor those--usually women--who could get a message from the netherworld by uising an old wineskin. More organized fertility rituals involved musical ecstasy with sexual intercourse to guarantee crops, animals and children.

Men who understood resonance from a hollow object or the "godly" ring of a stretched string were honored as gods. Women, especially among the Hittite "old women," told "old wives tales" and were worshipped like Fanny Crosby for the magical incantations written and "worked" during her life. Song writers, singers and even men who can replace the "old wineskin" (Hebrew owb) with the hollow place or chasm of their own chest are still honored in this modern "idolatry of talent."

The intelligent people did not "play the game" and understood that the musical prophesier used ventriloquism echoed from within an old wineskin or a hole in the ground. In time, the musical worship team of the fertility ritual crying "Ab, Ab" or "Lord, Lord" or "praise, praise" was turned into children's games. This is where Jesus came in to relieve the "burden" imposed by the doctors of the law and the Levitical worship team. This burden was "mental anxiety from religious ritual" and the result was "taking away the key to knowledge" (Lk 11:52).

By making this "the age of the Holy Spirit," Christ is denied His role as full Deity (Col 2:9) and the children's games of trying to "triumph over" the other children of the congregation is revived. Students of myth, such as Joseph Campbell, recognize this as an end-of-the-age breaking away to archaic forms of attempts to find the lost gods. Real or pretend "drug images" have a powerful, musterious power.

Musical worship teams were used in the first temple-states to pacify the "subjects" to so that they would be more productive. Their product was then sold by the clergy (god-kings) to support their habits.  The workers (those who paid the bill) were sent to their mud huts with a subsistence level of food and clothing. Those without talent or good looks were doomed to serve the clergy-rulers. This continues as many churches abandon "outreach" and turn to "inreach" or self worship as it consumes all of the people's resources on building a more exciting temple-state than the one across the street.

All emphasized text is this researcher's.

Each linked heading will take you to a section on our subject. These headings will be the "file folder" for additional data as it is researched and made available. Do not read this as an "about me" book or as a story.

Click on UP at the end of each heading to return here:

Introduction and Definition

The Babylonian Worship Teams

Musical Worship Teams and Ancient Commercial Prostitution

Musical Pomp of Lucifer to Triumph Over

Instrumental Rejoicing and Prophesying Women

Instrumental Music Forbidden For Rejoicing

Musical Worship Teams Added by David for the Future Temple

Musical Worship Teams Replace the Word

Musical Worship Teams Put Down and Restored

The Nature of First Century Jewish Practices

Worship Teams For My Own Pleasure

Ancient Musical Worship Teams were the Overseers

Women and Children Ruled when Men Failed

Jesus Came to Take the Musical Worship Teams Off our Backs

Background to Corinth

Why Women Worship Leaders Were Silenced in Corinth

The Arian Teams Changing the Law

Malchion against Paul of Samosata

Musical Worship Teams are Musical Shepherds

Musical Worship Teams are the True Overseers

Musical Worship Teams are Preachers

Musical Teams at Caneridge

Alexander Campbell

Musical Worship Teams Part of the Jubilee Restructure

Music as the Ultimate Change Agent


Introduction and Definition UP

Instrumental music has a long, dark and abrasive link to ancient superstitious natual religions:

First, it was commonly believed that it was the magical "music of the heavenly spheres." Therefore, it had supernatural power over the heavenly population. This god-control was done vocally until singing was aided by musical instruments. It was believed that the gods lived in the instrument. Therefore, harps and flutes spoke for the bull gods. Trumpets with their copper-red throats hissed out the sounds of the serpent gods. Habbakuk warns against tring to get the idols to speak for them and Paul warns against lifeless or carnal instruments.

Second, people have always believed that the feeling produced by music made them ethically and morally improved. Scholars doubt it. However, if it can appease the often-angry gods then it must surely help confuse the enemy, which, according to Pogo may be "us."

Third, those bent on exploiting people have always known--ask any Rock musician--that music can create drugs in the mind to control the paying masses. The low notes can nail you to the seat of the pew while the high feminine or effeminate sounds can frazzle your nerves and make you want to run for your life even if it does, for the second, scratch some deep-seated, feel-good-but-painful itch.  In the ancient world the team thought that they were being worshiped but the sentiment was often resentment over being manipulated.

Call it "get em back alive Sunday night, dead or alive." One "pastor" quipped that it would be easier to slip LSD into the communion juice than to organize all of those self-help programs and sensitive musical teams!

It seems that Scripture opens up when we "turn to the Lord" without trying to find that just-right, smooth stone to sling at the enemy. If this article seems spring - loaded against musical manipulation it is because the evidence--never found by the "gopher-wood-gurus"-- cries out against any form of mind altering in the name of worship. This can be done with or without instruments, with or without a tune.

Thoughtful observers have always known that opening up the worship service to "the idolatry of talent" opens the gate wide to sophisticated but destructive "show and tell." The Catholic Encyclopedia notes that after instrumental performance made an important move in the fifteenth century it was not until the invention of new instruments and the notion of harmony in the sixteenth century that the teaching role of singing (chanting) was drowned in what the Old Testament prophets called "noise" and Albert Barnes called "soulless versifying."

"The present trend is, however, decidedly away from the instrumental idea and back to the purely vocal style. And it is recognized, and in many places acted upon, that the new version of the liturgical chant, proposed to the Catholic world by Pius X, gains its full beauty and effectiveness only when sung without instrumental accompaniment of any kind." Catholic Encyclopedia

But, we are quick to note, that as long as our "music" is purely vocal then we are still "legal" and it doesn't matter much about the content. However, complex harmony in worship rituals was a deliberate attempt to do an "end run" around the law. Quartets or even larger groups sound so good because of complex harmony. For instance, four voices can sound like sixteen. Making this into an act of worship is based on the belief, perhaps, that melody means harmony. Harmonic singing, in fact, was called organum or "after the organ." When this goes too far it destroys Pauls' goal.

"In spite of the early objection to the playing of musical instruments in church the organ became widely accepted in western Europe once it had been imported from the east... It is possible that this composite sound encouraged singers to imitate it: in any case octaves would result from the combined singing of boys and men. Support is given to this view by the fact that the combined singing, suitable for voices of high, low and medium range, was popularly known as organum... The earliest surviving written examples of such duplication of plainsong melody in parallel lines occur in a theoretical tretise of the late 9th or early 10th century. (Brittanica, Music, p. 1067)

Melody does not mean harmony and is not related to it. The pipe and reed organ came first. This taught composers that they could imitate the pipe organ with many human voices. However, modern melody speaks more of "unison and unity." Indeed, the context of Paul's message to Ephesus, Rome and Corinth is that unity is necessary and is improved by collective singing. Melody means--

"The organization of successive musical sounds in respect of pitch... without the aid of harmony which removes it into another category.

"Melody as 'tunefulness' belongs to the 19th century and depends on symmetries of harmony and rhythm which seldom occurs in music written before the 16th century... By the beginning of the 20th century a melody was considered to be the surface line in a series of harmonies. Harmonic rationality and symmetrical rhythm thus combined to produce a tuneful melody that helped to generate the sonata form." (Brittanica, Melody) (A sonata is: "a major work, a symphony or concert music."

Nothing is more to be pitied than the growing belief that the clergy must lead or perform the worship for the watching and applauding audience. This leads to a total destruction of the body as a one another teaching ministry. Therefore, it might be helpful to look at the words for musical worship team:

First: Musical means ""for the creation, production, or performance of music. Theatrical or film production, often elaborately costumed and staged, with dialog developing the story line and an integrated musical score." Translate: "entertainment." Or overseeing the flock

"It may not be amiss to remind the student that the musical structure today called psalmody was certainly not the original practice of psalm-rendering. For it presupposes a strictly systematized rendition, whereby each verse is sung, or recited, according to a rigid formula.

Yet the very diversified headings of the psalms seem to preclude a uniform psalmody and with it the assumption that the chant of primitive Christiniaty was a direct heritage of the temple.

"Nonetheless, there are indications of 'stage directions' in the text of psalms, which reflects their practice of performance in the Second Temple." (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon). (To which temple the Shekinah of God never returned.)

Second: "Worship or reverence for a Deity." God is worshipped in the "voice of a whispered silence" according to Karen Armstrong in A History of God. He is in His Holy Temple--me--and I don't need you to speak or sing while I am trying to listen to Christ in His Holy Temple.

Three: The word team is totally consistent with the oppressive nature of loud music. A team is "a pair of draft animals." It is associated with a "bridle" or a yoke "It is a brood of young animals, especially ducks of pigs. A group of people constituting one side in a contest or competition." (Webster) Antiphonal singing was denounced because it developed into competition between groups--even to the point of murderous internecine warfare which is a hallmark of all revivalism. Levitical oversight teams have been called "menial worshipers."

We will see later that a primary mission of Jesus--the whole purpose of Christianity--was to eliminate Sabbaths or rituals which believers must serve. The burden laden upon the back by the ancient and modern rabbi or "Doctor of the Law" was:

Phortizo (g5412) for-tid'-zo; to load up (as a vessel or animal), figurative: to overburden with ceremony or spiritual anxiety: - lade, be heavy laden.

During war, the religious musicians were like the Scottish Bagpipers. They could create enough instrumental music to panic the enemy. Doesn't the hair stand up on the back of your neck when you hear them? Of course, the Bible treats this as just noise when used to extort money or service out of people in a religious sense. No warrior would go into the valley of death without being tranquilized with the instrumental music drug. And, unfortunately, a lot of those big efforts to, like Nimrod, corral everyone in one big "pin" often resort to musical entertainment to pay the bills.

Even those who have always defended music note the creeping nature of conforming to the new age rather than the Bible. This is especially powerful in the Laughing Revival Music Imparts Spirit. These writers note the use of "Rap" in the Promise Keepers movement.

Babylonian Worship Teams UP

The very name "Serpent" is directly connected to brass musical instruments which had the magical power to "hiss" and arouse or appease the serpent gods. Moses, at God's direction, wrote up to 2000 years after the Babylonian musical worship teams were the accusers and overseers of the Babylonian people. His God-given goal was to turn Israel away from the same form of worship they had practiced in Egypt to the worship of Yahweh Who revealed Himself in righteousness and justice. He could not be awakened by arousal psalms. Under another heading we will look into this further.

In ancient pagan temple states, the musical worship team was part of the religious-commercial complex. In Babylonia, they were part of a state worship team made up of priests, soothsayers and musicians. The prophets identified Tyre as the harp-playing prostitute. These all had roles to play in creating endorphins (meaning "morphine-like" or within) in the slave class to force them to create more religious and secular merchandise. The reward for the "laiety" was the feeling that they had met the gods "face to face." And, again, as Pogo would say, "He is us."

"All early civilizations saw their ideal music as an image (idol) of cosmic order and its practice in temple ritual and court ceremonial as a means of helping to maintain or reflect universal harmony. From such a philosophy stem the age-old concepts of the efficacy of numerical proportions in musical sound; the ethos (magical effect) of particular modes; the music of the spheres; and the musical foundation of the state. Such ideas steadfastly maintained throughout the ages, made for very conservative traditions of music whose fundamental patterns changed little over long periods of time." (Britannica, Music, p. 1091)

Musical worship groups seem to have unnatural power over the minds of lower class or immature people. For this reason, it was an early belief of the Babylonians that sensual (read sexual) enjoyment from women singers (and men singers for the priestly classes and others) had magical power. In the end, of course, anything directed to the human emotion and bypassing the rational (spirit) is really idolatry which is always self worship. In defining Christian singing as "filling up with the Word or spirit and then speaking that truth to one another to teach and warn" Paul understood that:

"According to the system which Nimrod was the grand instrument in introducing, men were led to believe that a real spiritual change of heart was unnecessary, and that so far as change was needful, they could be regenerated by mere external means. Looking at the subject in the light of the Bacchanalian orgies (Read Ephesus and Corinth), which, as the reader has seen, commemorated the history of Nimrod, it is evident that he led mankind to seek their chief good in sensual enjoyment, and showed them how they might enjoy the pleasures of sin, without any fear of the wrath of a holy God.

In his various expeditions he was always accompanied by troops of women; and by music and song, and games (ritual drama) and revelries, and everything that could please the natural hearts, he commended himself to the good graces of mankind." (Hislop, Alexander, The Two Babylons, p. 55, Loizeaux Brothers)

Parkes notes that most groups normally do not excede about 150 (the Mormans understand that) and there is normally no professional leadership. However, often during a crisis, someone often emotionally or sexually abnormal might chant a song during a dry spell. Sure enough, it rains the the non-productive member becomes a prophet. It isn't too long before he turns from servant to master. "If you want your pigs to be born alive you had better pay me."

"in Primitave religion any violent or abnormal emotional state was attributed to the gods and regarded as mystical. Both in the Bible and in Homer there are examples of misleading and catastrophic inspiritation. When Jehovah wished King Ahab to be killed in battle, he put a 'lying spirit' in the mouths of his prophets in order that they might encourage the king to go to war (I Kings, xxii, 22)." (Parkes, Henry Bamford, Gods and Men, p. 33)

It is common for performers who worship or lead for the congregation to believe that God has given them some talent. If He did not want it used in church then why did He give it to me? The implication, inherent in a common Hebrew word for "praise." that my self-boast, even if it seems unnatural, has more power than that of the "audience."

"The flash of insight that enabled an individual to achieve an original act of creation, whether in art or in technology, was always mysterious, and for early mankind it could be due only to the intervention of a god. Long after the advent of civilization, in fact, poets continued to believe that they wrote from divine dictation; inventors attributed their discoveries to divine aid." (Parkes, p. 34).

"What primative men... wanted from the gods was health and strength, riches and long life, and they hoped to attain these things chiefly by ritual and sacrifice rather than by good conduct. The methods of early religion always remained largely magical, and its motivations thoroughly materialistic." (Parkes, p. 36).

In time, these abnormal men and women found that they could build a pyramidal marketing plan. If he hired ten more "gifted" people they could expand the "ministry" and he could get a "cut of the take." Then, if he is going to contact the gods for you to keep them from harming you, it is important to build a temple-state. All surplus energy is devoted to the "institution" and if you got a spare moment he could, because he was idle, plan a new "program" to make the "involvement minister" look good. This "anxiety from religious ritual" is the burden these professionals placed on your back. The highest goal of Jesus was to "get them off your back" by removing the "middle man" so that you could contact the God yourself without getting zapped.

"Conquering tribes of herdsmen established themselves as ruling aristocracies and then decayed, each of them in turn bringing new languages and new religious beliefs; urban merchants and money-lenders devised methods of exploiting the food-producers and tried to impose their own rationalistic modes of thinking."

"Prior to the spread of the commercial and industrial revolutions there was no essential change in agricultural techniques; and although the original neolithic fertility rituals, cleansed of their more barbaric elements and adapted to the worship of new gods, gradually faded into popular festivals and folk tales and finally into children's games, the beliefs associated with them retained much of their vitality." (Parkes, Henry Bamford, Gods and Men The Origins of Western Culture, p. 49, Knopf)

When Jesus came the Jews were practicing ancient fertility rites in rituals such as the Feast of Tabernacles. He refused to dance to their tune and called them "musical children just playing games." These were the fertility rituals of wedding and funeral to be seen each Sunday in thousands of churches where revival and the sexual element are combined.

Musical Worship Teams and Ancient Commercial Prostitution UP

Isaiah said that Satan worked through the king of Babylon as his agent.  However successful the Babylonians and Tyrians were at using music for commercial purposes, Isaiah warned:

Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm (maggots) is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. Is 14:11

How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! Is 14:12

The word "Lucifer" is derived from the Hebrew halal a common word for praise often with instruments. The viol is from an old water or wine skin.

Musical harmony as we know it was derived from the pipe organ and was called organum singing. Because instrumental music as worship was rejected, the church, especially among the celibate monks, developed choirs with harmonic music performed by young boys who looked, dressed and sang like women.

"From the very beginning, even during its Jewish phase, monasticism cultivated choral singing as an integral part of its observance. A later historographer of the church, Eusebius, was aware of the musical predilections of the old ascetic sects in Judaism. In fact, he excerpted Philo's description of the ritual of the Alexandrian Therapeutes, which he likened to the Christian practices of his own time (4 centuries later): 'The men and women rise, each group forming a choir, and sing thanksgiving hymns to God the Redeemer' (Hist. II.17). (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

Instrumental playing violated the Sabbath. (Always did). These were monastic Jews who usually studied all day and frolicked all night. Early church groups were a product of strong monastic (meaning celibate?) influenct:

"Philo of Alexandria had already emphasized the ethical qualities of music, spurning the 'effeminate' art of his Gentile surroundings. Similarly, early synagogue song intentionally foregoes artistic perfection, renounces the playing of instruments, and attaches itself entirely to 'the word'--the TEXT of the Bible" (Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1971 ed., "Music")

For a good look at The Male Actor and Gender-Bending just Click.

Did Women Sing in the Thesmophoriazusae?

When we understand the practices of the Egyptian sectarian Jews we are not tempted to imitate them.

"The majority of Christian monks in Egypt and Palestine championed organized choral chant, often in the face of a sternly opposed authority. When all historical circumstances are taken into account, there can be no doubt that the tremendious expansion and refinement of Christian chant before Pope Gregory was due to the intensive and continuous musical activities of the monks... Soon after his (Augustine's) death, the regional- ethnic forces of Gentile Christianity caused the split in the liturgico-musical development of the Eastern and Western churches." (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

It was clear that the musical practices in Egypt, like the play at Mount Sinai, was derived from pagan sources. These practices have strong roots in the beginning and ending system of musical worship practices which began in Babylon and will end in spiritual "Babylon" not necessarily in Rome:

"Herodotus mentions that when in Egypt, he was astonished to hear the very same mournful but ravishing 'Song of Linus, sung by the Egyptians (although under another name)... Linus was the same god as the Bacchus of Greece, or Osiris of Egypt; for Homer introduces a boy singing the song of Linus, while the vintage (new wine festival) is going on, and the Scholiast says that this song was sung in memory of Linus, who was torn in pieces by dogs... In some places in Egypt, for the song of Linus or Osiris, a peculiar melody seems to have been used. Savary says that, in the temple of Abydos, 'the priest repeated the seven vowels in the form of hymns, and that musicians were forbid to enter it.'

We will see later that Josephus (and Ezekiel) note that the Levites had no authority to dress in priestly (or choral) garb and enter where God met the priests. Similar to the Ishtar-Tammuz worship at the Jerusalem Temple, condemned by Ezekiel, the worship came from Babylon:

"Now the name of Linus or Osiris, as the 'husband of his mother,' in Egypt, was Kamut. "When Gregory the great introduced into the church of Rome what are not called the Gregorian Chants, he got them from the Chaldean mysteries, which had long been established in Rome; for the Roman Catholic priest, Eustace, admits that these chants were largely composed of 'Lydian and Phrygian tunes.' Lydia and Phrygia being among the chief seats in later times of those mysteries of which the Egyptian mysteries were only a branch. Thes tunes were sacred--the music of the great god, and in introducing them Gregory introduced the music of Kamut. And thus, to all appearance, has it come to pass, that the name of Osiris or Kamut, 'the husband of the mother,' is in every day use among ourselves as the name of the musical scale; for what is the melody of Osiris, consisting of the 'seven vowels' formed into a hymn, but--the Gamut?" (Hislop, Alexander, The Two Babylons, p. 22, Loizeaux Brothers.)

This, along with much more, informs us of the worship of Apis at Mount Sinai where the Israelites, who "broke down the walls" and permitted a "mixed multitude" to contaminate the "congregation," rose up to play. This is defined as singing, dancing and playing musical instruments with often--remember David--caused people to strip off their clothes (or mind) and worse.

This form of singing, to which Christian women were later admitted, was a clergy function. The method imitated the pipe organ by musical worship teams without bringing in the literal organ. The method was used because it was found to be commercially valuable in bringing in the mixed crowd (often for the big show).

The noise of the king of Tyre and Babylon as Satan's change agents is related to the multitudes gathered together to make music. It is from:

Hamah (h1993) haw-maw'; to make a loud sound (like Engl. "hum"); by impl. to be in great commotion or tumult, to rage (see Halal or praise), war, moan, clamor, cry aloud, be disquieted, loud, mourn..

The king of Tyre was also the change agent of Satan:

At that time Tyre will be forgotten for seventy years, the span of a king's life. But at the end of these seventy years, it will happen to Tyre as in the song of the prostitute: Is.23:15NIV

Take up a harp, walk through the city, O prostitute forgotten; play the harp well, sing many a song, so that you will be remembered." Is 23:16

The king of Tyre got most of his traffic (attendance) by overpowering or appeasing the customer. He came "equipped with musical instruments" and female musicians. He, himself, is called "effeminate" because he "doted on these things." His female or effeminate musicians and singers were his designated overseers. They had the power to appease the customers so that they were sold damaged goods. If he couldn't slick you out of your money with his musical females, he calmed you down with his teams so that you could be murdered. The story of Wen Amon is a perfect story to prove this. The team leader or prince calms you down and pats you on the back while finding "a soft spot to stick the dagger." "Eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow you die." Of Wen Amu

"He went and told it to the prince. The prince began to weep at the evil words which they spoke to him. He sent out his letter-scribe to me and brought me two jars of wine and a ram. He sent to me, Tento, an Egyptian singer (feminine), who was with him, saying: 'Sing for him; let not his heart feel apprehension.' He sent to me, saying: 'Eat, drink, and let not they heart feel apprehension. Thou shalt hear all that I have to say unto thee in the morning." (Barton, George A., Archaeology and the Bible, p. 452)

As we approach what many think will be the final Jubilee we should be aware that the end-time churches of all forms will return to the religion of the great harlot, Babylon, where the musical worship overseers originally began. Whatever they used for building their false system would go with them into the grave:

And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all. Re 18:14

And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone (In Hebrew 'grinder' is a synonym for harlot, "that being her trade.") shall be heard no more at all in thee; Re 18:22

Pomp of Lucifer means to triumph over UP

The pomp of Lucifer was a boasting (halal) praise. It involved "standing over" you or "overseeing" you. He "mounted up" to the high places prepared to be seen. He (often a she) puffed out the breast, was ornamented, swelled up and just blew hot air from an old billy goat skin:

Gaown (h1347) gaw-ohn'; from 1342; the same as 1346: - arrogancy, excellency (-lent), majesty, pomp, pride, proud, swelling.

Gaah (h1342) gaw-aw'; a prim. root; to mount up; hence in gen. to rise, (fig.) be majestic: - gloriously, grow up, increase, be risen, triumph.

Gaavah (h1346) gah-av-aw'; from 1342; arrogance or majesty; by impl. (concr.) ornament: - excellency, haughtiness, highness, pride, proudly, swelling.

This was outlawed by God but He was always put in the background by loud rejoicing forms of worship.

But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. Nu 10:7

Ruwa (h7321) roo-ah'; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears with sound, i. e. shout (for alarm or joy): - blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout for joy, sound an alarm, triumph.

This was acceptable at the Jubilee because Jubilee was not an assembly called for instruction. When Israel was called into assembly for instruction it was illegial and destructive to have the musical children tooting their little horns (literally and figuratively). Judas, whose bag was for "carrying the mouthpieces of wind instruments," as Satan's agent, tried to defeat Jesus, perhaps by panicking Him into premature action, but he would not triumph over Him:

By this I know that thou favourest me, because mine enemy doth not triumph over me. Ps.41:11

Triumph over in Greek is:

Thriambeuo (h2358) three-am-byoo'-o; from a prol. comp. of the base of 2360 and a der. of 680 (mean. a noisy iambus, sung in honor of Bacchus); to make an acclamatory procession, i.e. (fig.) to conquer or (by Hebr.) to give victory: - cause to triumph over.  

Because of conquering Greeks and Romans, Bacchus was worshiped right in the old temple. His were the fertility rituals at the perverted Feast of Tabernacle as the "walls" were let down and everyone was allowed in. They were literally practicing a "new wine" gospel.

Bacchus or Dionysius was the "god of wine" which Paul warned against in Ephesians 5 when he demanded that the people fill up with spirit or mind from the Word.  Their mode would not be the noisey chorus but a one-another teaching ministry.  Bacchus is the father of all new wine in new wine skin religions.

The Jewish clergy, defined by Jesus as musical - dramatic children, tried to get Jesus to lament:  

And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented. Mt.11:17

Jesus and John refused to wail or dance in the chorus or circular dance.

Those who were tortured on a musical instrument frame in Greek were profaned or polluted in Hebrew. A word related to the flute, prostitute, stealing one's property or polluting someone is;

Chalal (h2490) khaw-lal'; to bore, i. e. by implication: to wound, to dissolve; figurative: to profane (a person, place or thing), to break one's word, to begin as if by an "opening wedge"; (from 2485) ;
1. to play (the flute): - defile,
2. eat (as common things), gather the grape thereof,
3. take inheritance,
4. pipe, player on instruments,
5. pollute, (cast as) profane self,
6. prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound.

This is derived from a word meaning "to be rubbed or worn, to grieve, make sick, to stroke in flattering." It is connected to the whirling or circular dance which imitated the writhing of a woman giving birth, or the planets around the Sun. This word also means "to pervert" or "to consume your branches." This is similar to melody which was related to pruning to gather the grapes to take your inheritance. It is also similar to external Greek melody which means to rub to bits or to abrade. The people "polluted" Adonijah by triumphing over him:

And all the people came up after him, and the people piped (2490) with pipes (2485), and rejoiced with great joy, so that the earth rent with the sound of them. 1K.1:40

And Adonijah and all the guests that were with him heard it as they had made an end of eating. And when Joab heard the sound of the trumpet, he said, Wherefore is this noise of the city being in an uproar? 1Ki 1:41

Except for Bathsheba (remember her?) the next king should have been Adonijah. When David died, Adonijah was pronounced king. However, Solomon was chosen by another group and the musical celebration was proof that Adonijah was being rejected as king. Solomon then had Adonijah murdered because he was a threat--perhaps to his inclusion of pagan worship. This began by adding thousands of instruments and men and women singers who were "concubines" or "musical instruments." In Ecc 2:8. These "musical instruments" or "men and women singers" meant:

Shadad or "to be burly, to ravage, to destroy, to oppress, to rob, to spoil, to utterly lay waste."

The musical worship teams were deliberately chosen to oversee or exercise domion over the wisdom of the elders. They were agents of the ruling class (often self-appointed) and their task was that of violence--weapons and musical instruments are defined by the same Greek and Hebrew word. Paul would not use "carnal weapons or instrument." He choose the revealed Words of Christ.

In the temple state punishment would be with whips and then by scorpions. The musical males took over the female roles and became Solomon's "overseers" with force. However, Zechariah prophesied of Messiah and showed that failure came when the senior males were replaced with "young lions" who oversaw with musical instruments and appeased the flock (meant for slaughter) so well that the shepherds were retired to the sidelines. He wrote:

OPEN thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy cedars. Zec 11:1

Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen; because the mighty are spoiled: howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; for the forest (thicket) of the vintage (pruning the grape vines) is come down. Zec 11:2

There is a voice of the howling (boisterous, wailing tone; just whistling in the cemetary) of the shepherds; for their glory is spoiled: a voice of the roaring of young lions (the young lions cover, condone, or appease the city); for the pride (arrogance, proud swelling) of Jordan is spoiled. 11:3

Thus saith the Lord my God; Feed the flock of the slaughter; Zec 11:4

Their buyers (procurers) slaughter (smite with deadly intent) them and go unpunished. Those who sell (give in marriage or slavery) say, 'Praise the LORD, I am rich!' Their own shepherds do not spare them. Zec 11:5

Lord yes. You can buy and sell the "flock" and make more money than anyone else in the "corral."

The fir trees which do the howling when the "cedar" falls has always been music as a way to prop up failing institutions. The fir is:

Berowsh (h1265) ber-osh'; a cypress (pine) tree; hence a lance or a musical instrument (as made of that wood): - fir (tree). (Instruments and weapons are defined by the same word). (Eze 32 the tree is Assyria who was in the garden of Eden)

And David and all the house of Israel were making merry before the LORD with all their might, with songs and lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. 2Sam 6:5

David and team were repeating the play which brought destruction to Israel at Mount Sinai. He was separating the Ark of the Covenant from the portable tent God selected. He would move the ark into his own tabernacle or tent. It would them move into Solomon's temple and be lost forever because it, like the bronze serpent, had become an idol's box in which their god was kept.

History recognized the "curved trumpet" as the red-mouthed, crooked serpent:

Bariyach (h1281) baw-ree'-akh; a fugitive, i. e. the serpent (as fleeing), and the constellation by that name: - crooked, noble, piercing

Leviathan was a wreathed animal, i. e. a serpent (espec. the crocodile or some other large sea-monster); fig. the constellation of the dragon; also as...a Symbol of Babylon.: - leviathan, mourning.

These terms are symbolic of the false shepherds who kept the sheep so that they could fleece them and eat their flesh as they tore the body into pieces. Solomon should have been a proper shepherd but he multiplied David's musical teams, under the commanders of the army, to force Israelites into grand building programs "for his own glory and pleasure."

Instrumental Rejoicing and Prophesying Women UP

Was Miriam a real prophet or a musical prophetess who usurped God's authority by questioning the role of Moses as God's spokesman?

Paul will say that the songs in Corinth should be revealed doctrinal truth (1 Cor. 14:6) but Miriam claimed that she as a prophetess had the right to speak for God. However, the presbyterian George Girardeau wrote that--

"In the first place, it will be noticed from the account of the triumphant rejoicing on the shore of the Red Sea that the men sang only: 'Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, and spake saying.'" (Girardeau, George, p. 33)

"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's, Music, p. 589).

Miriam was not condemned for repeating what had already been revealed by Moses. Later, when she claimed to be inspired, God judged her.

"In the second place, it was Miriam and the women who used instruments of music on the occasion: 'And Miriam, the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went after her with timbrels and with dances." (Girardeau, p. 33).

On the other hand, Moses spoke or recited the songs where were not musical in nature. The goal was that the elders could learn the songs and repeat them to their tribes.

THEN sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, and spake, saying, (command with speech) I will sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. Ex 15:1

But: And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. Ex 15:20

Miriam led the women away from Moses' recital. When they went out the Hebrew word is:

Yaca (h3318) yaw-tsaw'; break out, bring forth (out, up), carry out, come (abroad, out, threat, without), be condemned, departure, draw forth, in the end, escape,

Miriam's insubordination did not make her inferior. However, God has the right to select those who will speak for Him.

Later, when she "led away" Aaron it was to usurp authority. She was trying to escape her role and became a threat to God's plan. As a result, she was condemned. Therefore, when Miriam led the women away from the quiet, orderly teaching environment it was in imiation of ancient "prophesying" which including singing, dancing and playing musical instruments. The goal was to get a direct message from the "gods."

Paul used "prophesying" in this sense when he spoke of the Corinthians "prophesying" with uncovered heads which was a visual sign that the woman was not "subordinate" to her husband. This had nothing to do with deciding the color of the wallpaper. It meant that she would depart from her husband and engage in sexual unfaithfulness at the fertility rituals. This was outside the assembly and Paul's fuller instructions begin for when you gather in assembly in 1 Cor. 11:17.

This pattern of disrupting instructions from God with loud, musical rejoicing was condemned in the law. Furthermore, it is a prototype of many Biblical patterns where instrumental music was a cause and a symption that people did not want to listen to the designated prophets speak the Words of and from God.

Moses was a meek and mild "elder" who would remain quiet to keep the "flock" from being upsed. However, God acted directly against Miriam who, like Eve, assumed the oversight of the family.

The tongue speaking women were singing and speaking and claiming that they were being moved by God. The content of their singing and speaking proved that they were not prophets and would be seen as insane. Supplying Paul's information for Corinth, Moses wrote:

And they said, Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us? And the Lord heard it. Nu 12:2

And the Lord spake suddenly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam, Come out ye three unto the tabernacle of the congregation. And they three came out. Nu 12:4

And the Lord came down in the pillar of the cloud, and stood in the door of the tabernacle, and called Aaron and Miriam: and they both came forth. Nu 12:5

And he said, Hear now my words: If there be a prophet among you, I the Lord will make myself known unto him in a vision, and will speak unto him in a dream. Nu 12:6 However, of Moses

With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches (riddles); and the similitude (shape or phantom) of the Lord shall he behold: wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against my servant Moses? Nu 12:8

God left them and Miriam was struck with leprosy. She had no prayer ability to get it cured.

Of Miriam it is said:

"She 'took part in the festival; a custom that was kept up in after times in the celebration of victories (Judg. 11:34; 1 Sam. 18:6, 7; 21:12; 24:5), possibly in imitation of an Egyptian model." (Keil and Delitzsch, Com. on the OT, Pentateuch, Vol. II, p. 57).

Of the musical dance:

"It was probably usual to welcome a king or general with music and dancing...The distinctly religious dance is more frequently mentioned. The clear instances of it in the Bible are the dance of the women of Israel at the Red Sea, headed by Miriam with her tambourine (Ex 15:20); the dance of the Israelites round the golden calf (32:19); the dance of the maidens of Shiloah at the annual feast (Jgs 21:19 ff); the leaping or limping of the prophets of Baal round their altar on Carmel (1 K 18:26); and the dancing of David in front of the ark (2 S 6:14-16) (Int. Std. Bible Ency., p. 1169-70).

"In the O. T., 'prophet' is also applied to the sacred musicians (1 Ch. 25:1); and it may be only because Miriam led the concert (Ex. 15:20, 21) that she was reckoned as a prophetess. So Deborah is called a 'prophetess' (Judg. 4:4). Aaron is spoken of as a prophet (Ex. 7:1)--being one who delivered another's message" (Book, Hist. Digest., p. 265).

"It is probable that Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, and others were called 'prophetesses,' not so much because they were supposed to be gifted with knowledge of futurity, like the seers, as because they possessed a poetical inspiration..." (Book, Hist. Digests., p. 265).

"It should be noted, however, that women like Miriam (Exod. 15:20), Deborah (Judges 4:4) and Hulda (2 Ki. 22:14) were not credited with the seer's insight into the future, but were called 'prophetesses' because of the poetical inspiration of their speech." (Int. Std. Bible Ency., Prophetess, p. 2467).

"It is remotely possible that he (Paul) has in mind the incident of Aaron and Miriam (Num. 11); there are some intriguing parallels between that incident and Paul's discussion here. If this is the background informing his remarks, it may mean that Miriam was functioning as the prototypical insubordinate prophetess who is reprimanded for her questioning the authority of Moses, the prophet: (they) should be subordinate is precisely the point of the narrative in Numbers 12. One can therefore conjecture that Paul's remarks here are addressed to quite a specific problem: prophetesses within the Corinthian church whose utterances were either unsettling or even perhaps calling Paul's authority into question; it is significant that these remarks prompt him to a rather stern and pointed reminder of his prophetic authority (vs 37)" (Holladay, Carl, p. 190).

The writer notes that only men were priestly musicians after David "changed the Law." Women were excluded except "for my personal pleasure" in the case of Solomon and others.

The work of the prophets has been completed. By ignoring the written record of their work under the direct inspirition of the Spirit of Christ (1Pe 1:11), both women and men are insubordinate prophets and prophetesses. The sermons have been preached and the songs have been composed. Our task, according to Paul to Timothy, is to "deliver it as it has been delivered to you."

Jesus abrogated clergy roles and made each member a priest of God and able to read and pray without the oppressive "anxiety from religious ritual."

Miriam was called a prophetess which Strong says "is the feminine of prophets but by implication a poetess or a prophet's wife."

When Moses recited his later instructions or song from God it was so that the elders could learn the song and return to their tribes and teach it to everyone.

Gather unto me all the elders of your tribes, and your officers, that I may speak (recite) these words in their ears, and call heaven and earth to record against them. Deu 31:28

For I know that after my death ye will utterly corrupt yourselves, and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you; and evil will befall you in the latter days; because ye will do evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke him to anger through the work of your hands. Deu 31:29

And Moses spake in the ears of all the congregation of Israel the words of this song, until they were ended. Deu 31:30

GIVE ear, O ye heavens, and I will speak; and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. Deu 32:1

My doctrine (instructions) shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distil as the dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the showers upon the grass: Deu 32:2

Because I will publish the name of the Lord: ascribe ye greatness unto our God. Deu 32:3

And he said unto them, Set your hearts unto all the words which I testify among you this day, which ye shall command your children to observe to do, all the words of this law. Deu 32:46

Instrumental Rejoicing Forbidden By the Law UP

After swearing to keep the Book of the Covenant--a renewal of the Abrahamic Covenant--the Israelites, perhaps under the foreign influence of the "mixed multitude," got impatient for the Word as a written letter and forced their leaders to permit them to fall back into Apis worship which is defined as play.  This involved singing, dancing, instrumental music and more.  As a result God gave The Book of the Law which, according to the prophets, was not good.

"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's, Music, p. 589).

After the discipline from the musical play at Sinai was over, God directed the making of two silver trumpets to signal marches or war:

When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys. Nu 10:6

However, when Moses called Israel together for instructions from God, they could use the trumpets much like a church bell. However, they could not then turn the edification assembly into a "praise the Lord" affair which would say that they didn't care much about hearing from God:

But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. Nu 10:7

Ruwa (h7321) roo-ah'; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears (with sound), i. e. shout (for alarm or joy): - blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout for joy, sound an alarm, triumph.

Most Israelites, except those who went to the high places to worship Baal, honored this.

"the trumpets were assigned a number of complicated signals, which implied their ability of blowing legato, staccato, and trills, and tonguing, all in unison, not 'simultaneously,' but 'as with one mouth.' Moreover, these apocalyptical trumpets bear different names: trumpets of assembly, of battle, of the slain, of ambush, etc. In generaly, they were used to terrorize the enemy into panic (Judges 7:19-20). This function was, for all practical purposes, identical with that of the trumpets of Revelation. In the temple the signals of the trumpet introduced every ceremony and every sacrifice." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 472-3, Abingdon).

"All the various usages of the shophar can be viewed under one category: that of a signalling instrument. It sounded all signals in war and peace; it announced the new moon, the beginning of the sabbath, the death of a notable; it warned of approaching danger; it heraled excommunication; it was instrumental in exorcisms and magic healing." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 473, Abingdon). See the Dead Sea Scrolls War Rules.

David expanded the signals used in warfare to be used in his new temple-state. Remember that when the leaders of Israel demanded a king like the nations it was so that they could worship like the nations.

You say, "We want to be like the nations, like the peoples of the world, who serve wood and stone." But what you have in mind will never happen. Eze.20:32

The kings which were selected were "after God's own choice" because they were demanded to lead them into a different form of religion. The kings, like the law, were a curse for people who rejected the direct rule of God and demanded a pagan-like secular priest king. It is well recognized that the worship instituted by David was different from the Law of Moses:

"The book of Psalms contain new doctrine after the Law of Moses. And after the writing of Moses, it is the second book of doctrine... (David) first gave to the Hebrews a new style of psalmody, by which he abrogates the ordinances established by Moses with respect to sacrifices, and introduces the new hymn and a new style of jubilant praise in the worship of God; and throughout his whole ministry he teaches very many other things that went beyond the law of Moses." (Fragment of Commentary by Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, Ante-Nicene, V, p. 170)

There were a few times for rejoicing such as Jubilee which was associated with the hope for future atonement. However, the "church" or the congregation did not gather for singing with instrumental accompaniment. Worship was a state ritual and not a weekly "congregational" show and tell." The musical worship team chosen by David and the commanders of the army were like the nations:

"From (the Uraritic text) come references to a class of Temple personnel designated by the term serim, who exercised functions similar to those of the Hebrew singers during the monarchy and later times. Some of the servants of David who were designated in 1 Kings 4:31 by (a) term meaning 'aboriginal' or 'native sons,' and who possessed Canaanite names such as Heman, Chalcol, and Darda, were engaged in various forms of musical activity. As such they were described by the phrase 'sons of Mahol (dancer),' a Hebrew term closely related to (the Greek), used of a semi-circular area in which the Greek chorus danced, and meaning 'members of the orchestral guild.' A further reflection of this musical interest became apparent when Megiddo was excavated and the treasure room of the royal palace was uncovered. From this area was recovered a plaque inlaid with ivory, depicting a royal personage seated on a throne. He was drinking from a small bowl, and was being entertained by a court musician who stood before him plucking the strings of a lyre." (Harrison, R. K., Introduction to the Old Testament, Eerdmans, p. 335, see p. 411).

A half dozen, wired-up-amplified voices have the power--was intended to replace--a literal pipe organ. The complex harmony which results somehow reaches beyond the rational and into our animal nature to turn on "fight or flight or mating." It is this pleasing but confusing well-constructed melody which seems like fun but is really pain. Most ancient and modern commentators show that, as theatrical organs helped invent complex harmony, choirs then gave way to the organ. As they used to say: "Wine is fine but Likker is quicker."

ERASMUS "We have brought into our churches certain operatic and theatrical music; such a confused, disorderly chattering of some words as I hardly think was ever in any of the Grecian or Roman theatres. The church rings with the noise of trumpets, pipes, and dulcimers; and human voices strive to bear their part with them. Men run to church as to a theatre, to have their ears tickled. And for this end organ makers are hired with great salaries, and a company of boys, who waste all their time learning these whining tones."  (Commentary on I Cor. 14:19)

God understood that music abraded the nerves so that it was not possible to get anything but panic or some other emotion out of it. The Trumpet of God may sound while we are enjoying our vocal or literal trumpet-quartet! However, the "spiritual feeling" created by a drug high is really just music-induced endorphins.

Speaking of the love for icons (material or human) Armstrong notes that people have always believed that God could be found in music-like art. She was somewhat prophetic of the new wine-skin gospels which have always popped up around the world when people lose their security and look for a new messiah to lead them into a kingdom which will come with rapture:

"Emotion and experience are conveyed by music in a way that bypasses words and concepts... They found that God was better expressed in a work of art than in rationalistic discourse... Instead of arguing rationally about God's nature, the 'new' theology relied on direct, personal religious experience. It was impossible to know God in conceptual terms. (Armstrong, Karen, A History of God, p. 223).

Armstrong notes that Amos warned that Israel refused to enter into dialog with God and this caused their failure.

Instrumental music as loud rejoicing was forbidden by the law (Nu 10:7) when Israel assembled for instruction.  See below for details.

When they turned the instruments upon God in order to "worship like the nations," David and the commanders of the army reassigned the warrior priests and Levites to the emerging temple state.  Instrumental music which had been the domain of idolatry, prostitution or motivational-panic-martial musicians was adapted to certain dedicatory or purification animal sacrifices focused in or around Jerusalem.  These were state worship rituals because in the nations the little people did not worship in the show-and-tell animal sacrifices. However, when the trumpets of God and the instruments of David sounded you could be sure that something--animal or principle--was being sacrificed.

There is always a distinction between "the trumpets of God" and the "musical instruments of David" who was God's replacement to rule or oversee the Israelites. Music, therefore, was not just religious but civil in imitation of the nations:

"The testimonies of neighboring civilizations... concern chiefly the music of courts or temples, which in Sumer, Babylon, and Canaan was then in the hands of professional priests-musicians. We have only a few remarks of Herodotus about Egyptian practices, which were similar to those of ancient Hebrew popular singing. He refers to the 'lament for Linos,' also to women's chants in procession of the cult of Osiris and the Diana of Bubastis. In Phonicia and Syria almost all popular music reflected the worship of Ishtar, the goddess of fertility. (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 461, Abingdon)

Of David, it is clear that--

"He wanted to replace the old Tent with a splendid royal temple patterned after the temples of other nations. However, the conservative religious traditions of the Confederacy was voiced by the prophet Nathan, who argued that Yahweh had not dwelt in a 'house' since the time of the Exodus but had been 'moving about in a tent' (II Sam. 7:6) So David wisely conceded to the prophet that this was going to for--at least for the time being. He contented himself himself with reorganizing Israel's religion in other spheres, especially music. According to the Chronicler (1 Chron 25) David organized the musicians into guilds." (Anderson, Bernard, A Theology of the Old Testament, p. 183)

Musical Worship Teams Added by David for the Future Temple UP

Israel demanded a king to replace the direct rule of God. He gave them kings but prophesied that they would destroy the nation and He would not hear their prayers. Ezekiel and others make it clear that Israel, for much of their life, worshiped like the nations. It was logical therefore that David begin and Solomon construct a temple and worship like the nations. God would not tolerate it and within five years of Solomon's death, Shishak from Egypt came to get his gold.

"Indeed not before David's time do professional musicians appear in the Bible. From where did they come? Considering the apparent connection of professional musicians with the institution of Monarcy, we must bear in mind that in the neighboring countries, Egypt and Assyria, the professional musician was an old and familiar figure. It seems that the midrash alludes to an ancient tradition when it relates that King Solomon's Egyptian wife, daughter of the Pharaoh, carried in her dowry a thousand foreign instruments. Yet an instrument is of no use without a musician able to play it. Hence, we may assume that the systematic import and subsequent training of professional musicians took place in the era of David and Solomon." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 457).

Not only is it clear that the musical worship teams were the overseers or presiding elders during growth efforts and in the service of God's "house," they assumed the role of priests during animal sacrifices.  When the Phonecians were having trouble cheating the Egyptian, Wen Amon, out of his ship-load of cedar, the prince sent a female musician to lull him to sleep so that eventually he might be murdered to cheat him:

"Most likely, Israel first became acquainted with ecstatic prophecy in Canaan, where it was connected with Baal religion. The Egyptian story of Wen Amon tells of a religious festival in the Phoenician port of Byblos where 'the god seized one of the youths and made him possessed'--that is, he fell into an ecstatic state.

Centuries later, prophets of Baal, imported from Phoenicia, worked themselves into an ecstatic frenzy on the top of Mount Carmel as they danced around the altar, cut themselves with knives, and raised their cultic shouts (I Kings 18:20-29). This type of orgiastic prophecy was also known in Asia Minor, from which it spread into the Mediterranean world and later took the form of the orgies of the cult of Dionysus" (Anderson, Theology of the O.T., p. 229).

"The ecstatic condition appears to have been normal to the prophetic guilds of the period of the judges and the early kingdom, and for the first time in 1 Sam. 10:5-10, 19:20-24 the contagiousness of the condition comes to light, in the case of Saul.

Someone has suggested that much modern church music is really "low-level glossolalia."  It is intended to manipulate the paying audience with a deliberate attempt to dismiss the Biblical text and substitute what Albert Barnes called "soulless versifying."  

"The trained musicians which eventually appear around the time of David and Solomon mark a distinctive change in the history of Jewish music. Before this time much of the music was made by women." (Zondervan Pict., Music p. 313).  

David introduced a new form of military-like prophesying which was singing with instrumental accompaniment. However, this was a temple ritual where the temple was more private shrine of the king than synagogue of the congregation:

David, together with the commanders of the army, set apart some of the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun for the ministry of prophesying, accompanied by harps, lyres and cymbals. Here is the list of the men who performed this service" 1 Chr 25:1

From the sons of Asaph: Zaccur, Joseph, Nethaniah and Asarelah. The sons of Asaph were under the supervision of Asaph, who prophesied under the king's supervision." 1 Chr 25:2

All these men were under the supervision of their fathers for the music of the temple of the LORD, with cymbals, lyres and harps, for the ministry at the house of God. Asaph, Jeduthun and Heman were under the supervision of the king." 1 Chr 25:6

These sons of Mahol belonged to a Canaanite-like guild of musical propheseers or "wise men."

"Such terms as 'Asaph,' 'Heman' and 'Ethan' or 'Jeduthun' are evidently used by the Chronicler to designate musical guilds, and in the case of 'Heman' and 'Ethan' are closely paralleled by scores of abbreviated names found at Ugarit and elsewhere, and are characteristically Canaanite and early, not appearing in later Hebrew lists of contemporary names." (Unger, Merril, Archaeology and the Old Testament, Zondervan, P. 217)  

"David introduced innovations in the age and service of the Levites (I Chron. 23-26). Certain Levites, particularly Asaph, became musicians and probably wrote some of the Psalms." (Libing Bible Ency., p. 1143)

"Radical reconstructions, that seek to discover an opposition between David's Levites and the 'image worshiping' Aaronic priests, have been advocated by writers such as Theophile Meek:

'Thus were the Levites ensconced in a positon of supreme priestly authority in the religion and there came a tempory eclipse of the bull cult and its Aaronite priesthood. This did not mean the suppression of the bull cult nor of any other; it simply meant that Yahwism was now the state religion and Yahweh the national god. In their local sanctuaries the people could and did worship what gods they would.'

"But though no evangelical would take Meek's theories seriously, it is true that the Levites were given the leadership in the new musical service which was created by David and which constituted a matter of his particular concern." (Theology of the OT, p. 376)

"Music and psalmody likewise flourished, especially as Solomon lavished the resources of the state on the new Temple, enriching its cultus in various ways (1 Ki. 10:12). Although we know too little of prevailing musical techniques to make definite statements, Israelite music under Phoenician influence probably soon reached standards of excellence as high as any in the contemporary world." (Bright, John, A History of Israel, p. 198).

As one example, Asaph's name is from:

Acaph (h622) aw-saf';  a prim. root; to gather for any purpose; hence to receive, take away, i. e. remove (destroy, leave behind, put up, restore, etc.): - assemble, bring, consume, destroy, fetch, gather (in, together, up again), * generally, get (him), lose, put all together, receive, recover [another from leprosy], (be) rereward, * surely, take (away, into, up), * utterly, withdraw.

Later writers understood that it was David in connection with the temple and not the Law who commanded musical worship:

And both the singers and the porters kept the ward of their God, and the ward of the purification, according to the commandment of David, and of Solomon his son.  Neh 12:45

For in the days of David and Asaph of old there were chief (ruler or captain) of the singers, and songs of praise and thanksgiving unto God. Neh 12:46

Musical Worship Teams Replace the Word   UP

Ezekiel shows why Judah was destroyed, speaks prophetically of the children who would musically attack or try to "triumph over" Messiah, and then described a proper worship which does not consist of doing our own thing or even speaking our own words.

For when ye offer your gifts, when ye make your sons to pass through the fire, ye pollute yourselves with all your idols, even unto this day: and shall I be enquired of by you, O house of Israel? As I live, saith the Lord God, I will not be enquired of by you. Eze 20:31

And that which cometh into your mind shall not be at all, that ye say, We will be as the heathen, as the families of the countries, to serve wood and stone. Eze 20:32

When Israel came into Canaan they enjoyed "joint meetings" with the idolaters at the groves or high places. It was from these high places that we see the charismatic prophets coming down to meet with Saul as they assisted in "turning him into another man." This new "spirit" would convert the humble, bashful Saul to a king who errected a monument to his own honor and took it upon himself to serve as both king and priest.

Of topeth (and tabret or tambourine) one writer notes that--

"the most probable is its connection with a root meaning 'burning'--'place of burning." (Int Std Bible Ency, p. 2999)

From the above text Isaiah warned that destruction would come to the beat of musical instruments and ended with the statement that--

"Topheth has long been prepared; it has been made ready for the king. Its fire pit has been made deep and wide, with an abundance of fire and wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze. Isa 30:33

From the evidence we understand that the "music grove" which Solomon established along with the temples of his idolatrous wives, finally became the symbol of hell itself.

Topheth occurs in two places in a striking comparison. I n verse 32 it is tambourines or tabrets in the King James Version. In verse 33 it is Topeth. The tabrets with which Satan came equipped are a symbol of punishment and the almost identical word, topheth, is the place which came to stand for hell. He would go into the same place and his viols would go with him.

"The Hebrew words are nearly identical; and Tophet was probably the king's 'music grove' or garden, denoting originally nothing evil or hateful. Afterwards it was defiled by idols, and polluted by the sacrifices of Baal and the fires of Molech. Then it became the place of abomination, the very gate or pit of hell." (Smith, p. 960)

"Once the music-grove, where Solomon's singers, with voice and instrument, regaled the king, the court and the city; then the temple of Baal, the high place of Moloch, resounding with the cries of burning infants; then (in symbol) the place where is the wailing and gnashing of teeth." (p. 3313-14, four-volume Smith).

Even as Solomon built the temple with slave labor driven with the Levites and their musical instruments, he built temples and altars for false gods. And as he had himself celebrated with musical instruments in his royal garden, this very place became the site of Molech as drums were used to prevent mothers from hearing the screams of their children as they were sacrificed. Of the worship of Molech it is said--

"Sometimes he was represented as a horrible idol with fire burning inside so that what was placed in his arms was consumed. In the above illustration, a heathen priest has taken a baby from its mother to be offered to Molech. Lest the parents should relent, a loud noise was made on drums to hide the screams The word for drums is tophim from which the word 'Tophet,' the place mentioned in verses such as Jeremiah 7:31: ''They have built the high place of Tophet... to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire. While drums sounded, bands played, and priests chanted, human sacrifices were devoured in the flames." (Woodrow, p. 72-73).

We have the creepy feeling up the back of the neck that the church is devoting itself to building "high places" with asherahs (steeples) in the errected position as a mark of civic pride to "make a name for ourselves" so that we will be remembered. Perhaps in direct proportion to a David-like urge to reject the "laws" and turn to the "suggestions" our children are literally being sacrificed as they are fed with "cut and paste" Bible study even into high school. To make the prophetic type come true the only thing needed is the human or literal sounding gong and clanging cymbals.

When the people polluted themselves and God the word is:

Chalal (h2490) khaw-lal'; to bore, i. e. by implication: to wound, to dissolve; figurative: to profane (a person, place or thing), to break one's word, to begin as if by an "opening wedge"; (from 2485) ;

1. to play (the flute): - defile,
2. eat (as common things), gather the grape thereof,
3. take inheritance,
4. pipe, player on instruments,
5. pollute, (cast as) profane self,
6. prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound.

This word is used of the king of Tyre, who was Lucifer's change agent. He was the harp-playing prostitute. God warned also about his (her?) tambourines and pipes. He tempted the nations through music and commerce and was there profane.

Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets (toph) and of thy pipes (unclear) was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Eze 28:13

By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. Eze.28:16

Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee. Eze 28:17

Lucifer is derived from a common Hebrew word for praise which was most often self-praise:

Halal (h1984) haw-lal'; a prim. root; to be clear (orig. of sound, but usually of color); to shine; hence to make a show, to boast; and thus to be (clamorously) foolish; to rave; causat. to celebrate; also to stultify: - (make) boast (self), celebrate, commend, (deal, make), fool (- ish, -ly), glory, give [light], be (make, feign self) mad (against), give in marriage, [sing, be worthy of] praise, rage, renowned, shine.

In the Apocalyptic literature the holy mountain is the place wheree the holy people of God lived. Satan taught the Cainites, notably Genun (Jubal), how to seduce or pollute the Sethites by the use of musical instruments and mixed singing groups. Everyone knew that any women mixed up was available after "services."

In Isaiah's account, the Septuagint asks:

"Must ye always rejoice, and go into my holy places continually, as they that keep a feast? and must ye go with a pipe, as those that rejoice into the mountain of the Lord, to the God of Israel? Isaiah 30:29 LXX

This treatment of instrumental music is consistent in the LXX and, therefore, when Amos condemned Israel for imitating David's musical practices he said of them--

 "who excel (oversee and are applauded) in the sound of musical instruments; they have regarded them as abiding, not as fleeting pleasure." Amos 6:6 LXX

God continued to warn that the "playing children" did not understand that musical worship has always been God's sign of His judgment which is often beyond remedy:

The LORD will cause men to hear his majestic voice and will make them see his arm coming down with raging anger and consuming fire, with cloudburst, thunderstorm and hail. Isa 30:30

The voice of the LORD will shatter Assyria; with his scepter he will strike them down. Isa 30:31

Every stroke the LORD lays on them with his punishing rod will be to the music of tambourines and harps, as he fights them in battle with the blows of his arm. Isa 30:32

Topheth has long been prepared; it has been made ready for the king. Its fire pit has been made deep and wide, with an abundance of fire and wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze. Isa 30:33

Of the king of Babylon, who was also Lucifer's change agent, God said:

All your pomp has been brought down to the grave (Sheol or the place where the musicians demanded answers), along with the noise of your harps; maggots are spread out beneath you and worms cover you. Is.14:11

Musical instruments, therefore, were with Lucifer in various rulers as he came prepared for a musical ministry. He would seduce the clergy system to offer your child so that he could get a message from the dead while your child was screaming to death. Assyria (the tallest "fir tree" in the garden of Eden) would be driven into Topheth to the musical beat of musical instruments. These agents would go to sheol which was a prepared place for a prepared people. They and their musical instruments would lose their luxurious ivory beds and lie on a bed of maggots. At Topheth, a place of ever-burning garbage and unclaimed bodies, would be consumed by the everlasting fire.

The people were so consumed with their outlawed "trumpet quartets" and "praise the lord, praise the lord" rituals that they would not hear the musical instruments "drumming" Lucifer's agents into hell. The people who "went in musical procession to the temple" did not hear the hoof beat of either Assyria or Babylonia who came to lead them by fish-hooks in the nose into captivity among the Chaldeans, a term which is equal to "astrologer."

The literal trumpet player:

Son of man, speak to the children of thy people, and say unto them, When I bring the sword upon a land, if the people of the land take a man of their coasts, and set him for their watchman (overseer): Eze 33:2

If when he seeth the sword (from "to parch through droughth") come upon the land, he blow the trumpet, and warn the people; Eze 33:3

Then whosoever heareth the sound of the trumpet, and taketh not warning; if the sword come, and take him away, his blood shall be upon his own head. Eze 33:4

But if the watchman see the sword come, and blow (clang or clatter an instrument) not the trumpet, and the people be not warned; if the sword come, and take any person from among them, he is taken away in his iniquity; but his blood will I require at the watchmans hand. Eze 33:6

The spiritual "trumpet player":

So thou, O son of man, I have set thee a watchman unto the house of Israel; therefore thou shalt hear the word at my mouth, and warn them from me. Eze 33:7

When I say unto the wicked, O wicked man, thou shalt surely die; if thou dost not speak to warn the wicked from his way, that wicked man shall die in his iniquity; but his blood will I require at thine hand. Eze 33:8

Therefore, O thou son of man, speak unto the house of Israel; Thus ye speak, saying, If our transgressions and our sins be upon us, and we pine away in them, how should we then live? Eze 33:10

A watchman came from Jerusalem and told Ezekiel that Jerusalem was smitten or captured. Ezekiel was no longer dumb and God sounded the alarm telling the people how they could escape judgment. In condemning musical worship, which will cease in the idealized temple beginning in chapter 40, God warned that:

Then shall they know that I am the Lord, when I have laid the land most desolate because of all their abominations which they have committed. Eze 33:29

Because the people were violating God's commandment against instrumental rejoicing--which would be involved in the idolatry He has just condemned--God told Ezekiel that they could not hear the trumpet of the Watchman when they were looking for musical triumph music in violation of Numbers 10:7. They had "broken down the walls" between them and pagan idolatry and therefore God warned:

Also, thou son of man, the children of thy people still are talking against thee by the walls and in the doors of the houses, and speak one to another, every one to his brother, saying, Come, I pray you, and hear what is the word that cometh forth from the Lord. Eze 33:30 
He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. Mt 11:15 
But whereunto shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children 
My people come to you, as they usually do, and sit before you to listen to your words, but they do not put them into practice. With their mouths they express devotion (Lord, Lord as amorousness - inordinate love), but their hearts are greedy for unjust gain (commerce or trade or attendance). Eze 33:31 

sitting in the markets,

and calling unto their fellows, Mt 11:16 


Indeed, to them you are nothing more than one who sings love songs (minstrel as a prostitute) with a beautiful voice and plays (make melody on) an instrument well
And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, 
for they hear your words but do not put them into practice. Eze 33:32 
and ye have not lamented. Mt 11:17 
When all this comes true--and it surely will--then they will know that a prophet has been among them." Eze 33:33 

Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not: Mt 11:20 

The prophets were usually opposed to what was happening in the king's worship rituals. Therefore, Isaiah, Ezekiel and Amos were violently opposed to musical noise either (1) when the enemy (Assyria or Babylon) might be approaching or (2) when the people were supposed to come before the Lord to hear instructions.

We noted above that tooting your own horn or musical disorder was against God's law except in the Exodus, warfare or in calling the scattered tribes into assembly to hear from God:

When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys. Nu 10:6

However, when Moses called Israel together for instructions from God, they could use the trumpets much like a church bell. However, they could not then turn the edification assembly into a "praise the Lord" affair which would say that they didn't care much about hearing from God:

But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. Nu 10:7

Ruwa (h7321) roo-ah'; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears (with sound), i. e. shout (for alarm or joy): - blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout for joy, sound an alarm, triumph.

This warning by Ezekiel was also issued in chapter two:

And he said unto me, Son of man, I send thee to the children of Israel, to a rebellious nation that hath rebelled against me: they and their fathers have transgressed against me, even unto this very day. Eze 2:3

For they are impudent children and stiffhearted. I do send thee unto them; and thou shalt say unto them, Thus saith the Lord God. Eze 2:4

And they, whether they will hear, or whether they will forbear, (for they are a rebellious house,) yet shall know that there hath been a prophet among them. Eze 2:5

And thou, son of man, be not afraid of them, neither be afraid of their words, though briers and thorns be with thee, and thou dost dwell among scorpions: be not afraid of their words, nor be dismayed at their looks, though they be a rebellious house. Eze 2:6

And Jesus repeated the same warning:

Like the witch of Endor who used the "old wine skin" which had hardened, to mumble (base of gong) and whisper (soprano or tinkling cymbal) to get a message from the gods, the masses of old and young, male and female who prophesied when judgment was poured out were among those who appealed to God based upon their performance:

Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. Mt 7:21 (This is like the Ab, Ab of the Familiar Spirit (h178) of the demon caller such as the Witch of Endor or the children of Lamech such as Jubal.)

Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? Mt 7:22

And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. Mt 7:23

This was the practice of the literal (effeminate priests of Baal) and spiritual Jezebel who successed in ruling over and teaching her church. Being a prophetess undoubtedly meant that she chanted, played and danced (or swayed) to seduce as she taught:

Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols. Re.2:20 (A prophetess is also a poetic singer with musical instruments).

"Ephesus was famous for its shrine of Diana, where thousands of sacred prostitutes believed fornication brought believers into contact with deity in much the same way the Gnostics used authentia (authority) to bind the flesh and the divine together. When these women converted to Christianity they had to unlearn these pagan practices. 'Virtually without exception, female teachers among the Greeks were courtesans, such as Aspasia, who numbered Socrates and Pericles among her students. Active in every major school of philosophy, these hetairai made it evident in the course of their lectures that they were available afterwards for a second occupation. But the Bible teaches that to seduce men in such a manner was indeed to lead them to slaughter and the halls of death (cf. Prov. 2:18; 5:5; 6:27; 9:18). The verb authentein is thus peculiarly apt to describe both the erotic and murderous." (Trombley, Who Says Women Can't Teach, p. 177).

Jezebel could be seen as an "approved example" of pagan authentein which was both erotic and murderous. Wombley notes that apparently the leaders of the church had given Jezebel the authority because they didn't stop her. Trombley defines the uncovered prophesying in First Corinthians 11 as singing with musical instruments.

"Jezebel both taught and prophesied, or she taught as a prophetess, and as previously stated, the leaders and elders of this New Testament church not only permitted her to teach, but accepted her and apparently believed what she said. It stands to reason that if women were forbidden any type of teaching ministry and if Women were silent in the churches, these Spirit-filled leaders would not have taken the time to listen to her at all. They had to give her permission to address the congregation... If Jesus didn't want any woman to teach why didn't He rebuke her and establish a precedent? (Trombley, p. 57)

What the leaders did not do, Jesus as the Alpha and Omega corrected. Trombley describes her teaching as evil when he wrote this this practice was to connect the flesh to divine as opposed to the spirit to the Divine:

"We know the Gnostics used sexual practices to bind the flesh and the divine together (Rev. 2:20). In most ancient pagan religions the act of procreation was a mystery; they thought fornication and in some instances homosexuality linked them to the world of the gods. Apparently, this sexual aspect of Gnosticism was incorporated with Jezebel's teaching which Jesus condemned (Rev. 3:20). The apostle Peter was aware of this problem." (Trombley, p. 176).

Job wrote of ancient star worship or astrology and warned those who believed that fertile crops meant that the Baal's were honoring them. Those who were prosperous because of their fertility gods did exactly what Miriam did as she led the women out with singing and dancing and playing her timbrel:

They send forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance. Jb 21:11

They take the timbrel and harp, and rejoice (make merry) at the sound of the organ. (Pipe) Jb21:12

They spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to the grave. Jb 21:13

Therefore they say unto God, Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways. Jb 21:14

By warning against Bacchus worship in Ephesus Paul shows that pagan music and wine always go together. Literal or "new wine exhilaration" was always associated with the religious festivals which had deliberately adopted the musical prophesying of the high places.

Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them Isa 5:11

And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts (religious feasts Am 5:21 which starved them to death for the word): but they regard not the work of the Lord, neither consider the operation of his hands. Isa 5:12

Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge: and their honourable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst. Isa 5:13 

The people starved for the Word while the leaders used their stolen wealth to consume it upon themselves. They indeed practiced a literal wineskin gospel but the wine was stolen as the women became the rulers over the men.

Musical Worship Teams Outlawed and Restored   UP

We quoted scholars who believe--with a lot of Biblical evidence--that David changed the worship practices of Israel to be like that of the nations because they were going to spend all of their resources on a temple like the nations in which God would not and could not dwell.

The Bible shows that David and the commanders of the army reorginized the military musicians who had forced soldiers into battle with panic music. They would now serve the new temple-state which David made possible with military victory. Furthermore, these musical worship teams intruded into the actual place of animal sacrifices and were dressed in fine linen reserved for the priestly class:

All the Levites who were musicians--Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun and their sons and relatives--stood on the east side of the altar, dressed in fine linen and playing cymbals, harps and lyres. They were accompanied by 120 priests sounding trumpets.  2 Chr 5:12

While Judah was not exempt and finally fell, it was the Levites in Israel who pushed calf worship to the limit.  Their worship is described by Amos and others as being much like the calf (Apis) worship at Mount Sinai which was accompanied with lots of singing and musical accompaniment.  Idols were later added to the Jerusalem temple. The priests were often foreigners.

"professional musicians emerged in Israel about the time of David and Solomon. From then on, we have abundant historical evidence of the role which the professional musicians played in the organization of the temple ritual." (International Dictionary of the Bible, p. 461, Abingdon).

Ezekiel, in the idealized temple (beginning in Ezekiel 40), blames the reassigned Levites for Israel's failure. They were quick to recruit from non-Levitical talent and these were often Canaanites because of their musical talent. The Levites would be demoted from roles of overseers and made into true ministers (servants rather than rulers)--

In that ye have brought into my sanctuary strangers, uncircumcised in heart, and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in my sanctuary, to pollute it, even my house, when ye offer my bread, the fat and the blood, and they have broken my covenant because of all your abominations. Ezek 44:7

Pollute is:

Chalal (h2490 khaw-lal'; a prim. root [comp. 2470]; prop. to bore, i. e. (by impl.) to wound, to dissolve; fig. to profane (a person, place or thing), to break (one's word), to begin (as if by an "opening wedge"); denom. (from 2485) to play (the flute): - gather the grape thereof, take inheritance, pipe, player on instruments, pollute, (cast as) profane (self), prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound.

And ye have not kept the charge (sentry) of mine holy things: but ye have set keepers of my charge in my sanctuary for yourselves. Eze 44:8

And the Levites that are gone away far from me, when Israel went astray, which went astray away from me after their idols; they shall even bear their iniquity. Eze 44:10

Yet they shall be ministers in my sanctuary, having charge at the gates of the house, and ministering to the house: they shall slay the burnt offering and the sacrifice for the people, and they shall stand before them to minister unto them. Eze 44:11

"Because they ministered unto them before their idols, and caused the house of Israel to fall into iniquity (perverse); therefore have I lifted up mine hand against them, saith the Lord God, and they shall bear their iniquity. Eze 44:12

But the Levites shall do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they shall bear their iniquity: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, that among the children of Israel they have no inheritance. Nu.18:23

And they shall not come near unto me, to do the office of a priest unto me, nor to come near to any of my holy things, in the most holy place: but they shall bear their shame, and their abominations which they have committed. Eze 44:13

Levites would be put in charge in the sense of being watchmen or custodians.

The Levites came near to "prophesy" which was to sing their own songs accompanied with various musical instruments while the sacrifices were being made. This was clearly added by David and enlarged by Solomon for the temple rituals. These, however, were not the services where the common Israelite worshiped.

"There is ample evidence, both in scriptural and in rabbinical sources, that the art of singing was diligently cultivated, especially in the temple. I Chr. 25 not only relates the initial organization of the temple singers, but uses in its terminology the words 'trained in song' and 'skillful." The Talmud even hints that lack of correct singing annuled the value of the sacrifice (B. 'Arak. 11a). The musical training of a Levitical singer took at least five years of intensive preparation (B. Hullin 24a). (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

The pagan, Levitical and early Catholic musical worship teams involved taking those not qualified or authorized to be overseers of the flock. They dressed them up in clerical garb and assured talent to make them appear to have authority. Before women were permitted this clergy privilege, young boys were dressed up like women but became a distinct clergy class because they were male but seemed female.  The staged performance (1) usurped adult male authority, (2) appealed to the sexual drive of the men, and (2) replaced the Biblical text and especially Psalms with self-composed praise songs which taught wrong doctrine.

This music among the Jews was so completely put down that permission to restore it had to be granted by the king who, it was suggested, would gain honor from the novelty.  He could even pretend that he invented the priestly worship team which was as ancient as Babel. The musical worship teams performed an ancient, pagan ritual with magical incantations as power devices to gain magic from the gods. This was why figuratively the "congregation" was deprived of their "song books" or "Bible" and were forced to be spectators. This was because if you did not say the words just right the gods might harm you.

"There is but one step from a musical incantation to religious music. In the Bible, apotropaic practices are perfectly compatible with monotheistic worship. Thus cultic music appears on three or four levels in the OT: in the frenzied songs of the professional prophets (1 Sam. 10:5-6); in the early numinous ordinances... in Leviticus and Numbers, and eventually, in the organized songs, chants, and psalms of the temple and of the professional Levitic musicians." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 458, Abingdon). (See Homer Odyssey XI.260 ff)

"'The women's songs have preserved, to some extent, the qualities of uninfluenced chant: they belong to the group of tunes directed by motoric impulse (as in dance or occupation songs.)" (Bible Dict., p. 458).

In the Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible it is noted that the liturgical music was considered a mystery to which the laiety must not be admitted:

"The enigmatic musical superscriptions... to the psalms constitutes a real musical terminology, which, however, is almost unintelligible... either the original meaning of these musical terms was then generally forgotten, or, on account of the continuous tradition of the temple, it was still understood, but as a secret closely guarded by the priestly class." (International Dictionary of the Bible, p. 459, Abingdon).

"There is a lack of technical information in our sources (about temple singing); its cause is the deliberate silence of the priests, which is, however slightly, lifted but once, by Josephus, himself a priest. Only in one passage he discloses one of the internal 'stage secrets' of the priests performance."

Josephus is partially quoted but we will quote the entire passage from Whiston:

"Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire; for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired; and as a part of this tribe ministered in the temple, he also permitted them to learn those hymns as they had besought him for.

Now all this was contrary to the laws of our country, which, whenever they have been transgressed, we have never been able to avoid the punishment of such transgressions. (Antiq. XX.ix.6).

The "stage secrets" of course was that the musical worship teams were injecting morphine-like drugs into the worshipers, primarily the monks or priests, and made the sensual feelings feel like the enthus o mania of the pagan "churches." The king would gain credit and perhaps "tenure" because of the public applause.

The priests took away the psalms and composed or arranged their own words and style of singing.  This took the words out of the hands of the lowly laiety so that they had to hear, admire and "follow the leaders" of the priestly singers.  This was a "hand feeding" method which allowed their own ideas to prevail over the Word of God.  In effect, the king or presiding pastor, did mortal combat with those who might have prevented destruction--the elders.

Paul in Greek and the Prophets in Hebrew used a word which meant either instruments of war of musical instruments of idolatry. The Ante Nicene Fathers knew that instrumental music was so effective because it was really a Weapon of war.

"Then to all mankind He calls out, 'Let every spirit praise the Lord,' because He rules over every spirit He has made. In reality, man is an instrument for peace, but these other things, if anyone concerns himself overmuch with them, become instruments of conflict, for inflame the passions. The Etruscans, for example, use the trumpet for war; the Arcadians, the horn; the Sicels, the flute; the Cretans, the lyre; the Lacedemonians, the pipe; the Thracians, the bugle; the Egyptians, the drum; and the Arabs, the cymbal. But as for us, we make use of one instrument alone: only the Word of peace by whom we a homage to God, no longer with ancient harp or trumpet or drum or flute which those trained for war employ." (Clement of Alexandria, 190AD The instructor, Fathers of the church, p. 130)

Those who add musical worship teams or their mechanical counterpart--the organ--know full well that they will triumph over and divide the church. Some will run to safety but others will remain on the "ship" but ritual worship dominated by a team will grate their nerves. Worship services, in the words of Paul, will "do more harm than good" and people cannot go home saying "it was good for us to have been here" and be better equipped for life.

When Psalm 41 says that Judas as Satan't change agent would not triumph over Messiah it uses the same form of musical rejoicing which was explicitely forbidden for Israel when they came together to listen To God.  Judas carried a "bag for carrying mouthpieces of wind instruments in" and Jesus said of the clergy:

But whereunto shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children sitting in the markets, and calling unto their fellows,  Mt 11:16

And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented.   Mt.11:17

Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not:  Mt 11:20

When The Spirit Christ (Jn 14:18) guided the apostles into all truth they had not the slightest urge to conduct worship as a musical praise service.  Rather, singing is the result of filling up with the Word (Spirit) of Christ and then teaching one another with it.

When musical worship was again added as a clergy ritual to oversee the flock they adopted Levitical songs, clerical robes and thereby violated God's original commandment.

The Nature of First Century Jewish Practices    UP

The unbelieving brothers of Jesus wanted Him to go up to the opening ceremonies of the Feast of Tabernacles.  They understood that He had magical powers which would set Him aside from the other performers.  This would get Him crowned "hero of the festival" and He could become a "man of note" and perhaps get on the lecture circuit.

Jesus refused to go up with them but went up secretly.  He knew, with Job, Amos Isaiah and Ezekiel, that the musical performance meant that the Jews were not interested in listening even to God Incarnate.  He knew that as they listened to Him the "men of note" were looking for a pagan-like king to ritually murder in their ancient fertility cult.

This "game or play worship" is not unexpected becausd the fertility cult among the Jews crops up throughout the Old Testament. For instance, in describing the Marzeah festival practiced in Israel and condemned by Amos, Karen Armstrong wrote:

"Not surprisingly, most Israelites declined the prophetís invitation to enter into a dialog with Yahweh.  They preferred a less demanding religion of cultic observance either in the Jerusalem Temple or in the old fertility cults of Canaan.  This continues to  be the case: the religion of compassion is followed only by a minority; most religious people are content with decorous worship in synagogue, church, temple and mosque.

"The ancient Canaanite religions were still flourishing in Israel... the Israelites were still taking part in fertility rites and sacred sex there, as we see in the oracles of the prophet Hosea, Amos' contemporary.  (Armstrong, Karen, A History of God, p. 47).

The First Century Feast of Tabernacles:

"The archetypes of performance constituted the usual temple ritual. Yet there was one annual event which served as pretext for all kinds of extravagances in music and dance. Again we must, to a certain extent, rely upon the Talmudic description, which however, in this case is confirmed by passages of early rabbinic literature and extensive descriptions by Josephus."

"This, the merriest of all the festivals, was the 'Feast of Drawing water.' It was the most joyous and the most musical of the temple's festivities. Its description in the Mishna text opens with the significant words: 'Whosoever has not seen the joy of the House of Water-drawing has never seen real joy in his life' (M. Suk. 5.1). After the preparations, which occupied the entire afternoon of the first day of Tabernacles, the 'men of good deeds' began to dance before the people in the temple court with burning torches. The Levites having stationed themselves upon the fifteen steps leading from the women's court to the Inner Court, took up their harps, lyres, cymbals, trumpets, pipes, flutes, clarinet, etc., all instruments greatly augmented in number, and intoned the fifteen 'Songs of Ascent.' Thus, the night passed in dancing, singing, and general merrymaking. At the sound of the first cockcrow, the priests intoned the triple blast upon their ritual trumpets. These signals ended the general frolicking, and the crowd ranged itself into an orderly procession to the well of Siloah. (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 463, Abingdon).

"water drawing festival, was celebrated during the week of Tabernacles with popular games and dances in which even the elders took part, and the streets were so brilliantly illuminated with torches that scarcely an eye was closed in Jerusalem during the week." (Int. Std. Bible Ency., p. 1104)

"Today, this music and dance festival is understood as the one remnant of the old Canaanite fertility rituals, which, in the monotheistic pseudomorphosis of the temple ceremonies, was to ensure an abundant crop of plants, animals, and even human beings."

"This was perhaps the only occasion where popular music-making was allowed to mix with the otherwise sternly guarded prerogative of Levitical music. Consequently, secular, superstitious, even popular licentious elements were here introduced in the performance of the temple's liturgical music." (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon). 

The right-side up world of Paul is shown by William Barclay who explained what it meant to reject the Word and seek knowledge or gnosis from a direct operation of the spirit in the music and wine induced charismatic rituals.  He informs us that:

"They made their voices sweet with musical cadences and modulations of tone and echoed resonances. They thought not of what they were saying, but of how they were saying it.  Their thought might be poisonous so long as it was enveloped in honeyed words.  Philostratus tells us that Adrian, the sophist, had such a reputation in Rome, that when his messenger appeared with a notice that he was to lecture, the senate emptied and even the people at the games abandoned them to flock to hear him..

"You might hear many poor wretches of sophists, shouting and abusing each other, and their disciples, as they call them, squabbling; and many writers of books reading their stupid compositions, and many poets singing their poems, and many jugglers (buffons) exhibiting their marvels, and many soothsayers giving the meaning of prodigies, and then a thousand rhetoricians twisting lawsuits, and no small number of traders driving their several trades.

"The Greeks were intoxicated with fine words; and to them the Christian preacher with his blunt message seemed a crude and uncultured figure, to be laughed at and ridiculed rather than to be listened to and respected. (Barclay, William, First Corinthians, p. 19-20)

"Perhaps professor would be a rough modern equivalent to Sophist.  It has a similar range from Professors of Greek to Professors of Phrenology and although some Professors research, all teach, and all are paid which was a great reproach to the Sophists.  Some of them were serious philosophers, educators or scholars; others only cheap-jacks, who professed to teach only the sublime art of getting on.  Did you want to improve your memory: Did you want to be a £1,000-a-year man?  Some Sophist would teach you--for a fee.  Sophists went from city to city, lecturing on their particular subject, some indeed undertaking to lecture on any subject, but always for a fee. (Kitto, The Greeks, p. 168).

Worship Teams For My Own Pleasure UP

The common thread in much of the ancient literature is that the musicians in religious occupations were emotionally and sexually abnormal. They were often emasculated or homosexual. In fact, ancient scholars call religious music "the effeminate art." Parkes calls the musical prophesiers "the world's oldest profession." Prophesying in that sense meant "singing with instrumental accompaniment." In Ezekiel 8 the men were holding the first "sun rise service" and the women were in the temple lamenting or singing to Tammuz. Of this ancient God, consort of Ishtar (Easter), his mother-wife, an ancient record reads:

To Tammuz, the beloved of her youth,
Pour out water, offer good oil,
With red clothing cloth him,
let him play the flute of lapis lazuli.
Let the joyful maidens turn.
When Belili has established her ritual,
With precious stones her bosom is filled.
The wailing for her brother she heard..... (and she states)
My only brother, harm me not;
On the day of Tammuz, play for me the lapis lazuli flute,
Play the Santu-flute with it
When the wailing men and women play with it,
Let the dead return, let them smell incense.

"The end of it alludes to the later belief that the goddes went down every year for her beloved Tammuz who had died, and the wailing alluded to is that spoken of by Ezekiel in Ezekiel 8:14." (Barton, George A., Archaeology and the Bible, American Sunday School Union, p. 450

The incest between mother and son (perhaps real) at Corinth helps inform the rest of the practices which were identical to ancient fertility rituals. Women dominated because they had the power to appease or seduce the gods.

The musical, usually prostitute, prophetess could "get em out on Sunday morning" when the Word of God would not. Not the Amos connection as the ancient inscription continues:

The day of honoring the gods was the joy of my heart,
The day of following the goddess was my acquisition of wealth;
The prayer of the king,--that was my delight
And his music,--for my pleasure was its sound
What in one's heart is contemptible, to one's god is good!
Who can understand the thoughts of the gods in heaven?
The counsel of god is full of destruction; who can understand?
Where may human beings learn the ways of god?
He who lives at evening is dead in the morning;
Quickly he is troubled; all at once he is oppressed;
At one moment he sings and plays;
In the twinkling of an eye he howls like a funeral-mourner.
Like sunshine and cloud their thoughts change;
They are hungry and like a corpse;
They are filled and rival their god!
In prosperity they speak of climbing to Heaven;
Trouble overtakes them and they speak of going down to Sheol."

"Tabu-utul-Bel... is said to have gained his relief through a magician. We are apparently told by the fragmentary text that at last he found a conjurer who brought a messenger from the god Marduk, who drove away the evil spirits." (Barton, p. 494)

Plutarch, Pericles 15.2

"But then he was no longer the same man as before, nor alike submissive to the people and ready to yield and give in to the desires of the multitude as a steersman to the breezes. Nay rather, forsaking his former lax and sometimes rather effeminate management of the people, as it were a flowery and soft melody, he struck the high and clear note of an aristocratic and kingly statesmanship, and employing it for the best interests of all in a direct and undeviating fashion,

The effeminate dancing, gyrating "raising unholy hands" to a pagan god etc. can be moderated and made acceptable in the "worship service" by special dress, swaying in step, hand gestures, winking with the eye, tossing of the head or other means. The cymbals (from 'face redening in shame') can be replaced with high pitched sounds and the drum beating can be replaced with once-vulgar sounds from the mouth. The beat, which does much of the mind-altering work, can imitate the jungle drum pretty well:

"Before the establishment of the kingdom under Saul, it was the women who, as in every young civilization, played a major part in the performance of music. Such figures as Miriam, Deborah, Jephtha's daughter, and the women hailing the young hero David (1 Sam. 18:6-7) have become almost archetypes of female musicians. Charisteristic of all these cases is the familiar picture of a female chorus, dancing and singing, accompanied by frenzied drum-beading. This is a scene known to the entire Near East, and not even the severe rule of Islam could wholly suppress this age-old practice. Remnants of these choruses of dancing women are still extant in isolated Jewish communities, such as Yemen on the island of Djerba, of whose chants we possess a penetrating study by Robert Lachman. 'The women's songs have preserved, top some extent, the qualities of uninfluenced chant: they belong to the group of tunes directed by motoric impulse (as in dance or occupational songs).

In the isolated Jewish communities of the Near East the women accompany their songs on frame drums or cymbals which they beat with their hands.' These observations read as if they expounded the women's songs of biblical times. But no, they refer to present-day conditions in North Africa and Arabia." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 457-458).

"With the emergence of professional musicains, active in the temple and the royal courts, the women's songs dwindled to insignificance. Henceforth, trained singers and instrumentalists were considered functionaries of high rank. This development is certainly connected with the religious and secular centralization of Israel in Jerusalem in the years 950-850 B.C. ." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 458, Abingdon).

Speaking of a pentecostal worship service:

"... there is action from beginning to end and it is in large part a musical service... Through there is much singing and when these people sing, they sing not only with their voices but with their hands, and their feet and their bodies... songs and choruses usually constitute in fact the liturgical element in the Pentecostal meeting... The music is animated and loud with decisive rhythm; it is often accompanied with congregational clapping of hands." (Bruner, The Holy Spirit,p. 133).

These musical worship teams were always involved in honoring the hero who had somehow put down their enemy.  However, the men were pledged to be celibate for the duration.  They came home looking for the greeting worship team who were not reluctant to lie about the exploits of their hero such as David.  This excited the men and the fact that the musical women were often prostitutes meant that abstinence was over.  Jephthah's daughter got into trouble because he logically did not expect that his daughter would be the first he saw rather than a prostitute.  She was at the wrong place.

Solomon's musical groups are variously interpreted as musical instruments or concubines:

I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings and of the provinces: I gat me men singers and women singers, and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments, and that of all sorts. Ec.2:8

However, Isaiah described a true fast or worship of the heart:

Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke? Is 58:6

If thou turn away thy foot from the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the sabbath a delight, the holy of the Lord, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: Is 58:13

Jesus came to loose the bands and remove the heavily-laden burdens placed on them by the Jewish clergy who took away the key to knowledge. This burden is defined as "mental agitation from religious rituals." The primary device for bringing on mental agitation (ask any seretonin-embalanced person destroyed by heaped-on anxiety) was instrumental and loud, vocal music and speeches.

Women and Children Ruled when Men Failed UP

The women were the major instigators of the music and luxury which replaced the Word of God in the Northern kingdom of Israel. Amos does not hesitate to call them the "cows of Bashan" or the female "god" symbols of luxury. This, like their musical worship around their bull images, was a direct inheritance from Egypt:

"Hathor, goddess of love, beauty, the arts. She is a terrifying warrior. A combination -- Isis and Hathor are two goddesses of the triple goddess. Hathor is patron goddess of single women, goddess of female graces (art, music, literature). She can also be shown as a cow. She has cow horns with a sistrum between them. She is very beautiful but can be unbelievably destructive.

Her male counterpart was Apis worshiped when Israel "rose up to play" at Mount Sinai.

Deborah was a musical prophesier and she is often used as authority for feminine oversight teaching in the church.  However, Deborah's song was sung "at the places of watering" and it chided the male princes for not taking the leadership.  Therefore, Deborah is proof that the "law" paul spoke of demanded male leadership in worship.

By default, many women took the lead.  Their leadership was often gained because of their skill at music and other magical rites.  However, God warned:

As for my people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them. O my people, they which lead thee cause thee to err, and destroy the way of thy paths. Isa 3:12

Nagas (h5065) naw-gas'; a prim. root; to drive (an animal, a workman, a debtor, an army); by impl. to tax, harass, tyrannize: - distress, driver, exactor, oppressor, raiser of taxes, taskmaster.

Nagash (h5066) naw-gash'; to be or come near (for any purpose); euphem. to lie with a woman; as an enemy, to attack; relig. to worship

Rule over is:

Mashal (h4912) maw-shal'; a prim. root; to rule: - have dominion, governor, indeed, reign, (bear, cause to, have) ruling, have power.

What mean ye that ye beat my people to pieces, and grind the faces of the poor? saith the Lord God of hosts. Isa 3:15

Tachan (h2912) taw-khan'; a prim. root; to grind meal; hence to be a concubine that being their employment.

Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers. Is.47:2

These words relate directly to musical melody to grind the enemy, the prostitute's customer or the "congregation" to pieces as a way to rule over them with musical worship teams--concubines of the head priest.

Hear this word, you cows of Bashan on Mount Samaria, you women who oppress the poor and crush the needy and say to your husbands, "Bring us some drinks!" Am.4:1

Moreover the Lord saith, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go, and making a tinkling with their feet: Isa 3:16

Dakah (h1794) daw-kaw'; a prim. root (comp. 1790, 1792); to collapse (phys. or mentally): - break (sore), contrite, crouch.

A naughty person, a wicked man, walketh with a froward mouth. Pro 6:12

He winketh with his eyes, he speaketh with his feet, he teacheth with his fingers; Pro 6:13

Frowardness is in his heart, he deviseth mischief continually; he soweth discord. Pro 6:14

Therefore shall his calamity come suddenly; suddenly shall he be broken without remedy. Pro 6:15

Paul outlawed "outward" melody because it means to crush to bits. A similar word is translated as sop, the crushed bit of bread dipped in bitter herbs hand fed to Judas whose bage was for "carrying the mouthpieces of wind instruments." True melody comes from teaching the revealed Words of Christ which is Spirit (Eph 5; Jn 6:63). The result would be a crushed or broken heart rather than hand-clapping, praise the Lord prophesying:

The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise. Ps.51:17

Ancient Musical Worship Teams were the Overseers UP

"Often the music barely exceeded the level of organized noisemaking, especially when the purpose was to terrorize the enemy, as in Exod. 32:17-18; Judges 7:18-20. Other manifestations of functional music was the mocking song (Job 30:9) and the 'working songs' of harversters (Isa. 16:10; Jer 48:33) or the well-diggers (Num. 21:17). All this, however, alludes to the distinctly popular, nonartistic singing and playing; no professionals are as yet mentioned. When Amos (6:5) caustically chastises the nouveaux riches and their 'artistic' extravagance, he stressed for the first time the age-old feud between the professonal and dilettante (orig. tr):

They chant idle songs to the sound of the harp

and fancy to play their instruments like David. (The Int. Std. Bible Dict., p. 457).

This is based on the word translated as excel, oversee, or set it forward by forcing the slaves (even Israelites against the law) to move the stones by skillfully playing loud music--

And Solomon told out three score and ten thousand men to bear burdens, and fourscore thousand to hew in the mountain, and three thousand and six hundred to oversee (excel) them. 2Chr 2:2

And the men did the work faithfully: and the overseers of them were Jahath and Obadiah, the Levites, of the sons of Merari; and Zechariah and Meshullam, of the sons of the Kohathites, to set it forward; and other of the Levites, all that could skill of instruments of musick. 2Chr.34:12

"Other expressions of popular singing are the working songs, of which the early rabbinic literature speaks with contempt." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

Perhaps the musicans should go out to the construction sites and cheer up the workers. Didn't the musicians magically raise the rocks to build Thebes to give the workmen rest? But, the construction forman would probably call the law because you it be dangerous.

Those who "set forward" the work of the temple excelled which means:

Nacach (h5329) naw-tsakh'; to glitter from afar, to be eminent as a superintendent, especially of the Temple services and its music; also to be permanent, to excel, chief musician, singer, overseer, set forward. (The Worship team or Minister of Music is the overseer).

Of which, twenty and four thousand were to set forward the work of the house of the Lord; and six thousand were officers and judges: 1Chr.23:4

There were women musical singers "for my own pleasure" or my "musical instruments" or "my concubines" but there were never any Levitical women worship team members.

Another description shows that the musical worship teams were the overseers of the group:

Paqiyd (h6496) paw-keed'; from 6485; a superintendent (civil, military or religious): - which had the charge, governor, office, overseer, [that] was set.

Of the sons of Asaph, the singers were over the business of the house of God. Ne.11:22b

The singers and musicians were eminent (famous, celebrated, conspicuous or exalted). They were the chief singers, set forward to advance the work of the institution. They were in charge, they were officers, they were the overseers of the "flock." This was not because of the elders or tribal leaders approved. Rather, the chief "lion" organized his own teams to grasp ruler ship after the wars were over. This led to the displacement of the religious institution by the "peace party." However, when they cry "peace, peace" we had better watch out.

The kingdom under David and especially Solomon was a way to usurp the authority of the tribal or "congregational" elders and put all authority for worship under the king and located at the central sanctuary.

David (secular ruler replacing God), together with the commanders of the army, set apart some of the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun for the ministry of prophesying (singing in discourse), accompanied by harps, lyres and cymbals. Here is the list of the men who performed this service (ministry): 1Chr.25:1NIV

Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun were chosen because they were a tyrannical class with Canaanite roots and could force the "congregation" to follow the lead of the king.

Now, let us look again at Solomon's skilled musical worship teams--

And Solomon told out three score and ten thousand men to bear burdens, and fourscore thousand to hew in the mountain, and three thousand and six hundred to oversee them. 2Chr 2:2

And the men did the work faithfully: and the overseers of them were Jahath and Obadiah, the Levites, of the sons of Merari; and Zechariah and Meshullam, of the sons of the Kohathites, to set it forward; and other of the Levites, all that could skill of instruments of musick. 2Chr.34:12

This word for instrument is also translated as a weapon:

Keliy (h3627) kel-ee'; from 3615; any apparatus (as an implement, utensil, dress, vessel or weapon): - armour bearer, artillery, bag, instrument, jewel, psaltery, weapon,

Kalah (h3615) kaw-law'; to end, to cease, be finished, perish, too complete, prepare, consume): cease, consume (away), determine, destroy utterly, expire, make clean riddance, spend, quite take away, waste.  

The Greek word is identical so that when Paul refused to use carnal weapons he would not use carnal or lifeless instruments.

Jesus Came to Take the Musical Worship Teams Off our Backs UP

Remember that much of the Bible is to show the "before" and the "after"--the wrong and then the right way to serve a God of mercy and not harsh judgment like the "teams." Of God, Isaiah wrote--

He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. Is.53:11

When Jesus came He was assaulted by the musical "game-playing" children who wanted Him to grieve and lament to prove that they had defeated him or triumphed over him. Of the poor, oppressed lambs "laden" down by the nomos or doctors of the law, Jesus pleaded--

Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Mt 11:28

And he said, Woe unto you also, ye lawyers for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers. Lu.11:46

The Lawyers were:

Nomos (g3551) nom'-os; to parcel out, especially food or grazing to animals; law through the idea of prescriptive usage, regulation of law or Gospel...

The burden was:

Phortizo (g5412) for-tid'-zo; to load up (as a vessel or animal), figurative: to overburden with ceremony or spiritual anxiety: - lade, be heavy laden. (Lots of "invoices")

However, Jesus carries the burden and we just "sing" about the paperwork. Therefore,

Our "burden" is:

Phortion (g5413) for-tee'-on; an invoice as part of freight...

The Jewish clergy (who took away the key to knowledge) treated the people like mules and piled on more and more programs and rituals which, science fully knows, just creates endorphins or "morphine-like" drugs and creates spiritual anxiety--"do this and God will not chastise you and you will prove your worth to the institution." "Don't pick up sticks or psallo the grain on the Sabbath or we will have to have a party at the foot of a Roman cross." The burden Jesus absolutely removed, others want to tie around our necks is--

Phortizo (g5412) for-tid'-zo; to load up (as a vessel or animal), figurative: to overburden with ceremony or spiritual anxiety: - lade, be heavy laden.

Does loud preaching or singing work? Certainly, on many. By rousing the group, spiritual anxiety is created and the soothsayer can sell that as "spirituality." It has always been that way.

While it may sound "spiritual," science knows fully well that that music is effective by creating endorphins or morphine-like drugs. After a short period (very short for some of us) the grating, abrading nature of "show and tell" begins to short-circuit our nerve-endings and we feel like fleeing--but the low bass or the "booming" nails our feet to the floor in appeasement. Later, that which seemed so spiritual (like LSD), turns and rends the people and "your assemblies do more harm than good" (1Cor 11:17).

However, Jesus said that if we are not willing to leave the war-like rituals of family and city and follow Him "outside the gate" then we will just have to continue to be some rabbi's pack mule. When we give it up and follow Him, He removes this burden and "church" will be quiet, peaceful and no one will "lay a guilt trip" on you and then fail to lift the burden.

Loud music from living or dead idols, often musical instruments, was sold to the fools as the voice of the gods or demons. However, God warned:

Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it. Hab 2:19

But the Lord is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him. Hab.2:20

What Jesus has to give is rest, freedom from spiritual anxiety of religious ceremonies--

Anapauo (g373) an-up-ow'-o; to repose, be exempt, by implication: to refresh: - take ease, refresh.

Jesus did His praying (even hyming to Himself) in quiet places. This word is made up of two parts:

To "take your peace," or "come apart from the milling crowd and smell the roses." After all, the new disciples are "outside the gates."

Pauo or pausee, leave off speaking (please!), desist, come to an end, leave, just shut up.

If anxiety--real or artificially created by music and noise--is our concern then we truly fret over our salvation. There is, throughout Scripture and ancient writings, an insecure feeling which only music could soothe. It could first soothe Saul and then drive him into raving "prophesying" as a sign of judgment that he had no interest in God's Word.

A true appreciation for God's grace removes the insecurity felt by a brutalized orphan now adopted and given a new name and a new family. Then, Jesus said that our part of the burden of a ship laden with cargo is just the invoice: just proof that we own the goods--

Phortion (g5413) for-tee'-on; an invoice as part of freight...

Our burden is just the ship's bill of lading. It certifies that Jesus Christ has taken the burden of religious ritual and ritualizers off our backs and has given us the authority to excise them like a doctor removes a wart.

The Colossians, Ephesians and all of the churches had a rabble of men trading slavery for food. They wanted to drag the people back under the bondage or burdens of religious rituals, usually with music

Background to Corinth UP

In First Corinthians 13:1 Paul spoke clearly of the booms and clangs of the witches, soothsayers or warrior-musicians who plagued both Jews and pagans. In the next chapter, he spoke of similar people who oversaw war and then became the clergy-musicians under the direction of the commanders of the army.

Strabo Geography 10.3.16

Of the rites of Dionysus condemned by Paul:

"And he mentions immediately afterwards the attendants of Dionysus: one, holding in his hands the bombyces, toilsome work of the turner's chisel, fills full the fingered melody, the call that brings on frenzy, while another causes to resound the bronze-bound cotylae.

"and again, stringed instruments raise their shrill cry, and frightful mimickers from some place unseen bellow like bulls, and the semblance of drums, as of subterranean thunder, rolls along, a terrifying sound.

The sounding brass in First Corinthians thirteen was a Greek military instrument or hollow vase. It is directly related to the Chaldean which is a synonymn for astrologer. It was used like the familiar spirit or "old wineskin" of the witch of Endor to call up a ghost from the subterranean world. By whispering and murmuring into the skin the client heard mysterous sounds which were interpreted as from the gods. At the same time, it was used as a musical instrument or weapon to try to panic the enmy with the noise.

The Jews had lost their place and employment and traveled around selling prophetic messages. They held a great Feast of Tabernacles (call it a Jubilee) to pick the next "god of the year" or the greatest speaker, book writer, poet, sermon or song writer, singer or dancer. Jesus refused to go up until they quieted down because He knew that the ritual celebration was a mask for those who wanted to murder Messiah. The Jews were not responsible--the clergy was responsible.

The pagans understood that their jobs as silversmith and musical priestesses, deserting them with a "sucking sound." They wanted so desperately to force the new churches back into a worship ritual which would give them a "ministry," a job--"seeing godliness as a means of financial gain." However, Paul told them that they could not prove themselves any longer with teaching and singing in magic-sounding tones--always with a tune and usually with a noisy instrument. Might as well leave because we have cast off the burden and everyone knows that--

Even things without life (inanimate or mechanical instruments) giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? 1Co 14:7

There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices (bestial or artificial) in the world, and none of them is without signification. 1Co 14:10

Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me. 1Co 14:11

Even so ye, forasmuch as ye are zealous of spiritual gifts, seek that ye may excel (be superior) to the edifying of the church. 14:12 (Edification is Teaching--not moralizing, not "praising" for the congregation)

The clergy musicians excelled while the "pack mules" applauded their musical talent or were sexually attracted. However, the Christian system absolutely casts off the burden of the clergy worship teams. This leaves us free to bear one another's burdens. If we must excel let it be for teaching the once-revealed, once-preached Words of Christ.

Paul said nothing of "praise services" where we say "Lord, Lord." Rather, when one edifies the church it must be with the message from God--God doesn't need to be counseled or instructed--

Now, brethren, if I come unto you speaking (or singing) with tongues, what shall I profit you, except I shall speak to you either by revelation, or by knowledge, or by prophesying, or by doctrine? 1Co 14:6

No "praise songs" of the excelling class here. Songs must "fill up with the Word of Christ" (Col 3) or "fill up with Spirit" (Eph 5) and then, and only then, would Paul permit anyone to speak Christ's words and sing Christ's songs which words, Jesus said, "are spirit and life" (Jn 6:63).

We know that the silver trumpets or shophar were to signal the Israelites to bow or fall to the ground at the beginning of animal sacrifices.

"Only in Ps 150:3 is it (shophar) mentioned with most of the other really musical instruments. Hence, we must conclude that the function of the shophar was to make noise,be it of earthly or of eschatological character, but not to make music. After the destruction of the temple and the general banishment of all instrumental music, the shophar alone survived, just because it was not a musical instrument."(Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 473, Abingdon).

We do not know why David added musical type instruments to the animal sacrifices exclusively during certain dedicatory or purification rituals for wall dedication or at the temple. We do know that when he assembled the whole congregation of israel to move the ark the first time as a state ritual it met with disaster as the musical worship team created all of the confusion. Later, he did not call assembly and the ark was moved by priests, Levites, the King and his civil-city functionaries. This was not congregational worship--never was. But remember that David was establishing the temple state, and the king as the replacement for the rule of God as Israel did what they demanded: to worship like the nations. The sign was that he stripped off his clothes and bragged that while God might not give him honor, the slave girls would.

"It is important to bear in mind that all music of the temple, regardless of the period, was nothing but an accessory to its sacrificial ritual. Without sacrifice the music loses its raison d'etre. What was the inherent connection between the sacrifice and its accompaning music? This is still an unsolved puzzle. It is possible to compare a banquet for honored guests whereby quantities of burned meant, incense, and music were offered, to a sacred meal for a still anthropomorphically conceived deity, whose prestige demanded sacrifice, incense, praise, as well as musical entertainment.

"Whatever the original function of sacrificial music, it was forbidden immediately after the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70. Nor do we have all the details of the temple's musical practice... There is ample reason to believe that the Levites refused to divulge their 'trade secrets' and took them to their graves." (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 459, Abingdon).

If God had commanded the "musical" type instruments we would not wonder why He did it.

Musical worship occurs at various levels. We have witnessed some examples closely approaching that of the early Awakenings or ancient Chaldean devil worship which is described somewhat by the following:

"The female votaries of the phallus god Bacchus were known as the Bacchants...They were characterized by extreme forms of religious excitement interspersed with periods of intense depression. At one moment whirling in a frenzied dance, tossing their heads, driving one another on with screaming and the wild clamor of musical instruments, at another sunk into the deepest lethargy, and a silence so intense as to become proverbial. The Bacchants both possessed the god and were possessed by him; theirs was a religious enthusiasm in the proper sense of the term, that is, 'god-filled'. Having eaten the Bacchus or Dionysos, they took on his power and character..." (John M. Allegro, The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross).

Note: Biblical enthusiasm is thinking intently in the mind. On the other hand, Philo used the term en-theos-mania which did not mean the real God was in you. Rather, you had been "carried outside of yourself" as they did at Corinth.

The Greek word for enthusiasm means "inspirited to ponder, think or meditate." However, the enthusiasm ("gods within") at Colosse, Ephesus and Corinth was totally condemned. This enthusiasm was explained by Philo who--

"developed a doctrine of ecstasy or ek-stasis, which means standing outside oneself.' This is the highest form of piety which lies beyond faith. This mysticism unites prophetic ecstasy with 'enthusiasm', a word which comes from en-theos-mania, meaning to possess the divine. From this there comes finally the fully developed mystical system of the Neo-Platonists, for example, of Dionysus the Areopagite. In this mystical system the ecstasy of the individual person leads to a union with the One, with the Absolute, with God." (Tillich, Paul, A History of Christian Thought, Touchstone, p. 13).

This does not describe worship but drug addiction.  The high from endorphins (morphine-like or morphine-within) created by any form of artificial excitement can cause great feelings.  Ask any dancer.  However, pretty soon the drug wears off and there is an emotional backlash.  As Paul would say, "your assemblies do more harm than good." On Monday morning we do not find the musical celebrators any better off.

Milton in Il Penbserosa, equates the pleasure derived from hearing music to a religious experience

Then let the pealing Organ blow,
To the ful voic'd Quire below,
In Service high, and Anthems cleer,
As may with sweetnes, through mine ear
Dissolve me into extasies,
And bring all Heav'n before mine eyes.

The Corinthian women, just out of paganism, were imitating this so that the watching believer would understand them to be "enthused" or mad or insane just as they had been in paganism.  Paul errected a "wall" between the Christian and any pagan practice.

Paul speaks to women at two levels.  He speaks of their "uncovered prophesying" outside the assembly which would be the pagan "singing, dancing and playing instrumental music."  The clear message was "you want me, you can have me."  Men covering their head would be a sign of shame (Jeremiah.14:3) and women uncovering their head would be a sign of shame.

Next, as Paul said that he would not speak, pray or sing in tongues "in church" because of its weakness compared to speaking the Word, the women were not to be in a "stand over" role in singing.  The word, "silence" is understood even by feminist writers to be absolute in a teaching sense.  It does not, as Shelly suggests, shut off all sound from women.

Again, Philo is a good source for understanding the meaning of "prophesying" in the pagan or "head uncovered" meaning "prophetic ecstasy" which was pretending to get a message from the god usually with "singing and musical instruments" which were presumed to contain the god within.

Paul warned the Corinthians not to imitate the worship of Apis:

Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play. 1Co.10:7

"And the people celebrated this feast with burnt-offerings and thank-offerings, with eating and drinking, i.e. with sacrificial meals and sports, or with loud rejoicing, shouting, antiphonal songs, and dances, in the same manner in which the Egyptians celebrated their feast of Apis (Herod. 2, 60, and 3, 27)." (Keil and Delitzsch, Vol. II, p. 222).

After awakening the gods and godesses in Egypt:

"A burnt offering was then presented, accompanied by singing and music; and finally the goddess was ceremoniously clothed, adorned, and adored. The second service took place in the afternoon, which consisted chiefly of prayer and meditations before the images and symbols of the gods and which closed with music and antiphonal singing.

"A third service, quite brief... left Isis unclothed in her quiet temple... The two great autumn and spring festivals featured the death and resurrection of Osiris... and it was expressed with all the symbolism, mystery, music, singing, ritual, and pagentry... it was calculated to stimulate the deepest religious emotions, and fan the flames of ecstatic joy." (Fairservice, Walter A., Jr, The Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, p. 171-172, Mentor).

A Historian notes that they used the women, with uncovered and shaved heads, to specificially attract strangers to their "worship services." They were very worshipful of the talent and "put something in the pot" because they knew that the musical worship was always a prelude to real (or fancied) sexual intercourse with the musical performers:

"I saw in Byblos a great temple of Aphrodite of Byblos, in which they perform ceremonies in memory of Adonis (Tammuz see Eze 8:14), and I was told about the ceremonies. They say that the story of Adonis and the boar actually took place in their country, and in memory of this unhappy incident, they beat their breasts (Nahum 2:7) each year and wail and perform certain rites, and hold a great funeral ceremony throughout the whole land. When they have given their breasts a good beating (tabering) and done enough weeping, they first bring presents to Adonis as though to a dead man; but then, the morning after, they say that he is alive and up in the air. Then they shave their heads as the Egyptians do at the death of Apis. As for the women, all those who do not wish to be shaved pay the following forfeit: for one day, they must put their beauty on sale, but the market is open only to strangers, and the price is used for a sacrifice to Aphrodite." (p. 224-225) de Vaux, Roland, The Bible and the Ancient Near East, Doubleday

"There is certainly a day of rejoicing but it comes right at the beginning of the solemnities and celebrates the union of Cypris and Adonis. Moreover this text is the only reference we have to this nuptial feast. Even so on the day after this feast the women came out bare-breasted, hair awry, with their girdles unloosed so that their garments caught their heels, to sing the lament and to carry the image of Adonis to the sea. There the rites came to an end, and the fragment of text ends with a 'farewell until next year.'" (de Vaux, p. 232). (Paul warned of this in Romans 10:5f)

Why Women Worship Leaders Were Silenced in Corinth UP

Writing about the status of women in Pompii and their role in feasts:

"To what extent did women participate in the meal? Salza Prina Ricotti has conservatively stated that women were thought to be a distraction at dinner, and that they did not make invitations, receive guests, or conduct conversation during the meal.(34) Juvenal disagrees in the sixth satire, rebuking the erudite woman who belittles rhetors and grammarians in her dinner table remarks.(35) He exaggerates, but no less than to imagine that women took absolutely no part in dinner socializing. Catullus did not consider a dinner good without wine, wit, laughter, and the company of a lovely girl.(36) Judging by the (male) literature, men's reasons for female company at banquets primarily concerned the opportunity of love, or at least sexual relations.(37) Women of both high and low status were depicted as prizes at the table, taken by powerful figures like emperors sometimes even from their own husbands.(38) Thus the precepts written on the dining room walls of the Casa del Moralista at Pompeii advise guests not to make eyes at other men's wives.(39) There was a clear connection between food and sex; one course at some dinners was the women themselves.(40) Women were also known to entertain banqueters in the roles of mimes, dancers, singers and musicians.(41) Despite the few and biased sources, there is no doubt that many women enjoyed formal dinners in the company of men. Only the nature and degree of their participation seems to have differed, according to their rank and status.

Actresses and Musicians

The scenicae were involved in a craft aimed primarily at theatre-goers. It has been described as a 'closed craft', since daughters took over from their mothers. The classic example is that of the mother of the future Empress Theodora who put her three young daughters to work on the stage of licentious plays. The poet Horace described in his Satires (1.2.1) Syrian girls (whose name ambubaiae probably derived from the Syrian word for flute, abbut or ambut) livening up banquets by dancing lasciviously with castanets and accompanied by the sound of flutes. Suetonius simply equated these with prostitutes (Ner. 27). That is why Jacob, Bishop of Serûgh (451-521) in Mesopotamia warned in his Third Homily on the Spectacles of the Theatre against dancing, 'mother of all lasciviousness' which 'incites by licentious gestures to commit odious acts'. A sixth-century mosaic in Madaba in Transjordan depicts a castanet-snapping dancer dressed in transparent muslin next to a satyr who is clearly sexually-roused.[7]

According to Bishop John of Ephesus' fifth-century Lives of the Eastern Saints, Emperor Justinian's consort was known to Syrian monks as 'Theodora who came from the brothel'. Her career proves that Byzantine courtesans like the Ancient Greek hetairai could aspire to influential roles in high political spheres. Long before her puberty, Theodora worked in a Constantinopolitan brothel where, according to the court-historian Procopius of Caesarea's Secret History, she was hired at a cheap rate by slaves as all she could do then was to act the part of a 'male prostitute'. As soon as she became sexually mature, she went on stage, but as she could play neither flute nor harp, nor even dance, she became a common courtesan. Once she had been promoted to the rank of actress, she stripped in front of the audience and lay down on the stage. Slaves emptied buckets of grain into her private parts which geese would peck at. She frequented banquets assiduously, offering herself to all and sundry, including servants. She followed to Libya a lover who had been appointed Governor of Pentapolis. Soon, however, he threw her out, and she applied her talents in Alexandria and subsequently all over the East. Upon her return to Constantinople, she bewitched Justinian who was then still only the heir to the imperial throne. He elevated his mistress to Patrician rank. Upon the death of the Empress, his aunt and the wife of Justin II (who would never have allowed a courtesan at court), Justinian forced his uncle Justin II to abrogate the law which forbade senators to marry courtesans. Soon, he became co-emperor with his uncle and at the latter's death, as sole emperor, immediately associated his wife to the throne (Anecd. 9.1-10).

Slaves provided 'dinner-theater' entertainment for the guests while they served: singing, playing musical instruments, reciting verse, dancing, acrobatics, and playing farce.(63) Serving boys or girls dispensed the wine and offered sexually attractive appearances.(64) While slaves were accepted as part of the banquet's course and (sometimes) admired for their entertainment, they were simultaneously segregated from the real camaraderie of the meal. In a sense, they were performing puppets, subject to derision, degradation, abuse and punishment.(65)

Outside the assembly: In First Corinthians chapter ten Paul warned of the idolatry at Mount Sinai where they "rose up to play." This was singing with musical instruments and more. We noted that earlier while Moses recited the song, Miriam led the women out with the same play which was singing, dancing and playing. Later, Miriam, who was a musical prophesier claimed to be a true prophet with the power to mediate between God and mankind and get messages. For this she was struck with Leprosy. We noted that Paul warns that tongue singers or prophesiers be silent when the "assembly comes together" (11:17). This is smack in the middle of the warning about the Mount Sinai events. Therefore, Miriam was probably in Paul's mind when he silenced the women as "musical overseers of the flock."

Paul warned in First Corinthians 12:1f that they were close to or over the boundary of induced ecstasy which, in the pagan sense, was created by singing with musical instruments out of their own head or spirit (1Co 14:2). They were trying to sing to God when God wanted them to teach what He already knew. They would just be "speaking into the air" (14:9) which has a strong hint of the  worship of Juno. Speaking to the gods of the air was a common pagan practice.

Resounding gongs and clanging cymbals in 13:1f were associated with pagan prophesying which pretended to have a personal, knowing relationship with the gods in order to get a revelation. Paul then connects this to Molech worship of burning bodies while the instruments made a great noise to get a message from the gods. And in chapter eleven Paul warned against uncovered prophesying because it could not be distinguished from normal "Corinthinizing" prophesying:

But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven. 1Co 11:5 (That is, she would be seen as a prostitute prophetess)

In church history the people in community often met together in a social sense on Saturday night or on Sunday.  This was the time for doing much of what might be confused as "church."  Social singing "at the places of watering" was common.  However (See the Arians below), a time was set aside on the first day of the week and the members went into a private room--often an upper room--and took the Lord's Supper, prayed and did other things "in decency and in order."  There would be nothing or no one to distract them from honoring Christ in His supper.

Paul praises the Corinthians for their concern for his instructions outside the assembly. The women had not uncovered her head in the sense of leadership:

"No woman had as yet tried to dispense with the covering for the head while they were at worship; Paul is thus able to insert his word of praise. When he comes to the new subject, the truth is quite different. Abuses had actually crept in,... Thus while he transmits his directions regarding women with a word of praise, this praise must be omitted when he comes to speak about the assemblies for the purpose of celebrating the Sacrament.... Paul thus marks with great plainness that the disorders of which he now speaks occur in the public assemblies of the congregation." (Lenski, 1 Cor., 11:17)

Inside the assembly:  Speeches or sermons (with or without a tune) by women were forbitten "inside the assembly" because Paul speaks of the it by saying:

In the following directives I have no praise for you, for your meetings do more harm than good. 1Co 11:17NIV. Or as the Living Bible reads:

Next on my list of items to write you about is something else I cannot agree with. For it sounds as if more harm than good is done when you meet together for your communion services 1Co 11:17 LIV.

Researchers refute the notion that music had the magical ability to improve character. Indeed, Job, Amos, Isaiah and Ezekiel make the connection between instrumental music and disregard for the once-for-all delivered Word of Christ.

This is born out among the pagan women who were the almost-exclusive practitioners of instrumental ecstasy. Paul would call it madness. The ancient story of Genun (a composite Babylonian type of Jubal, Jabal, Tubal-Cain and Naamah) shows that mixing sexes in musical choirs leads inevitably to a break down of sexual walls (some walls need to remain up). The practice of the Romans was common in the ancient world and informs us that the men prophesiers were often "tilted" off to one side of sexuality:

"From the time when the rites were held promiscuously, with men and women mixed together, and when the license offered by darkness had been added, no sort of crime, no kind of immortality, was left attempted. There were more obscenities practiced between men than between men and women. Anyone refusing to submit to outrage or reluctant to commit crimes was slaughtered as a sacrificial victim. To regard nothing as forbidden was among these people the summit of religious achievement. Men, apparently out of their wits, would utter prophesies with frenzied bodily convulsions: matrons, attired as Bacchantes, with their hair disheveled and carrying blazing torches, would run down to the Tiber, plunge their torches into the water and bring them out still alight - because they contained a mixture of live sulfur and calcium. Men were said to have been carried off by the gods - because they had been attached to a machine and whisked way out of sight to hidden caves; or to submit to violation." Titus Livy, History of Rome, Book 39.13

This describes prophesying in terms of David's musical team used to signal animal sacrifices for affairs of the state.  It also describes prophesying in terms of pagan worship and at Corinth.  This uncovered prophesying was "singing with instrumental music." Doesn't that sound like the unbiased accounts of Caneridge?

The women prophesiers (1Cor 11) were just out of paganism where they taught without their head covered. This meant that they were deliberately singing and playing in order to attract the angels or demons to meet the needs of paying customers. They were effective because this signaled that the prophetess (musical prophesier) was available after "worship services."

Beginning in 11:17 Paul began to describe what was to happen "when you come together" to prevent the assembly from "doing more harm than good." In chapter fourteen he silenced women in the singing-speaking roles which "ruled over" others. You cannot ignore Paul without first denying that He was inspired.

The "house" is built up (edified) and not destroyed by teaching without any chief performers. Women were restricted, in part, because they had been the beautiful, articulate and musically talented in pagan temples. Paul understood men. He knew that men would be listening to the women and admiring them and not admiring (worshiping) God. Vicariously, they would remember the sacred prophetesses-musicians in Corinth and that she would be available after services for a "private lesson." Some of the men would be unnaturally attracted to the male (often dressed up and powdered like females) to the male singers. The acting-singing-playing religious musicians were often sexually mixed up or ambigious.

Performing singers must remember that the men were "overseers" and the women musicians were always "for my own pleasure." One word is translated as both "musical instruments" and "concubines." Jephthah's daughter had no business being with camp-follower-choir meeting the army. Modern women should not want to be either the overseer or the overseen. Indeed, God has removed the ritual overseers from the back of both men and women. This leaves the church free of performance and able to teach one another with Psalms (revealed), hymns (prayers, usually "to yourselves") and spiritual songs (defined as the revealed Word of God).

Women who prophesied (often musically) were to be veiled (1Cor 11) because of the sexual attraction created by musical skills--even ugly old men become sexually attractive if they are charismatic singers. This would warn against female singers even outside the assembly. In ! Cor. 11:17 Paul begins to describe the destructive nature of "when you come together" and in chapter fourteen completely outlawed women (who would be unveiled in the family setting) from singing or speaking musically or otherwise. "If she can preach with a tune why cannot she preach without a tune?" Indeed! Call it the "first step of the camel getting into the tent" performing roles which only qualified pastor-teachers are to occupy.

Remember that after Moses sang or recited his song, Miriam led the women out with tambourine and dance, Jephthah's daughter met a returning army--pledged to abstinence for the duration--and was in the wrong place. Jezebel's hundreds of priests of Baal and Asherah relied on music, the king of Tyre was a musical prostitute. Truly, the "law" or the record shows that unfaithful women were often the downfall of Israel. Miriam (prophetess means poetic singer or wife of a prophet) was afflicted with leprosy for attempting to be the overseer or "musical spokesperson" for God.

Deborah sang "at the place of watering" but it was to chide the men for not taking the lead. And, traditional literature strongly implicates musical instruments as Eve took the oversight in the Garden of Eden. "Because of the angels" has a strong connection to the Apocalyptic literature which says that Jubal was under the influence of Satan and his band of "disfellowshiped" angels who taught him how to make and play instruments and organize mixed choirs. There were no women as members of the Levitical "worship team" and Solomon clearly choose men and women as "concubines" or "musical instruments" -- "for my own pleasure"

However, Truth is Often Sacrificed:

"Psalmody thus came to be increasingly the monopoly of trained singers, and the 15th canon of the Council of Laodicea, 360 AD, proscribed that 'no others shall sing in the church save only the canonical singers...who go up into the ambo and sing with a book. (Int Std Bible Ency, Psalms, p. 2494A)

"The first change in the manner of singing was the substitution of singers who became a separate order in the church, for the mingled voices of all ranks, ages, and sexes, which was compared by the great reformer of church music to the glad sound of many waters (H. H. Milman, Hist. of Christianity, Vol, iii, pp. 406, 409).

The most beautiful singing I hear most Sundays comes from a young woman who can't read and has a range of about three notes. She remembers the words and teaches me while her singing is vertical: melody in the heart and directed to God, not me.

McClintock and Strong identify the "musical clergy as the first heresy largely pervading the church." Musical worship teams is the new fad for the new Jubilee which will overturn the old order and make the church into what we all would like it to be. However, in the end, the arrogant usurping of the existing leadership and imposing the "idolatry of talent" to oversee and lead the congregation is worship will--has always--done more harm than good because it is directed to our own sensual appetite.

The Arians Changing the Law UP

Plato warned that when the style of music changes we should not just worry about the singing but the nature of the songs. His warning was sounded because he had been told that when the styles of music changed it was in order to change the style of government. The musicians were the menial servants of the priesthood to force or pacify, through induced chemicals, the people to go along with the changes even though the emotionally-mature knew that it was for the aggrandizement of the change agent and they gagged on being fooled but would suffer anything to "keep the unity of the brotherhood." I would think that even an illiterate shepherd would know that wolves and sheep cannot coexist when the walls are broken down.

"Already at the end of the second century the Byzantine, Syrian, and later the Armenian church showed a marked preference for new, nonscriptural hymns, despite all warnings by the catholic authorities. Even Canon 59 of the Council of Laodicea (360-81), which expressly prohibited nonscriptural texts, was constantly circumvented and openly violated, as the enormous hymn literature of the Eastern churches demonstrates.

"The fact that the Maronite or Uniate Armeanian churches came under Roman jurisdiction did in no way diminish the quantity of free hymns in their liturgies. Such inclinations are obviously remnants of ethnic, possibly pagan, predilections, which no doctrine, however strict, could eleminate. Musically speaking, this results in the relatively larger number of metrical tunes in the Eastern tradition... The West remained conservative, faithful to scripture, and admitted rather late (seventh to eighth century) metrical Latin hymns to its official liturgy." (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

The Arians understood that the way to gather a crowd (not worth gathering) was by exhibitionist musicians:

"The Arians, as we have said, held their meetings without the city. As often therefore as the festal days occurred, that is to say, the Sabbath and Lord's day of each week, on which assemblies are usually held in the churches, they congregated within the city gates about the public piazzas, and sang responsive verses adapted to the Arian heresy. This they did during the greater part of the night; and again in the morning, chanting the same responsive compositions, they paraded through the midst of the city, and so passed out the gates to go to their places of assembly." (Socrates or 'Scholasticus,' Ecclesiastical History, Book VI, Chapt. VII., p. 314).

Not even the Arians dared bring the musical performance into the secret places where they met the Lord in His Supper. However, their mass meetings were to inculcate a diminished role for Christ and an increased, oversight - teaching role for women:

"Arius, therefore, and Achilles, having lately entered into a conspiracy, emulating the ambition of Colluthus, have turned out far worse than he.... they... endured no longer to be subject to the Church; but building for themselves dens of thieves, they hold their assemblies in them unceasingly, night and day directing their calumnies against Christ and against us. For since they call in question all pious and apostolical doctrine, after the manner of the Jews, they have constructed a workshop for contending against Christ,... and preaching that he is only the equal of others." (Alexander, Epistles on the Arian Heresy, Ante-Nicene VI, p. 291)

The result of performance music (labeled praise which in Hebrew is overwhelmingly self boasting) has always been the fulfillment of the prophecy contained in all Hebrew and Greek words associated with instrument melody or music to bypass the brain. That is, instrumental music was to panic the enemy or attract the customers of the prostitute. In the case of the Arians the result was a competition by the "old wineskin churches" for performance skills to attract the "miscellaneous crowds" back to the church of the Jubilee Atonement before a Divine Christ appeared.

"In Constantinople in the days when John Chrysostom was its bishop, the Arians are said to have congregated in the city squares and around the gates, or to have paraded through the streets at night, going to their meetings outside the walls, chanting antiphonally songs which denounced the Catholic views. To counter their efforts, John encouraged some of the Catholics to chant their own hymns in nocturnal processions. As a result violent conflicts between the two factions arose, and several on both sides were killed.' (Latourette, p. 207).

As always, the recruited women were convinced by the leader (hiding his methods and motives) that their exhibitionism was serving God. They knew little of God's Mind or Spirit and were just sheep helping the new change agent bring the existing churches into a tribunal (published far and wide to make the churches of Christ look like immature fools) to judge the old pattern makers and applaud the new paradigm makers:

"And now indeed, they drag us before the tribunals of the judges, by intercourse with silly and disorderly women, whom they have led into error; at another time they cast oppribum and infamy upon the Christian religion, their young maidens disgracefully wandering about every village and street." (Alexander, Epistles on the Arian Heresy, Ante-Nicene VI, p. 291)

Any woman who would get involved with putting herself on display was automatically looked upon with suspicion. Of course, among those looking for entertainment how better to attract them. However, talented or spiritually motivated, Paul knew that it was not possible for women to preside, oversee or stand over the flock of sheep--perhaps mostly goats--without misdirecting their minds to sensual "worship" to replace a quiet reading of the already - preached songs and sermons recorded in Scripture.

"For these seducers do always lie, nor will they ever speak the truth. They go about the cities, attempting nothing else but that under the mark of friendship and the name of peace, by their hypocrisy and blandishments, they may give and receive letters, to deceive by means of these a few silly women, and laden with sins, who have been led captive by them'." (Alexander, Epistles on the Arian Heresy, Ante-Nicene VI, p. 296).

However, the common theme is that when our "patterns" are failing and we need, as in Mexico and Babylon, to help God hold up the skys, we find a legalistic way to get God to rescue us we turn to music. The sexual appeal of women has always been used to enhance the religious system for financial gain. Of Corinth, where their assemblies "did more harm than good."

"This mountain was covered with temples and splendid houses; but was especially devoted to Venus, and was the place of her worship....and it was enjoined by law, that one thousand beautiful females should officiate as courtesans, or public prostitutes, before the altar of the goddess of love. In time of public calamity and imminent danger, these women attended at the sacrifices, and walked with the other citizens singing sacred hymns...

Foreign merchants were attracted in this way to Corinth; and in a few days would be stripped of all their property...It became the most gay, dissipated, corrupt, and ultimately the most effeminate and feeble portion of Greece." (Barnes, Albert, Introduction to 1 Cor., p. iv).

In time, the church would return to its pagan roots and demand clergy musicians to replace the congregational singing of the Words of Christ:

"In competition with pagan musical art, congregational singing began to wane. Basil states that he had 'the Psalms rendered by skillful presentors after the manner of the triumphal Odes of Pindar, the congregation joining at the closing verse, with the accompaniment of lyres." Int Std Bible Ency., p. 2494A

Malchion wrote against Paul of Samosata: UP

"Neither need I say anything about his pride and the haughtiness with which he assumed worldly dignities, and his wishing to be styled procurator (employed to manage your affairs) rather than bishop (servant or shepherd) and his strutting through the market-places, and reading letters and reciting them as he walked in public, and his being escorted by multitudes of people going before him and following him.

These men always sold themselves as ministers or servants. However, the obvious and early method was to subjugate the church to his plans and programs. If you didn't endorse his control of your money and spiritual authority he turned on you and gored you to put you out of business so the others would not dare speak or protest:

"Nor of his censuring and insulting those who did not applaud him nor shake their handkerchiefs, as in done in the theatres, nor bawl out and leap about after the manner of his partisans, both male and female, who were such disorderly listeners to him, but chose to hear reverently and modestly as in the house of God; nor of his unseemly and violent attacks in the congregation upon the expounders of the Word who have already departed this life, and his magnifying himself, not like a bishop, but like a sophist (clever but devious speakers--for hire) and juggler (jokester, buffoon); nor of his putting a stop to the psalms sung in honour of our Lord Jesus Christ, as (he supposed) the compositions of recent men, and preparing women to sing psalms in honour of himself in the midst of the church, in the great day of the Paschal festival, which choristers one might shudder to hear."

You cannot sing the magical incantation of Fanny Crosby and preach a sermon extolling her virtues (however deserved) without worshiping Fanny. You cannot sing "praise" songs composed to display the looks and talent of a musical worship team without diminishing the Word of Christ written to be our songs and sermons.

It seems clear that entertaining church assemblies and large buildings are intended to reflect favorably upon the team. One historian noted the connection between cathedrals and "civic pride." The biggest building with the best entertainment got the concession for the fairs and lots of trinkets and books and sermons were sold. Perhaps big money will under gird your effort because it is good for the motel and entertainment industry. No magic handkerchiefs for the not-quite-fools but magical little books to make you more spiritual. Kill off the competing gods by holding news conferences.

"Just now there is a commotion among the choirs of some of the city churches, which extends to the congregations, growing out of high bidding for leading singers--one church bidding over another. It is said that one Presbyterian church has offered a lady who sings in an Episcopal choir the sum of eight hundred dollars per annum to change her position. In another Episcopal church the choir is being reconstructed on a basis of expending some twelve hundred per year for music. In other churches there is uneasiness in the choirs, and all are looking for something better. The church that has the most popular choir draws the largest miscellaneous audiences.." (Millennial Har., 1868, pp. 280-285).

I doubt that we would convene a loud, amplified, rehearsed choir to play while God-Incarnate took upon Himself the suffering of lost mankind. These performances, even they say ten thousand "Lord, Lords" or other mantras, must and may be intending to hide the God Who demands that we give up trying to arouse idols and come before Him in silence.

Paul refused to acknowledge that the Son of God came down from heaven. The women who could be seduced into being his co-ministers were kept with the clergy:

"And they who sing his praise and eulogise him among the people, declare that their impious teacher has come down as an angel from heaven... And then again there are these women, those adopted sisters, as the people of Antioch call them, who are kept by him and by the presbyters and deacons with him." (Malchion, Ante-Nicene Fathers, VI, p. 170).

This Paul probably didn't know much about the Apostle Paul:

"While Paul's contempt of musical instruments was based upon the Pharisaic view, the later Christian authorities had much more cogent reasons for their antagonism against all instrumental music. The pagan theater and circus, with their licentious (read: "head exposed for exhibit.") female musicians, attracted vast masses of Gentile Christians, who were accustomed to these spectacles... The church needed three centuries of severe legislation to eradicate at least the worst of these orgiastic customs." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 468-9, Abingdon).

Surely, if we put our talent and women on display the "gentiles" or unbelievers can be attracted to our church. The "children of god" movement put their women and even young girls out as prostitutes knowing that this is a powerful way to attract customers. Afterward, we can somehow get him indoctrinated and initiated into our mysteries.

Musical Worship Teams are Musical Shepherds UP

Malchion understood that when the Biblical text was ignored it was a denial of Christ by honoring a sentimental poet who seemed to better "meet their needs." He also understood that these musical women were literally overseeing the flock under the control of the "head" shepherd and other deacons and no one dared object. Remember that after Solomon's death, the older, senior people would be punished just for asking for some relief from these musical overseers.

Instruments, loud performance or a wired-up-amplified-beautiful-talented-rehearsed choir are the attraction of the worship. It may not be possible to get through to God in an environment where we are "overseen" so that we have no option but to look, listen, admire and--if we believed history--to lust. Remember, that Jesus went into the quiet places to find God. He still found the Father in the "whisper of a voiced silence." He was not in the "earthquakes" or "wind storms" of Baal. Job treats this as "hot air out of their belly."

Picture Christ hanging on a cross as a servant of mankind. His hands are raised because his hands are nailed to the cross. Now picture a pulpit with a musical minister or worship team raising hands praising God but singing their own songs ("you offer the sacrifice to Me but you eat the meat yourself", said God.) But you simply cannot see through the noise and sight and see Christ. Their ministry is not transparent; they are transparently standing in the place of Christ or His appointed shepherds as overseers.

Though Ephraim built many altars for sin offerings, these have become altars for sinning. Hos 8:11

I wrote for them the many things of my law, but they regarded them as something alien. Hos 8:12

They offer sacrifices given to me and they eat the meat, but the LORD is not pleased with them. Now he will remember their wickedness and punish their sins: They will return to Egypt. Hos 8:13

Israel has forgotten his Maker and built palaces; Judah has fortified many towns. But I will send fire upon their cities that will consume their fortresses." Hos 8:14

Do not rejoice, O Israel; do not be jubilant (from Jubilee) like the other nations. For you have been unfaithful to your God; you love the wages of a prostitute at every threshing floor. Hos 9:1

Praise with the harp or other musical instrument was performed in the belief that literally going mad (as in Corinthians 14) would prove that the gods had come into you:

Halal (h1984) haw-lal'; a prim. root; to be clear (orig. of sound, but usually of color); to shine; hence to make a show, to boast; and thus to be clamorously foolish; to rave; causat. to celebrate; also to stultify: - make boast (of self), celebrate, commend, make fool, glory, give light, be (make, feign self) mad (against), give in marriage, [sing, be worthy of] praise, rage, renowned, shine

A derived word is:

Heylel (1966) hay-lale'; from 1984 (in the sense of brightness); the morning-star: - lucifer.

Again we quote:

Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm (maggots) is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. Is 14:11

How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! Is.14:12

The goal seems to be that Women first preach and oversee the flock without instruments and later oversee with instruments. First with a tune and later without a tune. The goal, always, is to expose them in "the idolatry of talent." The hidden agenda, known only to Satan perhaps, is to find a direct route to God's revelation (for our century) because of malcontent over the Word. This is a revival of shamanism. For that you need a wineskin religion and god-arousing rituals with musical worship teams and later musical instruments.

Lucifer's weapon or instrument, as he came equipped for a musical ministry in his effeminate agent, was the nebel, an old wine skin or the familiar spirit of the witch of Endor:

Nebel (h5035) neh'-bel; from 5034; a skin- bag for liquids (from collapsing when empty); hence a vase (as similar in shape when full); also a lyre (as having a body of like form): - bottle, pitcher, psaltery, vessel, viol

Nabel (h5034) naw-bale'; a prim. root; to wilt; gen. to fall away, fail, faint; fig. to be foolish or (mor.) wicked; causat. to despise, disgrace: - disgrace, dishonour, lightly esteem, fade (away, - ing), fall (down, -ling, off), do foolishly, come to nought, * surely, make vile, wither..

The new wineskin also worked because it was hollow but not always totally empty of content. The soothsayer or witch could chant Lord, Lord or Ab, Ab into the skin and get an echo. Take a sip now and then and your incantations (enchantations) got better, siller and could, therefore, be sold as proof that the god had entered through the new wine in the new wineskin. Now wonder that the proponents of the "laughing exercises" go on to promote national groups.

The wine skin or water skin of the witch of Endor was similar. It has the same meaning as crying "Lord, Lord" or "Father, Father" or Hallelujah, hallelujah. As a mantra it is supposed to work some childish magic. The witches instrument was the:

Owb (h178) obe; from the same as 1 (appar. through the idea of prattling a father's name); prop. a mumble, i. e. a water-skin (from its hollow sound); hence a necromancer (ventriloquist, as from a jar): - bottle, familiar spirit.

And the "booming gong" of First Corinthians thirteen was a more modern model as they were trying to speak the language of angels. Through these means--a bone flute, the windpipe of a crane, a plank over a hole in the ground, or the best drum and cymbal--they hoped to get a message from the god who would speak through them. Indeed, that was the meaning of women prophesying.

Chalkos (h5475) khal-kos'; perh. from 5465 (lowering into the chasm) through the idea of hollowing out as a vessel (this metal being chiefly used for that purpose); copper (the substance, or some implement or coin made of it): - brass, money.

This has the same, basic meaning of the brass instruments which the magicians, as Satan's agents, used to seduce our ancestors. It is closely associated with the "whispering" or "hissing" sound of the serpent.

The contest between the new gods and the old gods has always been led by musical worship teams. As in Babylon, and the serpent's attack upon God through Adam and Eve, the old gods are defeated with musical hissing (from the sound of the dragon or serpent). The new gods are celebrated, and the older, mature leaders are actually triumphed over by the vocal and instrumental music of the musical worship teams:

[9.3.10] As for the contests at Delphi, there was one in early times between citharoedes, who sang a paean in honor of the god; it was instituted by the Delphians. But after the Crisaean war, in the time of Eurylochus, the Amphictyons instituted equestrian and gymnastic contests in which the prize was a crown, and called them Pythian Games. And to the citharoedes they added both fluteplayers and citharists who played without singing, who were to render a certain melody which is called the Pythian Nome. There are five parts of it: angkrousis, ampeira, katakeleusmos, iambi and dactyli, and syringes. Now the melody was composed by Timosthenes, the admiral of the second Ptolemy, who also compiled The Harbours, a work in ten books; and

By "melody he means to celebrate the contest between Apollo and the dragon, setting forth the prelude as anakrousis, the first onset of the contest as ampeira, the contest itself as katakeleusmos, the triumph following the victory as iambus and dactylus, the rhythms being in two measures, one of which, the dactyl, is appropriate to hymns of praise, whereas the other, the iamb, is suited to reproaches (compare the word "iambize"), and the expiration of the dragon as syringes, since with syringes (reed or brass pipes related to the serpent) 4 players imitated the dragon as breathing its last in hissings. 5  (Strabo Geography 9.3.10)

To condemn this, Paul said to fill up with the Word of Christ (spirit or mind Jn 6:63) and the teach and admonish (reproach) one another with the human voice. The melody or abrading would be in the heart.

Apollo was the god of music, poetry and prophecy. He represented manly youth and beauty" as a handsome young man. Ea, the Babylon patron god of music defeated the old Gods of water (representing the Word?) by the magical incantations.

The wise, the instructed

the exalted one,

Ea, who understands everything,

saw their plan

He grasped it,

and comprehending all, sat

He prepared his power,

his holy witchcraft,

He numbered it

and put it in water.

Sleep came upon Apsu

resting, he sank down.

He put Apsu to rest,

pouring out sleep.

Mummu wandered about,

with dress disordered

He burst his bond,

from his mouth...

His lustre was gone

he himself was prostrated.

Ea had bewitched him;

Apsu he had killed.

&emdash;(Barton, p. 280).

Marduk had to be called in for consultation to murder Tiamat, his grandmother! Having gained a concession to become chief God Marduk, the god killer, then cursed and took a magical plant with him. However, when Tiamat knew she was being challenged&emdash;

Tiamat, when she heard this,
Was like one possessed;
she lost her reason.
Tiamat cried out vehemently with high voice,
Like roots divided in twain her legs trembled.
She uttered an incantation,
she cast a charm.

Musical Worship Teams are the True Overseers UP

The shepherd or senior males who are "already laboring to the point of exhaustion in preaching and teaching (Lenski)" do not organize and delegate. He does not use a hireling for his most important job. He cannot delegate this to a musical worship team. His job is to place the sheep in front of food and water and allow the lambs to grow up naturally. His job is:

Prostemi (g4291) pro-is'-tay-mee; to stand before in upright position; i.e. in rank to preside, or (by impl.) to practice: - maintain, be over, rule.

Those who stand before the flock to teach or entertain or just to "get em back alive Sunday night, dead or alive," are its true and only shepherds. This is true because buildings and grounds or administering all of those make-work programs is not shepherding the flock. There is nothing he can do to counteract the token teaching through song and sermon.

The elders were male and matured, married, proven were "pointed out" or identified and followed because they were already doing the job. They were chosen as "apt to teach." If they do not teach then they have abandoned their "walled corral" and the wolves take over. They were not the young lions or the raging bulls who have no true shepherding skills:

And we beseech you, brethren, to know them which labour among you, and are over you in the Lord, and admonish you; 1Th.5:12

Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. 1Ti.5:17

True singing is a way for a "one another" ministry of teaching and counseling. When individual (solo) "teaching and admonishing" is to be done it is done by the shepherds.

Noutheteo (g3560) noo-thet-eh'-o; to put in mind, i.e. by implication: to caution or reprove gently: - admonish, warn.

This is more often a one another task, in and out of assembly, by those who are filled up with spirit (the Words of Christ Jn 6:63). Then, they are equipped to teach and gently reprove one another. There is no reproof with "Lord, Lord" forms of praising. The senior males are not to be the "praise the Lord leader." The way he can "praise the Lord" is to tell everyone what God has done in God's words.

Musical Worship Teams are Preachers UP

Modern choirs or "worship teams" are deliberately ordained to "rule over" the singing. Because singing should be teaching, the team becomes the true ruler over the flock at its most important time. It then doesn't matter much who decides the color of the soap dish. This is just a case of the "young lions" usurping the "shepherds." This leaves the sheep in danger and the lions get the flock for supper or its cash equivalent. One writer notes that "if she can preach over the flock with a tune then why can't she preach over the flock without a tune?"

Plato Gorgias 502c

She is bent rather upon pleasure and the gratification of the spectators.

Socrates: Well now, that kind of thing,

Callicles, did we say just now, is flattery

Callicles: Certainly.

Socrates: Pray then, if we strip any kind of poetry of its melody, its rhythm and its meter, we get mere speeches as the residue, do we not?

Callicles: That must be so.

Socrates: And those speeches are spoken to a great crowd of people?

Callicles: Yes.

Socrates: Hence poetry is a kind of public speaking.

Yes, and solo singing or women in musical worship teams are involved in public speaking or teaching. Rubel Shelly notes that women should be permitted both solo singing, choir singing, Bible reading or teaching.

Athene threw a flute away because playing it reminded the audience of an obscene sexual practice. Even the contortions during public preaching as part of a musical worship team is found attractive by men who are attracted for the musical spectacle:

Aristotle Politics:

"[1341b] and all the instruments that require manual skill. And indeed there is a reasonable foundation for the story that was told by the ancients about the flute. The tale goes that Athena found a flute and threw it away. Now it is not a bad point in the story that the goddess did this out of annoyance because of the ugly distortion of her features; but as a matter of fact it is more likely that it was because education in flute-playing has no effect on the intelligence, whereas we attribute science and art to Athena.

"And since we reject professional education in the instruments and in performance (and we count performance in competitions as professional, for the performer does not take part in it for his own improvement, but for his hearers' pleasure, and that a vulgar pleasure, owing to which we do not consider performing to be proper for free men, but somewhat menial; and indeed performers do become vulgar, since the object at which they aim is a low one, as vulgarity in the audience usually influences the music, so that it imparts to the artists who practise it with a view to suit the audience a special kind of personality, and also of bodily frame because of the movements required)

 Plutarch, Life of Marcellus, xiv. 65, and

Quaest. Conv. viii. 2. 1, 7, where Plato is represented as "having been angry with Eudoxus and Archytas because they employed instruments and apparatus for the solution of a problem, instead of relying solely on reasoning."

Musical Teams at Caneridge UP

Concurrent with the Jubilee revival movement, competing forces restored the laughing exercises, members of the church appealed to choirs and instruments to pull the church out of the dumps, and an appeal to try to restore the Caneridge revival.

The witch craze in New England was a result of competition between the older "tribal" preachers and a new preacher. The preacher who could create the greatest revival would be the "king for the year." Consistent with all revivalism, many innocent victims have to be sacrificed to "relight the fires." In face, in the now-popular Aztec revival a victim's chest was cut open, the still-breathing heart was cut out, and a new "fire" was lit in his heartless chest. This fire created at the central sanctuary by the revival was then rushed back to the "little houses" or congregations and was used to restore order to the local houses. The world was safe for another year, the sky would not fall, Venus or Athene (probably) would not attack the earth but we have to rush back next year to do it all over again. The Aztecs also had their 52 year restoration program. Call it "Jubilee" or call it "the New Year's Revival."

"As early as 1794, a Methodist church in North Carolina held meetings in the forests for several days and nights" (Jennings, p. 27-28).

"The camp meeting was well introduced by the beginning of the next century. Excitement was intense. This was largely the result of impassioned preaching, earnest exhortation, loud prayers, and energetic singing. Bodily exercises, as dropping, jerking, and barking, often manifested themselves, but since they too often brought disrepute upon religion, they were frequently condemned by the better educated of all denominations." (Jenning, Walter W., Origin and Early History of the Disciples of Christ, p. 28, Standard).

Describing Caneridge, Conkin notes that:

"Sinners dropping down on every hand, shrieking, groaning, crying for mercy, convoluted; profesors of religion praying, agonizing, fainting, falling down in distress, for sinners, or in raptures of joy! Some singing, some shouting, clapping their hands, hugging and even kissing, laughing; others talking to the distressed, to one another, or to opposers of the work, and all this at once--no spectacle can recite a stronger sensation. And with what is doing, the darkness of the night, the solemnity of the place, and of the occasion, and conscious guilt, all conspire to make terror thrill through every power of the soul, and rouse it to awful attention." (Letter quoted by Conkin, p. 93-94).

"Soon the sheer confusion practically subverted the outdoor preaching. Small groups joined in prayer or in loud hymn singing, with singing the most enjoyable group activity and the one that often most affected an audience... More conventional shouts and groans joined with a near babble of speech, some incoherent, some later distinguished as holy laughter or singing." (Conkin, p. 94).

While the numbers seem to multiply with the telling, Stone estimated that between 500 and 1,000 were converted. It took stone about thirty years to admit that the meetings "did more harm than good."

"When Lyle came by, he found Burke's audience in an ecstasy of singing and hand-shaking. Burke's new pulpit became the most tumultuous of four centers of activity, including also the tent, the meetinghouse, and a Negro assembly area, probably about 150 yards southeast of the church. Dozens of informal circles or organized or semi-organized prayer groups met at various camping sites." (Conkin, p. 96).

While by Monday most people had to leave and return to their farms, the news had spread and people kept coming until organized effort ceased on Thursday.

"They do bear comparison to the ring shouts and dancing so often observed in black religious services, which were probably a survival of African religious practices. Indeed, black religion in the South may have had some influence on expected or sanctioned ways of giving bent to religious ecstasy at Cane Ridge. What the exercises revealed were religiously serious people who, in a powerfully suggestive environment, chose, or were forced, to reenact the drama of Jesus' passion and the ever-recurring drama of their own tortued quest for salvation. These mutually reinforcing dramas forced people toward experiential poles--on one hand the extreme of personal revulsion and self-doubt, on the other that of exaltation and joy." (Conkin, p. 104).

The very symbols, Joseph Campbell calls them "affect images," of Jubilee with its necessary Atonement, revivalism, new wine in new winskins, the Aztec "burn down the old houses, make human sacrifices and relight the fires in every house (congregation), are connected to ancient lament rituals because the gods seem to be lost and the sky is falling down. The quiet Lord's Supper celebrates what Jesus Christ has done to fulfill Jubilee, Passover and all Jewish rituals. However, to abandon that in order to amass a sufficient crowd to "relight the fires" may be trying to force people to reenact the drama of Jesus' passion. Conkin notes, however, that it it is the "ever-recurring drama of their own tortured quest for salvation" which doesn't seem to be found in buildings and "patterns."

However, the theme in all god-arousal awakenings or Caneridge revivals is that:

"To some extent they were contrived, both by those who exhorted and by those who listened and responded. Certain techniques, which ministers conscientiously learned, helped push audiences toward an ecstatic frenzy. Certain hymns, certain tunes worked better than others. Certain repeated and familiar verbal images, those with great resonance for an audience, worked better than others. I n many of the greatest revivals the spark was a type of confession--the telling of what had happened to oneself there or at an earlier revival. Some ministers learned the most evocative ways of telling their stories. Several sermonic devices--timing, phrasing, pauses, and above all the display of intense feeling--worked." (Conkin, Paul, Cane Ridge America's Pentecost, p. 106, U of Wis.)

This is still a taught skill and ministers fall into deep depression when the style does not work on normal, educated people. Others note that even the most Biblically illiterate man could, and did, learn the magical preaching techniques, developed by black Baptists, and lead the more ignorant on to revival and musical ecstasy.

"The Baptists had a peculiar appeal to the masses. Their preachers, usually with very slight education, knew their audiences and how to address them in language (with a musical cadence) which would hold their attention and bring conviction. They tended to be highly emotional." (Latourette, p. 1037).

Alexander Campbell UP

Alexander Campbell: INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC From: MILLENNIAL HARBINGER, September 1851, 581-2 quotes a letter from a mister G, who saw music as desirable specificially because it would be the change agent and control agent by restoring ancient, pagan, charismatic worship:

"INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC is entirely in harmony with the most grateful, solemn and happy feelings of which the human heart is susceptible. Indeed, sacred music upon an instrument, tends, in a very considerable degree, to excite solemn and holy emotions; and we cannot forbear to say, that could the music of our churches be improved--could it be accompanied with an instrument, it would soothe and calm the feelings of the auditors; it would improve the order of the house; it would call into lively action the latent religious emotions of the heart, and add very much to the enjoyment on such occasions.

"Music exerts a mysterious charm upon man--it takes captive the citadel of life--carries him out of himself, and leads him where it will. The shrill fife and the rattling drum, inspire the soldier just about to enter into battle, with a zeal and daring which no hardship can overcome, and no danger intimidate, and causes him to rush headlong into the thickest of the combat, regardless of consequences. If martial music thus inspires the worshippers of Mars, will sacred music do less for the humble followers of the meek and lowly Jesus--the worshippers of the true and living God? No!

 "It will not. It will inspire them, too, with zeal and courage, and impel them on to resist--not flesh and blood with instruments of death, but principalities and powers--spiritual wickedness in high places, with the armor of God and the sword of the Spirit. G."

In answer, Campbell, who subscribed to the Presbyterian notions about music, wrote that a wine skin gospel is for those who have lost the love for the Word:

"The argument drawn from the Psalms in favor of instrumental music, is exceedingly apposite to the Roman Catholic, English Protestant, and Scotch Presbyterian churches, and even to the Methodist communities. Their churches having all the world in them--that is, all the fleshly progeny of all the communicants, and being founded on the Jewish pattern of things--baptism being given to all born into the world of these politico-ecclesiastic communities--I wonder not, then, that an organ, a fiddle, or a Jews-harp, should be requisite to stir up their carnal hearts, and work into ecstasy their animal souls, else "hosannahs languish on their tongues, and their devotions die." And that all persons who have no spiritual discernment, taste, or relish for their spiritual meditations, consolations and sympathies of renewed hears, should call for such aid, is but natural. Pure water from the flinty rock has no attractions for the mere toper or wine-bibber. A little alcohol, or genuine Cognac brandy, or good old Madeira, is essential to the beverage to make it truly refreshing. So to those who have no real devotion or spirituality in them, and whose animal nature flags under the oppression of church service, I think with Mr. G., that instrumental music would be not only a desideratum, but an essential prerequisite to fire up their souls to even animal devotion. But I presume, to all spiritually-minded Christians, such aids would be as a cow bell in a concert.

Plato Ion

"[534a] just as the Corybantian worshippers do not dance when in their senses, so the lyric poets do not indite those fine songs in their senses, but when they have started on the melody and rhythm they begin to be frantic, and it is under possession--as the bacchants are possessed, and not in their senses, when they draw honey and milk from the rivers--that the soul of the lyric poets does the same thing, by their own report. For the poets tell us, I believe, that the songs they bring us are the sweets they cull from honey-dropping founts

Note: The Corybantes were priests of Cybele or Rhea, mother of Zeus and other Olympian gods, and she was worshipped with wild music and frenzied dancing which, like the bacchic revels or orgies of women in honor of Dionysus, carried away the participants despite and beyond themselves. Cf. Eurip. Bacchae.

Strabo Geography 10.3.9

"The religious frenzy seems to afford a kind of divine inspiration and to be very like that of the Soothsayer..

For although it has been well said that human beings then act most like the gods when they are doing good to others, yet one might better say, when they are happy; and such happiness consists of rejoicing, celebrating festivals, pursuing philosophy, and engaging in music; for, if music is perverted when musicians turn their art to sensual delights at symposiums and in orchestric and scenic performances and the like, we should not lay the blame upon music itself, but should rather examine the nature of our system of education, since this is based on music.

Musical Worship Teams Part of the Jubilee Restructure UP

One common theme in religion for the last decade, in many religions, is a restoration of the Jubilee in the hope that God will bring about the kingdom and the Atonement which Christ apparently failed to accomplish on His first, failed try (premillenialism). A sign of the real Atonement will be "breaking down the walls" between all religious groups. The Pope will have his final, great Jubilee in the year 2000. The real Messiah will rise up and rule. Militia movements see the symbolism of the jubilee as important.

Another common theme is "new wine in a new wine skin." The upside down interpretation of Jesus' parable is that He said: "Put new, fermenting, bubbling, intoxicating wine in a new, stretchable wineskin and it can grow to include all denominations." However, Jesus--and every Jewish schoolboy--knew that you cannot contain fermenting wine in any wineskin if it is closed. His message was to "put new, sterilized juice in a new, fumigated skin or earthen jar, exclude the air and new leaven and it will keep all year." Our's moms knew that!

New wine will be a gospel which is inclusive--no walls--and a bubbling, exhilarating worship service where people act as if wine-influenced. No. This is what Paul condemned in Colosse and Ephesus.

The goal of modern "restructure" after the old "houses" have been burned down Aztec style and the lands have been "returned to its rightful owners" in the image of a jubilee. The "old gods" or old-preachers-turned-enemies must be ritually murdered and the new gods must "triumph over" by blowing their own little trumpets.

Rubel Shelly sets the stage with red-hot, equilibrium-upsetting prejudice by comparing the Church of Christ's view of women's roles to racism, sexism and "our" view of slavery in the old South. He then directly contradicts the clear statements of Genesis and Paul to speak excathedra with a broad brush to say "let my people go"--

"The Bible is not against women ministering, using their God-given talents, standing up and speaking, administering church programs, singing (congregationally, small groups, or solo), reading Scripture, sharing information about church projects, testifying, teaching sub-groups of the church's membership (whether female, male, or mixed), writing articles or poems that will be used by males, or otherwise participating fully in the life of local churches. A church's failure to encourage the development of female talent and work robs it of countless blessings. That same failure results in buried talents that return no dividend to the owner who entrusted them to the church through its female membership." (Rubel Shelly, Women, Role in Ministry, Faith Matters, Woodmont Hills Church of Christ)

First, Rubel establishes a new organization for the church: "buildings and grounds, education ministry, women's ministry" and then uses this as a platform to jump to the conclusion that the Bible permits these new--but usually non-productive, pyramidal-- ministry systems and therefore having gained authority for that step, takes the next to put women in "charge."

Jubilee is an appealing affect image because it is the occasion for certain women to assume there inheritance and perhaps hasten the "not-yet-fermented kingdom of God.". Because the daughters of Manasseh had no specific tribe the men proposed that:

And when the jubilee of the children of Israel shall be, then shall their inheritance be put unto the inheritance of the tribe whereunto they are received: so shall their inheritance be taken away from the inheritance of the tribe of our fathers. Nu.36:4

To prevent this, Moses made new laws to keep the inheritance from moving from tribe to tribe. Therefore, whatever private deal a person made for buying or renting land it expired at the Jubilee and all property returned to the tribe which was much like a denomination. There should be no tribalism in the Christian church and therefore no reason for a Jubilee. Jesus Christ has accomplished the once-for-all Atonement and, again, there is no reason for a restoration of the Hebrew Jubilee. I have found no direct knowledge that Israel observed the Jubilee nor were chastised for not doing it.

The Jubilee was an effort to triumph over those who bought tribal (denominational) property. The goal was to recover the "congregational churches" and put them under the fellowship umbrella of a new Wineskin model. Jubilee is directly connected to Jubal and his family who invented the loud trumpet. This would have been a great device to call the community into a meeting for honorable purposes. However, all of the children of Lamech have names implicating them in divination or ignoring God's commandments and getting a new message from loud horns and old wineskins:

Yowbel (h3104) yo-bale'; appar. from 2986; the blast of a horn (from its continuous sound); spec. the signal of the silver trumpets; hence the instrument itself and the festival thus introduced: - jubilee, ram's horn, trumpet

Yabal (h2986) yaw-bal'; a prim. root; prop. to flow; causat. to bring (espec. with pomp): - bring (forth), carry, lead (forth). (Yabbel "having running sores.")

It may not be too far fetched to say that Jubilee was a religious festival devoted to blowing your own horn. With the final Atonement by Jesus, the tribal arrangement has been broken down. The walls between tribes, black and white, Jew and Gentile, bond and free, male and female. However the walls against pagan practices are still and the gates had better be locked.

We noted above that God permitted the silver trumpets to signal the tribes to move, go into battle or assemble. However, after they assembled for instruction they were not to blow the trumpets as a way to make a joyful sound--to triumph over the Word of God. Therefore, the Jubilee is a code word for an assembly to triumph over the church of Christ as a destructive denomination and restore the property to its "rightful owner." Jubilee is not a model for the God-ordained congregational assembly for instruction and edification.

Charismatic styles of singing must interfere with the inner prayer (the meaning of hymning) or singing from each member to God as we teach one another. No "worship team" can lead or perform the worship for another. No instrument need sound for God to hear us. It is embarrassingly painful to see anyone who believes that their talent can replace your "widow's mite."

Amos condemned Israel for going up to the high places (idol altars) of Samaria. Verse 6:5 in the Septuagint (LXX) version often quoted by Jesus reads--

Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. Am.5:23

who excel (marginal "applaud") in the sound of musical instruments; they have regarded them as abiding, not as fleeting pleasure." Amos 6:5 LXX (Jesus did read this version).

Pepys, ravished (raped) by the sound of wind music in the theatre, was reminded of the time when he was in love with his wife.

"For some people this is the height of enjoyment, povided the music presents no problems. But it is neither a substantial nor a lasting pleasure, and it is limited by the endowments of individual performers."

"In the Babylonian cult, for instance, hymns of praise had an important place. Every New Year, when the cycle of the seasons returned to its beginning (Annual and 52-year Jubilee-like ritual of the Aztecs was almost identical to the Babylonians), the worshipers reexperienced and reactualized the victory of the powers of life over the powers of death. The creation myth of Enuma elish depicted the victory of the god Marduk over the dragon of Chaos, Tiamat. Not only was the myth recited, but the battle was reenacted during the festival. At the climax of the celebration worshipers joined in the acclamation, 'Marduk has become king!' This is interpreted to mean that he had reascended his throne for another year." (Anderson, p. 522).

Remember that it was Ea, the patron god of music, who destroyed the Father god but could not overpower the incantation power of Tiamat, the mother goddes. Ea's son, Marduk, met in a conference or workshop with the other young gods. He had a deal they couldn't refuse: "If you make me the chief god, I will even destroy my old grandmother." And he did. This is why mounting the Towers of Babel with music must be performed on the annual dates.

The musical religion of Marduk always stood opposed to the Word religion God ordained.

Music as the Ultimate Change Agent UP

Evangelists have adopted an old education concept that you have to upset the equilibrium before you can teach new patterns.  Destroy all of the old "patterns" and tell the ignorant that you want to establish a "paradigm." This is the "change" power and those who use it are the change agents. The best way to upset the equilibrium to make the changes is to wrench away the "traditional" role of music and force a new style. This will then make changing the laws or doctrines easier:

"the primary effect of music is to give the listener a feeling of security, for it symbolizes the place where he was born, his earliest childhood satisfaction, and his work, any or all of these personality shaping experiences. As soon as the familiar sound pattern is established, he is prepared to laugh, to weep, to dance, to fight, to worship, etc... Apparently the character and the variety of the music matters less than its conformity to tradition, which produces a sensation of security. The work of composers in the folk world is, so far as I have observed, limited by this stylistic security-bringing framework." (Goldschmidt, Walter, Exploring the Ways of Mankind, p. 609, Holt, Rinehart and Winston)

"An art so deeply rooted in the security patterns of the community should not, in theory, be subject to rapid change; and, in fact, this seems to be the case. Musical style appears to be one of the most conservative, if not the most conservative of culture traits. Religion, language, even many aspects of social structure may change; an entirely new set of tunes or rhythms or harmonic patterns may be introduced; but, in its over-all character, a musical style will remain intact. Only the most profound social upheavals--the coming of a new population; the acceptance of a new set of mores or migration to a new territory, involving complete acculturation will profoundly transform a musical style, and even then the process takes place very slowly." (Goldschmidt, Walter, Exploring the Ways of Mankind, Holt, p. 609, Rinehart and Winston)

Anyone who doubts this might take a look at the history of "Rock and Roll and Rap."  Rap, in fact, is being adopted by modern "restructure" movements because it fits the hand clapping, stomping and other efforts to find the lost gods and initiate you into pagan, male sects of society. When the effeminate king of Tyre turned to prostitute music and wanted to be remembered, the meaning of the Hebrew is "remembered as a male." Only those who have lost their maleness need to fall into ecstatic fits to remind the watching world that "I am, too, a male."

While most so-called musical worship rituals have wandered from Paul's "fill up the speak out" pattern of teaching unmodified Scripture, we can be certain that any new, forced style of musical worship is a deliberate effort to use melody (Hebrew from "pruning the vine" or "taking your inheritance") as a way to "sit down" or "put out" (ritually murder) the older members and restructure along the lines of the Hebrew Jubilee, the Babylonian New Year's Festival or the Aztec "burn down the old houses" ritual to prop up the sky because the gods seem to be failing.

We can feel the glee "ooze" out of every pore of those who have somehow forced a radical change to the style of worship over the objection of the older members. Remember that the first, liberal change agent forced the first organ into the church at Midway Kentucky over the objection of the elders of the church.

Because it can easily be shown that many "churches" in their present incarnation are more Greek than Biblical, it is interesting that Plato warned that music was a system of "gradualism" used as change agent. In the Republic, Book IV, he understood that those changing the musical forms intended to change the laws. Therefore;

"... music and gymnastic (must) be preserved in their original form, and no innovation made. They must do their utmost to maintain them intact. And when anyone says that mankind must regard...

The newest song which the singers have, (Osyssey)...

they will be afraid that he may be praising, not some new songs, but a new kind of song; and this ought not to be praised, or conceived to be the meaning of the poet; for any musical innovation is full of danger in the whole State, and ought to be prohibited. So Damon tells me, and I can quite believe him; he says that when modes of music change, the fundamental laws of the State always change with them..."

"Then," I said, "our guardians must lay the foundations of their fortress in music?"

"Yes," I replied, 'in the form of amusement: and at first sight it always appears harmless'." (The Great Dialogs, Plato, Classic edition, p. 312)



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