Freed-Hardeman University - Bill Swetmon - Psallo and Josephus

Bill Swetmon: Preachers Forum 1991 mishandles Josephus to prove that PSALLO authorizes instrumental music. The careless promoters of instrumental music in non-musical churches still rely on this forum so that "opinion" permitted to stand by FHU becomes authority or even a command for instrumental music.

NACC 2013 Victorius: Willing to sow discord after more than a hundred years based on the word PSALLO which is really the MARK left by Paul for those who cannot read the phrase "Making Melody IN the Heart."

See the two major PSALLO words which are never DEFINED. Instead, I will show how the words are used having several meanings.  If we twang a bowstring to send forth a singing arrow into a literal heart then PSALLO would obligate the instrumentalists because there is very little about twanging a HARP string and then the examples are ugly or even forbidden.

Lynn Anderson The Beginning of Musical Idolatry

Danny Corbitt and Matt Dabbs Psallo

John T. Willis 2. "Sing" is vocal; "make melody" is instrumental. Psalms 33:2-3; 144:9; 149:1, 3 make this crystal clear. Amos 5:23 further verifies this reality.  People forget that God turned Israel over to worship the starry host because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. The Levites were under the KING and the COMMANDERS of the army: they made war and not worship. We will examine these passages in context.

Danny Corbitt Refuting Everett Ferguson Psallo, Psalmos, Psalmus, Psalma
David Faust Papers

A Ralph John Psallo and Psalmos

Does  PSALLO Authorize Musical Instruments 
Dwayne N Dunning and Ray Downing.

The "speaking" connected with tongues outlaws instruments: when you speak the LOGOS it is opposite to music.
Ephesians 4 Unity in Diversity
Ephesians 5 Singing amd Making Melody
Clangs and Gongs in the Classics
Ephesians 6 We Wrestle not with Musical Instruments.

See That David in the Psalms agrees with all eviidence: that the Psalms were to be NARRATED to tell the story of GOD and the purpose was to INSTRUCT.  All of the historic information proves that the synagogue, as a School of the Word, always used a system of accenting the prosody to make it impossible for anyone to make commentary by the tone of their voice and especially setting it to meter.


Some links to the Greek texts have been changed on me: I will update..

See Danny Corbitt in Missing More than Music who appeals to Josephus.
See A. Ralph Johnson on the Josephus Fallacy

See Tom Burgess and more data on PSALLO as a WARFARE and not a MUSICAL word.

This will connect you to the UNholy trinity of those who use ANTI-instrumental music as a curse word.

During the 1991 preachers forum at Freed-Hardeman University, "neutral"-instrumental music speaker, Bill Swetmon, made many arguments as a "Pro-Instrumentalist" which did not get answered. The book published as a result of the Preacher Forum is still used as an authority to prove that God permits, nay demands, that we sing with a harp. I will try to restrict this paper to telling the rest of the story from history and from Josephus who is Swetmon's authority:


You will note that a different form of the word is used for SINGING in the Old and New Testament:

Psallō psaō I. to touch sharply, to pluck, pull, twitch, Aesch.; toxou neuran ps. to twang the bow-string, Eur.; belos ek keraos ps. to send a shaft twanging from the bow, Anth.; so, skhoinos miltophurēs psallomenē a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark, id=Anth.

II. to play a stringed instrument with the fingers, not with the plectron, Hdt., Ar., Plat.
2. later, to sing to a harp; sing, NTest.

Psallo never MEANS "sing to a harp" but it is used in connection sith singing to a harp.

Psal-ma , atos, to, A. tune played on a stringed instrument, 
Psal-mizō , A. sing psalms, and psal-mistēs , ou, ho, psalmist
        Paul said to SPEAK psalms
Psalmōd-ia , A. singing to the harp,
Psaltōd-eō , A. sing to the harp, LXX 2 Ch.5.13.
In Psalm 41 it was prophesied that Judas would not be able to triumph over Messiah: that act is excluded from the synagogue and excludes "vocal or instrumental rejoicing" including elevated forms of speech.  The Judas bag was always attached to a flute case for carrying the mouth pieces of wind instruments.  At the last supper Jesus had ground the SOP for him as the mark that Satan had entered him.
II. intr., crumble away, vanish, disappear, S.Tr.678 (s. v. l.). (psaō, psaiō, psauō, psairō, psēkhō, psōkhō, and perh. psiō, psōmos, seem to be different enlargements of ps-, which corresponds to ps- in Skt. psā ´ti, bhes- in Skt. babhasti 'crush, chew, devour', bhasman 'ashes'.)
Psōmos , ho, (psōō)
A. morsel, bit, ps. andromeoi gobbets of man's flesh, Od.9.374, cf. Amips.19.2 (anap.), X.Mem.3.14.5, Pericles ap. Arist. Rh.1407a2, Plb.30.26.6; “ps. artouLXXJd.19.5, al. (ps. alone, Ru.2.14).

Psallo by itself just means to PULL with your fingers and NEVER with a plectrum.

In a GODLY sense as used in the Bible it is always translated as to sing. While Apollo (the Psallo message) plucked his lyre to shoot forth love arrows, the godly people used it for the "shooting" word in "shooting forth hymns."

"And so the lyre-player [psaltees] not rudely nor inelegantly put the curb on Phillip when he tried to dispute with him about the way to strike [psalles] the lyre [psalteerion]. -Moralia, p. 67F.

Again, Phrynichus says in The Phoenician Women, '
        With plucking [
        of the strings they sing [
        their lays in answering strains." -The
Deiphnosphists, XIV. 635, Translated by Gulick, Vol. 6, p. 427.

Psallō ,
FIRST: A. note spelling psalōLXX Jd.5.3, 1 Ep.Cor.14.15: aor. “epsēlaPl.Ly. 209b, etc., and in LXXepsa_laPs.9.12, al.:

1 Cor 14:15 ti oun estin; proseuxomai pneumati, proseuxomai de kai noi: psalō pneumati, psalō de kai noi:

Judg. 5:1 Then SANG Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day, SAYING,
Judg. 5:2 Praise [kneel] ye the LORD for the AVENGING of Israel, when the people willingly offered themselves.
Judg. 5:3 Hear, O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes; I, even I, will SING unto the LORD; I will SING praise to the LORD God of Israel.

1Cor. 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also:
        I will SING with the spirit, and I will SING with the understanding (mind, spirit) also.

Of tightening a bow string or a lyre string with your FINGERS: excludes using a PLECKTRON, it does not mean "play + the + harp

Plat. Lysis 209b  And, I suppose, when you take your lyre, neither your father nor your mother prevents you from tightening or slackening what string you please, or from using your finger or your plectrum at will: or do they prevent you? Oh, no. Then whatever can be the reason, Lysis, why they do not prevent you here,

All of the uses speak of "handling" a string of any kind.

Psa. 9:11 SING praises to the LORD,
        which dwelleth in Zion:
        declare among the people his doings.
Psalm 9.[12] For he who avenges blood remembers them.
        He doesn't forget the cry (clamor=applause, shout, loud sounds to afflict)

SECONDpluck, pull, twitch, ps. etheiran pluck the hair, A.Pers.1062:

kai psall' etheiran kai katoiktisai straton.

Aesch. Pers. 1060
Xerxes [1060] And with your fingers tear the robe which drapes you.
Chorus Anguish, anguish!
Xerxes Pluck out your locks, and lament our host.
Chorus With clenched nails, with clenched nails, with loud wailing.

ALL of the NACC "plucking" terms speak of vile older men pluckiing the harp to seduce a young male whos hairs had been plucked.  Tom Burgess implicates the pluckers but refused to quote the full story.
Plutarch, Lives [4] Such objects are to be found in virtuous deeds; these implant in those who search them out a great and zealous eagerness which leads to imitation. In other cases, admiration of the deed is not immediately accompanied by an impulse to do it. Nay, many times, on the contrary, while we delight in the work, we despise the workman
        as, for instance, in the case of perfumes and dyes; we take a delight in them but dyers and perfumers we regard as illiberal and vulgar folk

[5] Therefore it was a fine saying of Antisthenes, when he heard that Ismenias was an excellent piper: But he's a worthless man," said he, "otherwise he wouldn't be so good a piper."
And so Philip [Philip of Macedon, to Alexander.] once said to his son, who, as the wine went round, plucked the strings charmingly and skilfully, "Art not ashamed to pluck the strings so well?" It is enough, surely, if a king have leisure to hear others pluck the strings, and he pays great deference to the Muses if he be but a spectator of such contests

THIRD: Psallo is primarily making war: grinding the enemy into SOP.

ESPECIALLY of the bow-string, toxōn kheri psallousi neuras twang them, E.Ba.784; “kenon krotonLyc.1453; ek keraos ps. belos send a shaft twanging from the bow, ;

Why would Christ the Spirit permit a VIOLENCE and POLLUTION--LADEN word to be used to permit evil people to ATTACK His people when He died to give them REST from religion?
E.Ba.784 Already, look you! the presumption of these Bacchantes is upon us, swift as fire, a sad disgrace in the eyes of all Hellas. No time for hesitation now! away to the Electra gate! order a muster of all my men-at-arms, of those that mount fleet steeds, of all who brandish light bucklers,
of archers too that make the bowstring twang; for I will march against the Bacchanals. By Heaven this passes all, if we are to be thus treated by women.

to touch sharply, to pluck, pull, twitch

Neura, A.string or cord of sinew,
2. harpstring, Poll.4.62. IG22.554.15.
4. withe, to bind.

Baru-phthoggos A. loud-roaring,leōnh.Ven.159, B.8.9; deep-lowing, of cows, Arist.GA787a33; b. neura loud-twangingbowstring, Pi.I.6(5).34; deep-toned,auloi” [flute

Pind. I. 6 Just as we mix the second bowl of wine when the men's symposium is flourishing, here is the second song of the Muses for Lampon's children and their athletic victories: first in Nemea, Zeus, in your honor they received the choicest of garlands, [5] and now in honor of the lord of the Isthmus and the fifty Nereids, for the victory of the youngest son, Phylacidas. May there be a third libation of honey-voiced songs to pour over Aegina in honor of Zeus Soter of Olympia.

Bakkhē  A. Bacchante, A.Eu.25, S.Ant.1122 (lyr.), Ar.Nu.605, Pl. Ion534a, etc.: generally, Bakkhē Haidou frantic handmaid of Hades, E.Hec.1077; “b. nekuōnId.Ph.1489 (lyr.).

Mainas , ados, h(, (mainomai)The Mad Women of Corinth (1Cor 11) are well documentd.
A. raving, frantic, lussa v. l. in S.Fr.941.4; “bakkhēE.Ba.915.
2. as Subst., mad woman, esp. Bacchante, Maenad, “mainadi isēIl.22.460, cf. h.Cer.386, A.Fr.382, S.OT212 (lyr.), etc.; of the Furies, A.Eu.500 (lyr.); of Cassandra, E.Tr. 173 (lyr.).
3. = pornē, Poll.7.203 cod. A, Hdn.Epim.83.
II. Act., causing madness, esp. of love, “mainas ornisPi.P.4.216.

Pind. P. 4 Aphrodite of Cyprus brought the maddening bird to men for the first time, and she taught the son of Aeson skill in prayerful incantations,
   so that he could rob Medea of reverence for her parents, and a longing for Greece would lash her, her mind on fire, with the whip of Persuasion.
FOURTH: so miltokharēs skhoinos psallomenē a carpenter's red l
I. to soil or defile,  be doomed to have one's hair defiled with earth
mingle together, confuse, thęriôdous (beasts) from a confused and savage state,

Thęriôdęs [eidos] cf. d; bioton ek pephurmenou kai thēriōdous diestathmēsato from a confused and savage state, E.Supp. 201.

Eur. Supp. 201 but I hold a contrary view, that good over bad predominates in man, [200] for if it were not so, we should not exist. He has my praise, whichever god brought us to live by rule from chaos and from brutishness, first by implanting reason, and next by giving us a tongue to declare our thoughts, so as to know the meaning of what is said, 

This is never used of a carpenter's line used to mark a line in the Greek text, but of the polluted rope used to MARK men who dallied around the singing, playing, speaking in the marketplace.
The Agora or Marketplace: Hebrews says we have to go OUTSIDE of the Camp / Agora to find Jesus to be His Disciple and find REST.

Jesus consignes the Pipers, singers (lamenters) and dancers to the marketplace. The polluted psallo rope MARKS anyone who hangs around the public speakers, singers, and other MERCHANDISE peddlers. Paul called "corrupting the Word" selling learning at retail.  Therefore, the PSALLO word first used by the Disciples /Christian churches in 1878 (without scholarly support) MARKED them.

This only speaks of the polluted rope used to DRIVE those who dallied around the singing boys and girls in the marketplace where they sold radishes and the bodies of young men. When they were forced to the Ekklesia (church) they were MARKED. They were fined and not permitted "fellowship."

Jesus consigned the pipers, singers and dancers to the marketplace: they were the persistent Dionysus Abomination of Desolation who plagued the Temple.

Miltoô n the ROPE covered with red chalk with which they swept LOITERS out of the Agora to the Pnyx (The ekklesia was on the Pnyx: dalliers around the music girls disqualified them from discussion)
Beluo-sus (bell- ), a, um, adj. [id.] , abounding in beasts or monsters: Oceanus, _ast; Hor. C. 4, 14, 47; so Avien. Ora Marit. 204.

II. of men, beast-like, wild, savage, brutal, Lat. bellui_nus, Eur., Plat., etc.:--
        to th. the
animal nature, Eur.
2. in Pass. also to mix with others, have dealings with him,  
Mito-omai , Med., A. ply the woof in weaving, AP6.285 (Nicarch.): metaph., phthongon mitôsasthai let one's voice sound like a string

2. in Pass. also to mix with others, have dealings with him, Plat.

Thērion , to (in form Dim. of thēr),
A. wild animal, esp. of such as are hunted, mala gar mega thērion ēen, of a stag, Od.10.171, 180 (never in Il.); in Trag. only in Satyric drama, S.Ichn.147 (dub. in A.Fr.26): used in Prose for thēr, X.An.1.2.7, Isoc.12.163, etc.; of the spider's prey, Arist.HA623a27; freq. of elephants, Plb.11.1.12, al.: pl., beasts, opp. men, birds, and fishes, h.Ven.4, Hdt.3.108.
III. as a term of reproach, beast, creature, , cf. Eq.273; kolaki, deinō thēriōPl.Phdr.240b; mousikē aei ti kainon thērion tiktei” 

Plat. Phaedrus 240b  has mingled with most of them some temporary pleasure; so, for instance, a flatterer is a horrid creature and does great harm, yet Nature has combined with him a kind of pleasure that is not without charm, and one might find fault with a courtesan as an injurious thing, and there are many other such creatures [thērion] and practices which are yet for the time being very pleasant; but a lover is not only harmful to his beloved but extremely disagreeable to live with as well.

Kolax A. flatterer, fawner, parasite, Ar.Pax756, Lys.28.4, Pl.Phdr. 240b,
II. lisping pronunciation of korax, Ar.V.45.
2. in later Gr., = Att. goēs,
Korax , a^kos, ho, “koraxi kai lukois kharizesthai
Lukos VI. nickname of paiderastai, AP12.250 (Strat.), cf. Pl.Phdr. 241d.
Goēs , ētos, ho, A. sorcerer, wizard epōdos Ludias apo khthonosE.Ba.234
2. juggler, cheat, “deinos g. kai pharmakeus kai sophistēsPl.Smp.203d; “deinon kai g. kai sophistēn . . onomazōnD.18.276; “apistos g. ponērosId.19.109; “magos kai g
Sophis-tēs , ou, ho, A. master of one's craft, adept, expert, of diviners, with modal words added, “hoi s. tōn hierōn melōn” [MELODY IN THE SHRINE]
3. later of the rhētores, Professors of Rhetoric, and prose writers of the Empire, such as Philostratus and Libanius, Suid.; “Apollōnidē sophistē [Abaddon, Apollyon]
PHARMAKIA identifies the speakers, singers and instrument players in Revelation 18: John called them sorcerers and says they will be (are) cast alive into the lake of fire.

B. mousikę aei ti kainon thęrion tiktei

A.  Mousikos, musical, agônes m. kai gumnikoi  choroi te kai agônes ta mousika music,  

II. of persons, skilled in music, musical, X.l.c., etc.; poiętikoi kai m. andres Pl.Lg.802b ; kuknos [minstrel]  kai alla zôia; peri aulous - professional musicians, mousikos kai melôn poętęs, use with singing, skilled in speaking before a mob. Melody, 

B. aei always
C. kainos , esp. of new dramas, the representation of the new tragedies,  (Aphrodisias dedicated to Aphrodite (ZOE); comedy, sexual love, pleasure, a woman's form of oath, Aster or Venus or ZOE.Therion
D. Tikto mostly of the mother 
E. of Rhea one of the zoogonic or vivific principles
Phur-aō 2. metaph., malakēn phurasamenos tēn phōnēn pros ton erastēn ebadizen making one's voice supple, i.e. soft, towards one's lover 
d. = pathētikos, PHib.1.54.11 (iii B.C.), 1 Ep.Cor.6.9, Vett.Val.113.22, D.L.7.173.
e. of music, soft, effeminate, “m. harmoniaiPl.R.398e, 411a, cf. Arist.Pol.1290a28; tuned to a low pitch, opp. “suntonos, khrōma m.Cleonid.Harm.7, etc.
See Jay Guin / Ryan Christian to see that the BEAST means "A new style of song or drama" the hunting is erotic.

They hoped that John wore SOFT clothing.
Con-fundo mingle, or mix together. to confound, to force people together in speech. b.Trop., of intellectual confusion, to disturb, disconcert, confound, perplex
B. Meton 2. Esp., with the idea of confounding, disarranging, to confound, confuse, jumble together, bring into disorderb. Trop., of intellectual confusion, to disturb, disconcert, confound, perplex 
Clamor: I. A loud call, a shout, cry; of men and (poet.) of animals (very freq. in all periods and species of composition) B. In partic., a friendly call, acclamation, applause:
Mito-omai A. ply the woof in weaving,.): metaph  phthoggon mitōsasthai let one's voice sound like a string,  
Surig-matôdęs, A. like the sound of a pipe, whistling,
FIFTH  gunaikas ex andrōn psogos psallei, kenon toxeuma

1. Women and
2. Men
3. Psogos A. blamable fault, blemish, flaw, lampoon Id.Lg.829c

MAKING poetry of Poets, compose, write, p. dithurambon, epea, Hdt.1.23, 4.14; “p. theogoniēn HellēsiId.2.53; p. Phaidran, Saturous, Ar.Th.153, 157; p. kōmōdian, tragōdian,
4. Kenos 2. empty, fruitless, void, “kena eugmata eipōnOd.22.249 throw without a projectile,
tox-euma    eballon Bakkhiou toxeumasi kara gerontos, of the cottabus,
Metaph, of songs and words, Pi.I.5(4).47; so “kardias toxeumataS.Ant.1085;

Pind. I. 5 Men whose voices name the outstanding island of Aegina as their fatherland, built long ago [45] as a tower for lofty excellence to ascend. My swift tongue has many arrows, to shout the praises of these heroes.

Soph. Ant. 1085 There, now, are arrows for your heart, since you provoke me, [1085] launched at you, archer-like, in my anger. They fly true—you cannot run from their burning sting. Boy, lead me home, so that he may launch his rage against younger men, and learn to keep a quieter tongue [1090] and a better mind within his breast than he now bears.Exit Teiresias.

SIXTH: never "MEANS" to PLAY on a HARP: Psallo means pluck but you must define WHAT is to be plucked.  You will find that all of these are of the gender confused.

II. mostly of the strings of musical instruments, play a stringed instrument with the FINGERS, and not with the plectron, “psēlai kai krouein plēktrō”     
Krouō , fut. - E.El.180: aor.2. strike one against another, strike together   ,  k. kheiras clap the hands,  would have knocked their heads togethe 4. metaph. from tapping an earthen vessel, to try whether it rings sound
5. strike a stringed instrument with a plectron, Simon.183, Pl.Ly.209b: generally, play any instrument (v. krouma, kroumatikos)“, aulei . . krouōn iasti       

 IT EXCLUDES: Psallo and STRIKE with a Plektron

Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, Book 14
book 14, chapter 35: ... estin, ho men gar hēdistos Anakreōn legei pou: psallō d' eikosi khordaisi magadin ekhōn, ō Leukaspi, su
But some people raise a question how, as the magadis did not exist in the time of Anacreon (for instruments with many strings were never seen till after his time), Anacreon can possibly mention it, as he does when he says-
      I hold my magadis and sing,
      Striking [psallō] loud the twentieth string,
      O Leucaspis.
But Poseidonius is ignorant that the magadis is an ancient instrument, though Pindarus says plainly enough that Terpander invented the barbitos to correspond to, and answer the pectis in use among the Lydians-
      The sweet responsive lyre
      Which long ago the Lesbian bard,
      Terpander, did invent, sweet ornament
      To the luxurious Lydian feasts, when he
      Heard the high-toned pectis.
However, Diogenes the tragic poet represents the pectis as differing from the magadis; for in his Semele he says-
      And now I hear the turban-wearing women,
      Votaries of the Asiatic Cybele,
      The wealthy Phrygians' daughters, loudly sounding
      With drums, and bull-roarers, and brazen-clashing
      Cymbals, their hands each striking in concert,
      Pour forth a wise and healing hymn to the gods.
  Likewise the Lydian and the Bactrian maids
      Who dwell beside the Halys, loudly worship
      The Tmolian goddess Artemis, who loves
      The laurel shade of the thick leafy grove,
      Striking the clear three-cornered pectis, and
      Raising responsive tunes upon the magadis,
      While flutes in Persian manner neatly joined
      Accompany the chorus.

Pl. l. c., et ibi Sch.; “ean tis psēlas tēn nētēn epilabēArist.Pr.919b15; “mousikōtatos ōn khata kheira dikha plēktrou epsalleAth.4.183d; opp. kitharizō, Hdt.1.155, SIG578.18 (Teos, ii B. C.); prin men s' heptatonon psallon (sc. tēn luran) Ion Eleg.3.3: abs., Hdt. l. c., Ar.Eq.522, Hippias (?) in PHib.1.13.24; “koraisMen.Epit.260; “psallein (pluck) ouk eni aneu luras” (Lyre) Luc.Par.17:—Prov., rhaon ē tis an khordēn psēleie 'as easy as falling off a log',

Mousikos II. of persons, skilled in music, musical, X.l.c., etc.; “poiētikoi kai m. andresPl.Lg.802b;
III. of things, elegant, delicate, “brōmataDiox.1; “hēdion ouden, oude -ōteronPhilem.23; harmonious, fitting, “trophē mesē kai m., ton Dōrion tropon tēs tukhēs hōs alēthōs hērmosmenē

Rev. 17:3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.

Thęrion , to (in form Dim. of thęr), wild animal in Satyric drama, was called sikinnis or sikinnon. IV. Astron., the constellation Lupus,
III. as a term of reproach, beast, creature
Sicinnis, a nymph of Cybele, although originally danced in honour of Sabazios, The Old Wineskin god even at Mount Sinai.
Plat. Phaedrus 240 has mingled with most of them some temporary pleasure; so, for instance, a flatterer is a horrid creature and does great harm, yet Nature has combined with him a kind of pleasure that is not without charm, and one might find fault with a courtesan as an injurious thing, and there are many other such creatures and practices which are yet for the time being very pleasant; but a lover is not only harmful to his beloved

kolax , a^kos, o(, A. flatterer, fawner, parasite, Eup.159.1, Antisth. ap. D.L.6.4.
2. in later Gr., = Att. goēs, Moer. p.113 P.
II. lisping pronunciation of korax, Ar.V.45.

Goēs , ētos,
A. sorcerer, wizard, Phoronis 2, Hdt.2.33,4.105, Pl.R. 380d, Phld.Ir.p.29 W.; “g. epōdos Ludias apo khthonos E.Ba.234, cf. Hipp.1038; prob. f.l. for boēsi Hdt.7.191.
2. juggler, cheat, deinos g. kai pharmakeus kai sophistēsPl.Smp.203d; “deinon kai g. kai sophistēn . . onomazōnD.18.276; “apistos g. ponērosId.19.109; “magos kai g.Aeschin.3.137: Comp. “goētoteros
Epōd-os , on, (epadō
A. singing to or over, using songs or charms to heal wounds, “epōdoi muthoiPl.Lg.903b. A BURDEN.
b. Subst., enchanter,e. kai goēsE.Hipp. 1038 (but “goēs e.Ba.234): c. gen., a charm for or against,ethusen hautou paida epōdon Thrēkiōn aēmatōnA.Ag.1418 ; e. tōn toioutōn one to charm away such fears, Pl.Phd.78a.
The beast is: mousikę ae iti kainon thęriontiktei

III. as a term of reproach, beast, creature, hę mousikę aei ti kainon thęrion tiktei

A.  Mousikos, musical, agônes m. kai gumnikoi  choroi te kai agônes ta mousika music,  

II. of persons, skilled in music, musical, X.l.c., etc.; poiętikoi kai m. andres ; kuknos [minstrel]  kai alla zôia; peri aulous - professional musicians, mousikos kai melôn poętęs, use with singing, skilled in speaking before a mob. Melody, 

Of the phrase

mousikę aei ti kainon thęrion tiktei

A. mousikos
B. aei always

C. kainos, esp. of new dramas, the representation of the new tragedies,  (Aphrodisias dedicated to Aphrodite (ZOE); comedy, sexual love, pleasure, a woman's form of oath, Aster or Venus or ZOE.
D. Tikto mostly of the mother 
E. of Rhea one of the zoogonic or vivific principles

Hdt. 1.155 [4] But pardon the Lydians, and give them this command so that they not revolt or pose a danger to you:
        send and forbid them to possess weapons of war,
        and order them to wear tunics under their cloaks and knee-boots on their feet,
        and to teach their sons lyre-playing [kitharizein]
        and song [psallein] and dance and shop-keeping. [kapēleuein]
And quickly, O king, you shall see them become women instead of men, so that you need not fear them, that they might revolt.”

Kapeleuo be a retail dealer, drive a petty trade, sell learning by retain, hawk it all about. “k. ton LOGOS tou theou (GOD)2 Ep.Cor.2.17; k. tēs hōras anthos or tēn hōran, of prostitutes,
Seee Isaiah 55 for Christ's promise of the free water of the Word not to be sold.

See Isaiah 58 where Christ outlawed seeking our own pleasure or speaking our own words.  There is nothing to traffick.

Acts 15:21 For Moses, from times long past,
        has his preachers in every town,
        reading his law in the Synagogues every Sabbath.
2 Cor 2.[17] For we are not as so many, peddling the word of God. But as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God, we speak in Christ.

-Adultĕro, I. Fig., to falsify, adulterate, or give a foreign nature to a thing, to counterfeit: “laser adulteratum cummi aut sacopenio aut fabā fractā,Plin. 19, 3, 15, § 40: “jus civile pecuniā,Cic. Caecin. 26: “simulatio tollit judicium veri idque adulterat,id. Lael. 25, 92; id. Part. 25, 90: “adulterantes verbum,Vulg. 2 Cor. 2, 17.—Poet. of Proteus: “faciem,

Simulatio I. a falsely assumed appearance, a false show, feigning, shamming, pretence, feint, insincerity, deceit, hypocrisy, simulation, etc. (class. and very freq.; cf. imitatio). under pretence of a divine command, Tac. H. 2, 61.
OSTENTATIO. In gen., a showing, exhibition, display A. An idle show, vain display, pomp, parade, ostentation (the predom. signif. of the word)
Plat. Prot. [313d] For among the provisions, you know, in which these men deal, not only are they themselves ignorant what is good or bad for the body, since in selling they commend them all, but the people who buy from them are so too, unless one happens to be a trainer or a doctor.
        And in the same way, those who take their doctrines the round of our cities,
        hawking them about to any odd purchaser who desires them,
        commend everything that they sell, and there may well be some of these too,
        my good sir, who are ignorant which of their wares is

"Corrupting the Word" is "selling lerning at retail, adultery."
Aristoph. Kn. 507 it is not without grounds that he has courted the shade, for, in his opinion, nothing is more difficult than to cultivate the comic Muse; many court her, but very few secure her favours. Moreover, he knows that you are fickle by nature and betray your poets when they grow old. [520] What fate befell Magnes, when his hair went white? Often enough had he triumphed over his rivals; he had sung in all keys, played (psallōn) the lyre

SEVENTH: 2. later, sing to a harp, LXX Ps.7.18, 9.12

There is no harp in any of these Psalms

Psa. 7:6 Arise, O LORD, in thine anger,
        lift up thyself because of the rage of mine enemies:
        and awake for me to the judgment that thou hast commanded.
Psa. 7:7 So shall the congregation of the people compass thee about:
        for their sakes therefore return thou on high.
Psa. 7:8 The LORD shall judge the people: judge me, O LORD,
        according to my righteousness, and according to mine integrity that is in me.

Psa. 7:13 He hath also prepared for him the instruments of death;
        he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.

All plucking or playing words implicate warfare.

Psa. 7:17 I will praise the LORD according to his righteousness:
        and will sing praise to the name of the LORD most high.

Praise is always confessing God and His Word.

Confĭtĕor , fessus, 2 (arch. II. Esp., after the Aug. per., sometimes, to reveal, manifest, make known, show.
II. In eccl. writers, to confess, own, acknowledge: Christum, Prud. steph. 5, 40.— With dat.: “tibi, Domine,Vulg. Psa. 137, 1: “nomini tuo,id. ib. 141, 8.—Absol., Cypr. Ep. 15.—confessus , a, 

Psalm 9.[12] psallite Domino qui habitat in Sion adnuntiate inter gentes studia eius

EIGHTH kardiaEp.Eph.5.19; pneumati

Kardia 2. inclination, desire, purpose, as the seat of feeling and passion, as rage or anger, “oidanetai kradiē KholōIl.9.646;
Notice the semicolon
kardiaEp.Eph.5.19; pneumati Is IN THE PLACE of the heart

Paul said 
Speak one to another
                    \ With
                             \Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs (all "that which is written")
Singing AND psalloing
                \In the heart and to God

This would be a common expression to readers:
The man who was dying blessed me; I made the widow's heart sing. Jb.29:13
So my heart laments for Moab like a flute;
        it laments like a flute for the men of Kir Hareseth.
        The wealth they acquired is gone. Je.48:36
My heart laments for Moab like a harp,
        my inmost being for Kir Hareseth. Is.16:11
And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.Lu.1:47
        Therefore did my heart rejoice,
        and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope: Ac.2:26

In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight. Lu.10:21

Plautus, Curculio CAPPADOX My spleen is killing me, my reins are in torment, my lungs are being torn asunder, my liver is being tortured, my heart-strings are giving way, all my intestines are in pain.

Hecuba Alas! a dreadful trial is near, it seems, [230] full of mourning, rich in tears. Yes, I too escaped death where death had been my due, and Zeus did not destroy me but is still preserving my life, that I may witness in my misery fresh sorrows surpassing all before. But if the bond may ask the free of things that do not GRIEVE them or WRENCH their heart-strings, you ought to speak in answer to my questions and I ought to hear what you have to say

GREGORY OF NYSSA (died c394)

8 . Now since man is a rational animal,
instrument of his body must be made suitable for the use of reason;
as you may see musicians producing
their music according to the form of their instruments,

and not piping with harps nor harping upon flutes,

so it must needs be that the organization of these instruments of ours should be adapted for reason, that when struck by the vocal organs it might be able to sound properly for the use of words.

2. And as some skilled musician, who may have been deprived by some affection of his own voice, and yet wish to make his skill known,

might make melody with voices of others,
publish his art by the aid of flutes or of the lyre,

so also the human mind being a discoverer of all sorts of conceptions, seeing that it is unable, by the mere soul, to reveal to those who hear by bodily senses the motions of its understanding, touches, like some skilful composer, these animated instruments, and makes known its hidden thoughts by means of the sound produced upon them.

Bill Swetmon
notes that
"Some think that the verb has its original signification of singing with an instrument. this is the dominant sense in the Septuagint, and both Basil and Gregory of Nyssa define a psalm as implying instrumental accompaniment;

GREGORY OF NYSSA (died c394)

8 . Now since man is a rational animal,
instrument of his body must be made suitable for the use of reason;
as you may see musicians producing
their music according to the form of their instruments,

and not piping with harps known its hidden thoughts by means of the sound produced upon them.

Psalmus , i, m., = psalmos, i. q. psalma, I. a psalm (eccl. Lat.; cf.: “carmen, hymnus),Tert. adv. Prax. 11; Lact. 4, 8, 14; 4, 12, 7; Vulg. Isa. 38, 20.—Esp., the Psalms of David, Vulg. Luc. 20, 42; id. Act. 13, 33 et saep

Bill Swetmon: and Clement of Alexandria, while forbidding the use of the flute in the Agapae, permitted the harp." (p. 28)

This comes from a chapter headed How to conduct ourselves at feats: he elsewhere defines IN CHURCH and OUT of church conduct. In the urban areas much of the food was consumed at commercial kitchens often provided by the pagan temples to market the food sacrificed to their "gods."  If you left church and attended a feast at a home or local market place Clement permits only the lyre (no sounding board) but then quickly allegorizes it.

Clement Pedagogue 1. Accordingly, of old He instructed by Moses, and then by the prophets. Moses, too, was a prophet. For the law is the training of refractory children. "Having feasted to the full," accordingly, it is said, "they rose up to play; " [Ex. xxxii. 6; 1 Cor. x. 7] senseless repletion with victuals being called (fodder), not (food).

And when, having senselessly filled themselves, they senselessly played;
on that account the law was given them, and
terror ensued for the prevention of transgressions

and for the promotion of right actions, securing attention, and so winning to obedience to the true Instructor, being one and the same Word, and reducing to conformity with the urgent demands of the law.

All Bible scholars know that it was musical idolatry at Mount Sinai which caused God to turn them over to worship the starry host.

Chapter IV.-How to Conduct Ourselves at Feasts. Pedagogue 2

Let revelry keep away from our rational entertainments, and foolish vigils, too, that revel in intemperance. For revelry is an inebriating pipe, the chain 99 of an amatory bridge, that is, of sorrow. And let love, and intoxication, and senseless passions, be removed from our choir. Burlesque singing is the boon companion of drunkenness. A night spent over drink invites drunkenness, rouses lust, and is audacious in deeds of shame.

For if people occupy their time with pipes, and psalteries, and choirs, and dances, and Egyptian clapping of hands, and such disorderly frivolities,

they become quite immodest and intractable, beat on cymbals and drums, and make a noise on instruments of delusion ; for plainly such a banquet, as seems to me,

is a theatre of drunkenness. For the apostle decrees that, "putting off the works of darkness, we should put on the armour of light, walking honestly as in the day, not spending our time in rioting and drunkenness, in chambering and wantonness." 100

Let the pipe be resigned to the shepherds, and the flute to the superstitious who are engrossed in idolatry. For, in truth, such instruments are to be banished from the temperate banquet, being more suitable to beasts than men, and the more irrational portion of mankind.

People willing to violate the direct commands for the ekklesia as a School of the Word will bypass everything except what they need.  Clement after saying much more then says:

And even if you wish to sing and play to the harp or lyre, there is no blame.

Bill Swetmon: "Now some have argued that the word psallo underwent such a drastic change of meaning from the time of the Septuagint, that the first century the the word meant to sing only, without the sound of instruments. However one would have to seriously question that agrument, especially in view of the fact that when Josephus, the Jewish historian in the first century, was translated into Greek,

None of this is true: Psallo is a warfare and pollution word. It was used by the Hebrew scholars who translated the Septuagint (LXX). 
        It is used to mean SING ONLY in the entire Bible.
        When playing an instrument is meant it is included:
        all instrument playing Greek words are compound words. 
PSALLO means to pluck or smite a string with your fingers and NEVER with a plectrum. That is because the word for "shooting forth hymns" was used of making the bow string twang to send forth a singing arrow.
They could have seen that Paul put the "melody" in the place of the human spirit which is the only place God seeks our worship.  Further, the parallel word in Colossians 3 is GRACE.  We might assume that the word psallo never belonged in Ephesians 5 because it is never used to mean melody and Paul guided by the Spirit OF Christ had words which DID include the instrument:
Aeloid-ia A.singing, chanting
Lur-aoidos one who sings to the lyre,
Auloid-os who sings to the flute
Psilociitharista One who plays without singing
Chorokithar-eus who plays the cithara to a chorus, (Aphrodisias ZOE)
Psaltes a player on the cithara, a musician, minstrel

,A. charm by flute-playing, tinos Pl.Lg.790e, cf. R.411a; tinaAlciphr.2.1: metaph., se . . -ēsō phobō I will flute to you on a ghastly flute,E.HF871 (troch.):—Pass., of persons, methuōn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute, Pl.R.561c; k. pros khelōnidos psophon to be played to on the flute with lyre accompaniment,  
2. make a place sound with flute-playing, Thphr.Fr.87:— Pass., resound with flute-playing, “nēsos katēuleitoPlu.Ant.56.
II. in Pass., [ton monokhordon kanona parekhein tais aisthēsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment,   to be piped down, ridiculed,gelōmenoi kai -oumenoi”   III. c. acc. rei, play on the flute, “ta mētrōa  , to have played to one as an accompaniment on the flute, -“oumenoi pros tōn hepomenōn ta mētrōa melē

Epi-psallō ,A. play the lyre, S.Fr.60, Poll.4.58(Pass.); “melesi kai rhuthmois” 
    SING,tous humnousLXX 2 Ma.1.30:Then the priests sang the hymns.
Psallo means to pluck and make a sound: it does not include either melody or rhythm.

Katapsallō S play stringed instruments to, [“sumposion kataulein kai k.” Pass., have music played to one, enjoy music, ib.785e; of places, resound with music, Id.Ant.56.
Pass., to be buried to the sound of music, Procop.Pers.2.23.
3. metaph., katapsalletai . . ho dēmiourgos is drummed out, Porph.

Jesus cast out the musical minstrels 'like dung' and consigned the pipers, singers and katdancers to the marketplace FROM WHICH the "psallo rope" drove the slackers to the Ekklesia for verbal instruction only.  That is because all of the singers with instruments were known as parasites.

parasitor, to play the parasite, to sponge: parasitarier, parasitando pascere ventres suos
Similar to kitharizein. See Plautus, Persa 
cĭthărīzo , āre,  kitharizô, to play on or strike the cithara, Nep. Epam. 2, 1; Vulg. Apoc. 14, 2.
Now, tell us that the Spirit OF Christ or Paul was so stupid that he did not know HOW to define singing AND playing in the external sense. In the HEART is a place.
Psallo as defined by ALL of the Greek literature in fact outlaws using a guitar pick, blowing a wind instrument, smiting a drum, playing a keyboard or anything BUT a string.

Bill Swetmon: psallo was used to translate "playing the harp." And you will find that in several references. One would be in his Antiquities, (Book 6, Ch. 8. v.2). In that particular reference, I counted at least three times where psallo was used when Josephus translated, to mean "playing on the harp." Now that is the first century literature. (Bill Swetmon, p. 29)

A. Ralph Johnson and all of the NACC: they advised them to inquire of such a one, and observe when these demons came upon him and disturbed him, and to take care that such a person might stand over him,

Chapter 2

One: and play [psalein]
Two: upon the harp
Three: and RECITE  hymns to him....skillful in
........... playing [psalein]
........... ........... on the harp, and
........... in singing [exadein]
........... ........... of hymns,...
........... whensoever it was that it came upon him, and this by

One: RECITING of hymns, and
Two: playing [psalein]
Three: upon the harp... -Antiquities, Bk. 6, chap. 8, #2; Pages 185-186. (6.166 Whiston)

(16) Accordingly Saul did not delay, but commanded them to seek out such a man. And when a certain stander-by said that he had seen in the city of Bethlehem a son of Jesse, who was yet no more than a child in age, but comely and beautiful, and in other respects one that was deserving of great regard,

who was skillful in playing on the harp,
and in singing of hymns,

None of the Bible is metrical: it cannot be sung tunefully: presenting a poetic piece in the Bible was cantillating or RECITING.

If PSALEIN included BOTH singing and PLAYING on a harp then why did the Spirit of Christ use two words. This proves the point. Furthermore, psalein ia not psalmos or psallo. Singing is NEVER used to include both VOCAL reciting and playing an instrument.


No one can read the Bible, especially Paul and Peter, without understanding that they always outlaw the common pagan practices before defining church as devoted totally to reading and discussing the Word.  Even at a "scholarly" level people are willing to speak FOR Christ when they have not read the text and defined words in the context in which Paul wrote.


Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. Eph 5:17

And be not drunk with wine,

ĭn-ēbrĭo Saturate, full of talk

kat-auleō , A. charm by flute-playing, methuōn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelōmenoi kai -oumenoimētrōa melēMetroos the worship of Cybele, b. Mētrōa, Mother goddess: music played in her honour, Mele Melos 3. melody of an instrument, “phormigx d' [mark of Apollo]  au phtheggoith' hieron m. ēde kai aulos

wherein is excess;  (Greek: vanity)

The effect or MARK of being drunk on wine:

luxŭrĭa Of style: “in qua (oratione), ut

luxŭrĭo , wanton, revel, sport, skip, bound, frisk: Deliciis that which allures, flatters the senses], delight, pleasure, charm, allurement; deliciousness, luxuriousness, voluptuousness, curiosities of art; , to make sport paizō dance  4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16saltātĭo, David's naked dance.

Paul always defines away all of the hypocritic arts.

BUT, be filled with the Spirit; Eph 5:18

John 6:63b the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.

Colossians 3:1 If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God.

Colossians 3:5  Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry:

Phĭlŏsŏphĭadoctores săpĭentĭa sermons, interpret, sects Cic.Off.2.2.5 Wisdom, = sophia

Sophia , A. cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, in music and singing, poetry, divination

interprĕtor , ātus (in tmesi interpres, to explain, expound, interpret, give expression to, translate; to understand, conclude, infer. A. To decide, determine
12, 29: “haec ex Graeco carmine interpretata recitavit,Liv. 23, 11, 4; 45, 29, 3.
Carmen, I. In gen., a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumentalbarbaricum,id. M. 11, 163.—With allusion to playing on the cithara

Rom 8[13] For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.

pathos emotion, to create passion, drama MY experiences Sophia cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, in music and singing, tekhnē kai s, poetry, in divination pleonexia assumption, one's own advantage. Financial gain pleonektein:i s an expression for every effort of self-aggrandizement, and was often used as a political watchword

Colossians 3:10 And have put on the new man,
    which is renewed in knowledge
    after the image of him that created him:

Speaking to yourselves
in psalms and hymns
      and spiritual songs, [Scripture]
teaching and admonishing one another
      in psalms and hymns
      and spiritual songs, [Scripture]

singing and making melody
in your heart to the Lord;
singing with grace
      in your hearts
to the Lord.

always giving thanks
     to God the Father for everything,
     in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

The Will of Christ is the Word of Christ is Spirit: the command was to teach what HE commanded to be taught. 
And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all
    In the name of the Lord Jesus,
    giving thanks to God and the Father by him.

Of course, Bill Swetmon is not neutral but, like all of the FHU unity speakers, intentionally presents the PRO instrumental position.  We have it on good authority and personal observation that "Christian colleges have not defended the ANTI-instrumental position for 25 years."  Of course we are aware that they never did other than inherited traditionalism.

The Disciples tried and failed to grasp the word PSALLO for the first time in 1878. However, those who ignore earlier discussions, like Tome Burgess and all his repeaters, dig up quotes from the ancient texts to prove that psallo demands "playing a harp."  However, the texts all speak of males PLUCKING the harp to seduce a "youth minister" for pederasty. THERE IS NO OTHER MEANING IN HISTORY.

First, we have noted that the same false teachers appeal to Lucian of Samosata as their proof that psallo still implied instruments long after the time of Paul. However, what the proof-text-lifters do not know is that Lucian was trained in Classical or Attic Greek and knew that his "demonstration lectures" would have its widest monetary appeal among the nobles: kings, princes, priests. Therefore, Lucian is our proof that for the common people of Koine Greek the word psallo still rejected instruments perhaps because of its universal association with the theater, paganism and prostitution.

For two articles on Lucian to repudiate Swetmon etal Click Here for his use of psallo.

In addition, you may click here to read Lucian and all of the church fathers associating instrumental music with the theater or prostitution.

Second, lets note that Clement was speaking of secular festivals and totally condemned all instrumental music "in church." If Clement thought that psallo "implied" instruments he did not so think of the statement of Paul in Ephesians 5:19. Click to see the rest of the story about Clement. and more by Clement.

Ignorance of the facts used to sow discord among bretheren amounts to dishonesty. Whole lies are made up of half truths but there is not even a half truth in these false claims.

Comments about Basil A.D. 360

"But considerable prominence was given to the hymns by the Gnostic, Bardesans, who composed a psalter of 150 psalms. However, the 59th canon of the Synod of Laodicea, 360 A. D., enjoined that 'No psalm composed by private individuals nor any uncanonical books may be read in the Church, but only... the Canonical Books of the OT and NT." Int Std Ency., p. 2494

This is what Paul absolutely commanded: Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual songs are all inspired and Paul would tell the Corinthians that unless their assumed to be inspired songs or teachings could be validated by another supernaturally inspired prophet that they should sit down and shut up -- this applies to men as well as women.

However, in Corinth as in your local congregation:

"In competition with pagan musical art, congregational singing began to wane. Basil states that he had 'the Psalms rendered by skillful presentors after the manner of the triumphal Odes of Pindar, the congregation joining at the closing verse, with the accompaniment of lyres." Int Std Bible Ency., p. 2494A

This urge to use professional art to compete with others quite naturally led to the use of professional presenters. It is important to note the earlier statement that the use of music was often in the professionals.

Psalmody thus came to be increasingly the monoply of trained singers, and the 15th canon of the Council of Laodicea, 360 AD, proscribed that 'no others shall sing in the church save only the canonical singers...who go up into the ambo and sing with a book." (Int Std Bible Ency, Psalms, p. 2494a)

Then and now this proves that they were arrogantly violating Paul's instruction. If they remotely grasped that the command is not to "sing" but to "teach." That means "preach." This speaking or preaching to one another using the Biblical text would allow everyone to memorize the Psalms and other poetic history and there would be no need for a secular, carnal, pagan book.

Background Notes on Greek Music from Britannica Online

Greek music has a primary role as an educational tool of the youth. It was otherwise associated with the theater, which was always religious, in polite society and among the charismatic women prophetesses (prostitutes) at the "temples" or oracle shrines such as at Delphi. However, there was nothing similar in Greek society to modern four-part harmony with music to accompany it.

As Phythagoras learned at the Towers of Babylon about musical sounds as having the power to "move the worshipers into the presence of the gods" who would meet you as you ascended the tower:

"The prevailing doctrine of ethos, as explained by ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, was based on the belief that music has a direct effect upon the soul and actions of mankind.

"As a result, the Greek political and social systems were intertwined with music, which had a primary role in the dramas of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes. And the Grecian educational system was focused upon musica and gymnastica, the former referring to all cultural and intellectual studies, as distinguished from those related to physical training. (See ethos, dramatic literature.)

Isn't it interesting that the modern evangelists in order to "come in out of the cold" of the mission field quite naturally turn to temple building, gymnastica and musica. This is neo paganism and is not remotely connected to Christianity which is a spiritual religion where nothing which assaults the body can haven any effect but destructive mind-altering dissociation:

"The Greek philosophers believed that music in education made lasting effects upon the human soul. However, this music was for its own educational value and not for worship. There are very few fragments of musical notation which survived. However, these musical fragments show that

Greek music was predominantly vocal,
instrumental pieces were sometimes presented.
The music was
homophonic (not polyphonic); i.e., it consisted of single melodic lines.

Music would have been a four-note line identical to the tones of the voice:

"the most striking example being the epic poems of Homer, in which the singer accompanied himself on a lyre.

Ancient Greek was a pitched language, so melody had to be an outgrowth of the natural inflections of the spoken language.

Greek vowels had long and short values that corresponded to long and short notes in the musical settings. Thus musical rhythms were derived from metric forms, and melodic movement was governed by the natural rise and fall of the text.

Ancient Greece appears never to have had a developed instrumental art.

The word psallo would have retained its old meaning related to "plucking out hair" or "grinding to bits" to describe the judgment of Saul or it would still be appropriate to describe the pagan prostitutes who gained customers with music and drove them into madness which was sold as "experiencing god personally."

Even among the Hebrews, there was nothing similar to modern "church" singing and joining the instruments while singing would have been the activity of the children. So notes Job 21. It would also be the activity of the prostitute (Ezekiel 33). Or it would be the activity of religious leaders "on the take" (Amons 5, 6, 8)

Will the Real Josephus Please Stand Up

Now, look where Bill Swetmon, at Freed Hardeman University, points in Josephus and see whether you want to follow Bill and crowd and "go thou and do likewise."

See A. Ralph Johnson's use of Josephus. ALL of the examples used by Tom Burgess--and the ditto heads--and A. Ralph Johnson make the three steps necessary: 1) sing, 2) pluck or play and 3) WHAT is to be plucked. It might just be the excess hair of the male catamite harp player. ALL also prove the sexual- homosexual drive of the "ministers of the gods" and their paying "congregations." NO exception.

In Book VI

These men said it was not right either to send the ark away, or to retain it, but to dedicate five golden images, one for every city, as a thank-offering to God, on account of his having taken care of their preservation, and having kept them alive when their lives were likely to be taken away by such distempers as they were not able to bear up against. They also would have them make five golden mice like to those that devoured and destroyed their country (2) to put them in a bag, and lay them upon the ark; to make them a new cart also for it, and to yoke milch kine to it (3) but to shut up their calves, and keep them from them, lest, by following after them, they should prove a hinderance to their dams, and that the dams might return the faster out of a desire of those calves; then to drive these milch kine that carried the ark, and leave it at a place where three ways met, and So leave it to the kine to go along which of those ways they pleased; that in case they went the way to the Hebrews, and ascended to their country, they should suppose that the ark was the cause of their misfortunes; but if they turned into another road, they said, "We will pursue after it, and conclude that it has no such force in it."

Of course, it was moved with great musical noise:

2 Spanheim informs us here, that upon the coins of Tenedos, and those of other cities, a field-mouse is engraven, together with Apollo Smintheus, or Apollo, the driver away of field-mice, on account of his being supposed to have freed certain tracts of ground from those mice; which coins show how great a judgment such mice have sometimes been, and how the deliverance from them was then esteemed the effect of a divine power; which observations are highly suitable to this history.

3 This device of the Philistines, of having a yoke of kine to draw this cart, into which they put the ark of the Hebrews, is greatly illustrated by Sanchoniatho's account, under his ninth generation, that Agrouerus, or Agrotes, the husbandman, had a much-worshipped statue and temple, carried about by one or more yoke of oxen, or kine, in Phoenicia, in the neighborhood of these Philistines. See Cumberland's Sanchoniatho, p. 27 and 247; and Essay on the Old Testament, Append. p. 172.

4 These seventy men, being not so much as Levites, touched the ark in a rash or profane manner, and were slain by the hand of God for such their rashness and profaneness, according to the Divine threatenings, Numbers 4:15, 20; but how other copies come to add such an incredible number as fifty thousand in this one town, or small city, I know not. See Dr. Wall's Critical Notes on 1 Samuel 6:19. 


This was not "worship" but singing Saul's swan song as CHARMING or EXORCISM:

Exaidein dunamenos kai psallein epi kinurai

Exaidô , A. sing out, sing one's last song, of the swan 2. sing the exodos, of a chorus II. sing away by means of a spell

"Jingling, banging, and rattling accompanied heathen cults, and the frenzying shawms of a dozen ecstatic cries intoxicated the masses. Amid this euphoric farewell feast of a dying civilization, the voices of nonconformists were emerging from places of Jewish and early Christian worship ..." (Encyclopedia Judaica, 1971 ed., s.v. "Music."

exaidein dunamenos kai psallein epi kinurai

Dunamai I. to be able, strong enough to do, having influence with him, c. of things, mean, 'spell',

Cunning of David is yada (h3045) includes prognosticator, regard, have respect, skilful, shew, can (man of) skill, be sure, of a surety, teach, (can) tell, understood, have [understanding], * will be, wist, wit, wot.

For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. Ge.3:5

exaidein dunamenos kai psallein epi kinurai

Psallein psallo meaning purely to play or pluck

exaidein dunamenos kai psallein epi kinurai

Kinura A. kinnor, a stringed instrument played with the hand, LXX 1 Ki.16.23; with a plectron, J.AJ7.12.3. However, Josephus says:

The viol was an instrument of ten strings, it was played upon with a bow; the psaltery had twelve musical notes, and was played upon by the fingers;

Of this event, Josephus reads:

they advised them to inquire for such a one, and to observe when these demons came upon him and disturbed him, and to take care that such a person might stand over him, and play upon the harp, and recite hymns to him.

Only if Ralph has some demon-possessed people should they perhaps "call for the musicians" and let them play over him.

Playing or plucking has no meaning unless you define WHAT is to be plucked WITH THE FINGERS ONLY, please. If you have DEMONS you want to introduce into the "worship assembly" then be my guest.

stanta psallein te kai tous humnous epilegein.

Kęleô, A. charm, bewitch, beguile, esp. by music epaidôn k. charm by incantation, kęleitai aoidais

Epaeidô means to sing AND play 2. sing as an incantation, sing to one so as to charm or soothe him, use charms or incantations, by means of charms

And the spirit of Egypt shall fail in the midst thereof; and I will destroy the counsel thereof: and they shall seek to the idols, and to the charmers, and to them that have familiar spirits, and to the wizards. Is.19:3

Furthermore, this was not singing but RECITING by David.

Epilegô, 2. . say besides, repeat, 4. . utter, pronounce a spell (cf.epeipon ), rhęsin mustikęn. III 2. . in Hdt. also, con over, read, 3. . recount, in speaking

Or in Latin

Recito , a-vi, a-tum, 1, v. a. I. In the best prose, a publicist's t. t., to read out, recite a document.. it became customary to recite one's own works before audiences; cf.: pronuntio, declamo): B. To repeat from memory, say by heart, recite.

As well defined in Revelation 17-18 the speakers, singers and instrument players were a sign that the "lights" or the Spirit of Christ had departed from those John called sorcerers.

1Sa 18:10 KJV And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and there was a javelin in Saul's hand.

1Sa 18:11 KJV And Saul cast the javelin; for he said, I will smite David even to the wall with it. And David avoided out of his presence twice.

1Sa 18:12 KJV And Saul was afraid of David, because the LORD was with him, and was departed from Saul

"He prophesied in the midst of the house. He was beside himself; made prayers, supplications, and incoherent imprecations: 'God preserve my life,' 'Destroy my enemies,' or such like prayers, might frequently escape from him in his agitated state. The Arabic intimates that he was actually possessed by an evil spirit, and that through it he uttered a sort of demoniacal predictions." (Clark, 1 Sam 18, p. 270).

"In ancient times, says Justin, kings used a spear instead of a diadem: And as spears were the emblems of supreme power, hence they were reputed as attributes of the Divinity, and were worshipped as representatives of the gods." (Adam Clark, 1 Sam. 18, p. 270)

1 Sam 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.
1 Sam 16:14 But the Spirit of the Lord departed from Saul, and an evil spirit from the Lord troubled him.
1 Sam 16:15 And Sauls servants said unto him, Behold now, an evil spirit from God troubleth thee.

When Saul prophesied it has the same meaning as the Levitical PRAISE word as they prophesied with instruments:

"We find demon-possessed Saul 'acting like a prophet' by becoming semi-conscious and immobile when attempting to apprehend David at Ramah..The context of this passage makes it clear that Saul's behavior was not the ordinary behavior of the true prophets of God." (Christianity Today, March 12,

"'Played the prophet,' viz., by gestures and demeanor."--Driver. "Rather, he raved."--Keil. "The word 'prophesy' describes an ecstatic condition due to supernatural influence, good or evil; the result in the one case being prophetic inspiration or religious enthusiasm, in the other raving madness."--Cambridge Bible. 1971, p. 541)

Heredotus writes: Now the Scythians are wont to reproach the Greeks with their Bacchanal rage, and to say that it is not reasonable to imagine there is a god who impels men to madness. No sooner, therefore, was Scylas initiated in the Bacchic mysteries than one of the Borysthenites went and carried the news to the Scythians "

You Scyths laugh at us" he said, "because we rave when the god seizes us.

But now our god has seized upon your king, who raves like us, and is maddened by the influence. If you think I do not tell you true, come with me, and I will show him to you."

The chiefs of the Scythians went with the man accordingly, and the Borysthenite, conducting them into the city, placed them secretly on one of the towers.

Presently Scylas passed by with the band of revellers, raving like the rest, and was seen by the watchers.

Regarding the matter as a very great misfortune they instantly departed, and came and told the army what they had witnessed

By the time you hear the singing AND instrumental PLAYING it is a sign that God has been there 

THUS hath the Lord God shewed unto me: and behold a basket of summer fruit. Amos 8:1

Amos 8:2 And he said, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A basket of summer fruit. Then said the LORD unto me, The end is come upon my people of Israel; I will not again pass by them any more. 

A basket:

Keluwb (h3619) kel-oob'; from the same as 3611; a bird-trap (as furnished with a clap-stick or treadle to spring it); hence a basket (as resembling a wicker cage): - basket, cage.

As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit: therefore they are become great, and waxen rich. Je.5:27

Keleb (h3611) keh'leb; from an unused root mean. to yelp, or else to attack; a dog; hence (by euphemism) a male prostitute: - dog.

For dogs have compassed me: the assembly [multitude, swarm] of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet. Ps.22:16

Yea, they are greedy dogs which can never have enough, and they are shepherds that cannot understand: they all look to their own way, every one for his gain, from his quarter. Is.56:11

And I will appoint over them four kinds, saith the Lord: the sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the earth, to devour and destroy. Je.15:3

See Amos 8. These were the same FRUITS lusted after in Revelation 18 as speakers, singers and instrument players John called Sorcerers who marked the turning out the lamps of God.

Peace, profane men! Let the basket-bearer come forward, and thou Xanthias, hold the phallus well upright.

  1. The maiden who carried the basket filled with fruits at the Dionysia in honour of Bacchus.
  2. The emblem of the fecundity of nature; it consisted of a representation, generally grotesquely exaggerated, of the male genital organs; the phallophori crowned with violets and ivy and their faces shaded with green foliage, sang improvised airs, call `Phallics,' full of obscenity and suggestive `double entendres.

In Book VI


1. NOW Saul being sensible of the miserable condition he had brought himself into, and that he had made God to be his enemy, he went up to his royal palace at Gibeah, which name denotes a hill, and after that day he came no more into the presence of the prophet. And when Samuel mourned for him, God bid him leave off his concern for him, and to take the holy oil, and go to Bethlehem, to Jesse the son of Obed, and to anoint such of his sons as he should show him for their future king.

In Isaiah and Amos when the people fell into musical worship and refused to hear the Words of God, it is true that "God left off His concern for them" and allowed them to sing and play their way into captivity and death.

2. So Samuel, when he had given him these admonitions, went away. But the Divine Power departed from Saul, and removed to David;

who, upon this removal of the Divine Spirit to him, began to prophesy.

(This was like speaking in tongues at Pentecost: a judgmental sign of God's desertion)

But as for Saul, some strange and demoniacal disorders came upon him, and brought upon him such suffocations as were ready to choke him; for which the physicians could find no other remedy but this, That if any person could charm those passions

by singing, and
upon the harp,

Note: if "singing and playing the harp" is implied in Bill Swetmon's use of psallo then we must of necessity translate this passage as follows:

By singing and
By singing and playing upon the harp

This is also true of Ephesians 5:19. It does not say "singing and singing in the heart." It puts the speaking on the outside with the absolute demand to teach the Words of Christ. The melody is on the inside where its "abrading" meaning implies to "break the heart." It does not mean to celebrate ala voodoo.

they advised them to inquire for such a one, and to observe when these demons came upon him and disturbed him, and to take care that such a person might stand over him,

and play upon the harp,
and recite hymns to him.

Accordingly Saul did not delay, but commanded them to seek out such a man. And when a certain stander-by said that he had seen in the city of Bethlehem a son of Jesse,

who was yet no more than a child in age,
        but comely and beautiful, and in other respects one that was deserving of great regard,
        who was skillful in
playing on the harp,
        and in
singing of hymns,

Or, if Bill Swetmon is right, we must translate this:
        Who was skillful in
singing and playing on the harp
        and in
singing of hymns
       [And an excellent soldier in war]

When David the warrior who replaced God as commander destroyed all of the enemy he reassigned his millitary musicians to the central headquarters in Jerusalem: they were under the king and the commanders of the army.

As such, they were overseers or excellers who guaranteed that the common people did not get into the temple (as they had as flaming cherubim kept them out of the Tabernacle) and later to drive them as slaves to build the temple. The musical Levites were warriors who did not serve the people but the priests in the horrible spectacle of killing all of those animals.

he sent to Jesse, and desired him to take David away from the flocks, and send him to him, for he had a mind to see him, as having heard an advantageous character of his comeliness and his valor. So Jesse sent his son, and gave him presents to carry to Saul. And when he was come, Saul was pleased with him, and made him his armor-bearer, and had him in very great esteem; for

he charmed his passion, and was the only physician against the trouble he had from the demons, whensoever it was that it came upon him, and this by
      of hymns,

      upon the harp,
and bringing Saul to his right mind again.

Modern research admits that music may have some advantage in calming those suffering mental illness. Even this, therapists insist, should be very simple or even single, pure tones (as in unison). They are also agreed that one can play music and bring on an "evil spirit" which, if God's will is ignored, is from the Lord.

The church needs musical physicians or soothsayers only if it is possessed of a mad demon.

However, he sent to Jesse, the father of the child, and desired him to permit David to stay with him, for that he was delighted with his sight and company; which stay, that he might not contradict Saul, he granted.

Joining voice to Instruments was a children's or pagan activity:

"Spanheim takes notice here that the Greeks had such singers of hymns; and that usually children or youths were picked out for that service; as also, that those called singers to the harp, did the same that David did here, i. e. join their own vocal and instrumental music together." (Josephus, notes by William Whiston, John Winston, Co. p. 186)

However, Arnobius who understood that Jesus had fired the demons asked:

"Are the gods moved by garlands also, wreaths and flowers, by the jingling of brass also, and the shaking of cymbals, by timbrels also, and also by symphonious pipes? What effect has the clattering of castanets, that when the deities have heard them, they think that honor has been shown to them and lay aside their fiery spirit of resentment in forgetfulness? Or, as little boys are frightened by giving over their silly wailings by hearing the sound of rattles, are the almighty deities also soothed in the same way by the whistling of pipes? And do they become mild, is their indignation softened at the musical sound of cymbals? 'What is the meaning of those calls which you sing in the morning, joining your voice to the music of the pipe. Do the gods of heaven fall asleep, so that they should return to their posts? What is the meaning of those slumbers to which you commend them with auspicious salutations that they may be in good health? Are they awakened from sleep; and that they may be able to overcome by it, must soothing lullabies be heard?" (Arnobius Against the Heathen, Ante-Nicene Fathers, VI, p. 531).



Guess how God brought on the evil spirit:

1. NOW the women were an occasion of Saul's envy and hatred to David;

for they came to meet their victorious army with cymbals, and drums, and all demonstrations of joy, and sang thus:

The wives said, that "Saul had slain his many thousands of the Philistines."
The virgins replied, that "David had slain his
ten thousands."

Now, when the king heard them singing thus, and that he had himself the smallest share in their commendations, and the greater number, the ten thousands, were ascribed to the young man; and when he considered with himself that there was nothing more wanting to David, after such a mighty applause, but the kingdom;

he began to be afraid and suspicious of David. Accordingly he removed him from the station he was in before, for he was his armor-bearer, which, out of fear, seemed to him much too near a station for him; and so he made him captain over a thousand, and bestowed on him a post better indeed in itself, but, as he thought, more for his own security;

for he had a mind to send him against the enemy, and into battles, as hoping he would be slain in such dangerous conflicts.

This lying, musical flattery by the women was part of Saul's judgment. No better way to throw the "king" into a fit of depression than by bragging up the armor bearer. Certian forms of 'exciting' music has always been used to bring on what Paul called madness (saw a voodoo film today).

This does not keep ignorant men from using David's instruments and the women choirs as proof-text authority for modern choirs and instrumental performers. However, it is a medical fact that music can, and is designed to, bring on the demons of jealousy and envy and pride.



3. About this time it was that, upon the Philistines making a new expedition against the Hebrews, Saul sent David with an army to fight with them; and joining battle with them he slew many of them, and after his victory he returned to the king.

But his reception by Saul was not as he expected upon such success, for he was grieved at his prosperity, because he thought he would be more dangerous to him by having acted so gloriously:

but when the demoniacal spirit came upon him,
and put him into disorder, and disturbed him, (he prophesied but he was not a prophet)
he called for David into his bed-chamber wherein he lay,
and having a spear in his hand,
he ordered him to charm him with playing on his harp,
and with singing hymns;

which when David did at his command, he with great force threw the spear at him; but David was aware of it before it came, and avoided it, and fled to his own house, and abode there all that day.

Antiquities XX



5. But when Albinus heard that Gessius Florus was coming to succeed him, he was desirous to appear to do somewhat that might be grateful to the people of Jerusalem; so he brought out all those prisoners who seemed to him to be most plainly worthy of death, and ordered them to be put to death accordingly. But as to those who had been put into prison on some trifling occasions,

he took money of them, and dismissed them; by which means the prisons were indeed emptied, but the country was filled with robbers. (This was a true Jubilee)

6. "Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim,

and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests
for they said that this would be a work
worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing. Nor did they fail of obtaining their desire;

for the king, with the suffrages of those that came into the sanhedrim, granted the singers of hymns this privilege, that they might lay aside their former garments, and wear such a linen one as they desired;

and as a part of this tribe ministered in the temple, he also permitted them to learn those hymns as they had besought him for.

Now all this was contrary to the laws of our country, which, whenever they have been transgressed, we have never been able to avoid the punishment of such transgressions. (Antiq. XX.ix.6).

7. And now it was that the temple was finished. So when the people saw that the workmen were unemployed, who were above eighteen thousand and that they,

receiving no wages, were in want
because they had earned their bread by their labors about the temple;
and while they were unwilling to keep by them the treasures that were there deposited,

out of fear of [their being carried away by] the Romans; and while they had a regard to the making provision for the workmen;

they had a mind to expend these treasures upon them; for if any one of them did but labor for a single hour, he received his pay immediately; so they persuaded him to rebuild the eastern cloisters.

These cloisters belonged to the outer court, and were situated in a deep valley, and had walls that reached four hundred cubits [in length], and were built of square and very white stones, the length of each of which stones was twenty cubits, and their height six cubits. This was the work of king Solomon, (27) who first of all built the entire temple.

But king Agrippa, who had the care of the temple committed to him by Claudius Caesar, considering that it is easy to demolish any building, but hard to build it up again, and that it was particularly hard to do it to these cloisters, which would require a considerable time, and great sums of money,

he denied the petitioners their request about that matter; but he did not obstruct them when they desired the city might be paved with white stone.

He also deprived Jesus, the son of Gamaliel, of the high priesthood, and gave it to Matthias, the son of Theophilus, under whom the Jews' war with the Romans took its beginning.

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