Mark E. Powell Seminar 5555 Trinity

Harding School of Theology  5555 Seminar in Theology: The Trinity, Spring 2013, Thurs. 8:15-10:55 a.m.

Leonard Allen ENABLING Spirit:
The very truth about Christ--that he is God in the Flesh,
Son Saviour, and Messiah--becomes INTELLIGIBLE through the deep work of the Spirit.

Prof. Mark E. Powell, Ijams Administration Building 209 believes as Part of a Community church to prove that the "contemporary view" to be discussed is that of John Mark Hicks:  "there is only one true and eternal God consisting of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit [the Trinity or God-head]. These three exist as a loving community."

An advanced seminar on the doctrine of the Trinity and Trinitarian theology, with an emphasis on the patristic development of the doctrine and contemporary discussion of the doctrine.

E-mail me confidentially: I will supply the ORIGINAL and full texts of any historic scholar who addressed the nature of Father, Son and Spirit .

1. Exhibit an understanding of the doctrine of the Trinity as developed in the history of Christianity
        and discussed in contemporary theology.
2. Exhibit an understanding of several contemporary theological movements.
3. Carefully present and critically interact with contemporary proposals on the doctrine of the Trinity.

4 Possible topics include a detailed treatment of any issue covered in class,
         the Trinitarian beliefs of a major historical or contemporary figure,
         and Trinitarian reflections on a theological issue (such as creation, revelation, scripture, holiness, and suffering).
         Students are encouraged to submit a prospectus (this can be informal and sent by email) that includes
                (1) the topic to be investigated and
                (2) a preliminary bibliography, by April 4.


5 Possible topics include a detailed treatment of any issue covered in class, [NO BIBLE?]
         the Trinitarian beliefs of a major historical or contemporary figure,
         and Trinitarian reflections on a theological issue

The term Father, Son and Holy (wholly) Spirit defines the NATURE of the One God of the Universe. God is not IGNORANT.

alone, the only Lord, Creator and Father,
contained all things and caused them to exist (Against Heresies 2.1.

The Singular MAN Jesus of Nazareth claimed and demonstrated all of the ROLES of all Pagan Trinities of father, mother (spirit) and son.

The ancient and modern Jews claimed that the MAN Jesus made Himself God and BLASPHEMED because He worked miracles BY the power of God.
Jesus said that the ancient and modern Pharisees BLASPHEMED because Jesus said that He was the Son of God.
Paul silences all authority or AUTHENTIA which is self-authored songs or sermons.
This was a problem of WOMEN and males could not fall into charismatic madness and claim that SHE could speak FOR the gods.  This is almost always a contemporary claim.  In SELF AUTHORING the blasphemed Jesus whom Paul said.

1Tim. 2:5 For there is ONE GOD,
        and one mediator BETWEEN God and men,
        the MAN Christ Jesus;

"Again--Some will say,
What does the expression Holy Spirit mean? Well, in scripture it stands first for God the Holy Spirit, and secondly for the holy mind or spirit of a believer--for illustration, take Peter's words to Ananias, "Why has Satan tempted you to lie to the Holy Spirit; you have not lied to men, but to God," (the Holy Spirit.) And the Saviour says, How much more will your heavenly Father give a holy spirit (as it should be translated) to those that ask him. Again--Praying in a holy spirit. Again--Paul says he approved himself God's servant "by knowledge, by long sufferings, by kindness, by a holy spirit'" by a mind innocent of the love of gain, or commerce, or sensuality

"Now then the expression stands for both God the Holy Spirit, and for a believer's spirit made holy by him. . Walter Scott

such as creation, No one prior to H. Leo Boles (at least publically proposed) at DLC ever presentented a "trinity" composed of 3 independent persons ranked 1, 2, 3 each having unique talent for THEIR disposition.
H. Leo Boles: The Godhead is thus composed of three coeternal and coequal persons they are the same in nature and essence (basic stuff), but are different, (discrete, dissimilar, diverse) personalities (selfhood as a human)
Boles, H. Leo, The Holy Spirit, Gospel Advocate, P.     20-21  (Each is fitted for different roles.)

Standing (status or rank) is always first, second and third. P. 20.
The Divine
Family... suggests the close relation that exists between the members of the Godhead, and also that they constitute a family  (clan, kith, lineage, race); 
it suggest that they are
closely related, that they are akin(relatives, same lineage, same tribe)   This term expresses an interest in each other and a cooperation (teamwork, collaboration, partnership) in activities. P. 21

Nashville School of Preaching and the Holy Spirit

Repudiated by:

For thus saith

the Lord (Jehovah)
that created the heavens;
God (Elohim) himself that
formed the earth and
made it; he hath
established it, he
created it not in vain,
he formed it to be inhabited:
I am the Lord (Jehovah); and there is none else. Isaiah 45:18

He hath made the earth by his power,
he hath established the world by his wisdom,
and hath
stretched out the heaven by his understanding. Jer 51:15
he uttereth his voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens;
and he
causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth:
maketh lightnings with rain,
bringeth forth the wind (spirit) out of his treasures. Jer 51:16

Every man is brutish by his knowledge; every founder is confounded by the graven image: for his molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them. Jer 51:17

John Calvin on Genesis 1

"God." Moses has it Elohim, a noun of the plural number. Whence the inference is drawn, that the three Persons of the Godhead are here noted; but since, as a proof of so great a matter, it appears to me to have little solidity, will not insist upon the word; but rather caution readers to beware of violent glosses of this, kind.

"They think that they have testimony against the Asians, to prove the Deity of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,

"but in the meantime they involve themselves in the error of Sabellius, because Moses afterwards subjoins that the Elohim had spoken, and that the holy Spirit of the Elohim rested upon the waters.

26. "Let us make man." Although the tense here used is the future, all must acknowledge that this is the language of one apparently deliberating. Hitherto God has been introduced simply as commanding; now, when he approaches the most excellent of all his works, he enters into consultation. For more notes on the Holy Spirit - Mind connection Click Here.

God certainly might here command by his bare word what he wished to be done:

but he chose to give this tribute to the excellency of man,
that he would, in a
manner, enter into consultation concerning his creation.

But since the Lord needs no other counsellor, there can be no doubt that he consulted with himself. [For our notes on the Holy Spirit as Counsellor Click Here.]

Christians, therefore, properly contend, from this testimony, that there exists a plurality of Persons (personae in the church Fathers) in the Godhead.

God summons no foreign counsellor; hence we infer that he

finds within himself something distinct; as, in truth,
his eternal
wisdom and power reside within him.

revelation, neither the word "trinity" or a triad concept is revealed by the prophets or apostles.  Jesus said that the NAME (singular) of Father, Son and Spirit is Jesus Christ.  John agreed that Jesus Christ the Righteous is the promised Comforter in his post glorified state
scripture, again, there is no Scripture nor any historic scholar who studied the Word instead of human theology by the doctors of the Law whom Jesus said "take away the key to knowledge." If you don't believe in the ONE God and Jesus whom God MADE TO BE BOTH Lord and Christ you denigrate the work of the man Jesus.
1Peter 3:18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins,
        the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God,
        being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:


Jesus of Nazareth Who claims the traditional role of father, spirit (mother) and eternally mewling infant cannot share His kingship and high priesthood with other members of the "godheads."

Egyptian trinity represented by Apis the golden Calf
At Mount Sinai this musical idolatry was without
redemption and brought down the law of Moses.
John Mark Hicks trinity in COMMUNITY at Sodom
Our Triune God The Wonder of the Story

A Disciple of Christ through "that which is written for our learning" will not deviate from this fact.  David was Warrior and the Levites were under the King and Commanders of the Army. They sang boast songs but they clearly did not teach error.

Psalms 33:4 For the word of THE LORD is right;
        and all HIS works are done in truth.
Psalms 33:5 HE loveth righteousness and judgment: the earth is full of the goodness of the LORD.
Psalms 33:6 By the [1] word of the [2] LORD were the heavens made;
        and all the host of them by the [3] breath [H7307 SPIRIT] of HIS mouth.
Psalms 33:7 HE gathereth the waters of the sea together as an heap:
        he layeth up the depth in storehouses.
Psalms 33:8 Let all the earth fear the LORD:
         let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of HIM.
Psalms 33:9 For HE spake, and it was done; he commanded, and it stood fast.

As Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth was ordained or anointed with all of the fulness of deity (godhead).

Acts 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly,
        that God hath made
        that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified,
        both Lord and Christ.
Hebrews 1:1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners
        spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,
This was the Spirit OF Christ: 1 Peter 1:11; 2 Corinthians 3 "the Lord IS that Spirit."; Revelation 19:10
For Instance:
1Corinthians 10:2 And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
1Corinthians 10:3 And did all eat the same spiritual meat;
1Corinthians 10:4 And did all drink the same spiritual drink:
         for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them:
         and that Rock was Christ.
John 6:63 It is the spirit that quickeneth;
        the flesh profiteth nothing:
        the words that I speak unto you,
        they are spirit, and they are life.
1Corinthians 10:5 But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness.
1Corinthians 10:6 Now these things were our examples,
        to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.
1Corinthians 10:7 Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written,
        The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.
Anistēmi , II. rouse to action, stir up, III. make people rise, break up an assembly by force, Il.1.191; but ekklēsian anastēsai adjourn it, X.HG2.4.42. raise up against another, toutō de promon allon anastēsousin ib.7.116 (v. infr. B. 1.5): rouse to arms, raise troops, Th.2.68,96; “a. polemon epi tinaPlu.Cor.21; anastēsas ēge straton he called up his troops and marched them, Th.4.93, cf. 112, etc.

Paizō,  Dor. paisdō Theoc.15.42: Lacon. pres. part. gen. pl. fem. paiddōhan Ar. Lys.1313 (lyr.): fut. paixoumai Syrac. in X.Smp. 9.2,
esp. dance, “paisate Od.8.251; “dōma peristenakhizeto possin andrōn paizontōn 23.147, cf. Hes.Sc.277; “p. te kai khoreuein Ar.Ra.409, cf. 390; “enoplia khalkōtheis epaizenPi.O.13.86:—Pass., alla pepaistai metriōs hēmin, of the chorus, Ar. Th.1227.
play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16.
That is, they engaged in musical idolatry of the Egyptian trinity represented by Apis the living bull calf.
Moses promised that they would be deaf and blind until ANOTHER PROPHET like him was sent. All godly people were quarantined from the Jewish Covenant with hell and death in the Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness.  After that reign of blood and flesh lust was finally destroyed---

Hebrews 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son,
        whom he hath appointed heir of all things,
        by whom also he made the worlds;

God did not make the World by Jesus the Son but by His Word: that means He Spake of Himself.

John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word,
        and the Word was with God,
        and the Word was God.
John 1:2 The same was in the beginning with God.
John 1:3 All things were made by him;
        and without him was not any thing made that was made.

Jesus of Nazareth was Made To Be both Lord and Christ to represent the real spiritual substance which is the only foundation upon which the tiny remnant of godly people rest with confidence.  This kingdom does not come with observation: that means religious observations or services which is the CONFIDENCE or foundation of most.

Hebrews 1:3 Who being the BRIGHTNESS of his glory,
        and the express IMAGE of his person,
        and upholding all things by the WORD of his power,
                when he had by himself purged our sins,
                sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;

Peter defines that WORD our underlayment of confidence as the Prophets by the Spirit OF Christ and the prophecies made more certain by Jesus through the apostles who were eye-and ear- witnesses of His teaching and His appearance after the resurrection. Anything beyond that foundation says Peter is the mark of a false teacher.

Paul Tillich says correctly that to call God a person prior to the 19th century would be heresy.

Person or personae was NOT a person in the "people" since.
   as an act, standing under, supporting
so hupostaseis are the substances of which the reflections (hai katoptrikai emphaseis) appear in the mirror,II. foundation or substructure of a temple,
4.  confidence, courage, resolution, steadiness Ep.Hebr.3.14; Ep.Cor.11.17,
hupostasis confidence in things hoped for, Ep.Hebr.11.1 (

Hebrews 3:14 For we are made partakers of Christ,
        if we hold the beginning of our confidence stedfast unto the end;

Hebrews 1:4 Being MADE so much better than the angels,
        as he hath by inheritance OBTAINED a more excellent name than they.
Hebrews 1:5 For unto which of the angels said he at any time,
        Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee?
        And again, I will be to him a Father,
        and he shall be to me a Son?

There is never a Spirit PERSON between the ONE FATHER and Jesus the Son. Nor is there a Spirit other than Jesus Who received the promise or COMMISSION as The Holy Spirit or MIND of God to we mortals.
1Timothy 2:5 For there is one God,
        and one mediator between God and men,
        the man Christ Jesus;
Disciples find the CENI in the Great Commission

Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
        All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore,
        and teach all nations,
        baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:
        and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.


Theophilus who first used the Word Trias
The word Trinity was first used by Theophilus of Antioch to Autolycus. Trinity meant: God, His Word and His Wisdom (Spirit). It did not mean the doctrine of the Trinity in the modern sense of the word.

Tertullian Praxes
This Reason is His own Thought (or Consciousness) which the Greeks call logos, by which term we also designate Word or Discourse  and therefore it is now usual with our people, owing to the mere simple interpretation of the term,
       to say that the Word was in the beginning with God;
although it would be more suitable to regard Reason as the more ancient; because God had not Word from the beginning, but He had Reason even before the beginning;  because also Word itself consists of Reason, which it thus proves to have been the prior existence as being its own substance.

Not that this distinction is of any practical moment.  For although God had not yet sent out His Word,  He still had Him within Himself, both in company with and included within His very Reason,  as He silently planned and arranged within Himself  everything which He was afterwards about to utter through His Word.
Augustine A Summary
In the seventh, the question is explained which had been deferred: in what way
God who begat the Son is not only Father of His own power and wisdom,
        but is Himself also power and wisdom; so, too, the Holy Spirit; and yet that
         they are not three powers or three wisdoms,

         but one power and one wisdom, as one God and one essence.

Augustine on Faith And Creed   While all writers speak of Father, Son and Spirit none make son and spirit into another God being.
But God,
        when He begot the Word,
        begot that which He is Himself.

Neither out of nothing, nor of any material already made and founded did He then beget;
        but He begot of Himself that which He is Himself.
For when they affirm that there is a nature which God Almighty did not create, but of which at the same time He fashioned this world, which they admit to have been disposed in beauty they thereby deny that God is almighty,
        to the effect of not believing that He could have created the world
        without employing, for the purpose of its construction, another nature,
        which had been in existence previously,
        and which He Himself had not made.

Thus, forsooth, [they reason] from
their carnal familiarity with the sight of craftsmen and house-builders,
        and artisans of all descriptions,
        who have no power to make good the effect of their own art
        unless they get the help of materials already prepared

And so these parties in like manner understand the Maker of the world not to be almighty,
        if thus He could not fashion the said world without the help of some other nature,
        not framed by Himself, which He had to use as His materials.

Or if indeed they do allow God, the Maker of the world, to be almighty, it becomes matter of course that they must also acknowledge that He made out of nothing the things which He did make. For, granting that He is almighty, there cannot exist anything of which He should not be the Creator

John warned before that if you deny the One God and Father and Jesus whom God made to be both Lord and Christ and Who is the ONLY Mediator, you are Anti-Christ. Indeed the sudden lurch of rhetorical and musical performers to REPLACE the elders teaching that which has been taught denies that only Christ speaks through the Prophets and Apostles which is the only foundation upon which A Church of Christ is 

Athenagoras - The Trinity

Another translation:

"The Son of God is the Word of the Father in thought and actuality. By him and through him all things were made, the Father and the Son being one. Since the Son is in the Father and the Father is in the Son by the unity and power of the Spirit,

"the Mind and Word of the Father is the Son of God.

"And if, in your exceedingly great wisdom, it occurs to you to inquire what is meant by `the Son,' I will tell you briefly: He is the first- begotten of the Father, not as having been produced

for from the beginning God had the Word in himself, God being eternal mind and eternally rational, but as coming forth to be the model and energizing force of all material things" (Athanagoras, 177 AD, Plea for the Christians 10:2-4).

Justin Martyr to Trypho
Chapter LXI-Wisdom is Begotten of the Father, as Fire from Fire.

"I shall give you another testimony, my friends," said I, "from the Scriptures,
        That God begat before all creatures a Beginning,
[who was] a certain rational power [proceeding] from Himself,
who is called by the Holy Spirit, now the Glory of the Lord,
now the Son, again Wisdom, again an Angel, then God,
and then Lord and Logos; and on another occasion
He calls Himself Captain, when He appeared in human form
            to Joshua the son of Nave (Nun).

For He can be called by all those names, since He ministers to the Father's will, and since He was begotten of the Father by an act of will;
just as we see happening among ourselves:
for when we give out some word, we beget the word;
yet not by abscission, so as to lessen the word [which remains] in us,
when we give it out: and just as we see also happening in the case of a fire,
which is not lessened when it has kindled [another], but remains the same;
and that which has been kindled by it likewise appears to exist by itself,
not diminishing that from which it was kindled.

The Word of Wisdom, who is Himself this God begotten of the Father of all things, and Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and the Glory of the Begetter, will bear evidence to me, when He speaks by Solomon the following:


Thomas Campbell Trinity
Alexander Campbell and others understand that A holy spirit is OUR unholy spirit which has been cleansed by the blood of Jesus Christ and not His "spirit."

Campbell The Trinitarian System
2. But in the second place, I have an insuperable objection to the Arian and Calvinistic phraseology--
On the doctrine of the first relation existing between the Father and the Saviour of Men, because it confounds things human and divine, and gives new ideas to bible terms unthought of by the inspired writers. 
        The names Jesus, Christ, or Messiah, Only Begotten Son, Son of God,
        belong to the Founder of the christian religion, and to none else. 
They express not a relation existing before the christian era, but relations which commenced at that time. 
To understand the relation betwixt the Saviour and his Father, 
        which existed before time,
        and that relation which began in time,
            is impossible on [333]  either of these theories.

There was no Jesus, no Messiah, no Christ, no Son of God, no Only Begotten, before the reign of Augustus Cesar.
The relation that was before the christian era, was not that of a son and a father, terms which always imply disparity; but it was that expressed by John in the sentence under consideration.
The relation was that of God,
and the "word of God."
This phraseology unfolds a relation quite different from that of a father and a son--a relation perfectly intimate, equal, and glorious.
  holiness, holiness comes only by request at the time and place of obedience in baptism. However, "good" they might be (say Cornelius) they are not saved, sins are not remitted, not accepted as DISCIPLES (don't do worship rituals) and do not have their now holy spirit translated into the heavenly kingdom.
Acts 2:38 Then Peter said unto them,
        Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ FOR the remission of sins,
        and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost  A holy spirit.
Acts 2:39 For the promise is unto you, and to your children,
        and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call.


Acts 2:41 Then they that gladly received his word were baptized:
        and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.

Many are called but FEW are chosen or elected or added to The Church of Christ BY Christ.
The 'believeth nots" are Apistos defined as 'will not comply, in revolt, treacherous." There can be no COMMUNITY with people who call the Spirit OF Christ in the prophets, Jesus, the Apostles and almost all historic scholars LIARS.
1Peter 3:15 But sanctify [hagiasate, sanctĭfĭco] the Lord God IN your hearts:
        and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you
        a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear:

1Peter 3:16 Having A good conscience [
suneidēsin]; is A holy spirit
        that, whereas they speak evil of you, as of evildoers,
        they may be ashamed that falsely accuse your good conversation in Christ.
1Peter 3:17 For it is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well doing, than for evil doing.

1Peter 3:18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust,
        that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh,
        but quickened by the Spirit:
1Peter 3:19 By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison;
1Peter 3:20 Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah,
        while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.

A figure or tupos is "A pattern intended to be imiatated." In Romans 6 only those who OBEYED that pattern were then FREE from sin.  Others are not in any kind of community with God.  Believeth not is the word Apistos which declares "I will NOT comply." It speaks of people in revolt and treacherous.

1Peter 3:21 The like figure
        whereunto even baptism doth also now save us
        (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh,
        but the REQUEST FOR A good conscience toward God,)
        by the resurrection of Jesus Christ:
1Peter 3:22 Who is gone into heaven,
        and is on the right hand of God;
        angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.
After the writers finished their PARTS the term "The Holy Spirit" almost disappears.  The salutations in the Epistles is always:
1Timothy 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ
by the commandment of God our Saviour,
        and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope;

If you cannot grasp a simple statement in the WORD then maybe you are not supposed to:

Acts 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly,
        that God hath made
        that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified,
        both Lord and Christ.

There is never a Spirit PERSON between the ONE FATHER and Jesus the Son. Nor is there a Spirit other than Jesus Who received the promise or COMMISSION as The Holy Spirit or MIND of God to we mortals.
1Timothy 2:5 For there is one God,
        and one mediator between God and men,
        the man Christ Jesus;

and suffering   denying the ONE GOD and ONE LORD is defined by John as ANTI-Christ.  It is such a fatal blow at the man Jesus of Nazareth that our spirits WITHIN us wants to just die.
Luke 23:46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice,
        he said, Father, into thy hands I commend MY spirit:
        and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.
Hebrews 2:9 But we see Jesus,
        who was made a little lower than the angels
        for the suffering of death,
        crowned with glory and honour;
        that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.

John 7:42 Hath not the scripture said,
        That Christ cometh of the seed of David,
        and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was?

Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle,
        separated unto the gospel of God,
Romans 1:2 (Which he had promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures,)
Romans 1:3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord,
        which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh; 
        And declared to be the Son of God with power,
        according to the spirit of holiness,
        by the resurrection from the dead: Romans 1:4
Romans 1:5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship,
        for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:
Romans 1:6 Among whom are ye also the called of Jesus Christ:
Romans 1:7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints:
        Grace to you and peace from God our Father,
        and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Of course, the only "trinity" concept in recorded history is that of most pagan religions: father, spirit and son were often father, mother and eternally mewling infant.  That is the Catholic Trinity.  Harding builds on "theology" which like phrenology answers to Jesus assertion that Scribes and Phariisees are hypocrites: in the Ezekiel 33 version the Spirit OF (preposition) Christ named speakers, singers and instrument players. As doctors of the Law they take away the key to knowledge; that is what they are destined for.  One of the FOUNDATION documents is John Mark Hicks trying to force the Campbells into trinitarians: you NEED three person for COMMUNING which gives rise to a COMMUNITY Church.

(2) John Mark Hicks, “Trinity as ‘Necessary’ Fact in Alexander Campbell’s ‘Christian System of Facts,’” at

You will note that the Bible is not part of the required textbooks.
Because students are hobbled by

3. Carefully present and critically interact with contemporary proposals on the doctrine of the Trinity.

You might want to cross your fingers. A disciple does not "propose" any views about the doctrinne of the trinity because there is no Biblical doctrine which remotely suggests that God is three people.

He speaks by the Spirit or Breath of God the Father and never speaks on His own. A follower of Christ will not, can not speak on their own.  The same Spirit OF Christ outlaws private opinions (especially for sale) and speaking our own words.

I want to assure you that reading scholarly books ABOUT the Church fathers is too many REMOVES from the Word of God to be useful if you don't want to be dubbed as an ANTICHRIST.  However, there is NO historic information including the Nicene Work which defines God in the John Mark Hicks "three persons each with their own centers of consciousness."  Jesus promised "another" Comforter and said I WILL COME TO YOU.  1 John 2 defines the Paraklete as Jesus Christ the Righteous. If you tamper with that as A Doctor of the Law Jesus warns that you intend to take away the key to knowledge.

The Trinitarian Controversy Translated and Edited by WILLIAM G. RUSCH

The question of the relation of the Father and the Son is not addressed, but there is evidence of the triadic schema
Ignatius’s Letter to the Magnesians 13 
Chapter XIII.-Be Established in Faith and Unity.

Study, therefore, to be established in the doctrines of the Lord and the apostles, that so all things, whatsoever ye do, may prosper both in the flesh and spirit; in faith and love; in the Son, and in the Father, and in the Spirit; in the beginning and in the end; with your most admirable bishop, and the well-compacted spiritual crown of your presbytery, and the deacons who are according to God.
        Be ye subject to the bishop, and to one another,
                 as Jesus Christ to the Father,
        according to the flesh, and the apostles to Christ, and to the Father, and to the Spirit;
        that so there may be a union both fleshly and spiritual.
The prophets were His servants, and foresaw Him by the Spirit, and waited for Him as their Teacher, and expected Him as their Lord and Saviour, saying, "He will come and save us.

The Spirit OF Christ spoke through the prophets and NOT through the kings, priests  or Levites. The church is built upon or educated by the Prophets and Apostles. Most if not all historic scholars speak of the Church of Christ as being APOSTOLIC in its teachings. That excludes both the word trinity and the concept.

It is tragic that people who reject the command for disciples to "teach that which has been taught" that no level of scholarship gives them time to treat history with ethics and publish books at the same time.  Ignatius also wrote.

Ignatius’s Letter to the Magnesians

Ignatius, who is also called Theophorus, to the [Church]
        blessed in the grace of God the Father,
        in Jesus Christ our Saviour,
in whom I salute the Church which is at Magnesia, near the Moeander, and wish it abundance of happiness
        In God the father,
        and in Jesus Christ.

Do ye all, as one man, run together into the temple of God,
        as unto one altar, to one Jesus Christ,
        the High Priest of the unbegotten God.
For the divinest prophets lived according to Jesus Christ. On this account also they were persecuted,
        being inspired by grace to fully convince the unbelieving that there is one God, the Almighty,
        who has manifested Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who is His Word, not spoken, but essential.
        For He is not the voice of an articulate utterance, but a substance begotten by divine power,
        who has in all things pleased Him that sent Him

John who named the "another" Comforter Jesus Christ the Righteous agrees with history and calls those who deny it ANTI-christs.

of Lyon
Irenaeus from Smyrna studied at Rome and became bishop of Lyon near the end of the second century. His theology formed a bridge between Eastern and Western churches. Building on the accomplishments of the Apologists, Irenaeus reaches a high point in theological reflection in the second century.
Irenaeus’s trinitarian thought is beholden to his doctrine of creation.
God alone, the only Lord, Creator and Father,
contained all things and caused them to exist (Against Heresies 2.1.

That's what the Spirit of Christ said in Jeremiah.

That statement should end the neo-trinitarianism which sees God as three persons which they think means people: it never did.  The word is personae. Even then, all historic schloars intended to say that God is not an oblong blur but that He contains WITHIN HIMSELF His own Wisdom, Spirit (breath) and Words.  God thinks; God sends out invisible breath (spirit) and His "lips" articulate that invisible, inaudible breath into Words. God's OWN Words are His Son because He gave birth. Nevertheless, Rusch tampers with ALL of the historic scholars and gives aid and comfort to those intending to play the role or ANTIChrist.

Jesus of Nazareth was/is the Seed of Abraham: God picked Jesus of Nazareth TO BE both Lord and Christ and Word and Wisdom and Spirit and Righteousness and Grace.  Jesus gave the direct command to GO and teach people: to make them into disciples by baptizing them and teaching then "what He commanded to be taught and observed."  Jesus of nazareth had/has ALL authority and all God wants us to know.

Against Heresies 2.1.1 Chapter I.-There is But One God: the Impossibility of Its Being Otherwise.

1. IT is proper, then, that I should begin with the first and most important head, that is,

God the Creator, who made the heaven and the earth, and all things that are therein (whom these men blasphemously style the fruit of a defect), and to demonstrate that there is nothing either above Him or after Him; nor that, influenced by any one,

but of His own free will, He created all things, since He is the only God, the only Lord, the only Creator, the only Father, alone containing all things, and Himself commanding all things into existence.

2. For how can there be any other Fulness, or Principle, or Power, or God, above Him, since it is matter of necessity that God, the Pleroma (Fulness) of all these, should contain all things in His immensity, and should be contained by no one?


for there is among the Greeks one logos which is the principle that thinks, 
        and another which is the instrument by means of which thought is expressed);
        and [to say] that a man sometimes is at rest and silent,
        while at other times he speaks and is active. 


But since God is 
        all mind, all reason, all active spirit, all light,
        and always exists one and the same,
        as it is both beneficial for us to think of God,

        and as we learn regarding Him from the Scriptures,
        such feelings and divisions [of operation] cannot fittingly be ascribed to Him.

For our tongue, as being carnal, is not sufficient to minister to the rapidity of the human mind, inasmuch as that is of a spiritual nature, for which reason our word is restrained 236 within us, and is not at once expressed as it has been conceived by the mind, but is uttered by successive efforts, just as the tongue is able to serve it.

5. But God being all Mind, and all Logos
        both speaks exactly what He thinks,
        and thinks exactly what He speaks.

For His thought is Logos, and Logos is
        Mind comprehending all things is the Father Himself.

He, therefore, who speaks of the mind of God,
        and ascribes to it a special origin of its own,
        declares Him a compound Being,
                as if God were one thing,
                and the original Mind another.

So, again, with respect to Logos,
        when one attributes to him the third  place of production from the Father;
                on which supposition he is ignorant of His greatness;
                and thus Logos has been far separated from God.

As for the prophet, he declares respecting Him,
        "Who shall describe His generation? "
        But ye pretend to set forth His generation from the Father,
        and ye transfer the production of the word of men
        which takes place by means of a tongue to the Word of God,
                and thus are righteously exposed by your own selves
                as knowing neither things human nor divine.

6. But, beyond reason inflated [with your own wisdom],
        ye presumptuously maintain that ye are acquainted
        with the unspeakable mysteries of God;
        while even the Lord, the very Son of God,
        allowed that the Father alone knows the very day and hour of judgment,

        when He plainly declares, "But of that day and that hour knoweth no man,
        neither the Son, but the Father only." 239

If, then, the Son was not ashamed to ascribe the knowledge of that day to the Father only, but declared what was true regarding the matter, neither let us be ashamed to reserve for God those greater questions which may occur to us.
WILLIAM G. RUSCH:  God is uncreated, ingenerate, the first cause. Irenaeus reconciles his teaching of creation and divine transcendence with the notion of divine immanence in the world by means of the Apologists’ teaching of a Logos theology. There are, however, some differences. 

Even before the -6- expression of the Logos from the Godhead, Irenaeus describes him as the Son.
He did not wish to be understood as teaching that the Logos became the Son of God because of the incarnation (Her. 3.17.4).

That's true: the Logos or WORD of God in all trinitarian writings is the SON of God: when the ONE God speaks He emits or gives birth to a word which is HIS BEGOTTEN SON

Her. 3.17.4 Chapter I.-The Apostles Did Not Commence to Preach the Gospel, or to Place Anything on Record, Until They Were Endowed with the Gifts and Power of the Holy Spirit. They Preached One God Alone, Maker of Heaven and

1. WE have learned from none others the plan of our salvation, than from those through whom the Gospel has come down to us, which they did at one time proclaim in public, and, at a later period, by the will of God, handed down to us in the Scriptures, to be the ground and pillar of our faith.  For it is unlawful to assert that they preached before they possessed "perfect knowledge," as some do even venture to say, boasting themselves as improvers of the apostles.

For, after our Lord rose from the dead, [the apostles] were invested with power from on high when the Holy Spirit came down [upon them], were filled from all [His gifts], and had perfect knowledge:

In the time of this Clement, no small dissension having occurred among the brethren at Corinth, the Church in Rome despatched a most powerful letter to the Corinthians, exhorting them to peace, renewing their faith,  and declaring the tradition which it had lately received from the apostles, proclaiming the one God, omnipotent, the Maker of heaven and earth, the Creator of man, who brought on the deluge, and called Abraham, who led the people from the land of Egypt, spake with Moses, set forth the law, sent the prophets, and who has prepared fire for the devil and his angels.

From this document, whosoever chooses to do so, may learn that He, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, was preached by the Churches, and may also understand the apostolical tradition of the Church, since this Epistle is of older date than these men who are now propagating falsehood, and who conjure into existence another god beyond the Creator and the Maker of all existing things. 

To this Clement there succeeded Evaristus. Alexander followed Evaristus; then, sixth from the apostles, Sixtus was appointed; after him, Telephorus, who was gloriously martyred; then Hyginus; after him, Pius; then after him, Anicetus. Sorer having succeeded Anicetus, Eleutherius does now, in the twelfth place from the apostles, hold the inheritance of the episcopate. 
        In this order, and by this succession,
        the ecclesiastical
from the apostles
        and the preaching of the truth, have come down to us. 

And this is most abundant proof that there is one and the same vivifying faith, which has been preserved in the Church from the apostles until now, and handed down in truth.

Chapter XI-Proofs in Continuation, Extracted from St. John's Gospel. The Gospels are Four in Number, Neither More Nor Less. Mystic Reasons for This. 1. John, the disciple of the Lord, preaches this faith, and seeks, by the proclamation of the Gospel, to remove that error which by Cerinthus had been disseminated among men, and a long time previously by those termed Nicolaitans, who are an offset of that "knowledge" falsely so called, that he might confound them, 

        and persuade them that there is but one God, who made all things by His Word; 
        and not, as they allege,
                that the Creator was one,
                but the Father of the Lord another;
                and that the Son of the Creator was, forsooth, one,

                but the Christ from above another,
                who also continued impossible,
                descending upon Jesus, the Son of the Creator,
                and flew back again into His Pleroma;

            and that Monogenes was the beginning,
            but Logos was the true son of Monogenes;
            and that this creation to which we belong was not made by the primary God,
            but by some power lying far below Him,
            and shut off from communion with the things invisible and ineffable.

The disciple of the Lord therefore desiring to put an end to all such doctrines, and to establish the rule of truth in the Church,
        that there is one Almighty God,
        who made all things by His Word, both visible and invisible;
        showing at the same time, that by the Word, through whom God made the creation,
        He also bestowed salvation on the men included in the creation;
        thus commenced His teaching in the Gospel:

 WILLIAM G. RUSCH:  This view may indicate a certain discomfort with the Apologists’ teaching of the two-stage concept of the Logos. Irenaeus tended to approach God in two ways:
as he exists in his intrinsic being;
as he manifests himself in the “economy,” the ordered process of his self-disclosure.
Irenaeus prefers the idea of the Logos or Son both eternally with God and expressed (Her. 2.30.9; 4.20.3), rather than the Apologists’ statement of God’s immanent Word coming forth. He refuses to explore the means by which the Word is extrapolated, and he shows a clear dislike for the analogy of human speech as employed by the Apologists.

9. Justly, therefore, do we convict them of having departed far and wide from the truth. For if the Saviour formed the things which have been made, by means of him (the Demiurge), he is proved in that case not to be inferior but superior to them, since he is found to have been the former even of themselves; for they, too, have a place among created things. How, then, can it be argued that these men indeed are spiritual, but that he by whom they were created is of an animal nature? 

Or, again, if (which is indeed the only true supposition, as I have shown by numerous arguments of the very clearest nature) He (the Creator) made all things freely, and by His own power, and arranged and finished them, and His will is the substance 271 of all things, 
        then He is discovered to be the one only God who created all things,
        who alone is Omnipotent,
        and who is the only Father rounding and forming all things, visible and invisible,
        such as may be perceived by our senses and such as cannot, heavenly and earthly,
        "by the word of His power; " 
and He has fitted and arranged all things by His wisdom,
        while He contains all things, but He Himself can be contained by no one:
        He is the Former, He the Builder, He the Discoverer, He the Creator, He the Lord of all;

        and there is no one besides Him, or above Him, neither has He any mother,
        as they falsely ascribe to Him; nor is there a second God, as Marcion has imagined;
        nor is there a Pleroma of thirty Aeons, which has been shown a vain supposition;
        nor is there any such being as Bythus or Proarche;
        nor are there a series of heavens; nor is there a virginal light, nor an unnameable Aeon,
        nor, in fact, any one of those things which are madly dreamt of by these, and by all the heretics. 

But there is one only God, the Creator-He who is above every Principality, and Power, and Dominion, and Virtue: 

He is Father, He is God, He the Founder, He the Maker, He the Creator,
        who made those things by Himself,
        that is, through His Word
        and His Wisdom-heaven and earth, and the seas,
        and all things that are in them:

He is just; He is good; He it is who formed man, who planted paradise, who made the world, who gave rise to the flood, who saved Noah; He is the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, the God of the living: He it is whom the law proclaims, whom the prophets preach, whom Christ reveals, whom the apostles make known 274 to us, and in whom the Church believes.

He is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ: through His Word, who is His Son,
        through Him He is revealed and manifested to all to whom
He is revealed;
        for those [only] know Him to whom the Son has revealed Him.
But the Son [Word], eternally co-existing with the Father, from of old, yea, from the beginning,
        always reveals the Father to Angels, Archangels, Powers, Virtues,
        and all to whom He wills that God should be revealed.
God does not will to reveal Himself: He HIDES from the wise or Sophists meaning self-speakers, singers and instrument players.
Jesus does not pray for the World including all of the adorning of acting, singing and composing or fabricating.

WILLIAM G. RUSCH saying both YES and NO can confuse anyone doing a quicky seminary.

Irenaeus, God in his inner being is ineffably one, although containing from eternity his Word and Wisdom. In his economy God extrapolates the Son and the Spirit.

God extrapolates SPIRIT as God's BREATH.  Jesus is Son because He SPEAKS that which God's Breath revealed without METER as the word seems to prove since there is no meter to sing in the whole Bible. Certainly God's breath (spirit) is not the same as God: God's Word as articulated is not the same as God's breath.  However, the word personae never means PERSON or people in the modern sense.

Irenaeus links the Logos and Spirit in the creative process and speaks of them as God’s hands (Her. 4.20.2ff.; 5.1.3). The Logos in the flesh displayed the true image of God, but it is the Spirit who makes it possible to receive this revelation, (Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching 7).

The Spirit OF Christ who defined His future REST both inclusively and exclusively inspired Isaiah to write:
Isaiah 59:15 Yea, truth faileth;
        and he that departeth from evil maketh himself a prey:
        and the LORD saw it, and it displeased him that there was no judgment.
Isaiah 59:16 And he saw that there was no man, and wondered that there was no intercessor:
        therefore his ARM brought salvation unto him;
        and his righteousness, it sustained him.
Isaiah 59:17 For he put on righteousness as a breastplate, and an helmet of salvation upon his head;
        and he put on the garments of vengeance for clothing, and was clad with zeal as a cloke.
Isaiah 59:18 According to their deeds, accordingly he will repay, fury to his adversaries, recompence to his enemies;
         to the islands he will repay recompence.


Isaiah 59:20 And the Redeemer shall come to Zion,
        and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the LORD.
Isaiah 59:21 As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the LORD;
         My spirit that is upon thee,
         and my words which I have put in thy mouth,
         shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed,
         nor out of the mouth of thy seed’s seed,
         saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever.

We Disciples call that CENI
Her. 4.20.2ff.;
Contrary to John Mark Hicks who imagines a God who NEEDS the community of other god people

For God did not stand in need of these [beings], in order to the accomplishing of what He had Himself determined with Himself beforehand should be done, as if He did not possess His own hands. 

For with Him were always present 

the Word and Wisdom,
the Son and the Spirit

by whom and in whom, freely and spontaneously, He made all things, to whom also He speaks, saying, 

"Let Us make man after Our image and likeness; " 

He taking from Himself the substance of the creatures [formed], and the pattern of things made, and the type of all the adornments in the world.

2. Truly, then, the Scripture declared, which says, "
        First of all believe that there is one God, who has established all things, and completed them,
        and having caused that from what had no being, all things should come into existence:
            "He who contains all things, and is Himself contained by no one.
             Rightly also has Malachi said among the prophets: 

"Is it not one God who hath established us? Have we not all one Father? " 

In accordance with this, too, does the apostle say,
        "There is one God, the Father, who is above all, and in us all."
         Likewise does the Lord also say: "All things are delivered to Me by My Father;

3. I have also largely demonstrated, 

        that the Word, namely the Son, was always with the Father; 
        and that Wisdom also, which is the Spirit, was present with Him, anterior to all creation, 

He declares by Solomon: "God by Wisdom founded the earth, and by understanding hath He established the heaven. By His knowledge the depths burst forth, and the clouds dropped down the dew."

And again: "The Lord created me the beginning of His ways in His work: He set me up from everlasting, in the beginning, before He made the earth, before He established the depths, and before the fountains of waters gushed forth; before the mountains were made strong, and before all the hills, He brought me forth." 276 And again: "When He prepared the heaven, I was with Him, and when He established the fountains of the deep; when He made the foundations of the earth strong, I was with Him preparing [them]. I was He in whom He rejoiced, and throughout all time I was daily glad before His face, when He rejoiced at the completion of the world, and was delighted in the sons of men." 

4. There is therefore one God, who by the Word and Wisdom created and arranged all thing
WILLIAM G. RUSCH For Irenaeus the Son is fully divine (Dem. 7), as is the Spirit (Her. 5.12.2?).
Irenaeus Demonstration of Apostolic Preaching

5. Thus then there is shown forth 
        One God, the Father, not made, invisible, creator of all things;
        above whom there is no other God,
        and after whom there is no other God.

And, since God is rational,
        therefore by (the) Word He created the things that were made; 
        and God is Spirit, and by (the) Spirit He adorned all things: as also the prophet says:

By the word of the Lord were the heavens established, and by his spirit all their power. Since then the Word establishes, that is to say, gives body  and grants the reality of being, and the Spirit gives order and form to the diversity of the powers;
        rightly and fittingly is the Word called the Son,
        and the Spirit the Wisdom of God. Well also does Paul His apostle say:

One God, the Father, who is over all and through all and in us all. For over all is the Father; and through all is the Son, for through Him all things were made by the Father; and in us all is the Spirit, who cries Abba Father, and fashions man into the likeness of God.

Now the Spirit shows forth the Word, and therefore the prophets announced the Son of God;
and the Word utters the Spirit, and therefore is Himself the announcer of the prophets,
and leads and draws man to the Father.

6. This then is the order of the rule of our faith, and the foundation of the building, and the stability of our conversation:

God, the Father, not made, not material, invisible; one God, the creator of all things: this is the first point of our faith.

The second point is: The Word of God, Son of God, Christ Jesus our Lord,
        who was manifested to the prophets according to the form of their prophesying
        and according to the method of the dispensation of the Father:
        through whom all things were made; who also at the end of the times,
        to complete and gather up all things, was made man among men, visible and tangible,
        in order to abolish death and show forth life and
        produce a community of union between God and man.

And the third point is:
        The Holy Spirit, through whom the prophets prophesied,
        and the fathers learned the things of God,
        and the righteous were led forth into the way of righteousness;
        and who in the end of the times was poured out in a new way upon mankind in all the earth,
        renewing man unto God.

7. And for this reason the baptism of our regeneration proceeds through these three points:

God the Father bestowing on us regeneration through His Son by the Holy Spirit.
For as many as carry (in them) the Spirit of God are led to the Word, that is to the Son;
and the Son brings them to the Father; and the Father causes them to possess incorruption.

Without the Spirit it is not possible to behold the Word of God,
        nor without the Son can any draw near to the Father:

        for the knowledge of the Father is the Son,
                and the knowledge of the Son of God is through the Holy Spirit;
                and, according to the good pleasure of the Father,
                the Son ministers and dispenses the Spirit to whomsoever the Father wills and as He wills

John 6:44 No man can come to me,
        except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.
John 6:45 It is written in the prophets,
        And they shall be all taught of God.
        Every man therefore that hath heard,
        and hath learned of the Father,
        cometh unto me.

John 6:62 What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?
John 6:63 It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing:
        the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.

The ELECT or those who are called OUT of the world and INTO The Church of Christ (He purchased it)

Acts 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly,
        that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified,
        both Lord and Christ.

Thos OF FAITH never tamper with the Word:
Acts 2:37 Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart,
        and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles,
        Men and brethren, what shall we do?
Acts 2:38 Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ
        for [in order to] the remission of sins,
        and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.
Acts 2:39 For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off,
        even as many as the Lord our God shall call.

God calls all who hear the gospel; only those who are ready to be baptized are THE CALLED.

Acts 2:40 And with many other words did he testify and exhort,
        saying, Save yourselves from this untoward generation. [Crooked speaks of the MUSICAL assemmblies or symposia]
Acts 2:41 Then they that gladly received his word were baptized:
        and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.
Acts 2:42 And they continued stedfastly in the apostles’ doctrine and fellowship,
        and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.

Church is not a community or commune: authority comes down in a straight line. Church is defined by Christ (the Rock) as devoted
INCLUSIVELY to Rest, Reading and Rehearsing the Word of God
EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing including elevated forms of speech.

Her. 5.12.2
V.2 1. Now God shall be glorified in His handiwork, fitting it so as to be conformable to, and modelled after, His own Son.
         For by the hands of the Father,
            that is, by the Son and the Holy Spirit,
man, and not [merely] a part of man, was made in the likeness of God. Now the soul and the spirit are certainly a part of the man, but certainly not the man; for the perfect man consists in the commingling and the union of the soul receiving the spirit of the Father, and the admixture of that fleshly nature which was moulded after the image of God.

"But that is not first which is spiritual," says the apostle, speaking this as if with reference to us human beings; "but that is first which is animal, afterwards that which is spiritual," in accordance with reason. For there had been a necessity that, in the first place, a human being should be fashioned, and that what was fashioned should receive the soul; afterwards that it should thus receive the communion of the Spirit. Wherefore also "the first Adam was made" by the Lord "a living soul,
        the second Adam a quickening spirit."
         As, then, he who was made a living soul forfeited life when he turned aside to what was evil,
         so, on the other hand, the same individual,
        when he reverts to what is good, and receives the quickening Spirit [the second Adam a quickening spirit],
        shall find life.
WILLIAM G. RUSCH  Thus Irenaeus progressed beyond the Apologists in a fuller recognition of the place of the Spirit and in his idea of economy. Still he is clearly a second-century theologian, as his picture of the Trinity discloses.
is a single personage, the Father, the Godhead itself, with his Word (reason) and his Wisdom.
only is monotheism reaffirmed, but the real, eternal distinctions in the Godhead are stressed.
Irenaeus does this by means of the idea of the economy, the ordered process of the self-disclosure of these distinctions.


distinctions, according to Irenaeus, are only completely revealed in the economy. Nevertheless, they are there from all eternity. Irenaeus’s great insight was the use of this imagery to show how the Son and the Spirit disclosed in the economy as other than the Father were also one with him in his intrinsic being.

GOD IS ETERNAL: HE HAS ALWAYS HAD HIS WISDOM, BREATH AND WORD WITH HIM. This speaks ONLY of God's nature to think and speak WORDS. No historic scholar ever said anything differently: it is the scholarly proof-texters and readers of theology who could possibly think of the ONE God as three without being and ANTI-Christ. 

John 12:44 Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me.
John 12:45 And he that seeth me seeth him that sent me.
John 12:46 I am come a light into the world,
         that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in darkness.

John 12:47 And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not:
        for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world.

John 12:48 He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words,
        hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.

John 12:49 For I have not spoken of myself;
         but the Father which sent me, he gave me a commandment,
        what I should say, and what I should speak.

John 12:50 And I know that his commandment is life everlasting:
        whatsoever I speak therefore, even as the Father said unto me, so I speak.

That is why the Absolute Truth is that the Word of God is that which the Spirit or BREATH of the One God sent to Jesus. Jesus spoke clearly to reject the idea of the universal pagan triads or families of gods.

John 6:63 It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing:
        the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.
WILLIAM G. RUSCH This means of describing the Trinity became known as economic trinitarianism. It was to find both supporters and detractors in the third century.

Man made after God's image is body, soul and spirit: we think, we live, we move. In no sense is a human a TRINITY of anything.

Jn 12:37 But though he had done so many miracles before them,
        yet they believed not on him:
Jn 12:38 That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled,
        which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report?
        and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?
Jn 12:39 Therefore they could not believe,
        because that Esaias said again,
Jn 12:40 He hath blinded their eyes,
        and hardened their heart;
        that they should not see with their eyes,    [hear]
        nor understand with their heart,                     [believe, have faith]
        and be converted,                                            [repent and be baptized]
        and I should heal them.                                    [remission and A healed personal]
Jn 12:41 These things said Esaias,
        when he saw his glory, and spake of him.
Jn 12:42 Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him;
        but because of the Pharisees they did not confess him
        lest they should be put out of the synagogue:

    Luke 7:29 And all the people that heard him, and the publicans,
            justified God,                                                      [did not call Him a liar]
            being baptized with the baptism of John.         [For remission of sins]
    Luke 7:30 But the Pharisees and lawyers
            [rejected the counsel of God against themselves,
            being not baptized of him  
Again: The Church of Christ is a School of Christ: it is not a COMMUNITY which defines a COMMUNE where you know that the dominant leader is going to do all of the thinking because he has worked so hard blaspheming by saying tha the holy spirit is guiding him beyond the Logos. The Qahal, synagogue, ekklesia or Church of Christ in the wilderness was

INCLUSIVE of Rest, Reading and Rehearsing the Word.
EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing including elevated forms of speech or sophistry.

Jesus refused to even PRAY for the World: A Church of Christ named in may ways is A School of Christ (Christ and the Campbells). It's people attend School of the Word and are called OUT of the world. An honest evengelist meets the unbeliever as he obeys the direct command to GO, preach, baptize and continue to preach what Christ commanded to be taught and observed. He would gag at the word "trinity."

The WORLD is marked for avoidance by Jesus Christ:
Kosmos ,  metaph., of ornaments of speech, such as epithets, Id.9.9 (pl.), Arist.Rh.1408a14, Po.1457b2, 1458a33; hadumelē k. keladein to sing sweet songs of praise, Pi.O.11 (10).13 (s.v.l.).

Pind. O. 11 My tongue wants to foster such themes; [10] but it is by the gift of a god that a man flourishes with a skillful mind, as with anything else. For the present rest assured, Hagesidamus son of Archestratus: for the sake of your boxing victory,
        I shall loudly sing a sweet song, an adornment for your garland of golden olive,
        [15] while I honor the race of the Western Locrians.
There, Muses, join in the victory-song; I shall pledge my word to you that we will find there a race that does not repel the stranger, or is inexperienced in fine deeds, but one that is wise and warlike too.

Kosmo-krator epith. of ouranos, Zeus Mitras Hēlios k. Dam.Pr.131; hoi k. tou skotous toutou the cosmic rulers of this sinful world, Ep.Eph.6.12; “hoi k. hoi ta hupo selēnēn stoikheia dioikountes

God abandoned Israel to worship the starry host at Mount Sinai because of musical idolatry. Whatever they called their "gods" their worship was of the sun, moon and planets.

hēlios II. as pr. n., Helios, the sun-god, Od.8.271,
[“Hēlios doulous eleutherous poieiArtem.2.36; identified with Apollo, Carm.Pop.12, E.Fr.781.11; with Dionysus,
2. Hēliou astēr, of the planet Saturn, v.l. in Pl.Epin.987c, cf. D.S.2.30,
father of Circe (church)  propitiated by sacrifice, Il. 3.104, Il. 19.197;
God in fact HIDES from the Sophists which includes doing any ritual of speech or music claiming power: recorded history calls this sorcery.

1Cor. 1:18 For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness;
        but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.
1Cor. 1:19 For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the WISE,
        and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent.
1Cor. 1:20 Where is the wise? where is the scribe?
        where is the disputer of this world?
        hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?
1Cor. 1:21 For after that in the wisdom of God
        the world by wisdom knew not God,
        it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.

Sophis-tês , ou, ho, master of one's craft, adept, expert, of diviners, Hdt.2.49; of poets, meletan sophistais prosbalon Pi.I.5(4).28 , cf. Cratin.2; of musicians, sophistês . . parapaiôn chelun A.Fr.314 , cf. Eup.447, Pl.Com. 140; sophistêi Thrêiki (sc. Thamyris) E.Rh.924, cf. Ath.14.632c: with mod

II. from late v B.C., a Sophist, i.e. one who gave lessons in grammar, rhetoric, politics, mathematics, for money, such as Prodicus, Gorgias, Protagoras, a quibbler, cheat,  a RHETORICIAN as the primary meaning of a HYPOCRITE.

hoi s. tōn hierōn melōn” A sophist, serpent, makes MUSICAL MELODY with a congregation AS a harp and cannot grasp that IN THE HEART is a place.

Acts 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly,
        that God hath made that same Jesus,
        whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ.
The "Jesus Only" mantra can in face fail to honor Jesus of Nazareth who was "the body prepared for me" or the Christ (Messiah) of God who bears the FORM or IMAGE of God.  If the Spirit OF Christ or Jesus made to be both Lord and Christ in face REPUDIATED the always-pagan triads by proving that HE was God's choice as a SINGULAR person to represent the ONE universal Spirit.  If you go beyond that teaching you cannot be a Disciple of Christ and therefore not a Christian.  The command to preachers was to PREACH the Word by READING the Word.

The only trinity in the Bible was the musical worship of Apis the calf representing the Egyptian trinity. Because of this idolatry God sentenced the nation to captivity and death. I will be happy to supply any research confidentially. Be advised that Jesus was called a SON only after He had obeyed the command by the Spirit OF Christ in Isaiah and:

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