Milton Jones: Psallo and Psalm 150 And Instrumental Music

First, since psallo never at any time or place in recorded history MEANT more than pluck or smite a string with your FINGERS and never with a PLECTRUM they would know that pluck had and has absolutely no "musical" content.  That is why there is no recorded Bible or literary example of being able to instruct someone to pluck a string with one word. If you tell someone PLUCK there is no telling what would happen to you.  The same is true in English and all languages.

Second, if you want to tell someone to PLUCK an INSTRUMENT there are compound words for all named instruments and STYLES of plucking.
Third, you blaspheme the Spirit of Christ by saying that:
  1. He was too ignorant not to use TWO words such as PSALLO Plus A Harp.
  2. He was too ignorant not to use one compound word which meant play a harp
  3. He just wanted to throw in stumble words for those who have not been washed with water INTO the Word or school of Christ or
  4. He intentionally wanted to sow massive discord since singing as an ACT was first imposed in the hear 373.
Even if "psallo" meant play a harp it could NEVER be used to justify a guitar pick, a flute or drums

Playing the part of those deliberately sowing discord and blaspheming, let's assume that the Spirit of Christ or Paul or anyone prior to 1878 was too illiterate to know about all of the compound words.  For instance.

Anti-psallô, a stringed instrument in accompaniment of song, a. elegois phorminga  {harp of Apollo, Abaddon, Apollyon's instrument]

Epi-psallō, A. play the lyre, S.Fr.60, Poll.4.58(Pass.); “melesi kai rhuthmois” 
                    SING,tous humnousLXX 2 Ma.1.30: Then the priests sang the hymns.
Even if you define a melody that would NOT include a rhythm.
Melos  rooted in cutting limb from limb like all musical terms.
limb, in early writers always in corrupt for kata meros
2. metaphor., “esmen . . allēlōn melēEp.Rom.12.5, cf. 1 Ep.Cor.6.15.
,  A. share, portion, 2. with Preps., ana meros in turn, successively,
        III. the part one takes in a thing
B. Especially musical member, phrase: hence, song, strain, first in h.Hom.19.16
        lyric poetry, choral songs, Opposite Epic or Dramatic verse

Perhaps the Holy Spirit was not educated enough NOT to use psallo which is never translated to mean musical melody and was not aware that He could have used MELOS which means musical melody or a series of single notes.
HH 19 To Pan:1 Muse, tell me about Pan, the dear son of Hermes, with his goat's feet and two horns —a lover of merry noise. Through wooded glades he wanders with dancing nymphs who foot it on some sheer cliff's edge, [5] calling upon Pan, the shepherd-god, long-haired, unkempt.... Often he courses through the glistening high mountains, and often on the shouldered hills he speeds along slaying wild beasts, this keen-eyed god. Only at evening, [15] as he returns from the chase,
        he sounds his note,
        playing sweet and low on his pipes of reed:
        not even she could excel him in melody
        that bird who in flower-laden spring pouring forth her lament utters honey-voiced song amid the leaves....
Then all the immortals were glad in heart and Bacchic Dionysus in especial; and they called the boy Pan because he delighted all their hearts.
2. music to which a song is set, tune, Arist.Po.1450a14;
        Melos is Opposite. rhuthmos, metron, Pl.Grg. 502c;
                Melos is Opposite metron , II. metre, Ar.Nu.638, 641, etc.;
Aristoph. Cl. 638 Soc.
In the first place, to be clever at an entertainment, understanding what rhythm is for the war-dance, and what, again, according to the dactyle.
Again "meter" is the opposite of melos or melody and rhythm.
                   Opposite melos (music) and rhuthmos (time), Pl.Grg.502c
         Melos is Opposite. rhuthmos, rhēma, Id.Lg.656c;
                 Melos is Opposite rhēma  (erō) A. that which is said or spoken, word, saying,
                                    Ero I. I will say or speak, II. I will tell, proclaim, 2. to be specified, agreed, promised
                                                II.2. to be specified, agreed, promised
sullegō  II. of persons, collect, get together, “stasiōtasHdt.1.59; “egkhōriousE.IT303; “khoronAntipho 6.11; “ekklēsian
—Pass., come together, assemble, “rhēmata kai logous
mustered, Gathered

1Corinthians 14:23 If therefore the whole church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in those that are unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mad?

1 Cor 14: 23 Ean oun sunelthē ekklēsia holē epi to auto kai pantes lalōsin glōssais, eiselthōsin de idiōtai ē apistoi, ouk erousin hoti mainesthe;
Sunerkhomai II. come together, assemble, meetsunelthe pros Theōna

La^l-eō ,Mark of the Locusts
II.  chatter, Opposite. articulate speech, as of locusts, chirp, Theoc.5.34; mesēmbrias lalein tettix (sc. eimi), a very grasshopper to chirp at midday, 
III.  of musical sounds, “aulō [flute] laleōTheoc.20.29; of trees, v.supr.1.2; “di'aulou [flute] ē salpiggos l.”[trumpet] Arist. Aud.801a29; of Echomagadin lalein sound the magadis,  [double flute]
                        3. subject of speech, matter, Hebraism cf. rhētos
rhēt-os on stated terms, on certain conditions, according to covenant
IV. to rh. the precise, literal contents of a document,
                                 the letter
of the law,

expressly, distinctly, Plb.3.23.5,
                                      rhētos literal, Opposite. allegorical, Ph.1.69, al.
Opposite Allēgor-eō , (agoreuō2. abs., speak figuratively or metaphorically,
4. allēgor-ētēs , ou, ho, allegorical expounder,
agoreuō agora  1. to speak in the assembly, harangue, speak
of the kērux in the Ecclesia, tis agoreuein bouletai; who wishes to address the people?
Psallo and Psalm 150: Milton Jones teaches that the word "psallo" and Psalm 150 authorizes instrumental music so profoundly that it can justify "taking away the church houses of widows" and sowing discord among brethren to rescue a failing ministry and to be able to pay the bills.  The word PSALLO never and any musical content: if you yank a string with your fingers--and never with a plectrum--you may grind skin off your bow arm or make a twanging sound.  However, that never devines "making music."  The base word is:

Psao [cf. katapsaIo. to touch lightly, rub; II. intr. to crumble away, vanish, disappear,

I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting. Isaiah 50:6

  • For, lo, the wicked bend their bow, they make ready their arrow upon the string, that they may privily shoot at the upright in heart. Psalm 11:2

Bend: Darak (h1869) daw-rak'; a prim. root; to tread; by impl. to walk; also to string a bow (by treading on it in bending): - archer, bend, come, draw, go (over), guide, lead (forth), thresh, tread (down), walk.

First, all of the instrumental Psalms are called parade songs or "going to Jerusalem in prosession." However, Isaiah 30 says that they went up to Jerusalem to Topheth, once the king's music grove, or the symbol of hell itself. There they burned infants to the beat of musical instruments.  Therefore, as Jerusalem was no better than the other nations, God will BEAT them into literal hell to the sound of wind, string and percussion instruments. These are the same instruments Satan brought into the garden of Eden. Personified as the king of tyre "she is the singing and harp-playing prostitute."

Most missed the point that because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai Stephen and many others reveal that God TURNED THEM OVER to worship the starry host.  When the elders fired God and demanded a king God knew that they wanted to "worship like the nations." That meant Sabanism where both sabbath and tithing as WORSHIP came from Babylon.  God therefore prescribed the assembly or 'church in the wilderness' to REST, read and rehears the word. Outlawing the ALARM to call the assembly would assuredly eleminate it DURING the rest and read meaning of synagogue.

That is why David uses all of the names of instruments which have Satanic or vile roots and has the urge to worship IN THE FIRMAMENT.  There was no literal house for David because he was estranged from the Tabernacle and the temple would not be built during his lifetime. Therefore, the place was an ALTERNATIVE ALTAR at a Jebusite High Place.

Because the Levitical Warrior Musicians for the cursed Monarchy were under the king and commanders of the army, we are certain that psalm singing was connected to the praise word or "making self vile" which is the root word for "Lucifer."

Never used by David but commanded for Solomon:

1 Chr 25:1  David, together with the commanders of the army, set apart some of the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun for the ministry of prophesying, accompanied by harps, lyres and cymbals. Here is the list of the men who performed this service:

Payne insists that the Hebrew of 1 Chronicles 25:1 unambiguously identifies these leaders as military commanders, an interpretation favoured by several Bible translations. (Payne, p 423-4; NASB, NIV, NKJV, NRSV, Jerusalem Bible) If military commanders had a particular interest in the appointment of musicians, it suggests a strong link between music and warfare
If you will read the Samuel literature you will see that PROPHESIERS from the Philistine High Places would cause Saul to prophesy and be turned (perverted) into another man.  This and God's promise that the kings would confiscate young men to be prophesiers and run before His chariots and give glory to the MONARCHY which was IMPOSED on Israel to carry out the captivity and death sentence.  Because the prophesiers were under the KING and COMMANDERS OF THE ARMY minimial education lets you see that they made WAR and not SPIRITUAL WORSHIP.

"The Hithpa'el of nb', in the ancient texts, refers to ecstasy and delirium rather than to the emission of a 'prophecy'." (de Vaux, Roland, The Bible and the Ancient Near East, p. 243 Doubleday

"Maniac inspirations, the violent possession which threw sibyls and priestesses into contortions--the foaming lip and streaming hair and glazed or glaring eyes-- have no place in the self-controlling dignity of Christian inspiration. Even Jewish prophets, in the paroxysm of emotion, might lie naked on the ground and rave (1 Sam. xix. 24); but the genuine inspiration in Christian ages never obliterates the self-consciousness or overpowers the reason. It abhors the hysteria and stimulation and frenzy which have sometimes disgraced revivalism and filled lunatic asylums." (Pulpit Commentary, 1 Cor., p. 460).


sal�ta�to�ry (salta-tory).
1. Of, relating to, or adapted for leaping or dancing.
2. Proceeding by leaps rather than by smooth, gradual transitions. Hillel

NAS (165) - acted insanely, 1; arrogant, 1; boast, 9; boasted, 1; boastful, 3; boasts, 3; boasts boast, 1; deride, 1; drive madly, 1; flash forth, 2; give praise, 1; giving praise, 1; glory, 8; go mad, 1; going mad, 1; mad, 1; madness, 1; make its boast, 1; makes a mad, 1; makes fools, 1; making fools, 1; offers praises, 1; praise, 90; praised, 20; praises, 1; praising, 5; race madly, 1; renowned, 1; sang praises, 1; shone, 2; sing praises, 1; wedding songs, 1

Not in Jerusalem nor the VILEST PAGAN temples did the SINGERS or MUSICIANS ever enter into the Holy Place. In Jerusalem, the holy place is the carnal TYPE of the Body of Christ. Any singer or musician who entered the type of the Church or the type of the Human Spirit as it worships (privately) before the throne of God was WORTHY OF DEATH.

The only exception was the ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION which included the musical rituals of sacrifice performed in the Holy Precincts. The MUSICIANS (all perverted) all STOOD in the holy place claiming that they (Zeus and Dionysus) were gods.

See also short comments on Isaiah 25 The abominable branch (opposed to the True Branch) sings with instruments.

And more on the Abomination of Desolation and music

The prophecy of the end time is that the musical abominators will again stand in the church as the body of Christ trying to engage God in erotic praise songs where the declared GOAL of the new style worship is to reach a charismatic CLIMAX with God

See another article on Psalm 150. Note the names of the instruments. Some of these were never used in the temple COURT, NONE were ever used in the Holy Places, some are related to evil. Furthermore, David speaks of attacking his enemies and bashing out the heads of little babies in other Psalms.

Therefore, if you take these as meaning LITERAL instruments you have God promoting evil.

Since ONLY things with BREATH can praise God we understand that, as poems tend to be poetic, David is speaking of the HARPS of God which are the human voice and spirit.

The Alarm or Triumph Over was outlawed for the SYNAGOGUE and the "never had a praise service" in the synagogue which was a school of the Bible.  Therefore, Judas, like Jubal, would be the agent of Satan to try to silence the WORD: the Judas bag was "for carrying the mouthpieces of wind instruments" always attacked to the flute case of perverted players of which the Sicarri or daggar men were known.  The SOP has the same root meaning as PSALLO meaning to "grind into a fine powder" as a MARK that a singing arrow was on its way.

Psalm 41 predicts that Judas will not TRIUMPH OVER Jesus. This word means to play instruments and "make a joyful noise before the Lord." This was the WARRIORS cry of most nations and it is a fact that the "musical Levites" were "under the king and commanders of the army." In the Dead Sea Scrolls this is translated:

They have overtaken me in a narrow pass (gap) without escape
..........And there is no rest for me in my trial.
They sound my censure upon a harp
..........and their murmuring and storming upon a zither." Ps.41:11

Instead, Jesus would TRIUMPH OVER the clergy:

I will groan with the zither of lamentation all grief-stricken mourning and bitter complaint
until iniquity and wickedness are consumed
..........and the disease-bringing scourge is no more.
Then will I play on the zither of deliverance
..........and harp of joy,
on the tabors of prayer and the pipe of praise
..........without end.

The TRIUMPH in Greek proves that the Dionysus or Bacchus priests were still serving in Jerusalem. During the Intertestament Period they had actually gone into the HOLY PLACES which the Jews nor the most vile pagan singers or musicians would have ever done. This was a musical Abomination of Desolation. ALL musical performers in paganism were PERVERTED and often emasculated so that they could serve as priests in the ritual serving as prostitutes. They TRIED to get Jesus associated with them by PIPING trying to force Him to sing and dance: 

Strabo in his Geography wrote

[10.3.15] They invented names appropriate to the flute, and to the noises made by castanets, cymbals, and drums, and to their acclamations and shouts of "ev-ah," and stampings of the feet; (Eve or Sophia-Zoe) (See The Eve-Zoe connection)

and they also invented some of the names by which to designate the ministers,
choral dancers, and attendants upon the sacred rites,
I mean "
Cabeiri" and "Corybantes" and "Pans" (gender-bent) and "Satyri" and "Tityri,"

and they called the god "Bacchus," and Rhea "Cybele" or "Cybebe" or "Dindymene" according to the places where she was worshipped. Sabazius also belongs to the Phrygian group and in a way

(Priests of Cybele were effeminate and emasculated themselves. Paul said in Galatians 5:12, "As for those agitators, I wish they would go the whole way and emasculate themselves!" The agitators "drove people out of their homes (churches?)) All pagan gods or goddesses and therefore their priests were homosexual.

is the child of the Mother, since he too transmitted the rites of Dionysus.

[10.3.19] Further, one might also find, in addition to these facts concerning these genii and their various names, that they were called,

not only ministers of gods,
but also gods themselves.

For instance, Hesiod says that five daughters were born to Hecaterus and the daughter of Phoroneus, from whom sprang the mountain-ranging nymphs (like har-meggido little hills striving to be mountains), goddesses, and the breed of Satyrs,

creatures worthless and unfit for work,
and also the Curetes, sportive gods, dancers.

And the author of Phoronis speaks of the

Curetes as "flute-players" and "Phrygians"; and
others as "earth-born" and "wearing brazen shields."

Some call the Corybantes, and not the Curetes, "Phrygians," but the Curetes "Cretes," and say that the Cretes were the first people to don brazen armour in Euboea, and that on this account they were also called "Chalcidians"; (chalc, brazen) still others say that the Corybantes, who came from Bactriana (some say from among the Colchians. Also a note: "they occupied Bactriana, and acquired possession of the best land in Armenia"), were given as armed ministers to Rhea [ZOE] by the Titans.

The Geni speaks of Genun who was a composit of Jubal, Jabal, Tubal-Cain and Naamah in Babylon.  They were used by Satan to cause the FALL away from the Word of God in the Book of Enoch. 


John identifies this as the end time Mother of Harlots church: Apollo is Apollyon and the Muses are the Locusts or musical ministrels under Apollo:

Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:

Rev 18:14 And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.

G3703 opōra op-o'-rah Apparently from the base of G3796 and G5610 ; properly even tide of the (summer) season (dog days), that is, (by implication) ripe fruit: fruit.


Bakchias A. of or belonging to Bacchus and his rites rhuthmos X.Smp.9.3 , etc.: hence, frenzied, rapt,
Nomos , ho, ( [nem�] ) can mean "the Law of God" without respect to MOSES.
A. that which is in habitual practice
, use or possession, not in Hom. (cf. J.Ap.2.15), though read by Zenod. in Od.1.3.
I. usage, custom, [Mousai
] melpontai pant�n te nomous kai �thea kedna Hes.Th.66n. archaios aristos

Mousa 1 [*ma�]

I. the Muse, in pl. the Muses, goddesses of song, music, poetry, dancing, the drama, and all fine arts, Hom.: the names of the nine were Clio, Euterpe, Thalia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia or Polyhymnia, Urania, and Calliope, Hes.,

II. mousa, as appellat., music, song, Pind., Trag.:--also eloquence, Eur.:--in pl. arts, accomplishments, Ar., Plat. 

Rev 18:20 Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her.

Rev 18:21 And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.

Rev 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians [Apollyon's muses or locusts] and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, [theater builders and stage managers] of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone [called a pipe, made a wistling sound to attract with spread legs.] shall be heard no more at all in thee;

Rev 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.

Rev 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.

Paul describes the CLANGING BRASS using the word CHALKOS. Clanging would be a form of SINGING or MOURNING which was the Greek alalazo (h214). Jesus cast this MUSICAL WORSHIP TEAM out while healing the young girl lest the TEAM claim the honor. He cast them out MORE OR LESS VIOLENTLY in a word related to CASTING OUT DUNG.

In Corinth, Paul condemns the MUSICIANS who were always perverted in paganism. Speaking to the gods of the Air clearly proves it.

The almost-universal understanding of history's scholars is that the Greek word psallo is never used as authority for instrumental music in worship. Music was first added, division occured and people went looking for Biblical justification for the added practice which when added has never been abandoned as far as we can tell.

This is one the world's oldest themes circulated about the time of Christ. We do not mean this as judgmental but being a disciple means looking for truth. Click perhaps later for the story. Me? Once I found out that I could access all of those historical documents I am left cold and embrarassed by what we call "worship." I think that I finally understand what Jesus meant when He said that He seeks only those who will "worship in spirit and in truth." I believe that this means "in the mind and devoted to His Words" which He never spoke to the beat of a harp.

The worst kind of judgmentalism begins with: "Do you accept those people as being Christians?" Well, we don't really know even about our "pastor" do we? This study has nothing to do with "what are you going to do with those who don't agree" but with what I believe the Bible teaches. Personally? Well, I don't have excess time to "fellowship" or attend church with every group in the world. However, we are aware of history and that introducing non-commanded and "non-salvation" practices is the surest way to be sectarian by excluding those who do not agree.

As a result of a real-life drama of sectarianism caused by Milton Jones in Seattle, the sermon being reviewed by request is an after the fact defense of adding instrumental music. The premise is that non-instrumental groups were spawned out of Thomas and Alexander Campbell under the legalistic influence of John Locke. We believe that this view comes from reading books and lectures and not from reading either Locke or the Campbells.

We have looked at the rejection of the commands, examples and inferences contained in the Words of the Spirit Christ (1 Peter 1:11). The misconception left is that this was a radically new and outrageous teaching of Alexander Campbell who taught that Christ removed the burden of the law from New Testament worship. This first point is covered here. The fact is that "direct command" has always been the basis of authority for all groups for all times. And "dispensational distinction" was clearly the view held by the church "fathers" of history.

Another attempt is to open up Paul's direct command to use the Word of Christ to "teach and admonish one another" with the singing and melody made with musical instruments. Lucian is used by Milton Jones to prove that long after Paul's direct command the word psallo still included instruments. We reviewed Lucian to show that his education was in Classical Greek from the writers who lived several hundred years before Paul. Furthermore, Lucian associates musical performance in a "worship" sense with women and the effeminate of pagan religions. Only very strange men ever fell under the spell and Jesus understood that the Jewish clergy was piping to force Him to join in.

Apollo (Abbadon, Apollyon) had a Seeker Center at Delphi in his honor. Hermes was the father of instrumental music, liars and thieves. He taught Apollow how to twang the bow to defeat others and how to play instruments to seduce what Lucian calls the "fat heads and simpletons" into buying his Babylon Harlot Worship.

Therefore, twanging or plucking hair was always a hostile action and one needs no proof from the Bible not to try to literally attack people with abrading music.

Therefore, if Lucian proves that psallo includes instruments he also authorizes the pagan practice of singing and playing instruments by the "musicians who were always courtesans." We reviewed this evidence here.

In this sermon review we will look at the argument that modern theologians such as Milton Jones claim that psallo demands musical instruments.

We looked at the Arndt-Gingrich lexicon which is the source book of the preacher being reviewed. These writers understood the Greek of the time of Paul but they followed their own personal opinions or preferences with respect to the word -- and admit it. Whatever an isolated lexicon says:

David Lipscomb wrote as late as 1878 that:

We do not think anyone has ever claimed authority from Scriptures to use the organ in worship. They only claim it is not condemned. It is used as an assister in worship...Prayer, praise, thanksgiving and making melody in the heart (mind) unto the Lord are acts of worship ordained of God, but no authority do we find for the organ."

Of Australian Presbyterians;

When the issue was first brought up in the southern churches in 1874, one Session declared that they were "unanimously of the opinion that the use of such is both inexpedient and unscriptural and

think that those who have ventured to cast the apple of discord into our midst have much to answer for," and another considered that the introduction of organs "into the public worship of God is dangerous to the peace and purity of the Church."

The debate at the next Synod was the largest up until then, and the innovation was passed by a very slim majority. The dissents, appeals and protests lasted a few years, but the issue was finally settled in 1877,

the final dissent reiterating once more the regulative principle and concluding that it was "giving a place to instrumental music hitherto unknown to the worship of this Church."

The last church on the Taieri plain to have an organ introduced was East Taieri, near Mosgiel, in 1894. To a number of members, it was "equal to a sentence of excommunication,"

they now having "no Presbyterian church near Dunedin to which they can have access."

The FIRST use of PSALLO speaks of warriors and Apollo or Apollyon of Revelation: he carried both the bow and lyre and could shoot you with various kinds of arrowss.

The second speaks of the BLOOD RED, painted rope or scourge slaves used to DRIVE people out of the polluted agora or marketplace where Jesus PLACED that crooked generation marked by piping, singing and dancing.

The word never means more than PLUCK with the fingers and NEVER with a guitar pick.  It has no musical meaning unless you define WHAT is to be plucked. The proof texts of those lusting for music and musicians universally point to older males PLUCKING the harp strings to SEDUCE a young boy (minister of the god) who had his hairs PLUCKED for paderasty.  People singing and playing instruments has no other BASIS to recommend it to those perverting the church.

What the Audience is Supposed to Believe

What the audience does not know is that neither Campbells were really involved in the music controversy. None of the churches involved used instruments because the music of David was understood to be part of a "like the nations" discipline and illustration of the sins of the people and their inability to get rid of the guilt.

They also understood that music was not used in the Synagogue or New Testament churches. Not even in Catholicism until added as a Seeker-Friendly tool to bring in the money to keep up the clergy and buildings and grounds.

Long before the time of Thomas Campbell John Calvin and every literate theologian understood that the Law was a curse, had ended and the rituals of the sacrifical system must not be restored to repudiate the sacrifice of Christ.

He understood that instrumental music was part of a training or disciplinary effort during the "like the nations" worship where Israel came under the domination of an earthly king. Paul agrees and says that "the law was added because of transgression." We know that this transgression was the musical worship at Mount Sinai of Osiris under the incarnated form of Apis the bull calf. Because of this sin, the Levites were substituted for the elders of the family to "bear the burden" and stand between the "strangers" and the synagogue and later the temple. We know that the strangers to God were everyone not of the tribe of Levi.

Calvin also limited authority for "faith and practice" to explicit commands of the New Testament.

Therefore it is not a fact that Alexander Campbell upset the universal belief about the Law and Grace. Rather, by adding "examples" and "necessary inferences" the Campbells added areas of Religious Toleration which found their way from John Locke to Thomas Jefferson and into the Constitution and to Thomas Campbell and into the restoration movement.

Some more Direct Command Evidence

I am certain that not one deliberate sowers of discord knows the story of the musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. This was the BECAUSE OF TRANSGRESSION which lost them the covenant of grace and got them abandoned to worship the starry host including Saturn whose chaldee number isi 666.

The sacrificial system in Jerusalem was the ABANDONMENT of people who had repudiated Him and was therfore the worship of Astrial deities.  While David never sang and played for "congregational worship" his MISTAKE in thinking that God had given him more than the alternative TABERNACLE is proven by Stephen who cais BUT, Solomon built Him a HOUSE.

In Israel condemned in Amos and Isaiah because of the wine, women and music, THEY were also worshiping the hevenly host from the time they carried their "tabernacle' in the wilderness.

Therefore, to say that the sang and played or WEAVED songs for their own pleasure was JUST LIKE DAVID is also to say that DAVID worshipped JUST LIKE Israel because THAT is what God abandoned them to with the kings chosen to carry out the captivity and death sentence.

Amos defines the worship of Israel whom God had turned over to worship the starry host because of their musical idolatry at Mount Sinai:

"This passage (Amos 5:23-24) shows us that Amos was opposed to the forms in which people acted out their worship of God, and other passages strengthen this impression. Turning back to the Mosaic period, Amos asks the rhetorical question: 'Did you bring to me sacrifices and offerings the forty years in the wilderness, O house of Israel?" (5:25). He is merciless in his attack on the shrines, especially the royal shrine of Jeroboam II at Bethel (3:14; 7:7-9, 10-17; 9:1). It is very doubtful, however, that he intended a wholesale abolition of the system of worship.

Rather, Amos was probably demanding that the cult be purified, for it had become so contaminated by pagan thought and practice that the people had become indifferent to the true worship of Yahweh and the demand of his torah...

He demanded that everything be swept away that did not conform to the proper worship of Yahweh." (Bernard Anderson, Understanding OT, p. 277).

Augustine of Hippo (354-430)

As Campbell restricted faith and practice to commands and clear implications of the will of Christ to make unity possible, Augustine shows that a Christian disposition does not try to stretch the meaning of Scripture for any purpose. Jesus didn't say, "Come play with me," but He said, "Come learn of me." That is, discipleship is not ceremonial legalism but searching for the will of God.

The clear proof from those who force instruments onto the untrained audience is that there will be no open discussion and search for the truth: the word of the pastor has been chained to the pulpit. This was not the view of the scholars -- as opposed to the ancient priests who often largely ignorant of the Bible and the rules of ethics and morality.

Chapter 9.-How We Should Proceed in Studying Scripture.

14. In all these books those who fear God and are of a meek and pious disposition seek the will of God. And in pursuing this search the first rule to be observed is, as I said, to know these books, if not yet with the understanding, still to read them so as to commit them to memory, or at least so as not to remain wholly ignorant of them. Next,

those matters that are plainly laid down in them, whether rules of life or rules of faith,
are to be searched into more carefully and more diligently;
and the more of these a man discovers,
the more capacious does his understanding become.

For among the things that are plainly laid down in Scripture
are to be found
all matters that concern faith and the manner of life,-to wit, hope and love

Augustine then warns of "necessary inferences."

Chapter 18.-No Help is to Be Despised, Even Though It Come from a Profane Source.

28. But whether the fact is as Varro has related, or is not so, still we ought not to give up music because of the superstition of the heathen,
..........if we can derive anything from it that is of use for the understanding of Holy Scripture;
nor does it follow that we must busy ourselves with their
theatrical trumpery
..........because we enter upon an investigation about harps and other instruments,
.......... that may help us to lay hold upon spiritual things.

For we ought not to refuse to learn letters because they say that Mercury discovered them; nor because they have dedicated temples to Justice and Virtue, and prefer to worship in the form of stones things that ought to have their place in the heart, ought we on that account to forsake justice and virtue.

Nay, but let every good and true Christian understand that wherever truth may be found, it belongs to his Master; and while he recognizes and acknowledges the truth, even in their religious literature, let him reject the figments of superstition, and let him grieve over and avoid men who,

"when they knew God, glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things."

The turn to musical performance carries the code word that "we don't want you to know any more about God and His unfiltered Word." (Amos 5, 6, 8; Job 21; Isaiah 5; Ezekiel 33). This is what Jesus meant when He condemned the musical clergy as children piping, singing and dancing while He was trying to teach them.

John Calvin

John Calvin understood "Dispensational Distinctions" as well as the place of music in the Law period under the monarchy of kings rather than of God.

"There is then no other argument needed to condemn superstitions, than that they are not commanded by God: for when men allow themselves to worship God according to their own fancies, and attend not to His commands, they pervert true religion." Calvin's Commentaries, 9:414.

He continues:

"Hebrews 9:1. "Then verily the first", &c. After having spoken generally of the abrogation of the old covenant, he now refers specially to the ceremonies.

His object is to show that
there was nothing practiced then to
which Christ's coming has not put an end.

He says first, that under the old covenant there was a specific form of divine worship, and that it was peculiarly adapted to that time. It will hereafter appear by the comparison what kind of things were those rituals prescribed under the Law.

"Were any one to ask why the Apostle speaks with so little respect and even with contempt of Sacraments divinely instituted, and extenuates their efficacy?

This he does, because he separates them from Christ; and we know that when viewed in themselves they are but beggarly elements, as Paul calls them. (Gal. 4: 9.)

Because the music in connection with animal sacrifices under the Law were part of a training or disciplinary system, John Calvin understands the difference between the Old Law and the New Covenant:

A difference is to be observed in this respect between his people under the Old and under the New Testament;

for now that Christ has appeared, and the church has reached full age, it were only to bury the light of the gospel should we introduce the shadows of a departed dispensation.

Then Calvin notes what the Catholics confess: that it was not really a borrowing from the sacrificial system but from the world of entertainment from all pagans:

From this it appears that the Papists, as I shall have occasion to show elsewhere, in employing instrumental music

cannot be said so much to imitate the practice of God's ancient people as to ape it in a senseless and absurd manner,

exhibiting a silly delight in that worship of the Old Testament which was figurative and terminated with the gospel." (Psalm 92:1)

And the Catholic Encyclopedia will tell Milton Jones and the Post Bible people where they got the idea of music as worship:

"We need not shrink from admitting that candles, like incense and lustral water, were commonly employed in pagan worship and in the rites paid to the dead. But the Church from a very early period took them into her service, just as she adopted many other things indifferent in themselves, which seemed proper to enhance the splendour of religious ceremonial. We must not forget that most of these adjuncts to worship, like music, lights, perfumes, ablutions, floral decorations, canopies, fans, screens, bells, vestments, etc.

were not identified with any idolatrous cult in particular;
they were
common to almost all cults.

They are, in fact, part of the natural language of mystical expression, and such things belong quite as much to secular ceremonial as they do to religion. Catholic Encyclopedia on Candles

Of Psalm 71:22. We are not, indeed, forbidden to use, in private, musical instruments, but they are banished out of the churches by the plain command of the Holy Spirit, when Paul, in 1 Corinthians 14:13, lays it down as an invariable rule, that we must praise God, and pray to him only in a known tongue.

By the word truth, the Psalmist means that the hope which he reposed in God was rewarded, when God preserved him in the midst of dangers. [Note: Paul connects speaking in tongues and musical instruments which are only useful for signalling in warfare if you interpret the message before you sound it]

The promises of God, and his truth in performing them, are inseparably joined together.

Unless we depend upon the word of God, all the benefits which he confers upon us will be unsavoury or tasteless to us; nor will we ever be stirred up either to prayer or thanksgiving,

if we are not previously illuminated by the Divine word.
So much the more revolting, then, is the folly of that diabolical man, Servetus, who teaches that the rule of praying is perverted

as if we could have any access into the presence of God, until he first invited us by his own voice to come to him.

Of Psalm 33 Calvin addressed both the end of the legalistic system and the use of instruments:

There is a distinction, however, to be observed here, that we may not indiscriminately consider as applicable to ourselves, every thing which was formerly enjoined upon the Jews. I have no doubt that playing upon cymbals, touching the harp and the viol, and all that kind of music, which is so frequently mentioned in the Psalms,

was a part of the education; that is to say, the puerile instruction of the law: I speak of the stated service of the temple.

For even now, if believers choose to cheer themselves with musical instruments, they should, I think, make it their object not to dissever their cheerfulness from the praises of God.

But when they frequent their sacred assemblies, musical instruments in celebrating the praises of God would be no more suitable than the burning of incense, the lighting up of lamps, and the restoration of the other shadows of the law.

The Papists, therefore, have foolishly borrowed this, as well as many other things, from the Jews.

Men who are fond of outward pomp may delight in that noise;

but the simplicity which God recommends to us by the apostle is far more pleasing to him. Paul allows us to bless God in the public assembly of the saints only in a known tongue, (1 Corinthians 14:16.)

The voice of man, although not understood by the generality,
assuredly excels all
inanimate instruments of music; and yet we see what St Paul determines concerning speaking in an unknown tongue. [Paul uses the terms lifeless instruments or carnal weapons]

What shall we then say of chanting, which fills the ears with nothing but an empty sound?

A modern writer agrees:

"At a time when there is a rising protest against monologous and therefore sometimes monotonous 'one man ministeries' in the churches, and when it is complained increasingly that the preacher is one of the few remaining public figures whose formal remarks allow no public interrogation or discussion (even Presidents are subjected now to the discipline of public interview), it is perhaps in order for the churches to look here in Corinthians to their earliest structure (including interrogation and challenge)... in place of the often dull and unprofitable responsive readings before it and of some of the singing which seems to be often, at the conscious or mental level at least,

low level glosolalia with instrumental accompaniment." (Fredreck Dale Bruner, A Theology of the Holy Spirit, p. 300)

Calvin continues:

Does any one object, that music is very useful for awakening the minds of men and moving their hearts? I own it;

but we should always take care that no corruption creep in, which might both defile the pure worship of God and involve men in superstition. Moreover, since the Holy Spirit expressly warns us of this danger by the mouth of Paul,

to proceed beyond what we are there warranted by him is not only, I must say, unadvised zeal, but wicked and perverse obstinacy.

Again, Campbell notes that: "We know that our Lord Jesus Christ has appeared, and by His advent has abolished these legal shadows.

Instrumental music, we therefore maintain, was only tolerated on account of the times and the people, because they were as boys, as the sacred Scripture speaketh, whose condition required these puerile rudiments.

But in gospel times we must not have recourse to these unless we wish to destroy the evangelical perfection and to obscure the meridian light which we enjoy in Christ our Lord." (Calvin's Commentary on the Thirty-third Psalm, and on 1 Sam. 18:1-9).

Psalm 150

The Psalms are poetic accounts of much of the history of Israel. They are called "psalms" because they were written in metrical form. This meant that they could be chanted to some assigned tune. Instruments were used in some psalms but this would normally be a stroke of the strings for emphasis rather than "instrumental accompaniment to congregational singing." The great "Levitical Musical Worship Teams" were to make a great crashing sound to depress everyone to the ground and enhance the temple worship which replaced the Mosaic Law with ceremonialism "like the nations."

"At the dedication of the later edifice, the priests blew the trumpets at the same time that the Levites sang and played upon instruments of music,

so as 'to make one sound;' but it is evident that on that great occasion of rejoicing, what was aimed at
not musical harmony, but a powerful crash of jubilant sound. We are shut up to the conclusion that

there was nothing in the tabernacle-worship, as ordered by Moses, which could be justly characterized as instrumental music." (George Girardeau, Instrumental Music, p. 29 - a Presbyterian).

All songs or poems in the ancient world were the property of the composer as long as they lived. By analogy, you do not sing the private song of an American Indian. However, when the poet died the song would be "cataloged" as among the Hittites and made available to the public because the "copyright" expired with the composer.

With the exception of Psalm 33 all of the poems adopted to the harp share the sense of doom and lostness of the composer -- often David. They are often violently judgmental even against a personal enemy for speaking against the king.

In the beginning, the synagogues chanted only the prose account but later used about 1/3 of the psalms. These were "chanted" we are told "as a schoolboy reads the hallel."

They could use a psalm to teach their history but this was not congregational worship in the modern ritualistic sense. The church Fathers often advise the singing of Psalms but always in the context of learing the Word of God.

And we quoted Calvin above to show that there is no way to pick up the musical worship always attached to the sacrificial system without taking Christ from the center.

All of the "church Fathers" understood the difference between Law and Grace. For instance, most psalms are allegorized because animal sacrifices are no longer offered and therefore there is no legalistic reason for music.

Augustine: Psalm 41 Judas Will Not Triumph over Jesus
Augustine: Psalm 149 Literal Musical Warfare Replaced

Basil the Great: Spiritual Worship

Psalm 149-140

The word PSALLO still used to prove instruments

It is true that a psalm is written in metrical form and it can always be accompanied with an instrument. Paul prescribed Psalm singing:

Psalmos (g5568)psal-mos'; from 5567; a set piece of music, i.e. a sacred ode
accompanied with the

..........harp or
..........other instrument;
..........a "psalm"collect. the book of the Psalms: -
..........psalm. Comp. 5603.

The Britannica notes that:

"Music, like the word, also may have symbolic meaning. The basic elements out of which musical symbolism is built are sounds, tones, melodies, harmonies,

and the various musical instruments,
among which is the human voice.

Sound effects can have a numinous (spiritual) character and may be used to bring about contact with the realm of the holy. A specific tone may call one to an awareness of the holy, make the holy present, and produce an experience of the holy. This may be done by means of drums, gongs, bells, or other instruments. The ritual instruments can, through their shape or the materials from which they are made, have symbolic meaning. The Uitoto in Colombia, for example, believe that all the souls of their ancestors are contained in the ritual drums. (See liturgical music BM members.)

In other words, music is not spiritual but one of the most ancient superstitions attributed to Satan and facilitated by the youthfaithful Cainites.

In the Old Testament the word for melody does not prevent the writers from always using the word but then defining the instrument upon which the melody is to be made. I.e. Make melody with the harp. The word "make melody" would be meaningless based on the Old Testament examples.

Paul issued a direct command which does not begin with "sing and play.' He commanded teaching with The Word of Christ. He used the word "sing" and then, consistent with all Old Testament passages, defined the instrument which must accompany the "fruit of the lips" as the replacement for the outlawed animal sacrifices:

Speaking (preaching) to yourselves

in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
singing and making melody
in your heart to the Lord; Ephesians 5:19

Paul literally said "preach the Word one to another." Now, we know of no preacher who would compete with a musical team while he is speaking. Perhaps, neither will Jesus.

A psalmos may be accompanied by the voice or a harp: paul picked the voice. He did not pick the harp because the internal singing and melody is directed to God and not a paying audience.

This is a direct Command.

Neither John Locke nor Thomas Campbell would demand that you not play the harp in order to be saved: both demanded that you cannot go beyond the direct command without promoting sectarianism by offending many who remain with you, or excluding those from your fellowship who do not believe that "in spirit" worship can take place while looking at and listening to musical performance.

The sectarian division always defines those who object to the addition of acts or rituals which are not commanded as those who sow discord and are therefore the sectarians. By analogy: "You kick me in a soft spot in church, I yell 'ouch' therefore I am the one who created the disturbance." The early Guilt Clause was a psychological weapon against those who would not "go along" perhaps as a warning to all others.

Paul left no loopholes of silence into which we might insert our own songs which are claimed to be "Spirit anointed or inspired." Rather, the clear, loud command is. The will of the Lord must come in commands or some other form: they do not come out of the Post-Modern or post inspiration mind:

Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. Ephesians 5:17

In the following charts notice that there are two different paths of information flow. The first is to yourself or to one another; the second is to the Lord. The one another task is to use the Word of Christ (Spirit) to teach and admonish one another. The singing and melody is directed to God. Everything involved with the spiritual aspect of worship is "in the heart" and not on the instruments.

If you contend that this does not apply to "collective worship" then that is ok with me. But this would eleminate instruments in private places. It would leave you with no command, example or inference about singing in the "church house." And that would be fine with me: you could return to the synagogue system of "speaking to one another in Psalms." That would eleminate both instruments and spirituality-destroying complex harmony which has no more authority than instruments.

If you contend that the Bible doesn't command modern compositions as the "work of the human mind and hand" then that is fine with me: just remain faithful to the clear Biblical evidence and use only inspired Biblical resources.

These are all the inspired text of the Bible and are therefore "Spirit" or the product of Jesus Christ as Spirit or Word.

Hymns "was that part of the Hallel consisting of Psalms 113-118; where the verb itself is rendered 'to sing praises' or 'praise' Acts 16:25; Heb 2:12. The Psalms are called, in general, 'hymns,' by Philo; Josephus calls them 'songs and hymns.'" Vine on Humneo

The Non-Silent Direct Command to the Ephesians

And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit (the word Col 3:16; John 6:63); Ephesians 5:18

Speaking Preaching
to ----------------------->

with psalms and hymns and spiritual songs

making melody
to the Lord; Ephesians 5:19

In your heart

Giving thanks

always for all things

unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; Ephesians 5:20

The non-silent direct command of Paul to the Colossians:

And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful. Colossians 3:15

one another

with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs

to ------------------------->
the Lord

in your heart

And whatsoever ye do in word or deed

do all in the

name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him. Colossians 3:17

David saw "singing" in the same light: teaching the people.
O give thanks unto the Lord; call upon his name:
.........make known his deeds among the people. Psalm 105:1
Sing unto him,
sing psalms unto him: ye of all his wondrous works. Psalm 105:2

As the Septuagint (LXX) divides the Psalms into "Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs" we understand Paul to limit the external "preaching" with internal "singing" to the inspired poetic literature as the Jews originally used only the prose literature but later the poetic.

Psalms 150 limits the "instruments" to those things which have "breath" and seen in tabular form, David connects the "internal" singing to "external" praising God which is only possible by making His deeds known in His Words:

make known his deeds among the people. Psalm 105:1
O give thanks
call upon
unto the Lord
his name:
talk ye of all his wondrous works. Psalm 105:2

unto him

sing psalms

unto him:

Glory ye

in his holy name:

let the heart of them rejoice

that seek the Lord. Psalm 105:3

As in the New Testament, the true worship word is to seek God through learning and internalizing His Word. Seeking the Lord in Hebrew is:

Baqash (h1245) baw-kash'; a prim. root; to search out (by any method, spec. in worship or prayer); by impl. to strive after: - ask, beg, beseech, desire, enquire, get, make inquisition, procure, (make) request, require, seek (for).

"But we do not believe in the direct commands, examples or inferences in the Post-Modern religion."

Many people do not believe that the Bible has any authority in this modern age. Therefore, everyone has a right to decide how and whom they will worship. However, there simply is no way to discount those who do not use music by claiming that they practice a "false hermeneutic" when that of Locke and the Campbells was a continuation of the almost-universal teaching of the historical scholars based on commands, examples and hints from Christ about what He would have us do.

The Reasonableness of Christianity by Lock and the Declaration and Address was not used to condemn or judge anyone. Rather, both were a "constitution" or agreement on commands and approved examples to agree to practice only that which is absolutely demanded in the interest of being non-sectarian and allowing the broadest level of fellowship in those extra-congregational affairs.

Nor can the historical scholars be appealed to for authority to use practices of the sacrificial system in spiritual worship.

Nor can Lucian be used to prove that non-musical people are legalistic because Lucian would authorize the pagan practices explained by a pre-Paul understanding of Greek and what he witnessed in pagan worship.

Nor can any historical scholar we know of be used to prove that Psalm 150 has anything to do with either sacrificial worship or Christian, in-spirit worship. Because all of the musical Psalms are quite judgmental even wanting to dash little baby's heads in, leave others orphans and praise God with the harp and the double-edged sword, scholare are left with the fact that these are David's sentiments rather than Gods, or they must be explained symbolically as prophetic parables. After all, Jesus said that the truth had been hidden from the professionals from the foundation of the world (Matthew 13). Isaiah 48 has God explaining that if He didn't speak in symbolic language the professional "prophets" would make the prophecy and claim that they were the new god.

Search for truth is the only way to be a disciple.

Sermon Review: No Dispensational Distinctions: David's Civil Rituals Authorizes Instruments?
Sermon Review: Lucian of Samosata and Psallo From Attic Greek
Sermon Review: Lucian of Samosata Explained by The Church Fathers
Sermon Review: How About Psallo and Psalm 150?
Sermon Review: Reasonableness of Christianity - John Locke
Sermon Review: A Letter of Toleration - John Locke

Kenneth Sublett Comments Welcome

Mail Index

Musical Worship Index

Home Page

Counter added 11.21.04 2002 Rev 3.06.7 338 rev 7.04.08  12/29/-9 8000 8.08.12 8404