Musical Levites - Smith's Bible Dictionary

I have added notes and moved Smith's summary down.

Almost all of Christian "worship" and money is devoted to the belief that God commanded instrumental worship in the sacrificial system.  They claim that "Since He has not changed His mind, what Christ ordained as A School of His Word has been turned into "theaters for holy entertainment."

Exodus 32 They Sat Down to Eat and rose up to play: they repudiated The Book of The Covenant of Grace given by Christ to Abraham to ALL NATIONS.
Deuteronomy 32 They Rose Up To Play

1 Corinthians 10 They sat Down to Eat and Rose Up To Play  God gave Israel The Book of The Covenant of Grace as that made by Christ to Abraham.  The Israelites engaged in musical idolatry of the Egyptian trinity. God gave them The Book of The Law and Moses coultd not atone for them. The Angle (Christ) led them but God said nevertheless in the day when I visit I will visit their sin upon them.

Christ came to give REST to those who were baptized into Christ: [Gal 3]. There can be no racial distinction in the body of Christ who rescued Jews along with the Abrahamic Gens
who were not so burdened.

Land and Spiritual Covenant deliberately forfeited.
The Book of The Covenant was given to Abraham by God in Christ. The Israelites now religiously Egyptians rejected DISCIPLINE and demanded the "gods" of Egypt which let them "run wild and naked."

The Gospel Promise: I Will Give you rest. Jesus also that the kingdom of God does not come with "ovservation." That word means "Religious Observations." Christ defined the Church of Christ in the Wilderness to give the godly people REST from the normal pagan seventh-day religious efforts to get their god's attention. The command was to READ the Word and Rehearse or discuss the Word as it was delivered to small group elders of 50s etc. 

The Levites Almost all Messianic Jewish and Christian "worship" and money is devoted to the belief that God commanded instrumental worship in the sacrificial system.  They claim that "Since He has not changed His mind, what Christ ordained as A School of His Word has been turned into "theaters for holy entertainment."

The Kingdom of God does not come with Religious Observations or Services

Don't pay for people to force you to violate that Gospel promise.

Joe Shulam: First Century Jewish Identity as a Model  Joseph claims that Jesus and the first churches were 100% based on the Torah.

Joseph Shulam: First Century Jewish Identity as a Model Part Two  We have added a bit of "Old Testament" which the later Jews seemed to have missed as they came to be the oppressors of the Gentiles with whom Christ made the Abrahamic Covenant which never ceased.

Joe Shulam: The Way of the Lord is not Jewish  Genesis 18:19 For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgmentTHAT the LORD may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken of him. Acts 10:35 But in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with him.

Joseph Shulam: was Jesus and the church "Torah" observant and worshipped at the temple.

Messianic and musical christians insist that: Jesus Came Not to Destroy the Law but to Fulfil it.  The prophecies are defined by Jesus as "CONCERNING ME." Fulfil is the prophecy that A NEW NATION WOULD BE BORN IN ONE DAY. This purpose would be neither Jewish nor Gentile in a racist sense but that ALL people be one.

  1. Musical Worship Ministers claim the role of the Levites
  2. The Levites were commanded by God to stand guard and execute any one coming hear any holy thing or place.
  3. Modern Levites claim to LEAD you into the presence of God: therefore, they claim the role of God in Christ standing in the holy place.
See how even the non-instrumental groups insist that God commanded the Levites to be "musical worship leaders."

If Moses used the Levites to replace the first born sons because they executed 3,000 "brethren" who may or may not have been involved in musical idolatry, be very careful before paying someone to impose a "musical worship team" using the Levites as their pattern.

Temples--as affirmed by David--were "houses" for people's gods: they were never houses of worship. No singer or instrument player could enter into the holy houses in the vilest pagan temple. Instead, they stood guard while making a great noise--never called music--to warn people not to come near any holy thing or place: the exception to the law is in David being excused for eating the shewbread while starving.

We should note that Jacob had warned that we should not attend the assemblies of the Levi Tribe.  
Priests were not "worship leaders" but often tyrants used to control the population including collecting taxes which as with the tithe had its origin in Babylon. Making war has always been something people lusted for.  Religion has always been the pretense even today.
Gen. 49:5 Simeon and Levi are brethren;
        instruments of cruelty are [h3627 psaltery, weapon]
        in their habitations. [stabbing, burning Bello 
to wage or carry on war, to war, to fight in war.
Caes. Gal. 1.2 incited by lust of sovereignty, formed a conspiracy among the nobility, and persuaded the people to go forth from their territories with all their possessions, [saying] that it would be very easy, since they excelled all in valor, to acquire the supremacy of the whole of Gaul.

From these circumstances it resulted, that they could range less widely, and could less easily make war upon their neighbors; for which reason men fond of war [as they were] were affected with great regret. They thought, that considering the extent of their population, and their renown for warfare and bravery, they had but narrow limits, although they extended in length 240, and in breadth 180 [Roman] miles.

This was the condition when David had destroyed all of the enemies and he had a host of Levites on his hand.
Iniquitas B. Unfairness, injustice, unreasonableness: luxuria, praetoris, unreasonable demands in the shape of taxes,
Gen. 49:6 O my soul, come not thou into their secret;
         [counsel: don't look to Levi for a pattern]
        unto their assembly
, mine honour, be not thou united:
        for in their anger they slew a man, and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.
Gen. 49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce;
         and their wrath, for it was cruel:
        I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.

The Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ was NEVER more than an assembly to listen to the Word read in the same state it was delivered through Moses.  The godly people attended the synagogue because the temple was not a house of worship.  The tribe of Levi operated the temple devoted to the worship of the starry host: there is no record of them attending the Church of Christ in the wilderness.  Vocal or instrumental rejoicing including an elevated form of speaking was outlawed from the synagogues.  Therefore, they always worshipped in spirit which always included instructioon in righteousness and justice.

Therefore, no one who needed to know God's Will was ever deprrived from the only Godly set-time-place to give attention to the Word of God: in the New Testament that is the only meaning or act of giving attention to God rather than performing certain rituals in the belief that people have anything to give God as the works of their effort.

Genesis 49:8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise:
        thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies;
        thy father’s children shall bow down before thee.
Genesis 49:9 Judah is a lion’s whelp:
        from the prey, my son, thou art gone up:
        he stooped down, he couched as a lion,
        and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?
Genesis 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah,
        nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come;
        and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.
Nevertheless, God would use the Levites to guard all of the worship of the starry host from the godly tribes whom Christ consigned to their own Qahal, synagoogue or Church of Christ in the wilderness. 

Consistent with the prophecy of Jacob, Moses assigned the Levites to stand guard to prevent you from attending any of their assemblies or entering into covenant with them.  You see, if you use the sacrificial system as a patternism along with the warning instrumental music using the Levites as authority God GUARANTEES that (the Revelation "locust" parable) that the godly people will flee from your presence even if they have to leave their church family and "investment" behind.  Those who remain and affirm are dedicated to destruction.  The proof of a strong delusion where the wolf-shepherds reject the "word as it has been taught" is marked by lying wonders:
See Strong Delusions Produce Lying Wonders
2Th. 2:7 For the mystery of iniquity doth already work:
        only he who now letteth will let,
        until he be taken out of the way.
Musteri-on , A. mystery or secret rite: mostly in pl., ta m. the mysteries, first in Heraclit.14, cf. Hdt.2.51 (of the mysteries of the Cabiri in Samothrace), 2. mystic implements and ornaments b. later, object used in magical rites, talisman Anomia A. lawlessness, lawless conduct   2 Ep.Thess.2.7; 2. the negation of law, opp. nomos, D.24.152.
This delusion led to the musical worship of the Egyptain trinity under the symbol of Apis the real bull in Egypt and the golden bull calf in the wilderness.  In Exodus 31 they had refused to hear the Word of God which outlawed musical idolatry and as a resulty of assuming God's "silence" they fell from Grace and there was no redemption

Exod 32:6 And they rose up early on the morrow,
  and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; 
        and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play

"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Music, p. 589).  See Musical Idolatry at Mount Sinai

This "rising up to play" involved eating, drinking, nakedness and musical worship. The goddess, Hathor, is the best candidate for the Mother Goddess of the Mount Sinai idolatry. Here priestessess or prophetesses were highly trained with musical instruments, cultic songs and be able to join in the religious dance. See Of Miriam:

[6] surgentesque mane obtulerunt holocausta et hostias pacificas et sedit populus comedere ac bibere et surrexerunt ludere
Surgo they rose up in insurrection AGAINST God.

Hêdonais 3. Pl., desires after pleasure, pleasant lusts, X.Mem.1.2.23, Ep.Tit.3.3,

Titus 3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another.
Titus 3:4 But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,
Titus 3:5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done,
        but according to his mercy he saved us,
        by the washing of regeneration,  [baptism]
        and renewing of the Holy Ghost; [we receive A holy spirit]

Ludo  A. To sport, play with any thing, to practise as a pastime, amuse one's self with any thing,
B. To sport, dally, wantonly Esp., to play on an instrument of music, to make or compose music or song: carmina pastorum,

Empaizō , fut. To be deluded  2. euphem. in mal. part., LXXJd. 19.25.
II. sport in or on,  leimakos hêdonais E.Ba. 866 (lyr.); tois choroisin e. to sport in the dance

Paig-ma  A. play, sport, lōtos hotan . . paigmata bremē whene'er the pipe sounds its sportive strains, E.Ba.161(lyr.); “Ludia p. luras[harp]

II. 'child's play', to toiouto p. tōn logōn

Paul made it clear that the fatal practice at Mount Sinai was:
1Corinthians 10:7 Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written,
        The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.

Paizō, 2.  esp. dance, “paisateOd.8.251
4.  play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230;
dance and sing
, Pi. O.1.16.
5.  play amorously, “pros allēlousX.Smp.9.2; “meta tinosLXX Ge.26.8
Dancing would include any form of gestures.
Exodus 32:25 And when Moses saw that the people were naked;
        (for Aaron had made them naked unto their shame among their enemies:)
Nūdo , to make naked or bare; to strip, bare, lay bare, expose to view, uncover (syn.: exuo, detego, revelo).
1. In milit. lang., to leave uncovered, leave exposed or defenceless, to expose a place to the enemy

2 Samuel 6.[20] Then David returned to bless his household. Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said, How glorious was the king of Israel today, who uncovered himself today in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovers himself! [21] David said to Michal, [It was] before Yahweh, who chose me above your father, and above all his house, to appoint me prince over the people of Yahweh, over Israel: therefore will I play before Yahweh. [22] I will be yet more vile than this, and will be base in my own sight: but of the handmaids of whom you have spoken, of them shall I be had in honor. [23] Michal the daughter of Saul had no child to the day of her death.

lūdo , play on an instrument of music, to make or compose music or song:
B. o sport, dally, wanton (cf. "amorous play," Milton, P. L. 9, 1045): “scis solere illam aetatem tali ludo ludere,Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 3
In the first place of all then, you know that I am the companion of your son; he has gone to my house, for he is ashamed to come into your presence, because he knows that you are aware what he has done. Now, I beseech you, do pardon his simplicity and youthfulness. He is your son; you know that this age is wont to play such pranks; whatever he has.done, he has done in company with me. We have acted wrong: the interest, principal, and all the sum at which the mistress was purchased, all of it we will find, and will contribute together, at our own cost, not yours.
Sordes , .dirt, filth, uncleanness, squalor (class.; esp. freq. in a trop. sense, and in plur.; syn.: situs, squalor, caenum, illuvies). the dregs of the people, the mob, rabble
Exodus 32:26 Then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said,
        Who is on the LORD’s side? let him come unto me.
        And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him.

Here is what Moses commanded: Just what Jacob prophesied as their role.

Exodus 32:27 And he said unto them, Thus saith the LORD God of Israel,
        Put every man his sword by his side,
        and go in and out from gate to gate throughout the camp,
        And slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.
Exodus 32:28 And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses:
        and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men.

All Bible readers know that the "play" or "sport" word implicates what happens in most institutes of religion. The sexual and homosexual component is recognized by many writing about the persona of the "worship minister."
  1. Was this for collective guilt for engaging in musical idolatry?
    We know that if the blind follow the blind they both fall into a pit or hell.
  2. Did they take names during this musical idolatry?
  3. Was there some discernable identifying MARK on those who engaged in musical idolatry when they were commanded to REST on the Sabbath?

    Chrysostom on Acts 7. "Not a word of sacrifice till then: and the first mention is, of the sacrifices offered to the calf. In like manner, "they rejoiced," "the people ate and drank, and rose up to play:" and in consequence of this, the feasts were prescribed: kai eufrainonto, fhsin: dia touto kai eortai.-'Epishmainetai might be rendered, "he marks," "puts a mark upon it" (so the innovator, who substitutes, touto kai Dauid epishmainomenoj legei): we take it passively, "there is a mark set over it-it is emphatically denoted." In the active, the verb taken intransitively means
            "to betoken or announce itself," "make its first appearance."-

    For He did not permit it to be done in any place of the whole world,

    but in Jerusalem only. Anon, when for a short time
    they had sacrificed, he destroyed the city.
    Had He openly said, Desist, they, such was their insane passion for sacrificing, would not readily have complied. But now perforce, the place being taken away, He secretly withdrew them from their frenzy."
    So here: "Even the captivity impeaches the wickedness (which was the cause of the permission of sacrifice.")

  4. Doesn't the fact that the Levites jumped at the tasking of slaughtering 3,000 of the "brethren" validate Jacob's prophecy that we must NOT come into their assemblies.
  5. Since Moses made it certain that the Levites would kill you if you attempted to participate in any of the later sacrificial system, what do you think of people who use the Levites as their pattern to impose--threateningly--musical worship groups using the Levites as their pattern?
Exodus 32:29 For Moses had said,
        Consecrate yourselves to day to the LORD,
        even every man upon his son, and upon his brother;
        that he may bestow upon you a blessing this day.
The Levites replaced the first-born sons:
Consē^cro sacro, to dedicate, devote something as sacred to a deity
1.  Of persons, to elevate to the rank of deity, to place among the gods, to deify:
2. To devote or doom to destruction, to execrate, in laws, vows, and oaths, Cic. Balb. 14, 33
Anathema included any person or thing placed in a holy place and dedicated to God: it could not be redeemed and must be burned. This separated the tribe of Levi from the other tribes of Israel: Christ ordained the qahal, synagogue or Church of Christ in the wilderness: they were restricted to their area and held holy convocations which meant to READ and discuss the Word of God: that pattern was not changed by Jesus.

Musical Worship Teams claim the power "to lead you into the presence of God." And most song writers think of themselves as inspired. Since there is only ONE mediator between man and God, the man Jesus Christ, do they not stand in the holy places and claim to be elevated to the rank of deity?

The whole nation (congregation) sinned because their leaders led them into musical idolatry and were executed.
Exodus 32:30 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people,
        Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up unto the LORD;
        peradventure I shall make an atonement for your sin.
Exodus 32:31 And Moses returned unto the LORD, and said,
        Oh, this people have sinned a great sin,
        and have made them gods of gold.
Exodus 32:32 Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin--;
        and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy book which thou hast written.
Exodus 32:33 And the LORD said unto Moses,
        Whosoever hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book.
Making a golden calf was not the worst sin: they ROSE up (against God) to PLAY: this was musical idolatry whicn meant to play instruments or play sexually: Aaron caused them to make themselves naked.  History defines this Egyptian worship of Apis the living bull calf and the trinity of Osiris, Isis and Horus.  "Trinity" demands father, MOTHER and eternally infant child.

Do you think you can rise up to play IF you have a good mental attitude?

God said that those who so blatantly refused to come before Him in silence and reverence (rest) would NOT benefit from Moses' intercession.

Exodus 32:34 Therefore now go,
        lead the people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee:
        behold, mine Angel shall go before thee:
        nevertheless in the day when I visit I will visit their sin upon them.
Exodus 32:35 And the LORD plagued the people,
        because they made the calf, which Aaron made.

God gave them kings in His anger to carry out the captivity and death sentence imposed at Mount Sinai: not even Moses could deter the penalty of feeding your face and your pleasure centers while PRETENDING to be worshiping God.
THE TESTIMONY OF STEPHEN Who proves that God did not Command any of the Monarchy.
Acts 7:37 This is that Moses, which said unto the children of Israel,
        A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren,
        like unto me; him shall ye hear.
Acts 7:38 This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness
        with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina,
        and with our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us:
Acts 7:39 To whom our fathers would not obey,
        but thrust him from them, and in their hearts turned back again into Egypt,
Acts 7:40 Saying unto Aaron,
        Make us gods to go before us [back to Egypt]:
        for as for this Moses, which brought us out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him.
Acts 7:41 And they made a calf in those days,
        and offered sacrifice unto the idol,
        and rejoiced in the works of their own hands.

If you can see it, hear it or smell it because it is produced by human arts and crafts, this is your golden calf. You say to God that the silly songs and sermons created by those you enable have more value than the Word of God.

> But this thing commanded I them, saying,
       Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people:
       and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you,
       that it may be well unto you. Jeremiah 7:23

> But they HEARKENED NOT, nor inclined their ear,
       but walked in the counsels and in the imagination of their evil heart,
       and went backward, and not forward. Jeremiah 7:24

Euphrainō , Ep. euphr-, fut. Att.155.12, Pi.I.7(6).3

Don't get piped or fluted down with wine!

Pind. I. 6
Just as we mix the second bowl of wine when the men's symposium is flourishing, here is the second song of the Muses for Lampon's children and their athletic victories: first in Nemea, Zeus, in your honor they received the choicest of garlands,

Pind. I. 7   In which of the local glories of the past, divinely blessed Thebe, did you most delight your spirit? Was it when you raised to eminence the one seated beside Demeter of the clashing bronze cymbals, flowing-haired [5] Dionysus? Or when you received, as a snow-shower of gold in the middle of the night, the greatest of the gods, when he stood in the doorway of Amphitryon, and then went in to the wife to beget Heracles? But since ancient grace sleeps, and mortals are forgetful of whatever does not reach the highest bloom of skillful song, joined to glorious streams of words, [20] then begin the victory procession with a sweet-singing hymn for Strepsiades;

"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Music, p. 589).

This "rising up to play" involved eating, drinking, nakedness and musical worship. The goddess, Hathor, is the best candidate for the Mother Goddess of the Mount Sinai idolatry. Here priestessess or prophetesses were highly trained with musical instruments, cultic songs and be able to join in the religious dance.

"Music and drugs were co-consiprators in religious ecstasy. They may have used some product of the sycamore fig which both intoxicated and induced an altered state of consciousness. The ergo of barley was well known.
"Women and girls from the different ranks of society were proud to enter the service of the gods as singers and musicians. The understanding of this service was universal: these singers constituted the 'harem of the gods'." (End of Quasten Click to see Music and the Feminine connection)

What you can never learn while you are a clapping and a sanging!

Acts 7:42 Then God turned,
        and gave them up [g3860 cast out, put in prison]
        to worship the host of heaven;
The Book of The Law was imposed because of musical idolatry: Moses ordained the Levites to execute the idolaters and gave them the continuing task to bear the burden of the Tabernacle and the burden of their own iniquity. Their perpetual role was to stand guard in front of the Tabernacle and execute anyone trying to come near any holy thing or enter any holy place.

The patternism of the Levites under the King and Commanders of the army is God's MARK of people who will hurt you if you question their authority.

After the wars were over, the "military-industrial complex" had a surplus of men without any jobs.  David did what others did after the wars were over.  Much of the work in Jerusalem in the latter ages was Herod putting the Jews to work to keep them from rebelling.


See Josephus for the spectacle of religious leaders always in conflict staking out turf and wrangling over the spoils.

It is as easy as reading 101 to understand that the Levites were controlled by the Military branch which exists in most nation-states:
1Chronicles 25:1 Moreover David [King] and the captains of the host [Army] separated to the service of the sons of Asaph, and of Heman, and of Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals:
Thousands of twanging bow strings, harps and ram's horns were intended to intimidate the enemy and turn them into cowards. These men were not prophets of God. Remember Gideon? They were prophesying in the sense that may have been their role in Egypt.  When people make loud noise and claim that they are speaking for a "god" they induce fear and trembling. They dare you to deny that they are ordained by a god.
-Prophe-ta  I. a foreteller, SOOTHSAYER prophet... oraculorumque interpretes, sacerdotes Aegyptiorum, quos prophetas vocant, [Priestess of Egpt prophetess call out] Aegyptius, propheta primarius

Aegyptius, propheta primarius 1.  Aegyptius,
2.  Prophetai
3.  Primarius I. one of the first, of the first rank, chief, principal, excellent, remarkable,
primarius parasitus

1. How to set Ambushment using the Levites.

2 Chron 20:19 And the Levites, of the children of the Kohathites, and of the children of the Korhites, stood up to praise the Lord God of Israel with a loud voice on high.

2 Chron 20:20 And they rose early in the morning, and went forth into the wilderness of Tekoa: and as they went forth, Jehoshaphat stood and said, Hear me, O Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem; Believe in the Lord your God, so shall ye be established; believe his prophets, so shall ye prosper.

2 Chron 20:21 And when he had consulted with the people, he appointed singers unto the Lord, and that should praise the beauty of holiness, as they went out before the army, and to say, Praise the Lord; for his mercy endureth for ever.

Rinnah (h7440) rin-naw'; from 7442; prop. a creaking (or shrill sound), i. e. shout (of joy or grief): - cry, gladness, joy, proclamation, rejoicing, shouting, sing (-ing), triumph.

2 Chron 20: 22 And when they began to sing and to praise, the Lord set AMBUSHMENTS against the children of Ammon, Moab, and mount Seir, which were come against Judah; and they were smitten. 

Ranah (h7439) raw-naw'; a prim. root; to whiz: - rattle.

He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted; neither turneth he back from the sword. Job 39:22
quiver rattleth against him, the glittering spear and the shield. Job 39:23

[The Rule of the Trumpets: the trumpets] of alarm for all their service for the [ . . . ] for their commissioned men, 17[by tens of thousands and thousands and hundreds and fifties] and tens. Upon the t[rumpets . . . ]

[ . . . ] )8[ . . . ] 19[ . . . which ] 20 [,, . they shall write . . . the trumpets of Col. 3 the battle formations, and the trumpets for assembling them when the gates of the war are opened so that the infantry might advance, the trumpets for the signal of the slain, the trumpets of 2 the ambush, the trumpets of pursuit when the enemy is defeated, and the trumpets of reassembly when the battle returns.

2 Chron 20:23 For the children of Ammon and Moab stood up against the inhabitants of mount Seir, utterly to slay and destroy them: and when they had made an end of the inhabitants of Seir, every one helped to destroy another.

2. How to set Ambushment to destroy your "contributers": Elisha's Harpists.

The sound of musical instruments is often to invite God to pour out His wrath. In the Elisha event you will note that as a man of God He used the harpist as the mark of grave damage to the King-Priestly class. Jehoram is of the hated Ahab-Jezebal thread and was hated by Elisha as a spiritual opponent. When Elisha seemed to be forced into "prophesying" he used a harpist to accompany the "sermon" which would surely destroy all of the sources of tribute Jehoram wanted to fleece.  This is enacted when the preacher takes the role of king and clergy: God sends the music which in almost all cases destroys the source of illegal tithes and offerings from the OWNERS who are driven out by the music.

Jehoram was the son of Ahab and Jezebel. He had grown up with the hundreds of "prophets of Asherah and of Baal." Their practice had been to play music, sing, dance by bending the knee and even wounding themselves. The Moabites ceased to be robbed by the Jews in Jerusalem.  Jehoram forced Elisha to prophesy against Moab.  When the harpist made the sounds, the Moabites were deluded and destroyed one another. Jehoram was deluded into destroying all of the productive means he intended to Rob.

See 2 Kings 3

2. How to set Ambushment against Jesus

There is nothing more evil than boasting about seducing people who pay you away from their faith and practices. This is particularly evil when a secret agenda is worked for a decade before the "musical worship teams" suddenly appear driving away many of the owners.  A sacred promise is violated and the Musical "Levites" stand in the holy places claiming to lead you into the presence of God.

Psalm 41 prophesied that they would first define Jesus as Beliar or BeelZebul and then they were authorized to attack Him: even setting ambush:

Psalm 41 etc in DSS

DSS: "The priests shall blow the trumpets of massacre, and
the Levites and all the blowers of the ram's horn
.........shall sound a battle alarm,
.........and the foot soldiers shall stretch out their hands against the host...
and at the sound of the alarm
.........they shall begin to bring down the slain.
All the people shall cease their clamor,
.........but the priests shall continue blow the trumpets of massacre."  - War Scroll
DSS: They have overtaken me in a narrow pass (gap) without escape
.........And there is no rest for me in my trial.
.........They sound my censure upon a harp
.........and their murmuring and storming upon a zither." Ps.41:11

Scripture often uses forms of parallelism to make it "impossible" to get deluded.

The SUBJECT is "He SET the Levites."
          2Chr. 29:25 And he SET the Levites in the house of the LORD [court]
          A. with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps,
                according to the commandment of David, and of Gad the king’s seer, [star gazer]  
B. and Nathan the prophet:
         for so was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets.   
Moses SET the Levites to make certain that no one not of the tribe of Levi came near or they would be killed. God spoke through Moses in The Book of the Law which contains no example of instruments used in connection with the singular Tabernacle of Testimony. The instruments of David had been organized to help drive the enemy warriors into turning coward and running.  Making war was not the Worship of God. When David gave them a job financed by stealing from the poor as God promised, they made loud noise around but never INSIDE of the temple which would be built after David died.  This was not the Worship of God. If musicians want to fleece the widows so then can compose and rehearse all week and then "perform" in temple-like instutes that's what robbers and parasites do: it is not the Worship of God. 

Under the King and Commanders of the Army they were SET up in ranks to guard the not-commanded animal slaughter from any intrusion by any of the civillians. The loud crashing noise of blowing ONE NOTE on 120 trumpets and filling in the sounds of dozens of harps or bow strings would not create any respect for a Wholy Spirit God but would create the shock and awe which would intimidate the poor frarmers into giving their best lambs.

2 Chroniclws 29: the PATTERNISM for saying that God COMMANDED the preacher to impose musical Levites knowing that He  would sow discord and drive half of the "owners" out in wholesale and professional grade sowing of discord daring God to "hate" him.

This Plague-Stopping Exorcism was under both the Priests and the Civil-Military.
2Chr. 29:26 And the Levites stood with the instruments of David,
2Chr. 29:27 And Hezekiah commanded
        to offer the burnt offering upon the altar.
                And when the burnt offering began,
                       B.  the song of the LORD began also with the TRUMPETS
and with the INSTRUMENTS ORDAINED by David king of Israel.
THE LEVITES WERE SET TO GUARD AND KILL ANY ONE NOT OF LEVI. The "praise" word is the root for "lucifer" and means "to make yourself vile."  

They STOOD in ranks: absolutely silent
A. with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps,
         according to the commandment of David,
         and of Gad the king’s seer,
[star gazer]

B. and Nathan the prophet:
               for so was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets.

B.  the song of the LORD began also with the TRUMPETS
and with the INSTRUMENTS ORDAINED by David king of Israel.

No one can miss the point: the Instruments were played by the command of David--only.
Their Role as commanded by God through Moses was to stand guard and make sure that no civillian came near the "holy" places or things.  They were never "Musical Worship Ministers" they made sure that "you" never participated on the penalty of death.

There are parallel examples to warn those who would blaspheme.

God: Then Solomon offered burnt offerings unto the Lord on the altar of the Lord, which he had built before the porch, 2Chr 8:12

Even after a certain rate every day, offering according to the commandment of Moses, on the sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the solemn feasts, three times in the year, even in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles. 2 Chr 8:13

David: And he appointed, according to the order of David his father, the courses of the priests to their service, and the Levites to their charges, to praise and minister before the priests, as the duty of every day required: the porters also by their courses at every gate: for so had David the man of God commanded. 2Chr 8:14

"It was by the hand or commandment of the Lord and his prophets that the Levites should praise the Lord; for so the Hebrew text may be understood:

"and it was by the order of David that so many instruments of music should be introduced into the Divine service." (Adam Clark, Commentary on 2 Chron. 29:25).

Also Jehoiada appointed the offices of the house of the Lord by the hand of the priests the Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the Lord,

to offer the burnt offerings of the Lord, as it is written in the law of Moses,
with rejoicing and with singing, as it was ordained by David. 2Chr 23:1

In Exodus 32 Moses warned that the Levites should stand guard at the gate of the Tabernacle to make certain that none of the sacrificial system was witnessed by the non-Levi Israelites.  God promised that a plague would break out if they violated that quarantinee.

However, Manasseh was in between his father, Ahaz and his son, Manasseh both of which made the pagan worship avaliable to the people by putting things of worship in the courts.
2Chr 28:1 Ahaz was twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem:
         but he did not that which was right in the sight of the LORD, like David his father:

2Chr 28:2 For he walked in the ways of the kings of Israel,
         and made also molten images for Baalim.

2Chr 28:3 Moreover he burnt incense in the valley of the son of Hinnom,
        and burnt his children in the fire,
        after the abominations of the heathen whom the LORD had cast out before the children of Israel.

2Chr 28:4 He sacrificed also and burnt incense in the high places, and on the hills, and under every green tree.

2Chr 28:5 Wherefore the LORD his God delivered him into the hand of the king of Syria; and they smote him, and carried away a great multitude of them captives, and brought them to Damascus. And he was also delivered into the hand of the king of Israel, who smote him with a great slaughter.

When Hezekiah began as king he had a city and temple so vile that not even the "worship of the starry host" could be carried out. Hezekiah is clearly said to have a political motive to prepare the city for an expected invasion.

The Levites were not permitted to go inside any holy place or handle any holy things while removing the garbage and instruments used by the Assyrians.   Furthermore, Moses had assigned them as guards--day and night--to execute any one not of the Aaronic priesthood who came near or into any holy place. The Levites themselves would execute any Levite who violated the law.

After cleaning out the garbage and burning down all of the pagan shrines (churches) in the city, Hezekiah proposed a plague-stopping animal sacrifice.  This was not commanded and was not the example of any kind of regular worship pattern available to any preacher who is not deliberately directing people into destruction.

This plague or wrath was promised by God through Moses if the Levites ceased to stand guard and let the king take animal sacrifices out from quarantine behind temple and city gates.

Notice that the Levites are not involved in the normal sacrifices: None of the godly Jews could attend.
2Chr. 29:20 Then Hezekiah the king rose early,
        and gathered the rulers of the city,
        and went up to the house of the LORD.
2Chr. 29:21 And they brought 
        seven bullocks,
        and seven rams,
        and seven lambs,
        and seven he goats,
        for the kingdom, and
        for the sanctuary, and
        for Judah.

And he commanded the priests the sons of Aaron to offer them on the altar of the LORD.

    2Chr. 29:22 So they killed the bullocks,
            and the priests received the blood, and sprinkled it on the altar:
    likewise, when they had killed the rams,
            they sprinkled the blood upon the altar:
    they killed also the lambs,
            and they sprinkled the blood upon the altar.
The Levites STOOD in military ranks and did not pluck a string.

Hezekiah wanted to invite the nation of Israel to come to Jerusalem to help protect against the threatened attack.

2Chr. 29:23 And they brought forth the he goats
        for the sin offering before the king and the congregation;
        and they laid their hands upon them:

2Chr. 29:24 And the priests killed them,
        and they made RECONCILIATION with their blood upon the altar,
        to make an
atonement for all ISRAEL:
        for the king commanded that the BURNT offering and the sin offering
                should be made for all ISRAEL

Scholars are divided over the meaning of the goats: we first hear of the demand to make a scape goat offering to Azazel (the devil) after Nadab and Abihu. Others connect the worship of the abandoned Jews to Dionysus which was the Sabazianizm or star worship.
  Both the day of Atonement and the Scapegoat was imposed after Nadab and Abihu went into a holy place to burn incense.  The Scapegoat is Azazel which in the contemporaneous literature is the Devil or fallen angel who taught the holy Sethites how to form mixed-sex choirs, play musical instlruments and "put on apparel" which claimed priestly roles. This led to  sexual an perverted sexuality and the "pattern" is defined by Paul in Romans 1.



 2Chr. 29:25 And he SET the Levites in the house of the LORD [court]
       A. with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps,
                according to the commandment of David, and of Gad the king’s seer,        
B. and Nathan the prophet:
        for so was the commandment of the LORD by his prophets.

Levites under the King and Commanders of the army were SET in the court. The command is not to play instruments or make any noise!
Constituo 1. To station or post troops somewhere, to draw up, set in order: “legionem
Con-custōdītus closely watched, carefully guarded:

This is not a pattern for the ekklesia or synagogue of Christ. If you are to be a singer or instrument player even in the outer court the Levites will carry out their mission and kill you.
Numbers 1:47 But the Levites after the tribe of their fathers were not numbered among them.
Numbers 1:48 For the LORD had spoken unto Moses, saying,
Numbers 1:49 Only thou shalt not number the tribe of Levi,
        neither take the sum of them among the children of Israel:
Numbers 1:50 But thou shalt appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of testimony,
        and over all the vessels thereof, and over all things that belong to it:
        they shall bear the tabernacle, and all the vessels thereof;
        and they shall minister unto it, and shall encamp round about the tabernacle.
Numbers 1:51 And when the tabernacle setteth forward, the Levites shall take it down:
        and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up:
        and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.
Numbers 1:52 And the children of Israel shall pitch their tents,
        every man by his own camp, and every man by his own standard, throughout their hosts.
Numbers 1:53 But the Levites shall pitch round about the tabernacle of testimony,
        that there be no wrath upon the congregation of the children of Israel:
        and the Levites shall keep the charge of the tabernacle of testimony.

This was the only command by God through Moses.
  When David made HIS OWN TENT the Levites did not carry it about.
Numbers 18:1 And the LORD said unto Aaron,
        Thou and thy sons and thy father’s house with thee
        shall bear the iniquity of the sanctuary:
        and thou and thy sons with thee
        shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood.
Numbers 18:2 And thy brethren also of the tribe of Levi, the tribe of thy father, bring thou with thee,
        that they may be joined unto thee, and minister unto thee:
        but thou and thy sons with thee shall minister before the tabernacle of witness.
Numbers 18:3 And they shall keep thy charge,
        and the charge of all the tabernacle: 
                only they shall not come nigh the vessels of the sanctuary and the altar,
                that neither they, nor ye also, die.
[3] excubabuntque Levitae ad praecepta tua et ad cuncta opera tabernaculi ita dumtaxat ut ad vasasanctuarii et altare non accedant ne et illi moriantur et vos pereatis simul
Numbers 18:4 And they shall be joined unto thee,
        and keep the charge of the tabernacle of the congregation,
        for all the service of the tabernacle:
        and a stranger shall not come nigh unto you.

The loud instrumental noise was a signal that all of the civillians must be OUTSIDE the camp and King and Civil leaders must bow or fall on their face.

To Keep the Charge meant to keep unauthorized people away from any sacrificial ritual.

I. to lie or sleep out of doors.
II. In partic., to lie out on guard, to keep watch, to watch. legiones in armis,” [Troups, Army, Implements of war, arms, both of defence and offence]
Custōdĭa , 1. Usu. in plur. and in milit. lang., persons who serve as guards, a guard, watch, sentinel:
II. With the access. idea of hindering free motion, a watching, guarding, custody, restraint, confinement.

H4931 mishmereth mish-meh'-reth Feminine of H4929 ; watch, that is, the act (custody) or (concretely) the sentry, the post; objectively preservation,
H4929 mishmâr mish-mawr' From H8104 ; a guard (the man, the post, or the prison);
H8104 shâmar shaw-mar' A primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), that is, guard; generally to protect, attend to,
Numbers 18:5 And ye shall keep the charge of the sanctuary,
        and the charge of the altar:
        that there be no wrath any more upon the children of Israel.
Indignātĭo ,
B.  In partic., an exciting of indignation by rhetorical art: “indignatio est oratio, per quam conficitur, ut in aliquem hominem magnum odium, aut in rem gravis offensio concitetur,Cic. Inv. 1, 53, 100; Quint. 4, 3, 15.—
Vincŭlum , or (also in class. prose), contr., vinclum , i, n. id.,
I. that with which any thing is bound, a band, bond, rope, cord, fetter, tie (cf.: catena, manica, compes).
2. Esp. in the plur., of the fetters of prisoners, and hence sometimes to be rendered prison; and vincula publica, the state-prison:
Numbers 18:6 And I, behold, I have taken your brethren
        the Levites from among the children of Israel:
        to you they are given as a gift for the LORD,
        to do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation.

The Lord's Service was to keep any Israelite or even a Levite from coming near any holy thing or into any holy place.

Num 18:7 Therefore thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priest’s office for every thing of the altar,
        and within the veil; and ye shall serve: I have given your priest’s office unto you as a service of gift:
        and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.
Custōdĭa , 1. Usu. in plur. and in milit. lang., persons who serve as guards, a guard, watch, sentinel:
II. With the access. idea of hindering free motion, a watching, guarding, custody, restraint, confinement.
Their job under the King and Commanders of the army was to kill you if you "came boldly before the throne of grace."

The Levites were not commanded to use any "musical" device in front of the Tabernacle: because people attended "synagogue" they already understood that if they came too close to the outer tabernacle they would be executed.

"And, behold, I have given the children of Levi all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance,
for their service which they serve,even the service of the tabernacle of the congregation. Numbers 18:21

Service means "hard bondage" the same meaning as Abad or Apollyon the destroyer.

"Neither must the children of Israel henceforth come nigh the tabernacle of the congregation,
        lest they bear sin, and die. Numbers 18:22
Numbers 18:23 But the Levites shall do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation,
        and they shall bear their iniquity:
        it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations,
        that among the children of Israel they have no inheritance.
Numbers 10:2 Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them:
        that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps.

Numbers 10:7 But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow,
         but ye shall not sound an alarm.

h4150 Moad the set-time-place for the synagogue beginning in the wilderness the holy convocation on first and seventh days of festivals came to be the synagogue each Sabbath.

When the synagogue was called by a trumpet sound it was most often to hear the Word of God from Moses and the elders of small groups.  This pattern for the synagogue continued throughout history and was exampled by Jesus.

7321. ruwa {, roo-ah´; a primitive root; to mar (especially by breaking); figuratively, to split the ears (with sound), i.e. shout (for alarm or joy):—blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout (for joy), sound an alarm, triumph.

The Command was the perpetual command that only the sons of Aaron could blow the trumpets: this was never "music" but to signal events.

Numbers 10:8 And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets;
        and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations.
The PERFORMANCE was under both the Priests and the Civil-Military.
2Chr. 29:26 And the Levites stood with the instruments of David,
2Chr. 29:27 And Hezekiah commanded
        to offer the burnt offering upon the altar.
                And when the burnt offering began,
B.  the song of the LORD began also with the TRUMPETS
        A.  and with the INSTRUMENTS ORDAINED by David king of Israel.
The command of Moses was still in effect but it was not "instrumental music" in congregational worship.
Sto, a. To stand in the ranks or under arms, to fight: “quisque uti steterat, jacet obtinetque ordinem, Sententiā,
h4673. matstsab, mats-tsawb´; from 5324; a fixed spot; figuratively, an office, a military post:—garrison, station, place where...stood.
The "congregation" is listed to exclude the civillians outside the gates.

Chronicles 29:28 And all the congregation worshipped,
        and the singers sang, and the trumpeters sounded:
        and all this continued until the burnt offering was finished.
2Chronicles 29:29 And when they had made an end of offering,
        the king and all that were present with him bowed themselves, and worshipped.
Making "one sound" with dozens of trumpets blowing one note and lots of harps and cymbals beating is NEVER called a part of congregational worship.   The Gift of Jesus Christ is that we can "bow" to His Word (only) as we glorify HIM with "that which is written for our learning."

Because the NOISE was made only DURING the burning of the Goats; and God had not commanded any sacrifices or burnt offerings, no one should be surprised because God ABANDONED them to worship the starry host. Those whom God had not abandoned attended the Church of Christ in the wilderness and that never changed even after Christ:

Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time hath
        in every city them that preach him,
        being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.
Jesus stood up to READ the assigned text and then SAT DOWN.

While the Levites stood Guard and would execute any person not of the Civil-Military-Priestly national systems, the sounds also commanded anyone not playing or singing to WORSHIP.  Playing and singing is never called worship.
Daniel 3:5 That at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, dulcimer,
         and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the golden image
         that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up:

Daniel 3:15 Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made; well: but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is that God that shall deliver you out of my hands?

The church is built up, edified or education ONLY on the Prophets and apostles. Christ defined the future REST day in great detail and the prophets repudiate all of the "music" as being the cause of people hungering and thirsting and dying for lack of the Word of God.  Peter left a "memory" of his eye-- and ear-- witnesses and outlawed "private interpretation" or further expounding.
Isaiah 1:10 Hear the word of the LORD, ye rulers of Sodom;
        give ear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah.
Isaiah 1:11 To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD:
        I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts;
        and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats.
Isaiah 1:12 When ye come to appear before me, who hath required this at your hand, to tread my courts?
Isaiah 1:13 Bring no more vain oblations; incense is an abomination unto me;
        the new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies,
         I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting.
Isaiah 1:14 Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hateth: they are a trouble unto me;
         I am weary to bear them.
Isaiah 1:15 And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide mine eyes from you: yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear: your hands are full of blood.
Isaiah 1:16 Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil;
Isaiah 1:17 Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.

Jeremiah 7:3 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, Amend your ways and your doings, and I will cause you to dwell in this place.
Jeremiah 7:4 Trust ye not in lying words, saying,
        The temple of the LORD, The temple of the LORD, The temple of the LORD, are these.

Jeremiah 7:5 For if ye throughly amend your ways and your doings;
        if ye throughly execute judgment between a man and his neighbour;

Jeremiah 7:6 If ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow,
        and shed not innocent blood in this place, neither walk after other gods to your hurt:

Jeremiah 7:7 Then will I cause you to dwell in this place,
         in the land that I gave to your fathers, for ever and ever.

Jeremiah 7:8 Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit.

Jeremiah 7:21 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel;
        Put your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat flesh.

Jeremiah 7:22 For I spake not unto your fathers,
        nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt,
        concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices:

Jeremiah 7:23 But this thing commanded I them, saying,
        Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people:
        and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, that it may be well unto you.

Jeremiah 7:24 But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear,
        but walked in the counsels and in the imagination of their evil heart,
        and went backward, and not forward.

Jeremiah 7:25 Since the day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Egypt unto this day
        I have even sent unto you all my servants the prophets, daily rising up early and sending them:

Jeremiah 7:26 Yet they hearkened not unto me, nor inclined their ear, but hardened their neck: t
        hey did worse than their fathers.

Jeremiah 7:27 Therefore thou shalt speak all these words unto them;
        but they will not hearken to thee:
thou shalt also call unto them;
         but they will not answer thee.

Jeremiah 7:28 But thou shalt say unto them,
        This is a nation that obeyeth not the voice of the LORD their God, nor receiveth correction:
        truth is perished, and is cut off from their mouth.

If God commanded instrumental music in worship, it is clearly the worship of the starry host: this was the worship until God removed Israel and then Judah into captivity and death. This sentence had been imposed because of musical worship of the Egyptian triad at Mount Sinai.

Psalm 41 says that Messiah will be MOCKED with the "alarm" which was outlawed for the syngagogue: that was vocal or instrumental rejoicing and any elevated form of speaking.

The Levites the guilty people in the Dead Sea Scrolls and typified by the Levites who killed the literal passover:
2Chronicles 35:10 So the service was prepared,
        and the priests stood in their place,
        and the Levites in their courses, according to the king’s commandment.
2Chronicles 35:11 And they killed the passover,
        and the priests sprinkled the blood from their hands,
        and the Levites flayed them.
2Chronicles 35:14 And afterward they made ready for themselves, and for the priests:
        because the priests the sons of Aaron were busied in offering of burnt offerings and the fat until night;
        therefore the Levites prepared for themselves, and for the priests the sons of Aaron.
2Chronicles 35:15 And the singers the sons of Asaph were in their place,
         according to the commandment of David, and Asaph, and Heman,
         and Jeduthun the king’s seer;
         and the porters waited at every gate; they might not depart from their service;
         for their brethren the Levites prepared for them.

Smith's Bible Dictionary

(descendants of Levi). Sometimes the name extends to the whole tribe, the priests included, (Exodus 6:25; Leviticus 25:32; Numbers 35:2; Joshua 21:3,41;) etc; sometimes only to those members of the tribe who were not priests, and as distinguished from them. Sometimes again it is added as an epithet of the smaller portion of the tribe, and we read of "the priests the Levites." (Joshua 3:3; Ezekiel 44:15;) The history of the tribe and of the functions attached to its several orders is essential to any right apprehension of the history of Israel as a people. It will fall naturally into four great periods:--

I. The time of the exodus. -- There is no trace of the consecrated character of the Levites till the institution of a hereditary priesthood in the family of Aaron, during the first withdrawal of Moses to the solitude of Sinai. (Exodus 24:1;)

The next extension of the idea of the priesthood grew out of the terrible crisis of Exod 32. The tribe stood forth separate and apart, recognizing even in this stern work the spiritual as higher than the natural. From this time they occupied a distinct position.

The tribe of Levi was to take the place of that earlier priesthood of the first-born as representatives of the holiness of the people.

At the time of their first consecration there were 22,000 of them, almost exactly the number of the first-born males in the whole nation.

As the tabernacle was the sign of the presence among the people of their unseen King,

so the Levites were, among the other tribes of Israel, as the royal guard that waited exclusively on him.

It was obviously essential for their work as the bearers and guardians of the sacred tent that there should be a fixed assignment of duties; and now accordingly we meet with the first outlines of the organization which afterward became permanent.

The division of the tribe into the three sections that traced their descent from the sons of Levi formed the groundwork of it.

The work which they all had to do required a man's full strength,

and therefore, though twenty was the starting-point for military service, Numb 1, they were not to enter on their active service till they were thirty. (Numbers 4:23,30,35;) At fifty they were to be free from all duties but those of superintendence. (Numbers 8:25,26;)

(1) The Kohathites, as nearest of kin to the priests, held from the first the highest offices. They were to bear all the vessels of the sanctuary, the ark itself included. (Numbers 3:31; Numbers 4:15; Deuteronomy 31:35;)

(2) the Gershonites had to carry the tent- hangings and curtains. (Numbers 4:22-26;)

(3) The heavier burden of the boards, bars and pillars of the tabernacle fell on the sons of Merari.

The Levites were to have no territorial possessions.

In place of them they were to receive from the others the tithes of the produce of the land, from which they,

in their turn, offered a tithe (1% OF THE FOOD) to the priests, as a recognition of their higher consecration. (Numbers 18:21,24,26; Nehemiah 10:37;) Distinctness and diffusion were both to be secured by the assignment to the whole tribe of forty-eight cities, with an outlying "suburb," (Numbers 35:2;) of meadowland for the pasturage of their flocks and herds.

The reverence of the people for them was to be heightened by the selection of six of these as cities of refuge. Through the whole land the Levites were to take the place of the old household priests, sharing in all festivals and rejoicings. (Deuteronomy 12:19; Deuteronomy 14:26,27; Deuteronomy 26:11;) Every third year they were to have an additional share in the produce of the land. (Deuteronomy 14:28; Deuteronomy 26:12;) To "the priests the Levites" was to belong the office of preserving, transcribing and interpreting the law. (Deuteronomy 17:9-12; Deuteronomy 31:26;)

II. The period of the judges. -- The successor of Moses, though belonging to another tribe, did all that could be done to make the duty above named a reality. The submission of the Gibeonites enabled him to relieve the tribe-divisions of Gershon and Merari of the most burdensome of their duties. The conquered Hivites became "hewers of wood and drawers of water" for the house of Jehovah and for the congregation. (Joshua 9:27;) As soon as the conquerors had advanced far enough to proceed to a partition of the country, the forty-eight cities were assigned to them.

III. The monarchy. --When David's kingdom was established, there came a fuller organization of the whole tribe. Their position in relation to the priesthood was once again definitely recognized. In the worship of the tabernacle under David, as afterward in that of the temple,

the Levites were the gatekeepers, vergers, sacristans, choristers, of the central sanctuary of the nation.

They were, in the language of (1 Chronicles 23:24-32;) to which we may refer as almost the locus classicus on this subject,

"to wait on the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of Jehovah, in the courts, and the chambers, and the purifying of all holy things."

They were, besides this, "to stand every morning to thank and praise Jehovah, and likewise at even."

They were, lastly, "to offer" --i.e. to assist the priest in offering-- "all burnt sacrifices to Jehovah in the sabbaths and on the set feasts."

They lived for the greater part of the year in their own cities, and came up at fixed periods to take their turn of work. (1 Chronicles 25:1;) ... The educational work which the Levites received for their peculiar duties, no less than their connection, more or less intimate, with the schools of the prophets, would tend to make them the teachers of the others, the transcribers and interpreters of the law, the chroniclers of the times in which they lived. (Thus they became to the Israelites what ministers and teachers are to the people now, and this teaching and training the people in morality and religion was no doubt one of the chief reasons why they were set apart by God from the people, and yet among the people. --ED.)

The revolt of the ten tribes, and the policy pursued by Jeroboam, who wished to make the priests the creatures and instruments of the king, and to establish a provincial and divided worship,

caused them to leave the cities assigned to them in the territory of Israel,

and gather round the metropolis of Judah. (2 Chronicles 11:13,14;)

In the kingdom of Judah they were, from this time forward, a powerful body, politically as well as ecclesiastically.

IV. After the captivity. --During the period that followed the captivity of the Levites contributed to the formation of the so-called Great Synagogue. They, with the priests, formed the majority of the permanent Sanhedrin, and as such had a large share in the administration of justice even in capital cases. They appear but seldom in the history of the New Testament.

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