Josheph Shulam Jesus in The Talmud One  From Jacob to Paul Judaism and Judaizers rejected the Covenant God in Christ made to Abraham: that is the ONLY spiritual covenant and it was given breathing room when Jesus came to destroy the Law of Moses "added because of transgression until the Abrahamic Restoration.

God Abandoned the Israelites to worship the starry host and carried them away beyond Babylon. Only a remnant of Judah returned to Canaan dominated by non-Israelites.  This Remnant is called the Jews and they brought their Babylonian Documents with them.

The only spiritual covenant was made by God in Christ to Abraham: Abraham was a gentile and his mission was to ALL nations.

*Joseph Shulam Early Believers Worshipped at the Temple.
   *Joseph Shulam First Century Jewish Identity as a Model.
*Joseph Shulam: First Century Jewish Identity as a Model Part Two -
* - Bible and

by Bertrand L. Comparet Josephus' "Antiquities of the Jews," tells that the Jews were a people distinct and separate from Yahweh's people Israel, although living among them. The Jew were the Canaanite people who lived in Palestine, before Israel entered the promised land and who were not driven out. These Canaanite people, and the mixed offspring from intermarriage with the Israelites, were allowed to remain in the land while paying heavy tribute taxes.

When the Assyrians conquered and deported the people of the ten northern tribes, the Bible records that the Assyrians brought other people in from the Assyrian empire and settled them in Samaria, in place of the Israelites they had deported. Samaria is only the southern half of the territory occupied by these ten northern tribes. The northern half was Galilee and this was left vacant. When the kingdom of Judah was later deported to Babylon, for their seventy years captivity, their land was left with very little population. While they were gone, the Edomites who were descendants of Esau, mixed with Canaanite people, were forced out of their own land by pressure of invading Arab tribes, and moved westward into the vacant lands of Judah, occupying the southern half of the former kingdom of Judah.

The late Rabbi Stephen F. Wise, formerly the Chief Rabbi of the United States said, "The return from Babylon and the introduction of the Babylonian Talmud mark the end of Hebrewism and the beginning of Judaism."

The  Abrahamic Covenant was to ALL nations: God selected the solitary Abraham and removed him from the Babylonianism which developed after the flood.

Not the nation, but the Civil-Military-Clergy whom God turned over to worship the starry host is the history of the never-abandoned Babylonianism. This did not prevent the Church of Christ (the Rock) from continuing to REST and READ  The Book of The Covenant which was Abrahamic and which the "Jews" rejected. God abandoned them and gave the Law to legislate for the lawless.

by Paul Sumner So the Synagogue and Church have inadvertently conspired for most of history to conceal the truth: Not all Jews rejected Jesus. In spite of this obvious repeated teaching in the Hebrew Bible, many Christians have believed God decided to offer messianic salvation to the Gentiles only after the Jews had refused the Messiah Jesus. As Joseph Shulam of Jerusalem has said, it's like the Goyim get rejected table scraps: a savior the Jews didn't want. The idea is based, in part, on a misreading of Romans 11:11-12.

Paul is discussing the Jews who rejected Jesus and cast him out of their synagogues: blindness was IN PART and Paul continued the Great Commission to take the gospel to ALL NATIONS

Anyone who has Read Exodus and Romans 9-11 knows that Paul used the terminal fall from Grace at Mount Sinai to prove that the Jews were not the predestinated race.

The Abrahamic Covenant was given to ALL nations or the Goyim: Jesus said that doctors of the Law take away the key to knowledge.  They do it very well and collect unlawful tithes to rob the widows.

Rabbi Joseph Shulam: This series of lectures is intended to bring the knowledge and experience that rabbinical Judaism has on the issue of the Messiah, and more specifically, to deal with how these literal passages from the Talmud and from the Mishnah effect our understanding of the world of Jesus Christ and of the New Testament itself

The "People of God" is a larger set which includes Israel, but also includes gentiles in the Christian Churches as well as Messianic gentiles. Thus, a rabbinical Jew is part of "Israel", a Baptist is part of Ekklesia and a Messianic Jew is both "Israel" and Ekklesia. Further, rabbinical Jew, Baptist, and Messianic Jew, both Israel and Ekklesia, are "People of God." Messianic Judaism sees itself as the "link," the point of the graft between Israel and Ekklesia.

Is. 11:1  And there shall come forth a ROD out of the stem of Jesse,
        and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:

Is. 11:2 And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him,
        the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might,
        the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;
Is. 11:3 And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD:
         and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears:
Is. 11:4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor,
        and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth:
        and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth,
        and with the breath [Spirit] of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
Is. 11:5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins,
        and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.

This prophesied Rod and Branch WOULD BE future tense to bring that not part of the Law of Moses or David.  Therefore,

Gal. 5:4 Christ is become of no effect unto you,
        whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace.

1Cor. 1:30 But of him are ye in Christ Jesus,
        who of God is made unto us wisdom,
        and righteousness,
        and sanctification,
        and redemption

Messianic Jews dare to say that THEY are the GRAFING AGENT OF GOD. Clergy in general believe that they have the power to CONNECT you to God by disconnecting from the VINE and brewing up their own songs and sermons--for which you pay them in violation of Isaiah 55.

Jesus is often called the BRANCH. He said of Himself:

John 15:1  I am the true [1] vine, and my
[2] Father is the husbandman.
John 15:4 Abide in me, and I in
        As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine;
        no more can ye, except ye abide in me.
John 15:5 I am the vine, ye are the branches:
        He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit:
        for without me ye can do nothing.

Nothing was left of the old branches which God had pruned without any spiritual fruit.

Gen. 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman,
        and between THY seed [Cain] and HER seed; [Abel-Seth]
        it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and named him Seth,
        For God has appointed another seed for me instead of Abel,
        whom Cain killed (Genesis 4:25).

Genesis 49

And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob,
        [1] and to restore the preserved of Israel:
        [2] I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles,
        [3] that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth. Isa 49:6

g5341. natsar, naw-tsar´; a primitive root; to guard, in a good sense (to protect, maintain, obey, etc.) or a bad one (to conceal, etc.):—besieged, hidden thing, keep(-er, -ing), monument, observe, preserve(-r), subtil, watcher(-man).

Salvation is Yeshuwah! God chooses those who DO NOT repudiate Him by THEIR OWN SINS.

Thus saith the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One,
        to him whom
man despiseth,
        to him whom the
nation abhorreth,
        to a servant of rulers, Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship,
        because of the Lord that is faithful, and the Holy One of Israel,
        and he shall
choose thee. Isa 49:7

Thus saith the Lord, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee:
[1] and I will preserve thee,
[2] and give thee for a covenant of the people,
[3] to establish the earth, to cause to
                inherit the desolate heritages; Isa 49:8

John 8:38 I speak that which I have seen with MY Father:
        and ye do that which ye have seen with YOUR father.
John 8:39 They answered and said unto him, Abraham is our father.
        Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham’s children,
        ye would do the works of Abraham.

JERUSALEM is Mount Sinai, the Law, Jerusalem and Sodom.  Jesus calls them a race of Vipers.

John 8:40 But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth,
        which I have heard of God: this did not Abraham.
John 8:41 Ye do the deeds of your father. Then said they to him,
        We be not born of fornication; we have one Father, even God.
John 8:42 Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father,
        ye would love me: for I proceeded forth and came from God;
        neither came I of myself, but he sent me.
John 8:43 Why do ye not understand my speech?
        even because ye cannot hear my word.
John 8:44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do.
         He was a murderer from the beginning,
        and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him.
        When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

John 12:29 The people therefore, that stood by,
        and heard it, said that it thundered:
        others said, An angel spake to him.
John 12:30 Jesus answered and said,
        This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes.
John 12:31 Now is the judgment of this world:
        now shall the prince of this world be cast out.
John 12:32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth,
        will draw all men unto me.

Rom. 16:20 And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly.
        The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.

The only National Covenant was made by God in Christ to Abraham.  "And" His seed jumps over The Law of Moses and connects Jesus and baptism back to Abraham.

In spite of this obvious repeated teaching in the Hebrew Bible, many Christians have believed God decided to offer messianic salvation to the Gentiles only after the Jews had refused the Messiah Jesus. As Joseph Shulam of Jerusalem has said, it's like the Goyim get rejected table scraps: a savior the Jews didn't want. The idea is based, in part, on a misreading of Romans 11:11-12.
Paul gave the first hearing of the gospel to the Jews: they rejected it and him and he turned his mission to the Gentiles.  Jews were cut off from the Vine by refusing to accept the Messiah, be baptized and become the spiritual SEED of Abraham.  The Law of Moses "given because of Transgression" lost its intimidating power when Jesus defanged it and fired the Scribes, Pharisees or Rabbi.  Individual Jews could become a branch by connecting to the Vine but there was no NATIONAL Judaism which God commanded and there was and never will be a national Judaism other than by force.
Gen. 17: And when Abram was ninety years old and nine,
        the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him,
        I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.
Gen. 17:2 And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly.
Gen. 17:3 And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying,
Gen. 17:4 As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee,
        and thou shalt be a father of many nations.
Gen. 17:5 Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram,
        but thy name shall be Abraham;
        for a father of many nations have I made thee

Gen. 17:6 And I will make thee exceeding fruitful,
        and I will make nations of thee,
        and kings shall come out of thee.

h1471. gowy, go´-ee; rarely (shortened) y…Og goy, go´-ee; apparently from the same root as 1465 (in the sense of massing); a foreign nation; hence, a Gentile; also (figuratively) a troop of animals, or a flight of locusts:—Gentile, heathen, nation, people.

Abraham is never the FATHER of the Jews in an exclusive sense. The Law of Moses regulated a lawless band until they were utterly destroyed except a small remnant.

Abraham was not a Jew:

Deut. 26:5NIV Then you shall declare before the LORD your God:
        “My father was a wandering Aramean, a
        nd he went down into Egypt with a few people and lived there
        and became a great nation, powerful and numerous.

The Nation which came out of Egypt was more an Egyptian or Gentile Nation than a Jewish Nation.

Amos 9:4 And though they go into captivity before their enemies,
        thence will I command the sword, and it shall slay them:
         and I will set mine eyes upon them for evil, and not for good.
Amos 9:5 And the Lord GOD of hosts is he that toucheth the land,
        and it shall melt, and all that dwell therein shall mourn:
        and it shall rise up wholly like a flood;
        and shall be drowned, as by the flood of Egypt.

Acts 7 says that because of Idolatry God turned the Jews over to WORSHIP THE STARRY HOST while neglecting the LORD GOD OF HOSTS.

Amos 9:6 It is he that buildeth [aedificat]
        his stories [means of ascent for a small bundle]
        in the heaven,
        and hath founded his troop in the earth;
        he that calleth for the waters of the sea,
        and poureth them out upon the face of the earth:
        The LORD is his name.
Amos 9:7 Are ye not as children
        of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD.
        Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt?
        and the Philistines from Caphtor,
        and the Syrians from Kir?

Paul as a Bible Reading Jew Confirms all of the prophecies

Rom. 9:6  Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect.
        For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel:
Rom. 9:7 Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children:
        but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called.
Rom. 9:8 That is, They which are the children of the flesh,
        these are not the children of God:
        but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.
Rom. 9:9 For this is the word of promise, At this time will I come, and Sara shall have a son.

Rom. 9:22 What if God, willing to shew his wrath,
        and to make his power known,
        endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction:
Rom. 9:23 And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy,
        which he had afore prepared unto glory,
Rom. 9:24 Even us, whom he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?
Rom. 9:25 As he saith also in Osee, I will call them my people, which were not my people; and her beloved, which was not beloved.
Rom. 9:26 And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children of the living God.
Rom. 9:27 Esaias also crieth concerning Israel,
        Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved:
Rom. 9:28 For he will finish the work, and cut it short in righteousness:
        because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth.
Rom. 9:29 And as Esaias said before,
        Except the Lord of Sabaoth had left us a seed,
        we had been as Sodoma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.

Rev. 11:8 And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city,
        which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt,
        where also our Lord was crucified. 

Rabbi Joseph Shulam: a Baptist is part of Ekklesia and a Messianic Jew is both "Israel" and Ekklesia.

Jesus added to the ekklesia ONLY those who were baptized FOR or in order to the remission of sins. It is not likely that those who call Christ in the prophets and Jesus in the New Testament liars can be added to the Church.

The Jews murdered Jesus as prophesied. On the day of Pentecost Peter opened the door to the church or Ekklesia.
Acts 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly,
         that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ.
Acts 2:37  Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart,
        and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles,
        Men and brethren, what shall we do?
Acts 2:38 Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you
        in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins,
        and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.
Acts 2:39 For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off,
        even as many as the Lord our God shall call.
Acts 2:40 And with many other words did he testify and exhort,
         saying, Save yourselves from this untoward generation.
Acts 2:41 Then they that gladly received his word were baptized:
        and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.
The Jews who murdered Jesus and those concenting were added to THEM only by baptism: they were hated and despised by the Jews who were NOT ha half-way house in order to make Christians part of the people of God.
Acts 2:46 And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple,  [never IN any holy area]
        and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart,
Acts 2:47 Praising God, and having favour with all the people.
        And the Lord added to the church daily such as [were being]  saved.
No one who was saved called themselves Messianic Jews.  All people were added to the EKKLESIA only by request by being baptized.
g1577. ejkklhsi÷a ekklesia, a calling out, i.e. (concretely) a popular meeting, especially a religious congregation

John 3:3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
John 18:36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.
Acts 8:12 But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women.

Col. 1:13 Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son:
Eph. 5:23 For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body.
Col. 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.
Acts 2:47 Praising God, and having favour with all the people. And the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved.

Jesus calls individual branches and not whole trees, tribes or nations.  The Messianic Jews cannot be the blood of Christ which reconciles all races.  The prophesied tiny remnant would be equal with the Gentiles and not a SUPERIOR RACE.  Paul said that the Jews in Corinth could not READ the Old Testament nor HEAR it when it was READ on the REST DAYS.  2 Corinthians 3 They would not be able to read the Old Testament much less be scholars superior to Jesus or the Apostles until they TURNED TO CHRIST.  That means to be CONVERTED or restored to the old Abrahamic Covenant: return to their origins: Paul had made that clear in Galatians 3 where we become sons of God and Abraham.

Here is the eternal destructiveness of a few, the nobility, the Scribes and Pharisees Jesus called hypocrites: speakers, singers, instrument players in Ezekiel 33.  Here is the horrow in the Prophets which Jesus left intact when He caused the LAW TO PASS AWAY at His death: the final blow they could land on the WORD of God.
Is. 63:1  Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah?
         this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength?
         I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save.
Is. 63:2 Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel,
        and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat?
Is. 63:3 I have trodden the winepress alone;
        and of the people there was none with me:
        for I will tread them in mine anger,
        and trample them in my fury;
        and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments,
        and I will stain all my raiment.
Is. 63:4 For the day of vengeance is in mine heart,
        and the year of my redeemed is come.
Is. 63:5 And I looked, and there was none to help;
        and I wondered that there was none to uphold:
        therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me.
Is. 63:6 And I will tread down the people in mine anger,
        and make them drunk in my fury,
        and I will bring down their strength to the earth.
Esaias also crieth concerning Israel,
Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea,
a remnant shall be saved: Ro.9:27

Paul was a Prophet-reading Jew:

Isaiah 6:8 Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying,
        Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?
        Then said I, Here am I; send me.
Isaiah 6:9 And he said,
        Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed,
        but understand not;
        and see ye indeed, but perceive not.
Isaiah 6:10 Make the heart of this people fat,
        and make their ears heavy,
        and shut their eyes;
                 lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears,
                and understand with their heart,
                and convert, and be healed.
Neither Israel nor the rabbi ever understood the Old Testament story:
Rom. 11:7 What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for;
        but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded
Rom. 11:8 (According as it is written,
        God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see,
        and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day.
The election are sons of the only Spiritual Covenant God in Christ made to Abraham.  The Civil-Military-clergy complex did not conduct spiritual services for the "houses" or the laity who attended synagogue in their isolated communities.

Jer. 6:9 Thus saith the LORD of hosts,
        They shall throughly glean the remnant of Israel as a vine:
         turn back thine hand as a grapegatherer into the baskets.
Jeremiah 6:10 To whom shall I
speak, and give warning, that they may hear?
        behold, their ear is uncircumcised,
        and they cannot hearken:
        behold, the word of the Lord is unto them a reproach;
        they have no delight in it.

Paul wrote the same thing to the Corinthians proving that the Rabbi did not understand the Old Testament.
2Corinthians 3:14 But their minds were blinded:
         for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away
        in the reading of the old testament;
        which vail is done away in Christ.
2Corinthians 3:15 But even unto this day,
        when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart.
2Corinthians 3:16 Nevertheless when it shall turn to the Lord,
        the vail shall be taken away.
c. Philos., cause to return to the source of Being, tinas eis ta enantia kai ta prôta
       Proteros and prôtos   
            II. of Time, former, earlier, children by the first or a former marriage,
       Prosthhen in front, before, formerly, of place and of time;
                            to gennêthen phusei pros to gennêsan
Genn-aô beget, bring forth, engender, call into existence
Phuo 1 Act.:--bring forth, produce, put forth, 2. beget, engender, get understanding,
Pros in the direction of
Genn-aô beget, bring forth, engender, call into existence
2Cor. 3:17 Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
2Cor. 3:18 But we all,
        with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord,
        are changed into the same image from glory to glory,
        even as by the Spirit of the Lord.
That includes the Scribes and Pharisees Jesus called hypocrites: speakers, singers and instrument players. As well that excludes the traditions of the elders especially the Babylonian Talmud.

Paul is speaking of the Jews to whom he preached the gospel but never Judaism. Paul denies that any of the Jewish scholars
Acts 13:26 Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham,
        and whosoever among you feareth God,
        to you is the word of this salvation sent.
The Rabbi who refused to listen to Jesus because they were blind and deaf from the wilderness onward did not have the "Word (Logos) of Salvation before or after Jesus and Paul. Then and now Jewish and Christian clergy refuse to hear the Spirit OF Christ in the prophets: both rest on the Law of Moses as perverted by the Monarchy:
Acts 13:27 For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their rulers,
        because they knew him not,
        nor yet the voices of the prophets which are read every sabbath day,
        they have fulfilled them in condemning him.
Acts 13:28 And though they found no cause of death in him,
        yet desired they Pilate that he should be slain.
Acts 13:29 And when they had fulfilled all that was written of him,
        they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre.
Jesus confirmed that the Law (not the prophets) would PASS AWAY when all that spoke of Him was fulfilled. Just before Jesus died He said IT IS FINISHED.
Matt. 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets:
         I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
Matt. 5:18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass,
        one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the LAW,
        till all be fulfilled.

"It is finished" signals the end of the prophecies and the end of the Law which was for the flesh and not spirit.

Luke 24:44 And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you,
        while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled,
        which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets,
        and in the psalms, concerning me.
That means that the Law of Moses imposed because of transgression and devoted to the worship of thestarry host was removed from the backs of the Jews and the Gentiles they robbed and killed in the name of the Law.

You can understand why the Jews murdered Paul as they had Jesus and Stephen who told them that God did not command the temple.

The branches were INDIVIDUAL JEWS who were cut off when the Law was put down and the did not turn to Jesus: turn or convert or repent means that you reverse directions and you cannot being any of the old ROAD with you.  Here is where the branches snapped off.

Acts 13:46 Then Paul and Barnabas waxed bold, and said,
        It was necessary that the WORD of God should first have been spoken to you:
        but seeing ye put it from you,
        and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life,
        lo, we turn to the Gentiles.
Rom. 11:17 And if SOME of the branches be broken off, and thou,
        being a wild olive tree, wert graffed in among them,
        and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree;
Rom. 11:23 And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief,
        shall be graffed in: for God is able to graff them in again.
G570. apaistia, ap-is-tee´-ah; from 571; faithlessness, i.e. (negatively) disbelief (lack of Christian faith), or (positively) unfaithfulness (disobedience): — unbelief.
Rom. 11:25 For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery,
        lest ye should be wise in your own conceits;
        that blindness in part is happened to Israel,
        until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.
Rom. 11:28 As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sakes:
        but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers’ sakes.
ALL individuals become the sons of God and Abraham when they are saved by faith: meaning baptized into Christ. There is no Jew nor Gentile: no racism or nationalism.  Jews and Messianic Jews continue the "predestination" Paul repudiated In Romans 9-11.
Rom. 3:28 Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith
the deeds of the law.
Gal. 2:16 Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of THE LAW
        but by THE FAITH of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ,
        that we might be justified by the faith OF Christ, and not by the works of the law:
        for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.
Gal. 3:11 But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God,
        it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith.
Gal. 3:24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ,
        that we might be justified by faith.

The LAW ceased to exist when it became the schoolmaster (beat to the tune of a hickory stick) was defanged.

Gal. 5:4 Christ is become of no effect unto you,
        whosoever of you are justified by the law;
ye are fallen from grace.
When Jesus began to teach and validate the prophets there was no Rabbi who ever impressed the Jews who understood that their practices did not fit their teaching in order to "eat up the widow's living."  Many of the events in the life of Jesus were acted parables: this hid the truth from the wise clergy:
Mark 6:1 And he went out from thence,
        and came into his own country; and his disciples follow him.
Mark 6:2 And when the sabbath day was come,
        he began to teach in the synagogue:

        and many hearing him were astonished,
        saying, From whence hath this man these things?
        and what wisdom is this which is given unto him,
        that even such mighty works are wrought by his hands?
Mark 6:3 Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon?
        and are not his sisters here with us?
        And they were offended at him.
Mark 6:4 But Jesus said unto them,
        A prophet is not without honour, but in his own country,
        and among his own kin, and in his own house.
Mark 6:5 And he could there do no mighty work,
        save that he laid his hands upon a few sick folk, and healed them.
Mark 6:6 And he marvelled because of their unbelief.
        And he went round about the villages, teaching.

It is obvious that what Jesus taught was not aided by the Rabbi who were considered wise teachers: they know that it was not given by any Rabbi.  The first world was destroyed by water: this is the second world created by Jesus as the Messiah: it is a spiritual kingdom devoted to the WORD which is the LIGHT which creates all things spiritual

John 1:8 He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light.
John 1:9 That was the true Light,
        which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.
John 1:10 He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.
John 1:11 He came unto his own, and his own received him not.

John 3:19 And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world,
        and men loved darkness rather than light,
         because their deeds were evil.
g4655. skotos, skot´-os; from the base of 4639; shadiness, i.e. obscurity (literally or figuratively): — darkness.
g4639. ski÷a skia, skee´-ah; apparently a primary word; “shade” or a shadow (literally or figuratively (darkness of error or an adumbration)): — shadow.

Col. 2:17 Which are a shadow of things to come;
        but the body is of Christ.

  2. reflection, image (in a bowl of oil), Sch.Il.17.755.
3. shade of one dead, phantom, Od.10.495, A.Th.992 (lyr.), S.Aj.1257; “spodon te kai skian
4. evil spirit, Hippiatr.130, PMasp.188.5  also, of one worn to a shadow, A.Eu.302; of human affairs,
John 3:11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know,
        and testify that we have seen;
        and ye receive not our witness.
John 3:12 If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not,
        how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?
John 3:13 And no MAN hath ascended up to heaven,
        but he that came down from heaven,
        even the Son of MAN which is in heaven.
John 3:14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness,
        even so must the Son of man be lifted up:
John 3:15 That whosoever believeth in him should not perish,
        but have eternal life.
John 3:16 For God so loved the world,
         that he gave his only begotten Son,
        that whosoever believeth in him should not perish,
            but have everlasting life.
John 3:17 For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world;
        but that the world through him might be saved.
John 3:18 He that believeth on him is not condemned:
        but he that believeth not is condemned already,
        because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
How bold to say that Jesus and Paul were informed by the Rabbi both before and following the removal of THE LIGHT?
John 12:34 The people answered him,
        We have heard out of the law that Christ abideth for ever:
        and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man?
John 12:35 Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you.
        Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you:
         for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth.
John 12:36 While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light.
        These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them.

John 12:46 I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in darkness.

It is obvious that Jesus nor the apostles he taught received any light from the Jewish Rabbi.

4653.  skotia, skot-ee´-ah; from 4655; dimness, obscurity (literally or figuratively): — dark(-ness).
Rabbi Joseph Shulam:  1 f. Lesson 1 by Joseph Shulam It is a common misconception both in the Jewish world and the Christian world, that the New Testament belongs to the Church and not to the Jewish people and that Jesus established a new religion, a new faith.

When we examine the Biblical material and the post Biblical material in Judaism, we see that the New Testament, it’s teaching, it’s person and it’s message, is deeply routed in the world of the first century, in the Land of Israel, and in the Jewish heritage,

        both the Biblical heritage of the Old Testament,
        and of course, the rabbinical heritage of the contemporaries
        of Jesus Christ in the first century 

Judaism defines the Civil-Military-Clergy complex who governed the WORLDY or GOYIM or nation of Israel after the elders "fired" God and demanded a human king: God knew that they wanted to worship like the Gentiles.

The godly Jews did not go to the temple as "worship center" other than the national festivals: these were ordained as military muster and none but the warrior aged males were required to attend. This was the Worship of the Starry Host on the SEVENTH day.  ALL of the SUN gods are connected with the seventh say: SATURN was defined by the ancients as the SUN.
Moloc was a Canaanite deity associated with human sacrifices. Mainly, child sacrifices. A bronze statue with the head of an ox and body of a man was erected, and infants would be placed in it to burn. Moloch may have been the Baal-Hammon worshiped in the cities of Tyre and Carthage. His name means "the lord of the altar of incense." He was usually shown as an old man with ram's horns, holding a scythe. Moloch was also thought to be the Adrammelech of Jewish legend. An idol form of the sun-god worshipped by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:31), and brought by their colonists into Samaria, Adrammelech was turned into one of the ten archdemons, who appeared in animal forms such as a peacock, mule, horse, or lion.

This worship may originally have
come from Babylonia, but the reverence of the sun under the name Baal-hamman had long been common in Palestine before Joshua and the Israelites entered the country. These sun-images were probably obelisks or pillars connected with the worship of some local Baal. The chariot and horses of the sun, mentioned (2 Kings 23:11) as having an honored place at the western entrance of the Jerusalem Temple, represented not a local but a foreign cult. In Babylonian temples,

2 Kings 23:5 And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven.

H3649 kâmâr kaw-mawr' From H3648 ; properly an ascetic (as if shrunk with self maceration), that is, an idolatrous priest (only in plural):--Chemarims, (idolatrous) priests
The synagogue prevented the godly people from attending any of the Sun Worship Centers including Jerusalem.  The only "worship" concept in the synagogue or church is to give attendance to the reading and discussion of the WORD.

The Church of Christ (the Rock) quarantined the godly Jews from the Jewish sacrificial system: God did not command king, kingdom, temple, animal slaughter, priests or Levites.  The Levites prophesied with instruments meaning that they were soothsayer-sorcerers.  No godly Jew ever went to "worship service" at the temple. The temple was the headquarters of the Civil authorities and the center of the worship of the starry host.  Stephen was murdered because he said that God did not command the temple as HOUSE.

Holy Scriptures point to the prophets inspired by the Spirit (breath) OF Christ and the prophecies concerning Messiah by Moses (not the Law) and some Psalms.  The Church of Christ (the Rock) is defined as for education-only on the REST where REST in the Greek points to SCHOOL.

Eph. 2:1 And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins;
Eph. 2:2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world,
        according to the prince of the power of the air,
        the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:

The Jews boasted of their covenant with DEATH and HELL
Hos. 2:11 I will also cause all her mirth to cease,
        her feast days,
        her new moons,
        and her sabbaths,
        and all her solemn feasts.

Col 2:15 And having spoiled principalities and powers,
he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.

Col. 2:16 Let no man therefore judge you
        in meat,
        or in drink,
        or in respect of an holyday,
        or of the new moon,
        or of the sabbath days:
Col. 2:17 Which are a shadow of things to come;
        but the body is of Christ.
Skia   2. reflection, image (in a bowl of oil), Sch.Il.17.755.
3. shade of one dead, phantom, Od.10.495, A.Th.992 (lyr.), S.Aj.1257; “spodon te kai skian
4. evil spirit, Hippiatr.130, PMasp.188.5  also, of one worn to a shadow, A.Eu.302; of human affairs,
Plat. Rep. 517d “if a man returning from divine contemplations to the petty miseries of men cuts a sorry figure2 and appears most ridiculous, if, while still blinking through the gloom, and before he has become sufficiently accustomed to the environing darkness, he is compelled in courtrooms3 or elsewhere to contend about the shadows of justice or the images4 that cast the shadows and to wrangle in debate

2 Cf. Theaet. 174 Caskhēmosunē.

Askhēm-osunē , , 2. ungracefulness, Pl.Smp.196a, R.401a; awkwardness, Id.Tht.174c; disfigurement, tou prosōpou, in playing on the flute, Arist.Pol.1341b5.

4 For agalmatōn glory, delight, honour  khōras a., of an ode, Pi.N.3.13, cf. 8.16
agalmat' agoras mere ornaments of the agora, Id.El.388, generally, = anathēma,
Any person or thing dedicated to a "god" to add glory to a sacred place is declared ANATHEMA: it cannot be redeemed and must be burned.  Jesus said that the kingdom does not come with observation meaning religious observations or operations: Paul calls the the lying wonders of those so anathemated and made delusional.  Religious observations or LITURGY offered to a Holy God who cannot be bribed or sold was cast down and burned three times in Jerusalem which John calls Sodom.

The worst part of liturgy is that by definition it is usually a yearly festival PAID FOR BY THE LITURGIST:
III. public service of the gods,hai pros tous theous l.Arist.Pol.1330a13; “hai tōn theōn therapeiai kai l.D.S.1.21, cf. UPZ17.17 (ii B.C.), PTeb.302.30 (i A.D.), etc.; the service or ministry of priests, LXX Nu.8.25, Ev.Luc.1.23.

Anethema is:  delight, ornament,molpē t' orkhēstus 3. of a slave in a temple, a. poleōs devoted to this service by the city, E.Ion310.—Cf. anathema.

Is. 1:11 To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the LORD: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats.

Latin: Vānus Ghost, emptiness, nothingness, naught, of persons, show, false, lying, deceptive, delusive, untrustworth, vainglorious, ostentatious, boastful, vain, weak, wavering.

Vanitas  B. Esp., falsity, falsehood, deception, untruth, untrustworthiness, fickleness, magice I. the magic art, magic, sorcery (post-Aug.) in proverbs of man's mortal estate, : pariter utrasque artes effloruisse, medicinam [p. 1097] dico magicenqu. Similar to Rythmice I. the art of observing rhythm
Eph. 2:11  Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh,
        who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands;


Eph. 2:16 And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross,
        having slain the enmity thereby:
Eph. 2:17 And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.
Eph. 2:18 For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.
Eph. 2:19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners,
        but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God;
Eph. 2:20 And are built upon [educated by] the foundation
        of the apostles and prophets,
        Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;

Eph. 3:5 Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men,
        as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;

2Pet. 3:2 That ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before
        by the holy prophets,
        and of the commandment of us the apostles
        of the Lord and Saviour:

Jerusalem is called Sodom, a city set on seven hills and the Mother of Harlots. That is why godly Jews were put outside the wall during the animal slaughter which God did not command.

EXCLUDED Jewish Fables 1 Timothy 4

But refuse profane and old wives fables,
        and exercise thyself rather unto godliness. 1Ti.4:7

        Not giving heed to Jewish fables
        and commandments of men,  [the Scribes, Pharisees, Rabbi Jesus called hypocrites]
        that turn from the truth. Tit.1:14

Contrary to Paul's training in cunningly devised Jewish Fables.

For we have not followed cunningly devised fables
        when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ,
        but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 2Pe.1:16


Matt. 23:4 For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne,
        and lay them on men’s shoulders;
        but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.
Matt. 23:5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men:
        they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments,
Matt. 23:6 And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues,
Matt. 23:7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.
Matt. 23:8 But be not ye called Rabbi:
        for ONE is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.
Matt. 23:9 And call no man your father upon the earth:
         for one is your Father, which is in heaven.
Matt. 23:10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ.
Matt. 23:11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.

Amos 2:10 Also I brought you up from the land of Egypt,
        and led you forty years through the wilderness,
        to possess the land of the Amorite.
Amos 2:11 And I raised up of your sons for prophets,
        and of your young men for Nazarites.
        Is it not even thus, O ye children of Israel? saith the LORD.
Amos 2:12 But ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink;
        and commanded the prophets, saying, Prophesy not.
Amos 2:13 Behold, I am pressed under you,
        as a cart is pressed that is full of sheaves.



The Covenant was made with the laity and NOT with Priests and Levites.
The Church of Christ (the Rock) is defined as a School of the Word only: this quarantined the godly Jews FROM Jerusalem which is called SODOM.

Deut. 26:5 And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God,
        A Syrian ready to perish was my father,
        and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there with a few,
        and became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous:
Deut. 26:5NIV Then you shall declare before the LORD your God: “My father was a wandering Aramean, and he went down into Egypt with a few people and lived there and became a great nation, powerful and numerous.
g761. Arammiy, ar-am-mee´; patrial from 758; an Aramite or Aramaean:—Syrian, Aramitess.
g758. Aram, arawm´; from the same as 759; the highland; Aram or Syria, and its inhabitants; also the name of the son of Shem, a grandson of Nahor, and of an Israelite:—Aram, Mesopotamia, Syria, Syrians.

Gen. 17:9 And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep MY COVENANT therefore,
        thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations.
Psa. 105:9 Which covenant he made with Abraham, and his oath unto Isaac;

The LAND covenant was conditioned on the Jews keeping the Laws of God: these laws were to protect the innocent from the nobility including priests. The Jews did not obey that covenant and they have NO claim to confiscated the property of those with more Semite blood than the defacto Egyptians or Germans or Americans with nothing Semitic but their radically changed religion.

Joe Shulam and the postmodern theologians claim that THEY have the ability to explain what Jesus and the Holy Spirit was unable to do.

The Spirit OF Messiah spoke only through the Prophets in a spiritual sense: the prophets repudiated the affliction of the Civil-Military-Clergy complex: Christ calls them Robbers and Parasites.

Acts 3:25 Ye are the children of the prophets,

        and of the covenant which God made with our fathers,
        saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed.
Acts 3:26 Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus,
        sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities.


Amos 9:7 Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me,
        O children of Israel? saith the LORD.

        Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt?
        and the Philistines from Caphtor,
        and the Syrians from Kir?
Amos 9:8 Behold, the eyes of the Lord GOD are upon the SINFUL KINGDOM
        and I will destroy it from off the face of the earth;
        saving that I will not utterly destroy the house [excluding priests and Levites] of Jacob, saith the LORD.

Amos 9:9 For, lo, I will command,
        and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations,
        like as corn is sifted in a sieve,
        yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth.


Notice the two GROUPS which is always the meaning of PREDESTINATED purpose.

And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob,
1] and to restore the preserved of Israel:
2] I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles,
3] that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth. Isa 49:6

Thus saith the Lord, the Redeemer of Israel, and his Holy One,
        to him whom
man despiseth,
        to him whom the
nation abhorreth,
        to a servant of rulers, Kings shall see and arise, princes also shall worship, because of the Lord that is faithful, 
       and the Holy One of Israel,
       and he shall
choose thee. Isa 49:7

Thus saith the Lord, In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee:
         .[1] and I will preserve thee,
         .[2] and give thee for a covenant of the people,
         .[3] to establish the earth, to cause to
                inherit the desolate heritages; Isa 49:8

The fact that the Law of Moses was IMPOSED because they violated the Sabbath Rest does not mean that the Law of Moses was commanded as a spiritual system.

Godly Jews and Gentiles were free from a Civil-Military-Clergy Complex.
God offered Israel The Book of the Covenant knowing they would reject His Grace.
They rose up to play which was the Egyptian-Babylonish profaning the Sabbath worship.
God turned the people over to the worship of the starry host: Apollon, Jupiter etc.
The Law of Moses was given because of transgression and did not regulate the spiritual life.
The godly people were separated to the local synagogues as Schools of the Word.
Therefore, the history of the Hebrew and other people oppressed but did not change the people's free from Clergy.
Messiah was sent to defang the


Gen. 49:5 Simeon and Levi are brethren;
        instruments (h3617 weapon, psaltery)
        of cruelty are in their habitations.
                 (stabbing, dig through furnace, for burning
                 Bellor fight,  carry on war,
Gen. 49:6 O my soul,
        come not thou into their secret;
        unto their assembly,
        mine honour,
        be not thou united:
                for in their anger they slew a man,
                and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.
H6951 qâhâl kaw-hawl From H6950 ; assemblage (usually concretely):—assembly, company,
 congregation, multitude.
Consilior to take counsel, to consult,
h5475 Sod h3245 session, deliberaton, secret.
h3519  Kabod the glory  or darkness of the temple
Coitus come A.  Abstr., a coming or meeting together, an assembling:
 A. A uniting, joining together, combination
Gen. 49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel:
        I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.
Divido I. To force asunder, part, separate, divide (very freq. and class.; cf.: distribuo, dispertio
 findo, scindo, dirimo, divello, separo, sejungo, segrego, secerno).


Gen. 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah,

        nor a lawgiver from between his feet,
        until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. [Gentiles]

Gen. 49:11 Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine;
        he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes:
Gen. 49:12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.

This would begin a "new world" preserved for fire.  The church was to seek and save lost spirits who were not OF the Old World.
Those souls heard the gospel message and wanted to be baptized.  This asked God to translate their spirits into the heavenly kingdom one by one. The church of Christ, like the Abrahamic period and the synagogue has the singular goal of finding and training this Little Flock.

God offered Israel The Book of The Covenant with the ten commandments as preamble. The Jews agreed to the Abrahamic Covenant but immediately fell back to the Egyptian musical and trinitarian worship.  God's justice would have left them in Egypt to self-destruct but He saved them as promised. He knew that they would REPUDIATE the Abrahamic Covenant.   As a result of profaning the people's REST day God turned them over to their wishes.  He separated the Jacob-cursed Levi tribe from the godly people who attended synagogue or School of the word.

The elders "fired" God and demanded a king like the nations: God knew that they wanted to worship like the nations. He gave them kings in His anger to carry out the captivity and death sentence.  When a tiny remnant returned from captivity the sacrificial system was effectively dead and the ESAUITES controlled the temple. The temple was a ziggurat or high place but stood as prooof that no one could find God inside the walls or inside the HOUSE God did not command.


"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Music, p. 589).

Acts 7:41 And they made a calf in those days,
        and offered sacrifice unto the idol,
        and rejoiced in the works of their own hands.

Euphrainō , Ep. euphr-, fut. Att.155.12, Pi.I.7(6).3
II. Pass., make merry, enjoy oneself,  Xen. Sym. 7.5
ai. mēkhanēn, in the theatre, Antiph.191.15; so “epi tas mēkhanas katapheugousi theous
4. take up and bear, as a burden, “moronA.Pers.547; “athlonS.Tr.80; “algosA.R.4.65.
2. raise by words, hence, praise, extol, E.Heracl.322, etc.; ai. logō to exaggerate, D.21.71.
mēkha^n-ē  “panta sophismata kai pasas m. epepoiēkee es autous DareiosHdt. 3.152; mēkhanais Dios by the arts of Zeus, [Jupiter] “sophistōn m.Pl.Lg.908d
Acts 7:42 Then God turned,
        and gave them up to worship the host of heaven;
        as it is written in the book of the prophets,
        O ye house of Israel,  have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices
        by the space of forty years in the wilderness?
Acts 7:43 Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch
        and the star of your god Remphan
        figures which ye made to worship them: 
        and I will carry you away beyond Babylon.

Molech . . . Chiun--"Molech" means "king" answering to Mars [BENGEL]; the Sun [JABLONSKI]; Saturn, the same as "Chiun" [MAURER]. The Septuagint translates "Chiun" into Remphan, as Stephen quotes it (Ac 7:42,43). The same god often had different names.

Molech is the Ammonite name; Chiun, the Arabic and Persian name, written also Chevan. In an Arabic lexicon Chiun means "austere"; so astrologers represented Saturn as a planet baleful in his influence. Hence the Phoenicians offered human sacrifices to him, children especially; so idolatrous Israel also. Rimmon was the Syrian name (2Ki 5:18); pronounced as Remvan, or "Remphan," just as Chiun was also Chevan. Molech had the form of a king; Chevan, or Chiun, of a star [GROTIUS]. Remphan was the Egyptian name for Saturn: hence the Septuagint translator of Amos gave the Egyptian name for the Hebrew, being an Egyptian. [HODIUS II, De Bibliorum Textibus Originalibus. 4.115].

The same as the Nile, of which the Egyptians made the star Saturn the representative [HARENBERG]. BENGEL considers Remphan or Rephan akin to Teraphim and Remphis, the name of a king of Egypt.

The Hebrews became infected with Sabeanism, the oldest form of idolatry, the worship of the Saba or starry hosts, in their stay in the Arabian desert, where Job notices its prevalence (Job 31:26); in opposition, in Am 5:27, Jehovah declares Himself "the God of hosts."

the star of your god--R. ISAAC CARO says all the astrologers represented Saturn as the star of Israel. Probably there was a figure of a star on the head of the image of the idol, to represent the planet Saturn; hence "images" correspond to "star" in the parallel clause. A star in hieroglyphics represents God (Nu 24:17). "Images" are either a Hebraism for "image," or refer to the many images made to represent Chiun.

The Star of David was originally the secret symbol of the stargazing priests, later adopted by the Israelite Kings David and Solomon and subsequently by the Hebrew people as a whole.

David rebuked the prophets and got his messages from "god" through Gad a star-gazer.

27. beyond Damascus--In Ac 7:43 it is "beyond Babylon," which includes beyond Damascus. In Amos time, Damascus was the object of Israel's fear because of the Syrian wars. Babylon was not yet named as the place of their captivity.

Stephen supplies this name. Their place of exile was in fact, as he states, "beyond Babylon," in Halah and Habor by the river Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes (2Ki 17:6; compare here Am 1:5 4:3 6:14). The road to Assyria lay through "Damascus." It is therefore specified, that not merely shall they be carried captives to Damascus, as they had been by Syrian kings (2Ki 10:32,33 13:7),

        but, beyond that, to a region whence a return was not so possible as from Damascus. They were led captive by Satan into idolatry, therefore God caused them to go captive among idolaters. Compare 2Ki 15:29 16:9 Isa 8:4, whence it appears Tiglath-pileser attacked Israel and Damascus at the same time at Ahaz' request (Am 3:1

Hebrews 9 The New Covenant 

Heb. 9:8  The Holy Ghost this signifying,
        that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest,
        while as the first tabernacle was yet standing:

Heb 9:9
Which was a figure for the time then present,
in which were offered both
gifts and sacrifices,
that could not make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience;
Heb 9:10 Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings,
carnal ordinances,  imposed on them UNTIL the time of reformation.

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June 08 2015