Jack Cottrell Does Silence Mean Prohibition or Permission?

Does Silence Mean Prohibition or Permission?
by Jack.Cottrell.Does.Silence.Means.Permission.html (Notes) on Wednesday, October 28, 2009 at 11:11am

AN INQUIRY ABOUT MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS: “I grew up in a non-instrumental church of Christ. Now, however, I do not believe it is against God’s will to have instruments in worship.

God is perfectly able to express HIS WILL If presumed silence is divine permission to intentionally sow discord then Jesus wasted His Life putting down the Laded Burdens (arousal songs) and Burden Laders: singers and instrumentalists were NOT on the list of gifted men to teach the Word as the one-piece pattern for the ekklesia or synagogue.

But those at my home church make a good point in that instruments are not mentioned in the New Testament. I have also heard that instruments were not used in the early churches and were only introduced later. What do you think about this argument?”

MY REPLY: It is granted that the NT does not mention instruments in public worship.

We do NOT grant that statement.

Wouldn't it be legalistic to search through the New Testament for any specific mention of a musical instrument and then conclude that such presumed silence gives one permission to IMPOSE (always) instruments into the assembly?  The command is to SPEAK that which is written or READ that which is written for comfort and doctrine: edification means education.


The Bible is filled with the antithesis between the performing clergy of all religions using music as the primary tool to fool the foolish by literally changing the thinking power of the mind so that it accepts that which is false if it is presented by the "Muses" or the "Graces."

II. Antithetical Parallelism--The thought of the first line is expressed by an antithesis in the second;
or is counterbalanced by a contrast in the second. This parallelism is very common in the Book of Proverbs:

(a) The tongue of the wise adorneth knowledge,
{BUT} The mouth of the fool blurteth out folly.

Prov., xv, 2.
(b) Soundness of heart is the life of the flesh,
{BUT} Envy is the rot of the bones.
--Proverbs 14:30.

The thoughts of the righteous are right,
BUT the counsels of the wicked are deceitful. Proverbs 12:5 (NKJV)

Proverbs 15:14 The heart of him that hath understanding seeketh knowledge:
        {BUT} the mouth of fools feedeth on foolishness.
Paul makes it clear that speaking in tongues (including music) does NOT transmit knowledge.

Ephesians 5:6 Let no man deceive you with vain words:
        for because of these things cometh the wrath of God
        upon the children of disobedience.
Ephesians 5:7 Be not ye therefore partakers with them.
Ephesians 5:7 Be not ye therefore partakers with them.
Ephesians 5:8 For ye were sometimes darkness,
        BUT now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:

Ephesians 5:9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;
     [The WORD is the only TRUTH]
Ephesians 5:10 Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.
Ephesians 5:11 And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness,
         BUT rather reprove them.
Ephesians 5:12 For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.
Ephesians 5:13 BUT all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever doth make manifest is light.
Ephesians 5:14 Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.
Ephesians 5:15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,
Ephesians 5:16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

The Will of God is ASSERTIVE: He does not leave any blanks to be filled in by people who believe their inability to hear means that God endorses their planned purpose to sow massive discord.  Music from mystery MEANS to make the lambs dumb before the slaughter.

There is no "musical" as tunefulness in the whole Bible.  The MARK of people who sang and played was never pretty. No one in recorded history attributed anything but PLEASURE or entertainment to music outside of sacrificial systems.

Plat. Lach. 188d [188d] I take the speaker and his speech together, and observe how they sort and harmonize with each other. Such a man is exactly what I understand by “musical,”

he has tuned himself with the fairest harmony,
not that of a lyre or other entertaining instrument,

but has made a true concord of his own life between his words and his deeds, not in the Ionian, no, nor in the Phrygian nor in the Lydian, but simply in the Dorian mode, which is the sole Hellenic harmony. Such a man makes me rejoice [single notes]

GOD NEVER WILLED INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC FROM THE CHURCH IN THE WILDERNESS ONWARD.  That is why the Law of Silence was invented by the instrumental groups which then BECOMES the will of God.

Anyone waged as a teacher of the Word would necessarily understand the Greek context out of which Scripture speaks.  How does what was not allowed in polite society somehow become the WILL of God? Isn't that what we call SELF-WILL.  Hymns are prayers: how do we get to offer pray with singing, clapping and playing noisy instruments?

Humnos , ho, A. hymn, ode, in praise of gods or heroes (“kai ti ēn eidos ōdēs eukhai pros theous, onoma de humnoi epekalounto Pl.Lg.700b;

Plat. Laws 700b one class of song was that of prayers to the gods, which bore the name of “hymns

1 i.e., solemn chants sung to the “cithara” or lyre. “Dithyrambs” were choral odes to Dionysus; “paeans” were mostly hymns of praise to Apollo. [Abaddon, Apollyon: the name of the SERVICE of the Levites or soothsayers]

Why should we be intimidated into "fellowshiping" and paying for performances of which Apollo was the father when it was rejected by more literate and civil society?

Plat. Laws 936c There shall be no beggar in our State; and if anyone attempts to beg, and to collect a livelihood by ceaseless [making Poieo meter, hymns] prayers, the market-stewards shall expel him from the market, and the Board of city-stewards from the city, and from any other district he shall be driven across the border by the country-stewards, to the end that the land may be wholly purged of such a creature. If a slave, male or female, do any injury to another man's goods,
Epikheir-eō , (kheir) A. put one's hand to,hoi men deipnō epekheireon
III.  attempt to prove, argue dialectically, Pl.Tht.205a, Hermog.Inv.3.4; “peri tinos”  ek tinos from a topic, ib.115a26 ; “es tiD.L.4.28 ; “e. hoti; “logikōteron estin epikheirein hōde
Gignomai  to be engaged in . Ergon, Occupation. , hoi en poiēsei ginomenoi in poetry, Id.2.82; etc.; g. epi tini fall into or be in one's power, X.An.3.1.13, etc.; “epi sumphorais g.D.21.58 
Poi-ēsis , eōs, , melos , eos, to, A. fabrication, creation, production,
2. of Poetry, tōn dithurambōn p., tēs tragōdias, tōn epōn, Pherecr.145.10, Pl.Grg.502a, 502b, R. 394c: abs., art of poetry,hoi en 
-Plato. Republic [398a] “True,” he said. “If a man, then, it seems, who was capable by his cunning of assuming every kind of shape and imitating all things should arrive in our city, bringing with himself the poems which he wished to exhibit, we should fall down and worship him as a holy and wondrous and delightful creature, but should say to him that there is no man of that kind among us in our city, nor is it lawful for such a man to arise among us, and we should send him away to another city, after pouring myrrh down over his head and crowning him with fillets of wool, but we ourselves, for our souls' good, should continue to employ
-Commentary Epideik-nu_mi -nuō 2. . more freq. in Med., show off or display for oneself or what is one's own, mousikan orthan e. give a specimen of his art. of a rhetorician lecturing, Id.Phdr.235a; “polla kai kalaId.Grg.447a; of epideictic orators, Arist.Rh.1391b26; of a musician, e. “hupertheōnPl.Lg.648d.

For the past one hundred years, the majority of Churches of Christ have held to a belief that prohibits the use of solos, choruses and instruments to praise God in corporate worship settings.



From Ephraim the Syrian and Aphrahat the Persian Sage

To Ephraim pertains the high and unique distinction of having originated-or at least given its living impulse to-a new departure in sacred literature; and that, not for his own country merely, but for Christendom.

From him came, if not the first idea, at all events the first successful example,
of making song an essential constituent of public worship,
and an exponent of theological teaching;
and from him it spread and prevailed through
Eastern Churches, and affected even those of the West.

To the Hymns, on which chiefly his fame rests, the Syriac ritual in all its forms owes much of its strength and richness; and to them is largely due the place which Hymnody holds throughout the Church everywhere.

And hence it has come to pass that, in the Church everywhere, he stands as the representative Syrian Father, as the fixed epithet appended to his name attests-" Ephraim the Syrian,"-the one Syrian known and reverenced in all Christendom.

From a few lines of Proba's work can be seen the problems with this approach: little of what was created could justifiably be placed alongside the great works of the past, and since that was an implicit target the failure to meet it was embarrassing; more pressingly, such Christianisations did not appeal to the highly educated, who preferred to read the imitated originals, and did not appeal to Christians who would not otherwise have read the originals, who needed something written to their own culture and not to that of a past elite.

This kind of imitation had its brief flourishing at the time of the emperor Julian, who forbade Christians to teach pagan works, but had no lasting effect. (Kenneth Latourette, A History of Christianity, p. 760).
CHURCHES OF CHRIST--NEVER UNIONED--KNEW WHAT JOHN CALVIN KNEW AND OPPOSED.  Therefore, anyone who thinks that Scripture and common decency does on prohibit instrumental performance are simply UNWISE.

Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise,
         BUT understanding what the WILL of the Lord is. [The Word]
Ephesians 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess;
        BUT be filled with the Spirit; [The word of Christ John 6:63]

Ecstasy or madness was most commonly induced by the use of instrumental music without which no WINE seller could make a living.  God is not ignorant: if He wanted to signal a musical concept He knew that you MUST use more than one word or use dedicated compoung words.

kat-auleô , A. charm by flute-playing, metaphor., se . . -êsô phobôi I will flute to you on a ghastly flute, E.HF871 (troch.):--Pass., of persons, methuôn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute, Pl.R.561c; k. pros chelônidos psophon to be played to on the flute with lyre accompaniment, II. in Pass., [ton monochordon kanona] parechein tais aisthêsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, Ptol.Harm.2.12: metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelômenoi 

2. c. gen. loci, make a place sound with flute-playing, resound with flute-playing, nêsos katêuleito Plu.Ant.56 

Plutarch, Anthony 56 Thus, all their forces being joined together, they hoised  sail towards the ile  of Samos. and there gave themselves to feasts and solace. For as all the kings, princes, and commonalties, people, and cities, from Syria unto the marrishes Maeotides , and from the Armenians to the Illyrians, were sent unto, to send and bring all munition and warlike preparation they could:
        even so all players, minstrels, tumblers, fools, and festers,
        were commanded to assemble in the ile  of Samos.
So that, where in manner all the world in every place was full of lamentations, sighs, and tears, only in this ile  of Samos there was nothing for many days' space but singing and piping, and all the theatre full of these common players, minstrels, and singing -men. Besides all this, every city sent an ox thither to sacrifice, and kings did strive one with another who should make the noblest feasts, and give the richest gifts. So that [p. 204] every man said, "What can they do more for joy of victory, if they win the battle, when they make already such sumptuous feasts at the beginning of the war ?" 

II. in Pass., [ton monochordon kanona] parechein tais aisthêsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, Ptol.Harm.2.12: metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelômenoi k
III. c. acc. rei,
play on the flute, ta mêtrôia Duris 16 J.:--Pass., to have played to one as an accompaniment on the flute,

katapsallô A.play stringed instruments to, [sumposion]katauleinkai k. Plu.2.713e :--usu. in Pass., have music played to one, enjoy music, ib.785e; of places, resound with music, Id.Ant.56. 2. Pass., to be buried to the sound of music3. metaph., katapsalletai . . hodêmiourgos is drummed out
  • hupauleô , play on the flute in accompaniment, melo. lusiôidos 1 one who played women's characters in male attire,  

Kha^rizō [Grace] 2. gratify or indulge a humour or passion,
3. in erotic sense, grant favours to a man, Ar.Ec.629

Plat. Rep. 493d 
that it is wisdom to have learned to know the moods and the pleasures of the motley multitude in their assembly, whether about painting or music or, for that matter, politics?
        For if a man associates with these and offers and exhibits to them his poetry
        or any other product of his craft or any political. service,
        and grants the mob authority over himself more than is unavoidable,
the proverbial necessity of Diomede will compel him to give the public what it likes, but that what it likes is really good and honorable, have you ever heard an attempted proof of this that is not simply ridiculous?”

Ephesians 5:19
        How?    Speaking to yourselves
        What?   in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
        Where? singing and making melody IN your heart to the Lord;
Ephesians 5:20 Giving thanks always for all things
        unto God and the Father
        in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;


The Qahal, synagogue, ekklesia or Church of Christ (the Rock) practiced in a settled sense each REST (never means worship) day.  John Calvin defined the Restoration of The Church of Christ in terms of Numbers 10.

The Ekklesia A Church of Christ: Jesus asks "shall He find faith when He returne?" Only a tiny remnant and they will be found PREACHING the Word by READING the Word and letting people rest FROM burdensome songs or "taxes not in time of War."

It was INCLUSIVE of Rest, Reading and Rehearsing The Word.
It was EXCLUSIVE of "vocal or instrumental rejoicing" or high sounding speech.

Jesus defined the Scribes and Pharisees as hypocrites: in the Ezekiel 33 example Christ names slick speakers, singers and instrument players as the HYPOCRITES.  The professional preachers spoke form MONEY and the people listened for entertainment and neither one intended to obey Christ in the prophets.
Isaiah 29
Also, thou son of man, the children of thy people still are

talking against thee
by the walls and in the doors of the houses, and speak one to another, every one to his brother, saying,

Come, I pray you, and hear what is the word that cometh forth from the Lord. Eze 33:30 
Ye hypocrites (actors), well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying, Matt 15:7 

This people draweth nigh unto me
with their mouth,
and honoreth me with their lips;
but their heart is far from me. Matt 15:8
Stay yourselves, and wonder; cry ye out, and cry: they are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink. Is. 29:9

For the Lord hath poured out upon you the spirit
of deep sleep,
and hath closed your eyes:
the prophets and your rulers,
the seers hath he covered. Isa 29:10
My people come to you, as they usually do, and sit before you to listen to your words, but they do not put them into practice. With their mouths they express devotion but their hearts are greedy for unjust gain  Eze 33:31
Luke 16:14 And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things: and they derided him.
But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. Matt 15:9  
And he called the multitude, and said unto them, Hear, and understand:Matt 15:10
But He spoke to them in parables and they couldn't understand
And the vision of all is become unto you
as the words of a book that is sealed,
which men deliver to one that is learned, saying,
Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I cannot; for it is sealed: Isa 29:11
Indeed, to them you are nothing more 
Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man;
And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, 
   Read this, I pray thee:
  and he saith, I am not learned. Isa 29:12
than one who sings love songs with a beautiful voice and plays (make melody on) an instrument well,

Chalal (h2490) khaw-lal';.. figurative to profane (a person, place or thing),.. (from 2485) to play the flute.. defile, eat (as common things), gather the grape thereof, take inheritance, pipe, player on instruments, pollute, prostitute, slay

for they hear your words but do not put them into practice. Ez 33:32
but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man. Matt 15:11

Koinoo (g2840) koy-no'-o; from 2839 [shared by all or several]; to make (or consider) profane (cer.): - call common, defile, pollute, unclean.

Then came his disciples, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, after they heard this saying? Matt 15:12 
But he answered and said, Every plant [doctrine], which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up. Matt 15:13

God did not plant a musical instrument and they will be rooted OUT.

Wherefore the Lord said,
Forasmuch as this people draw near me
   with their mouth
and with their lips do honour me,

Is. 29:20 For the terrible one is brought to nought, and the scorner is consumed, and all that watch for iniquity are cut off:
Luwc (h3887) loots; a prim root; prop. to make mouths at, i. e. to scoff; hence (from the effort to pronounce a foreign language) to interpret, or (gen.) intercede: - ambassador, have in derision, interpreter, make a mock, mocker, scorn
When all this comes true--and it surely will--then they will know that a prophet has been among them." Eze 33:33  Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind.
And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch. [pit] Matt 15:14
     Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols:the worm is spread under thee, and the maggots cover thee. Isaiah 14:11

Isaiah 14:15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.

but have removed their heart far from me,

and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men: Isa 29:13

Matt. 15:9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men

Jack Cottrell: The real issue, then, is this: what is the significance of such SILENCE? Non-instrumentalists claim that silence means prohibition. This is patently false. Silence is the essence of what we mean by “matters of opinion.” Everything comes down to this difference on how the silence is interpreted.

That's not the truth: non-instrumentalists understand that

Ephesians 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess;
        but be filled with the Spirit; [The Word of Christ John 6:63: that which has been taught[
Ephesians 5:19 Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
        singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;

Since the "psallo" word means to pluck or smite with your fingers and NEVER with a plectrum with no musical content but only a "twang" sound, non-instrumentalists understand that melody IN the heart can never be heard to say "make melody UPON a harp."  There is no recorded history which would translate that to mean make instrumental music: it EXCLUDES a wind or percussion instrument or even using a guitar pick.

Ephesians 5:20 Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;

You are to give thanks in this case to the Will of God.  Can people really give thanks that they have EXCLUDED those who understand with Christ the Rock and the Campbells that church is A School of Christ: nothing more.

How can you give thanks in the name of Jesus Christ when prophecy warned that Judas would try to musically alarm or triumph over him and fail (Psalm 41).  This is the "alarm" meaning "vocal or instrumental rejoicing" including rhetoric or doing anything beyond Resting, Reading and Rehearsing the Word of God in small groups (Exodus 18). The direct command which Jesus exampled and commanded with the ekklesia-synagogue words is:

Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time
        hath in every city
        them that preach him,
        being read in the synagogues
        every sabbath day.

Can you really submit yourself when you violate the outlawing of doubtful disputation or personal preferences [Romans 15] so you can STOP Self-pleasure which includes all of the performing arts and crafts to enable "using one mind and one mouth" to teach "that which is written for our learning." It is a fact that Paul did not say "use 10 MOUTHS to perform that which is NOT written." Since God ASSERTS He does not have to tell you how to give thinks for the MUSICAL PERFORMERS which, by definition, you worship.

Ephesians 5:21 Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.

Jack Cottrell: THE INQUIRER CONTINUES: “In reference to interpreting silence, I have heard it said that those who interpret silence to mean permission are too liberal. What do you say to that? Could you articulate a similar silence in the New Testament that Churches of Christ would take to mean permission?”

MY FURTHER REPLY: On the idea that “silence means permission” is liberalism, this is a use of the term “liberalism” that is limited to the churches of Christ and is not at all equivalent to how others use it. In Christendom as a whole, “liberalism” is any view that rejects the inspiration and authority of the Bible. That does not apply at all in the context of the argument over silence, which is solely a matter of hermeneutics, i.e., how to INTERPRET the Bible, not a matter of the NATURE of the Bible.

The Spirit OF Christ spoke only through the PROPHETS: He defined the future REST both inclusively and exclusively.  In Isaiah 58 he defines a true RESTORATION as "Not seeking your own pleasure or speaking your own words." Making up your own songs and sermons (neither commanded) would violate that direct command and presume that you have the authority to GO BEYOND that which is written.  That is the meaning of "liberalism."  Taking LIBERAL is liberalism.  Presuming that God is SILENT that gives one the right to speak what He apparently could not envision, is liberalism.

Jack Cottrell: The idea that silence means permission is the very essence of two of the traditional Restoration slogans. One of these slogans is “In essentials, unity; in opinions, liberty; in all things, love.”

That never meant LIBERTY to add or impose anything into the assembly which was dedicated to the Word Only.

The Campbells defined:
Church is A School of Christ
Worship is Reading and Musing the Word.

That is how Christ defined the Church in the wilderness.  Because people have different opinions (Romans 14), they are SILENCED unless they have something to edify or educate with.  In Romans 15 Paul outlawed musical performance by the very definition of words he picked out.  That makes everyone--even women-silent so that everyone can "come to a knowledge of the Truth."

Therefore, everyone could attend the local "societies" and be Disciples of what Christ commanded to be taught.  They did not give YOU the liberty of opinion to IMPOSE musical instruments in MY congregation and force me to abandon it.

Silence according to the Campbells prohibited anyone from adding anything which was not necessary to conduct a School of Christ. You still have 165 hours a week to have opinions and liberty.  MY liberty not to have the Words of Christ silenced does not give the selfish the liberty to IMPOSE a drum in my ears.

See 2 Peter 1 defines that which is left for our memory as NOT subject to private interpretation or further expounding: that would ake one despise the Spirit OF Christ Who guided the Apostles into all truth.  In 2 Peter 2 Peter warns about INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC CORRUPTION as the mark of those who do NOT speak that which is written.

2 Peter 2:10 But chiefly them that
walk after the FLESH in the lust of uncleanness,
and despise government. Presumptuous are they,
selfwilled, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities. [i.e. Lie TO God and ABOUT God]

2 Peter 2:11 Whereas angels, which are greater in power and might,
bring not railing accusation against them before the Lord.

Jesus warned against men wearing SOFT clothing of the Catamite ot beast.

Malakos g. of reasoning, weak, loose, logosIsoc.12.logoslian m. Arist.Metaph.1090b8 . Adv. -kôs, sullogizesthai to reason loosely
2. music to which a song is set, tune, logou te kai harmonias kai rhuthmoum
III. of persons or modes of life, soft, mild, gentle, malakōteros amphaphaasthai easier to handle, of a fallen hero, Il.22.373;
c. morally weak, lacking in self-control, Hdt.7.153 (Comp.); “antikeitai m. ho karterikosArist.EN1150a33: c. inf.,malakos karterein pros hēdonas te kai lupasPl.R.556c; “to truphōn kai m.Ar.V.1455 (lyr.); not to give in from weakness or want of spirit,   indulgences

d. = pathētikos, PHib.1.54.11 (iii B.C.), 1 Ep.Cor.6.9, Vett.Val.113.22, D.L.7.173.
e. of music, soft, effeminate, “m. harmoniaiPl.R.398e, 411a, cf. Arist.Pol.1290a28; tuned to a low pitch, opp. “suntonos, khrōma m.Cleonid.Harm.7, etc.

2 Peter 2:12 But these, as natural [instinctive] brute [Anti-Logical] brute beasts, [Zoon, Zao, Zoe]
          made to be taken and destroyed,
          speak evil of the things that they understand not; [through lack of knowledge]
          and shall utterly perish in their own corruption;

Peter warned against the to truphōn
II. luxuriousness, wantonness,tōn gunaikōn t.Ar.Lys.387; t. kai akolasia, t. kai malthakia,Pl.Grg.492c, R.590b; “ en hēmera t.2 Ep.Pet.2.13; “hupertetamenē t.Sor.2.54: personified, “Truphēs prosōpon” -Ar.Ec.973

2 Peter 2:13 And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness,\
        as they that
count it pleasure [Hedonism: sensual pleasure, LUST. Outlawed Rom 15]
        to riot in the day time.

they are and blemishes,
themselves  Rising up to PLAY
        with their
own deceivings
        while they
feast with you
13 hēdonēn hēgoumenoi tēn en hēmera truphēn, spiloi kai mōmoi entruphōntes en tais apatais autōn suneuōkhoumenoi humin
Hedone A. enjoyment, pleasure, first in Simon.71, S.l.c., Hdt.1.24, al.; prop. of sensual pleasures,

Hēgeomai , 2. c. dat. pers. et gen. rei, to be one's leader in a thing, “theios aoidos . . hēmin hēgeisthō . . orkhēthmoioOd.23.134; . tini sophias, ōdēs, Lead, command in war.

Truph-ē ,softness, delicacy, daintiness, 2 Ep.Pet.2.13; II. luxuriousness, wantonness,tōn gunaikōn t.Ar.Lys.387; t. kai akolasia, t. kai malthakia,

Paison paizô [pais] 4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16. 5. play amorously, “pros allēlousX.Smp.9.2; “meta tinosLXX Ge.26.8; of mares

[See Plato-Symposium]
Then, said Eryximachus, as you are all agreed that drinking is to be voluntary, and that there is to be no compulsion,
I move, in the next place, that the flute-girl, who has just made her appearance,
        be told to go away and play to herself, or, if she likes, to the women who are within.
        To-day let us have conversation instead; and, if you will allow me, I will tell you what sort of conversation. 

Jesus CAST OUT the flute girls and minstrels like dung to speak HIS Word.
tên...aulêtrida. It was the fashion at convivia to provide pipers, dancers, jesters, jugglers et hoc genus omne to amuse the guests. 
aul-êtris , idos, , A.flute-girl,

2Peter 2:19 While they promise them liberty,
        they themselves are the servants of corruption:
        for of whom a man is overcome,
        of the same is he brought in bondage.

Jack Cottrell: The whole point of the concept of opinions is that these are things on which the Bible is silent, and therefore are permissible.

That's absolutely False. No one in recorded history failed to grasp that a church must be Apostolic meaning that it is built upon (Educated) by the Apostles and Prophets. The NACC invented the Law of Silence and the use of tradition as they readily confess.  See H. Leo Boles

See the Historic CENI as authority to IMPOSE anything beyond the simple basics of being A School of the Word.

And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits (Old, empty wineskins), and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter (these people used musical devices and said that the gods lived inside of them): should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead? Isaiah 8:19

Jude 16 These are murmurers, complainers [blaming Fate], walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having mens persons in admiration because of advantage.

-Goês Phoronis 2, Hdt.2.33,4.105, Pl.R. 380d, Phld.Ir.p.29 W.; “g. epōdos Ludias apo khthonosE.Ba.234, cf. Hipp.1038; prob. f.l. for boēsi Hdt.7.191.
2. juggler, cheat, “deinos g. kai pharmakeus kai sophistēsPl.Smp.203d; “deinon kai g. kai sophistēn . . onomazōnD.18.276; “apistos g. ponērosId.19.109; “magos kai g.Aeschin.3.137: Comp. “goētoteros

-Sophis-tēs , ou, o(, A. master of one's craft, adept, expert, of diviners, Hdt.2.49; of poets, “meletan sophistais prosbalonPi.I.5(4).28, cf. Cratin.2; of musicians, “sophistēs . . parapaiōn khelun
with modal words added, “hoi s. tōn hierōn melōn
panu thaumaston legeis s
. Pl.R.596d

boêisi  [.loud cry, shout, in Hom. mostly battle-cry, shout, murmur of a croud, song of joy, roar of the sea, sounds of musical instruments

E.Ba.234 Chthonos, Earth goddess, nether world, the shades

Yiddeoniy (h3049) yid-deh-o-nee'; from 3045; prop. a knowing one; spec. a conjurer; (by impl.) a ghost: - wizard.

"In Isa 8:19 the
'obhoth and yidh'onim are spoken of those who 'chirp and mutter." These terms refer to the necromancers themselves who practiced ventriloquism in connection with their magical rites. In Isa 29:4 it is said 'Thy voice shall be as an 'obh, out of the ground.'... They are stamped in these passages, as in the Witch of Endor narrative, as deceivers practising a fraudulent art. By implication their power to evoke spirits with whom they were in familiar intercourse is denied." (Int Std Bible Ency., ency, p. 690)

H178  ’ôb obe From the same as H1 (Ab, Ab, Lord, Lord sayers: apparently through the idea of prattling a father’s name); properly a mumble, that is, a water skin (from its hollow sound); hence a necromancer (ventriloquist, as from a jar):—bottle, familiar spirit.

Amos and Jeremiah speak of the Marzeah connected with the wine, women and musical instruments. The Marzeah was a festival WITH and FOR the DEAD: Israel had a COVENANT WITH DEATH.

"The marzeah had an extremely long history extending at least from the 14th century B.C. through the Roman period. In the 14th century B.C., it was prominently associated with the ancient Canaanite city of Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), on the coast of Syria...

The marzeah was a pagan ritual that took the form of a social and religious association... Some scholars regard the funerary marzeah as a feast for--and with--deceased ancestors (or Rephaim, a proper name in the Bible for the inhabitants of Sheol)." (King, Biblical Archaeological Review, Aug, 1988, p. 35, 35)

"These five elements are:
(1) reclining or relaxing,
(2) eating a meat meal,
(3) singing with harp or other musical accompaniment,
(4) drinking wine and
(5) anointing oneself with oil." (King, p. 37).

To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word,
it is because there is no light in them. Isaiah 8:20

Jack Cottrell: The second slogan is “Where the Bible speaks, we speak; where the Bible is silent, we are silent.” The point of the latter half of this slogan is this: In a matter where the Bible is silent,
         we should not make up any RULES about it one way or the other.

The NACC has made up a rule, a LAW which one MUST obey  if they wish to be in fellowship: that is, you must submit your body and spirit to the assault of instrumental noise instead of PREACHING the Word by READING the Word for comfort and doctrine.  In fact, music IS noise and disturbs the quiet or REST Jesus died ot give us.

The Ekklesia as A Church of Christ or Paul's use of SYNAGOGUE demanded the silencing of all of the performing arts so that they could "use one mind and one mouth to speak that which is written for our learning."

Isa 57:1 THE righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart: and merciful men are taken away,
        none considering that the righteous is taken away from the evil to come.

Isa 57:2 He shall enter into peace: they shall rest in their beds, each one walking in his uprightness.

B. Trop., to repose, find rest, take consolation:  
II. Act., to let rest; to stop, stay, arrest turba
turba . a turmoil, hubbub, uproar, disorder, tumult, commotion, disturbance, of a crowd of people “turbae carmina,
inanium verborum,Quint. 8, 2, 17: “argumentorum,

These monuments always show the Israelites as having straight noses, typical of Anglo Saxons. Other monuments, when they show Hittites or other Canaanite people, always show a hook nosed face.

Naturally such Canaanite faces would stand out in contrast to the Anglo Saxon, Israelite faces of Jerusalem. Even today these Canaanite faces stand out in Washington, D.C., London, New York, Los Angeles and other governmental or commercial cities. These are the people that can be recognized by the mere sight of their faces. These were the people that told the entire house of Israel to get out of Jerusalem, as these Canaanites were taking the land for themselves.

These infiltrating Canaanites weren't part of Yahweh's own vine, for they never were any part of true Israel. They had secured positions of wealth and power in Israel and Judah. They were corrupting the nation so that it was no longer bearing the sort of fruit, which Yahweh expected from His vine.

See Isaiah 5.

These Canaanite infiltrators are also the same people against whom Yahweh spoke in Isaiah 57:3-4. In the Hebrew He calls these Canaanites, "children of inborn transgression, and a false seed."

Isa 57:3 But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer and the whore.

Isa 57:4 Against whom do ye sport yourselves? against whom make ye a wide mouth, and draw out the tongue? are ye not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood,

ludo to to SPORT play at a game of some kind:Esp., to play on an instrument of music, to make or compose music or song: “ludere quae vellem calamo permisit agresti,
B. to sport, dally, wanton (cf. "amorous play," Milton, P. L. 9, 1045): “scis solere illam aetatem tali ludo ludere,Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 36
ludere opus,to imitate work, make believe work,


Anag (h6026) aw-nag'; a prim. root; to be soft or pliable, i. e. (fig.) effeminate or luxurious: - delicate (-ness), (have) delight (self), sport self.

Empaizô , fut. - mock at, mock, tini
2. euphem. in mal. part., LXXJd. 19.25.
Jdg 19:24 Behold, here is my daughter a maiden, and his concubine; them I will bring out now, and humble ye them, and do with them what seemeth good unto you: but unto this man do not so vile a thing. 

The viol or nebel is named after VILE which can be an empty bag or a harp. 

Jdg 19:25 But the men would not hearken to him: so the man took his concubine, and brought her forth unto them; and they knew her, and abused her all the night until the morning: and when the day began to spring, they let her go
Illudo to play at or with any thing, to sport with, amuse one's self with, 2. To sport or fool away a thing, i. e. to destroy or waste in sport; in mal. part., to violate, abuse
3. Pass., to be deluded, Ev.Matt.2.16, AP10.56.2 (Pall.), Vett.Val.16.14; to be defrauded, of the revenues, Cod.Just.1.34.2.
II. sport in or on, hôs nebros chloerais e. leimakos hêdonais E.Ba. 866 (lyr.); tois choroisin e. to sport in the dance, Ar.Th.975; tôi gumnasiôi Luc.Lex.5 .
Hêdonê A. enjoyment, pleasure, first in Simon.71, S.l.c., Hdt.1.24, al.; prop. of sensual pleasures,
Therefore hearken not ye to your prophets, nor to your diviners, nor to your dreamers, nor to your enchanters, nor to your sorcerers, which speak unto you, saying, Ye shall not serve the king of Babylon: Je.27:9

The speakers, singers and instrument players in Revelation 18 are called SORCERERS who Had deceived the Whole World. John says that these sorcerers will be cast alive into the lake of fire.  The Spirit OF Christ established the Prophetic Type in Isaiah 30.

Jack Cottrell: The churches of Christ have done the very opposite of this. They say in a matter where the Bible is silent, the RULE is that it should not be practiced. Thus they have SPOKEN where the Bible is silent.

Churches of Christ understood that the Campbells who understood Jesus saw church as A School of Christ: the ekklesia or synagogue is A School of the Word and vocal or instrumental rejoicing was FORBIDDEN by Christ in the wilderness: just common sense and common decency you do not impose musical performance while PRETENDING to follow the command to teach that which has been taught. Churches of Christ who as disciples go to Bible Class rather than ritualistic legalism as RELIGIOUS OBSERVATIONS understand that even in the Garden of Eden The King of Tyre was a type of Lucifer which Christ called "a singing and harp playing prostitute." Jesus did not say "thou shalt not be a singing and harp playing prostitute."  However, He had John warn about the Babylon Mother of Harlots (Revelation 17). In Chapter 18 John calls them "lusted after fruits" which agrees with what Amos called them. 

People will never get over the fact that Churches of Christ plagued by the NACC from its birth will not let OTHERS impose instruments into THEIR congregation.  Other than that, most people don't care what people do as "religious observations" to which Jesus said the Kingdom of God DOES NOT come.

I am afraid that Jack Cottrell does not understand that thins apply to A SCHOOL OF CHRIST AND HIS WORD and the utilitarian things required to keep you in our of the Snow.

Jack Cottrell: The New Testament is similarly silent about a whole host of issues other than the musical instrument, and the churches of Christ argue among themselves as to whether they should be forbidden or not. Since the Bible is silent about Sunday school, some say it is prohibited; but others say it is OK.

Those who have not abandoned their children to women from cradle to grave have Sunday School in the BIG room. If you obey the direct command to teach that which has been taught, even little children will be able to understand  the Word and understand that the leaders have RESPECT for the Wors of God.

Since the Bible is silent about Sunday school LITERATURE, some say it is prohibited; but others say it is OK.

If people use the Word as it has been delivered to us they will be DISCIPLES of Christ: if they use published literature they will assuredly hear the opinions of men trying to IMPROVE on the Word of Christ.  The OBJECT is to be Disciples of the Word. Instrumental noise assures that the Word of God will not be taught and the false words will be slipped in by musical magic.

Jack Cottrell: Since the Bible is silent about individual communion cups, some say they are prohibited; others say they are OK.

In either case they do not DESTROY the Role the instrumentalists ignore: being a School of the Word. Whether you sip out of one or many cups does not affect the purpose.  If others use one cup then Jack should not use that as a rationale to do what disciples know IS prohibited by Scripture and common decency when Jesus comes to be out Teacher.

Since the Bible is silent about non-congregational singing (solos, choirs), some say they are prohibited; others say they are OK.

The Bible is silent about any kind of singing as performance.  SINGING as an ACT was imposed in the year 373 and split the east and west churches. There is no command, example or remote inference of a church assembled for congregational singing with or without instruments. Choirs were added as LITURGY because the "common" people were not permitted to sing and did not until after the Reformation.

Rom. 15:1 We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak
        and not to please ourselves.
Rom. 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification.

If you say that instruments or choirs are NOT outlawed then you simply cannot read.

700. aresko, ar-es´-ko; probably from 142 (through the idea of exciting emotion); to be agreeable (or by implication, to seek to be so):  please.

142. airo, ah´-ee-ro; a primary root; to lift up; by implication, to take up or away; figuratively, to raise (the voice), keep in suspense (the mind), specially, to sail away (i.e. weigh anchor); by Hebraism (compare 5375) to expiate sin:  away with, bear (up), carry, lift up, loose, make to doubt, put away, remove, take (away, up).

701. arestos, ar-es-tos´; from 700; agreeable; by implication, fit: -- (things that) please(-ing), reason.


I. of pers. only, make good, make amends, spondas theois aresasthai make full drink-offerings to the gods
3. after Hom., c. dat. pers., please, satisfy, oute gar moi Polukratês êreske despozôn . . Hdt.3.142
II. of things, c. dat. pers., please,
IV IV. areskei is used impers. to express the opinion or resolution of a public body, tauta êrese sphi poieein Hdt.8.19 ; ên d' areskêi taut' Athênaiois Ar.Eq.1311 ; areskei . . einai Delphôn it is resolved that . . , SIG827D10; also of prevailing opinions; ta areskonta the dogmas of philosophers


A. pleasing, mostly in bad sense, obsequious, cringing, 
II. areskos, ho, the staff borne by pornoboskoi [brothel keeper] on the stage, 
HOMER ODYSSEY 22:[50] not so much through desire or need of the marriage, but with another purpose, which the son of Cronos did not bring to pass for him, that in the land of settled Ithaca he might himself be king, and might lie in wait for thy son and slay him. But now he lies slain, as was his due, but do thou spare the people [55] that are thine own; and we will hereafter go about the land and get thee recompense for all that has been drunk and eaten in thy halls, and will bring each man for himself in requital the worth of twenty oxen, and pay thee back in bronze and gold until thy heart be warmed; but till then no one could blame thee that thou art wroth.”  

Pasin areskô1 Ep.Cor.10.33 ; heautois Ep.Rom.15.1 :--Med., malista êreskonto hoi ap' Athêneôn pleased him most, Hdt.6.128.

1Cor. 10:33 Even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved. 

Heredotus 1.89.LXXXIX. Cyrus thought about what Croesus had said and, telling the rest to withdraw, asked Croesus what fault he saw in what was being done. "Since the gods have made me your slave," replied the Lydian, "it is right that if I have any further insight I should point it out to you. [2] The Persians being by nature violent men are poor; so if you let them seize and hold great possessions, you may expect that he who has got most will revolt against you. Therefore do this, if you like what I say. [3] Have men of your guard watch all the gates; let them take the spoil from those who are carrying it out, and say that it must be paid as a tithe to Zeus. Thus you shall not be hated by them for taking their wealth by force, and they, recognizing that you act justly, will give up the spoil willingly."

OUTLAWED Latin: Other than evil uses music has never been considered as anything other than entertainment: like eating, drinking and deep sleep.

-Placeo I. part. fut. pass.: dos placenda, Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 35 ; v. I. A. fin.) [cf. placo], to please, to be pleasing or agreeable, to be welcome, acceptable, to satisfy (class.).

B. In partic.
1. In scenic lang., of players or pieces presented, to please, find favor, give satisfaction: “primo actu placeo, Ter. Hec. prol. alt. 31: cui scenico placenti,Suet. Ner. 42; id. Galb. 12; id. Vit. 11: “populo ut placerent quas fecisset fabulas,Ter. And. prol. 3; “id. Hec. prol. alt. 12: ubi (fabulae) sunt cognitae, Placitae sunt,id. ib. 13.—
fabula,a drama, Amm. 28, 1, 4: “organa,Suet. Ner. 44: “coronae,id. ib. 53: “habitus,id. ib. 38: “gestus,Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 220: “modulatio,Quint. 11, 3, 57

-Scaenĭcus  of or belonging to the stage, scenic, dramatic, theatrical (class.).

I. Lit.: “poëtae,dramatic poets, Varr. L. L. 9, § 17 Müll.: “artifices,players, actors, Cic. Arch. 5, 10; Suet. Caes. 84: “actores,Quint. 6, 1, 26; 11, 3, 4: ludi, stage-plays, theatrical representations,

-Orgănum , i, n., = organon, I.an implement, instrument, Of musical instruments, a pipe, Quint. 11, 3, 20; 9, 4, 10; Juv. 6, 3, 80; Vulg. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12
Of hydraulic engines, an organ, water-organ: “organa hydraulica,” Of a church-organ, Cass. Expos. in Psa. 150; Aug. Enarr. in Psa. 150, n. 7.—

Gen. 4:21 And his brother’s name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. 

2 Chronicles 34:[12]  The men did the work faithfully: and the overseers of them were Jahath and Obadiah, the Levites, of the sons of Merari; and Zechariah and Meshullam, of the sons of the Kohathites, to set it forward; and [others of] the Levites, all who were skillful with instruments of music.

-Organon , to, (ergon, erdō) A.instrument, implement, tool, for making or doing a thing,
3. musical instrument, Simon.31, f.l. in A.Fr.57.1 ; ho men di' organōn ekēlei anthrōpous, of Marsyas, Pl.Smp.215c ; aneu organōn psilois logois ibid., cf. Plt.268b ; “o. polukhordaId.R.399c, al.; “met' ōdēs kai tinōn organōnPhld.Mus.p.98K.; of the pipe, Melanipp.2, Telest.1.2.

-Mŏdŭlātĭo marching to time, thythmical measure, modulation; hence, singing and playing, melody in poetry and music.
II. In partic., a rhythmical measure, modulation; hence, singing and playing, melody, in poetry and music, Quint. 9, 4, 139: “modulatione produci aut corripi (verba),id. 9, 4, 89: “modulatio pedum,id. 1, 6, 2: “scenica,id. 11, 3, 57: “vocis,melody, id. 11, 3, 59: “musica,

2. Placere sibi, to be pleased or satisfied with one's self, to flatter one's self, to pride or plume one's self:

II. Transf.: placet mihi (tibi, etc.), or simply placet, it pleases me, it seems good, right, or proper to me; it is my opinion, I am of opinion, I hold, believe, intend, purpose; and in perf., placuit, or placitum est, it is decided, resolved, determined (mihi, nobis, etc., or absol.).

A. pleasing, mostly in bad sense, obsequious, cringing,
II. areskos, ho, the staff borne by pornoboskoi [brothel keeper] on the stage, 

Arist.EN1108a28 Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 2

[12] In respect of truth then,the middle character may be called truthful, and the observance of the mean Truthfulness; pretence in the form of exaggeration is Boastfulness, and its possessor a boaster; in the form of understatement, Self-depreciation, and its possessor the self-depreciator.

[13] In respect of pleasantness and social amusement, the middle character is witty and the middle disposition Wittiness; the excess is Buffoonery and its possessor a buffoon; the deficient man may be called boorish, and his disposition Boorishness. In respect of general pleasantness in life, the man who is pleasant in the proper manner is friendly, and the observance of the mean is Friendliness; he that exceeds, if from no interested motive, is obsequious, if for his own advantage, a flatterer; he that is deficient, and unpleasant in all the affairs of life, may be called quarrelsome and surly.

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics book 4

VI. In society and the common life and intercourse of conversation and business, some men are considered to be Obsequious; these are people who complaisantly approve of everything and never raise objections, but think it a duty to avoid giving pain to those which whom they come in contact. [2] Those on the contrary who object to everything and do not care in the least what pain they cause, are called Surly or Quarrelsom


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