Instrumental Music as Worship in the Old Testament
Saying that God commanded Instrumental Music as worship is blasphemy. David changed the role of the Levites from servants to musical slave drivers: At the same time he demoted the high priestly office of Zadok: Ezekiel will say that this is the time when Israel went astray and led by the Levites.
The Holy Spirit always speaks of the INSTRUMENTS OF DAVID and never the INSTRUMENTS OF GOD.
The Black Text is from INSTRUMENTS OF MUSIC IN THE W0RSHIP by "Anon"
Anon: The fundamental principle of all true worship or service is, it must be done in obedience to God. Jesus said: "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." To change God's appointment or to worship in a way not commanded is to refuse to worship or serve him. "Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you." (Deut. 4: 2, R. V.) "Ye shall not do after all the things that we do here this day, every man whatsoever is right in his own eyes . . . What thing soever I command you, that shall ye observe to do: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it." (Deut. 12: 8-32, R. V.) "Thou shalt hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God, to keep all his commandments which I command thee this day, to do that which is right in the eyes of the Lord thy God." We are to seek to do what is right in the eyes of God and to do what he commands. neither adding to nor taking from.
The regulative principle is a Presbyterian doctrine which has been supported down through protestatent history and simply followed by the Americal Restoration Movement. Those Experiencing God to become much like Jesus have developd a Post Modern or Post Denominational set of principles. However, those who honor Christ by remaining faithful to His Word always test faith and practice based on the teachings of Jesus or the Apostles.
Anon: God gave his people judges until the days of Samuel, the prophet. "His sons walked not in his ways, but turned aside after lucre, and took bribes, and perverted judgment. Then all the elders of Israel . . . came to Samuel, . . . and said unto him, . . . Make us a king to judge us . . . And the Lord said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that l should not reign over them." (1 Sam. 8: 3-7.)
Anon: To ask a change of God's order, even when perverted by bad men to evil ends, was to reject God as their Ruler and King. God warned them of the evils the kings would bring upon them, but granted their request and permitted them to make the experiment of serving God in a human government, seeking earthly greatness while trying to serve him.
"But were it evident, which it is not, either from this (2 Chron. 29:25) or any other place in the sacred writings, that instruments of music were prescribed by Divine authority under the law, could this be adduced with any semblance of reason that they ought to be used in Christian Worship? No..." (Adam Clark, Commentary, Vol. II, PP. 690-691).
Only during the afterthought of the burnt offering of the goats for Israel as a political effort to get them to help protect Jerusalem from attack that the Levites under the king and commanders of the army made a great instrumental noise. Christ in the prophets wills ay that God commanded neither sacrifices or burnt offerings when they came out of Egypt by pure grace.
"It was only permitted to the Jews as sacrifice was, for the heaviness and grossness of their souls. God condescended to their weakness, because they were lately drawn off from idols; but now, instead of organs, we may use our own bodies to praise him withal." (Chrysostom on Psa. 149, Vol. iii, p. 634).
"The instruments were used as worship to God and to give glory and elat to the earthly kingdom. They were tolerated by God as were many other things during this period, that he did not approve. The establishment of the kingdom itself was an act of rebellion against God" (David Lipscomb, Queries and Answers, pp. 226, 227, and Gospel Advocate, 1899, pp. 376, 377).
Anon: He permitted this that they might prove the evil results of supplanting God's order with their own inventions.
It demands that every soul loyal to God shall refuse all fellowship with, and take a decided stand against, all efforts to add to or take from the appointments of God.
All that pertained to the kingdom and its earthly greatness is given to us as warning to be avoided, not as example to be followed.
Anon: In this double effort God permitted them to introduce, and tolerated, things that would promote earthly grandeur and display while seeking to do the things that he commanded.
Two accounts of this experiment are given. One of these is by the prophet Jeremiah, as is generally believed,
in the books of Samuel and Kings.
1, Jeremiah was a prophet of God. A prophet was the mouthpiece of God and spoke for him to men. He gives especially the efforts to serve the Lord and the failures through the kings.
Christ in Jeremiah 7 said that God did not command sacrifices or burnt offerings.
1A. But: The other account supposed to have been written by Ezra, the priest gives the things done to exalt and glorify the nation among other nations, and is contained in the books of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah.
2. A priest spoke to God for the people.
2A. But: Ezra wrote to excite the national pride, to arouse the people to reestablish the kingdom in its former glory after the return from the captivity of Babylon. Hosea (13: 9-11, R. V.) tells the origin and the end of the experiment: "It is thy destruction, O Israel, that thou art against me, against thy help. Where now is thy king, that he may save thee in all thy cities? and thy judges, of whom thou saidst, Give me a king and princes?
I have given thee a king in mine anger, and have taken him away
in my wrath." God gave them kings to punish them for desiring to set aside his government;
Hosea 13:9 O Israel, thou hast destroyed thyself; but in me is thine help.
Hosea 13:10 I will be thy king: where is any other that may save thee in all thy cities? and thy judges of whom thou saidst, Give me a king and princes?
Hosea 13:11 I gave thee a king in mine anger, and took him away in my wrath.
Hosea 13:12 The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up; his sin is hid.
Hosea 13:13 The sorrows of a travailing woman shall come upon him: he is an unwise son; for he should not stay long in the place of the breaking forth of children.
Hosea 13:14 I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will be thy destruction: repentance shall be hid from mine eyes.
Hosea 13:15 Though he be fruitful among his brethren, an east wind shall come, the wind [7307 Spirit] of the LORD shall come up from the wilderness, and his spring shall become dry, and his fountain shall be dried up: he shall spoil the treasure of all pleasant vessels.
Hosea 12:2 The LORD hath also a controversy with Judah, and will punish Jacob according to his ways; according to his doings will he recompense him.
Joel 3:1 For, behold, in those days, and in that time, when I shall bring again the captivity of Judah and Jerusalem,
and when the punishment through the kings drove them away from God instead of drawing them back to him, he took the kings away in his wrath and left them a prey to their enemies, without either an earthly or a heavenly king to defend them.
This whole experiment of a kingdom was a warning to all others not to change the order of God.
Nehemiah 12:27 And at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem
they sought the Levites out of all their places, to bring them to Jerusalem,
to keep the dedication with gladness, both with thanksgivings,
and with singing, with cymbals, psalteries, and with harps.
Nehemiah 12:45 And both the singers and the porters kept the ward of their God,
and the ward of the purification, according to the commandment of David, and of Solomon his son.
Nehemiah 12:46 For in the days of David and Asaph of old there were chief of the singers, and songs of praise and thanksgiving unto God.
God promised David a Tent
But, Solomon built God a house
But, God does not dwell in houses built by human hands.
To do so must bring ruin. In the history of these kings, as given by Jeremiah,not a word of approval is given of the introduction or use of instrumental music in the regular worship of God; nor is it mentioned with approval by any of the prophets,
although all of them, from Isaiah to Malachi, prophesied in the days of the kings,
when the instruments were in use.
The timbrels and dances by Miriam and the women in their rejoicing over the passage of the Red Sea are mentioned (Ex. 15: 20), when Saul met the minstrels and prophesied (1 Sam. 10:: 5-10), and when David attempted to bring up the ark from the house of Abinadab and Uzzah was slain (2 Sam. 6: 5-7).
It is mentioned as a part of the worship only in the books written by Ezra in his efforts to excite the national pride and to reestablish the kingdom in its earthly glory. When mentioned by him,
he is careful always to keep it clear that the use of instruments was ordained by David,
as distinct from the things ordained by God for his service.
When David numbered the people this brought on a plague where David turned the wrath of God upon the people rather than accept guilt: finally God gave him a place for a TENT at the well-established center of Jebusite Star worship. In Acts 7 Stehphen said BUT Solomon built God a house; BUT God does not dwell in houses built by human hands nor is He worshipped by the works of human hands.The account of its first establishment by David is given in
1 Chron. 16: 4, 5, R. V.: "He [David] appointed certain of the Levites to minister before the ark of the Lord, and to celebrate and to thank and praise the Lord, the God of Israel: Asaph the chief," and others under him. David appointed these.
But: Distinct from these were "Benaiah and Jahaziel the priests with trumpets continually, before the ark of the covenant of God."God commanded Moses to make two trumpets to be sounded by the priests. (Num. 10: 2.) "
On that day did David first ordain to give thanks unto the Lord, by the hand of Asaph and his brethren." (1 Chron. 16: 7, R. V.)
Throughout the chapter the distinction is kept up between the priests with the trumpets appointed by God
And the Levites under Asaph appointed by David to perform on the instruments of music. Verse 42, A. V., says, "with them [the priests] Heman and Jeduthun with trumpets and cymbals for those that should make a sound, and with musical instruments of God; "the Revised Version more correctly says, "with instruments for the songs of God " and instruments invented by David for the songs of God.
During the conflict with Saul (1 Kings 22) Abimelech refused to kill all of the priests
Samuel 22:19 And Nob, the city of the priests,Therefore, David radically changed the role of the Levites from being the virtual slaves of the priests and let them perform priestly services:
smote he with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and sucklings,
and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword.
Abiathar, the son of Saul's priest, Ahimelech (molek) ran to David and was made a high priests when the Kohathites demoted.
To this end a further division was made into twentyfour courses, corresponding to the same number of priestly courses.
The officers and judges, taken from the family of Kohath, served outside the sanctuary and in great part outside Jerusalem. Levites Shaff Herzog 6
1Chronicles 16:37 So he left there before the ark of the covenant of the LORD Asaph and his brethren,
to minister before the ark continually, as every day’s work required:
1Chronicles 16:38 And Obed-edom with their brethren, threescore and eight; Obed-edom also the son of Jeduthun and Hosah to be porters:
1Chronicles 16:39 And Zadok the priest, and his brethren the priests,
before the tabernacle of the LORD in the high place that was at Gibeon,
1: 1Chronicles 16:40 To offer burnt offerings unto the LORD upon the altar of the burnt offering continually morning and evening, and to do according to all that is written in the law of the LORD, which he commanded Israel;But 1A: 1Chronicles 16:41 And with them Heman and Jeduthun, and the rest that were chosen, who were expressed by name, to give thanks to the LORD, because his mercy endureth for ever;1: 1Chronicles 16:42 And with them Heman and Jeduthun with trumpets and cymbals for those that should make a sound, [h8085 to get attention]
But 1A: and with musical instruments of God. And the sons of Jeduthun were porters.
1Chronicles 16:42NET Heman and Jeduthun were in charge of the music, including the trumpets, cymbals, and the other musical [singing] instruments used in praising God. The sons of Jeduthun guarded the entrance.
1Chronicles 16:42NIV Heman and Jeduthun were responsible for the sounding of the trumpets and cymbals and for the playing of the other instruments for sacred song. The sons of Jeduthun were stationed at the gate.
1Chronicles 16:43 And all the people departed every man to his house: and David returned to bless his house.
Again, in 1 Chron. 25: 1, 2, R. V., it is said: "Moreover David and the captains of the host separated
for the service certain of the sons of Asaph, and of Heman, and of Jeduthun,
who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals:
and the number of them that did the work according to their service was:
of the sons of Asaph; Zaccur, and Joseph, and Nethaniah, and Asharelah, the sons of Asaph;
under the hand of Asaph, who prophesied after the order of the king [David]."
1Chronicles 25:1 Moreover David and the captains of the host separated to the service of the sons of Asaph,
and of Heman, and of Jeduthun,
who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals:
and the number of the workmen according to their service was:
1Chronicles 25:2 Of the sons of Asaph; Zaccur, and Joseph, and Nethaniah, and Asarelah, the sons of Asaph under the hands of Asaph, which prophesied according to the order of the king.
1Chronicles 25:3 Of Jeduthun: the sons of Jeduthun; Gedaliah, and Zeri, and Jeshaiah,
even all that were cunning, was two hundred fourscore and eight
1Chronicles 25:7 So the number of them, with their brethren that were instructed in the songs of the LORD,
even all that were cunning, was two hundred fourscore and eight.
At the consecration of the temple of Solomon, the instruments were used. (2 Chron. 5: 11-14.)
2Chronicles 5:11 And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place:
(for all the priests that were present were sanctified, and did not then wait by course:
2Chronicles 5:12 Also the Levites which were the singers, all of them of Asaph, of Heman, of Jeduthun,
with their sons and their brethren, being arrayed in white linen,
having cymbals and psalteries and harps, stood at the east end of the altar,
and with them an hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets:)
2Chronicles 5:13 It came even to pass, as the trumpeters and singers were as one,
to make one sound to be heard in praising and thanking the LORD;
and when they lifted up their voice with the trumpets and cymbals and instruments of musick,
and praised the LORD, saying, For he is good; for his mercy endureth for ever:
that then the house was filled with a cloud, even the house of the LORD;
2Chronicles 5:14 So that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud:
for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of God.
You will notice that at the great crashing sound a great HEAVINESS or darkness descended upon the temple: this put the symbolic presence of God, the mercy seat and the Word once under the mercy seat. God was not IN the temple but he CLOSED DOWN all access to the godly people.
Revelation 15:5 And after that I looked, and, behold,
the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened:
Revelation 15:6 And the seven angels came out of the temple,
having the seven plagues, clothed in pure and white linen,
and having their breasts girded with golden girdles.
Revelation 15:7 And one of the four beasts gave unto the seven angels seven golden vials
full of the wrath of God, who liveth for ever and ever.
Revelation 15:8 And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from his power;
and no man was able to enter into the temple,
till the seven plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled.
The service is described in 2 Chron. 7: 6, R. V.."And the priests stood, according to their offices;
the Levites also with instruments of music of the Lord [margin, "for the songs of the Lord"],
which David the king had made to give thanks unto the Lord."
2Chronicles 7:4 Then the king and all the people offered sacrifices before the LORD.Solomon "appointed, according to the ordinance of David his father,
2Chronicles 7:5 And king Solomon offered a sacrifice of twenty and two thousand oxen,
and an hundred and twenty thousand sheep:
so the king and all the people dedicated the house of God.
2Chronicles 7:6 And the priests waited on their offices:
the Levites also with instruments of musick of the LORD,
which David the king had made to praise the LORD,
because his mercy endureth for ever, when David praised by their ministry;
and the priests sounded trumpets before them, and all Israel stood.
the courses of the priests to their service,
and the Levites to their charges, to praise,
and to minister before the priests, as the duty of every day required." (2 Chron. 8: 14 R. V.)
2Chronicles 8:14 And he appointed,"Jehoiada appointed the offices of the house of. the Lord
according to the order of David his father, the courses of the priests to their service,
and the Levites to their charges, to praise and minister before the priests,
as the duty of every day required: the porters also by their courses at every gate:
for so had David the man of God commanded.
under the hand of the priests the Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the Lord,
to offer the burnt offerings of the Lord, as it is written in the law of Moses,
with rejoicing and with singing, according to the order of David." (2 Chron. 23: 18, R. V.)
2Chronicles 23:18 Also Jehoiada appointed the officesIn all of these examples the services commanded by God and the instrumental services commanded by David are kept distinct and in contrast.
of the house of the LORD by the hand of the priests the Levites,
whom David had distributed in the house of the LORD,
1. to offer the burnt offerings of the LORD, as it is written in the law of Moses,
1A. with rejoicing and with singing, as it was ordained by David
Hezekiah "set the Levites in the house of the Lord with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps, according to the commandment of David, and of Gad the king's seer, and Nathan the prophet: for the commandment was of the Lord by his prophets." (2 Chron. 29: 25, R. V.) While the command to use the instruments was by David, it is said that "the commandment was of the Lord by his prophets;"
but what commandment? Clearly not the instrumental service which here as elsewhere is said to be commanded by David; but if this be the correct reading, the feast of the passover, which was now observed, was the great command of God through his prophets. While this is true, there is no doubt that the Lord tolerated the instrumental service as he did the kingdom.
He did not approve the kingdom. When they asked it, he told them, "They have rejected me, that I should not reign over them," and warned them of the evil it would bring upon them.
The instrumental music was a part of the kingdom and the rejection of God; yet he tolerated it, and it was called "the kingdom of the Lord." (2 Chron. 13: 8.) The Septuagint Version, the one used by Christ, reads:
"For by the commandment of the Lord, the order was in the hand of the prophets,
and the Levites stood with the instruments of David,
and the priests with the trumpets."
The Syriac, the Arabic (two of the oldest translations), and the Vulgate agree with this. It certainly does not mean that God commanded the use of the instruments, when it is so often said that David commanded them, in contrast with the things that God commanded.
"And the Levites stood with the instruments of David,
and the priests with the trumpets . . .
And when the burnt offering began,
the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets,
together with . . . instruments of David king of Israel." (2 Chron. 29: 26, 27, R. V.)
Josiah observed the passover feast.
"And the singers the sons of Asaph were in their place,
according to the commandment of David." (2 Chron. 35: 15.)
Ezra went up to Jerusalem from Babylon to reinstate the kingdom after the captivity.
"And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the Lord,Remember, the priests with the trumpets were ordained by God through Moses;
they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets,
and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the Lord,
after the order of David king of Israel." (Ez.. 3: 10, R. V.)
the cymbals and other instruments, by David.
Nehemiah gives an account of the dedicatory services held in the days of Zerubbabel. In chapter 12: 24, R. V., he says: "
And the chiefs of the Levites . . . to praise and give thanks, according to the commandment of David the man of God, ward against ward."
Nehemiah 12:22 The Levites in the days of Eliashib, Joiada, and Johanan, and Jaddua, were recorded chief of the fathers: also the priests, to the reign of Darius the Persian.Verse 36 says: "And his brethren, . . . with the musical instruments of David the man of God."
Nehemiah 12:23 The sons of Levi, the chief of the fathers, were written in the book of the chronicles, even until the days of Johanan the son of Eliashib.
Nehemiah 12:24 And the chief of the Levites: Hashabiah, Sherebiah, and Jeshua the son of Kadmiel, with their brethren over against them,
to praise and to give thanks,
according to the commandment of David the man of God, ward over against ward.
Nehemiah 12:36 And his brethren, Shemaiah, and Azarael, Milalai, Gilalai, Maai, Nethaneel, and Judah, Hanani, with the musical instruments of David the man of God, and Ezra the scribe before them.Verse 45 says: "And they kept the ward of their God, and the ward of the purification, and so did the singers and the porters, according to the commandment of David, and of Solomon his son."
Nehemiah 12:37 And at the fountain gate, which was over against them, they went up by the stairs of the city of David, at the going up of the wall, above the house of David, even unto the water gate eastward.
Nehemiah 12:38 And the other company of them that gave thanks went over against them, and I after them, and the half of the people upon the wall, from beyond the tower of the furnaces even unto the broad wall;
Nehemiah 12:45 And both the singers and the porters kept the ward of their God, and the ward of the purification, according to the commandment of David, and of Solomon his son.
Nehemiah 12:46 For in the days of David and Asaph of old there were chief of the singers, and songs of praise and thanksgiving unto God.
These are the places in which instrumental music in the service is mentioned in the Bible, and it is always attributed to David in contrast with the things ordered by God.
No service appointed or approved by God is attributed to any man as this is to David. God tolerated it as a part of the kingdom, itself a rebellion against him as a part of the experiment to maintain a kingdom with earthly glory and to serve God at the same time.
After David invented the instruments of music, he, in the psalms, exhorted that they, with the dance, should be used to praise God.
In 1 Chron. 22: 5 David gives the spirit that prompted the kingdom and use of instrumental music: "
David said, Solomon my son is young and tender, and the house that is to be built for the Lord
must be exceeding magnifical, of fame and of glory throughout all countries:
I will therefore now make preparation for it. So David prepared abundantly before his death."
1Chronicles 22:9 Behold, a son shall be born to thee, who shall be a man of rest; and I will give him rest from all his enemies round about: for his name shall be Solomon, and I will give peace and quietness unto Israel in his days.
1Chronicles 22:10 He shall build an house for my name; and he shall be my son, and I will be his father; and I will establish throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever.
Stephen in Acts 7 says that God permitted David a TENT but Solomon built God a house But God does not live in houses built by human hands.
This service was introduced to add earthly splendor to the kingdom among the nations, not to obey God. That this earthly splendor and glory were not pleasing to God is clear. Haggai (2: 7-9, R. V.), the prophet, said of the second temple: "I will fill this house with glory, saith the Lord of hosts . . . The latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former, saith the Lord of hosts: and in this place will I give peace, saith the Lord of hosts." Jesus, the Prince of Peace, came to the latter temple, though so greatly inferior in earthly splendor to the former.
That God condemned David for introducing this service is clear from Amos 6: 1-6, R. V.: "Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, and to them that are secure in the mountain of Samaria, the notable men of the chief of the nations, to whom the house of Israel come! . . . Ye that put far away the evil day, and cause the seat of violence to come near; that lie upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couches, and eat the lambs out of the flock, and the calves out of the midst of the stall, that sing idle songs to the sound of the viol; that devise for themselves instruments of music, like David; that drink wine in bowls, and anoint themselves with the chief ointments; but they are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph."
The invention of instruments of music by David is plainly condemned and placed among sins offensive to God.
Some have strangely contended that this does not condemn the introduction of the instruments by David, but only the ribald and lascivious songs and the fleshly indulgences of these people;
but how could these evil things be said to be like David's invention of instruments if it was approved by God?
Such a comparison would be absurd.
The invention of instruments of music by David is the acknowledged evil to which other things are compared to show that they, too, are sinful. Every time it is said to be ordained or appointed by David, it is condemned by God.
"Add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar " (Prov. 30: 6)
that is, if a man claims to be a servant of God, yet adds things to the service of God which God did not ordain,
he is held by God to be a liar. "The prophet, which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not commanded him to speak, . . . even that prophet shall die."> For I spake NOT unto your fathers, nor commanded them
in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt,
concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices: Jeremiah 7:22
> But this thing commanded I them, saying,
Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people: (CENI)
and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, (CENI)
that it may be well unto you. Jeremiah 7:23
Jer 23:17 They say still unto them that despise me,Despise tthe Word of God of God and using your own words is:
The Lord hath said, Ye shall have peace;
and they say unto every one that walketh
after the imagination of his own heart,
No evil shall come upon you. "You can SOW discord and steal from the owners"
Blasphēm-eō , pf.A. “beblasphēmēka” D.18.10:—speak profanely of sacred things, “eis theous” Pl.R.381e; offer rash prayers, Id.Alc.2.149c; b. kata tinosutter imprecations against, Aeschin.1.180.2. speak ill or to the prejudice of one, slander, “peri tēs emēs diatribēs” Isoc.15.2, cf. D.l.c., ib.82; “b. kata tinos” Isoc.12.65, cf. Arist.Fr.44; “hosa eis hēmas eblasphēmēsan” D.51.3; “b. tina” Babr.71.6, Ev.Luc.23.39, etc.: abs., Phld.Lib.p.8 O.:—Pass., to have evil spoken of one, “beblasphēmēmenous” Id.Vit.p.12 J., cf. 1 Ep.Cor.10.30.3. speak impiously or irreverently of God, blaspheme, “eis ton Kurion” LXX Da.3.29(96); “eis to pneuma to hagion” Ev.Marc.3.29; eis ta theia Vett. Val.58.12; “tous theous” Id.67.20: abs., LXX 2 Ma.10.34, al., Ev.Matt.9.3.
To add or teach things as parts of the service of God that he has not commanded is a fearful sin of presumption that brings death. This explains why all the writers are so careful to keep it distinct from things ordained by God, and that it should be understood as an invention and addition of David.
lnstrumental music was brought into the temple service as a part of the effort to build up an earthly kingdom and to give earthly glory and fame to that kingdom. God tolerated it as he did the kingdom, which he warned was rebellion against him-a rejection of him, that he "should not reign over them."
This music came in to give earthly glory to the kingdom and passed away with it.
It is not mentioned in the lengthy history of the kingdom as given in the books of Samuel and Kings; nor is it mentioned by any prophet with approval, although the prophets all lived and wrote during the days of the kings.
It is mentioned only in the books of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, which are taken up largely with genealogical tables and such things as would arouse the national pride of the people and excite them to build again the temple and city of Jerusalem and reinstate the kingdom of Judah after the return from captivity in Babylon.
It was tolerated by God, as polygamy, war, slavery, and earthly kingdoms were tolerated (and while tolerated these were not accounted sin to those using them); but It bears the clear marks of the disapproval of God even in the Mosaic dispensation.
The great promise of God to man was made to Abraham: "In thee shall all families of the earth be blessed." (Gen.. 12: 3.) This promise to Abraham was based upon, and coupled with, the requirement that Abraham and his children should obey God. Abraham's faith and fidelity were often tested; and while he showed the weaknesses and infirmities incident to humanity in his failures when temptations came upon him, he maintained his loyalty to God; and in the great tests and trials that came upon him, he was faithful and true to God, and became "the friend of God" and "the father of the faithful."
But Abraham's children were not faithful; they disobeyed the Lord and transgressed his commandments.
Out of this transgression grew the covenant made at Sinai.
The law of Moses "was added because of transgressions,
till the seed should come to whom the promise was made;
and it [the law] was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator." (Gal. 3: 19.)
This covenant, embracing the law, was not a part of the original promise and covenant; but, owing to the breaking of the original covenant by the children of Abraham, this covenant was added to train and school them and to bring them to the point that they would be prepared for the fulfillment of the original covenant made with Abraham in the coming of the promised seed, in whom all the nations of the earth would be blessed.
This Mosaic law was intended to be only temporary, to last until Christ should come. Jeremiah (31: 31-34) foretold: "I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt;
which my covenant they brake, although I was a husband unto them, saith the Lord: but this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel;
After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people.
And they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the Lord: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more."
Paul leapfrogs all of the Law of Moses and proves that Christ is the fulfilment of the Abrahamic Covenant:: We are saved BY faith for (what I means is) that those who have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ and are sons of Abraham.
The Mosaic covenant was to last until the promised seed [Christ] should come. He would come and in his person fulfill all the requirements of the law, perfectly live up to its demands; then in his death he would take it out of the way and it should give place to the better covenant based on better promises, the promise that in the seed of Abraham all the nations of the earth should be blessed. The promise in the Mosaic covenant was that the fleshly family of Abraham should inherit the land of Canaan.
Much of the writings of Paul is devoted to proving that this law,
intended to bring earthly blessings to the fleshly family of Abraham,
had been taken out of the way, had been superseded and swallowed up by the better covenant,
based upon the better and eternal promise that all nations should be blessed in the family of Abraham. "
Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious; . . . which glory was to be done away: how shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious? For if the ministration of condemnation be glory, much more doth the ministration of righteousness exceed in glory . . . For if thatwhich is done away was glorious, much more that which remaineth is glorious." (2 Cor. 3: 6-11.)
One, the Old Testament, is called "the letter;" the other, "the spirit."
Literal law, without the spirit arousing the heart, none could obey; it condemned all. Its laws were written in stones.
The laws of "the ministration of the spirit" are written in the heart; they stir, excite, and direct the heart and the life.
This is why Jesus outlawed "body" worship demanded that He only sought worshipers who worshiped in spirit (mind) and in truth. Paul insisted that "singing" abandon the pagan external melody and the singing be "speaking" the revealed Words of Christ (Spirit) one to another with the "singing" being in the heart or mind.
External melody or instrumental music is legalism based on the literal law. The law, in turn was "added because of transgression." The transgression was musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. Therefore, legalism and idolatry is to try to resurrect Law-based (punishment-based) rituals.)
Much of the letter to the Galatians is taken up in teaching, illustrating, and enforcing the distinction between the two covenants. "A man is not justified by the works of the law [of Moses], but by the faith of Jesus Christ." (Gal. 2: 16.) "Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law [of Moses], or by the hearing of faith [in Jesus] ? . . . Having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?" (Gal: 3: 2, 3.)
They had started out under the ministration of the Spirit, but were disposed to turn to the law of Judaism given to the fleshly family of Abraham. Paul then shows the difference in the workings of the law of Moses and that of Christ.
One applies to the fleshly children; the other, to the spiritual children.
One is intended to secure an earthly inheritance; the other, a spiritual and eternal inheritance. "Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made." (Verse 19.)
The law of Moses was to continue in force until Christ, the promised seed, should come. "The law was our schoolmaster (The "rod" was the oriental incentive) to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
But after that faith [in Jesus] is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster [the law of Moses]" (Verses 24, 25.) In chapter 4 Paul likens those under the law to servants, or slaves; those in Christ, to sons. He speaks of them:
"These are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai [the law of Moses], which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar . . But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all [Christians]." (Verses 24-26.) " Cast out the bondwoman [the law of Moses] and her son [those under the law of Moses]:
And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. Revelation 11:8
"Hagar" or slave worship was performed at Mount Sinai when the clergy led the people back into Osiris (under the image of the bull, Apis) worship using dance and instrumental music. Music was introduced in Jerusalem when David sinned by the census and was so fearful of God that he could never return to "inquire of God again."
The Jerusalem above was where John worshiped "in the spirit" on the Lord's day. He was meditating on the Word of God which was "worship in spirit and in truth."
for the son of the bondwoman [those under the law of Moses] shall not be heir with the son of the free woman [those in Christ]. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman [under the law of Moses], but of the free [in Christ]." (Verses 30, 31.)
"Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace." (Gal. 5: 4.) To go to the Jewish law and seek justification through obeying it is to turn from Christ and fall from grace.
The use of instrumental music is always justified by appealing to David or the Psalms. However, David was a king replacing the rule of God and under a law which could not be kept and which would destroy Israel. Musical instruments never accompanied "congregational singing" as an act of worship. In fact such worship was outlawed (Numbers 10:7)
Therefore, to drag instruments into the "worship" because it has the power to drag God down or drag the "audience" in by sheep stealing is ceremonial legalism which is condemned by the rest Jesus came to replace the burden of "anxiety created by religious ceremonial."
The book of Hebrews is a √ between the two covenants, showing the superiority of the latter to the former. "He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second." (Heb. 10: 9.) "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, saith the Lord." (Verse 16.) "By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us." (Verse 20.) One is law; the other, grace. Going back to the law of Moses is falling from grace. (Gal. 5: 4.) With all of these plain declarations of the taking away the law of Moses and establishing the new covenant, the law of Christ, and with warnings against going back to the old, men claiming to believe God persist in going back to the old law, taken out of the way by the death of Christ, to learn duty, instead of coming to the new. It is singular that with this clear prophecy of Jeremiah and its fulfillment pointed out by the Spirit of God, men should not see this truth. No truth is more fully and clearly taught, illustrated, and enforced in the Bible than this.
The Book of Hebrews proves that The Law of Moses was imposed and led to an earthly sacrificial system: to destroy that God sent forth Christ into Jesus of Nazareth to let the Jews literally get a taste of sacrifician their "god" whereas they had been involved in virtual God or king-sacrifices because they had been turned over to worship the starry host: except when restrained the Levites engaged in Molech worship: offering burnt offerings of infants.
The Old Testament stands to the New Testament as an old Constitution of a State stands to a new one. A Constitution may be suited to a people at one period, but, with changed conditions, be unsuited to them in essential features at another period. When the old Constitution is superseded by a new one, all of the old Constitution that is of permanent good is brought over into the new one and such points are added as the changed condition may demand.
The law of Moses was suited to the people when it was given. These conditions changed. God superseded the Mosaic law with the law of Christ. In giving the new law, he brought all of the old law that is of permanent good over into the new law and added such other laws as are good for man. All of the old law that was left out of the new law is condemned by God as no longer good for man. That a practice was in the Jewish law and left out of the Christian service is a more specific condemnation of it than if it had not been in the old law. If in neither, it may have been passed over as indifferent; but being in one and left out of the other shows that it was condemned and rejected by God.
Instrumental music in worship, polygamy, easy divorce, burning incense, and animal sacrifice were all permitted (tolerated) in the Old Testament, but rejected from the New Testament. "Then there come to Jesus from Jerusalem Pharisees and scribes, saying, Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread. And he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God because of your tradition? For God said, Honor thy father and thy mother: and, He that speaketh evil of father or mother, let him die the death. But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, That wherewith thou mightest have been profited by me is given to God; he shall not honor his father. And ye have made void the word of God because of your tradition. Ye hypocrites, well did Isaiah prophesy of you, saying, This people honoreth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. But in vain do they worship me, teaching as their doctrines the precepts of men . . . But he answered and said, Every plant which my Heavenly Father planted not, shall be rooted up. Let them alone: they are blind guides. And if the blind guide the blind, both shall fall into a pit." (Matt. 15: 1-14, R. V.) He denounced as hypocrites those who added so harmless a practice as washing the hands as worship, while claiming to be his servants. In this he taught that any addition to his worship, however harmless and good it might seem, is sinful, and those who lead and who follow in this work will fall into the ditch of ruin. Nothing can be added by human hands without sin, and everything not ordained by God must be rooted out of the vineyard of the Lord.
Ps. 87: 7 "As well the singers as the players on instruments shall be there " is claimed to be a prophecy of what will be under Christ, and foretells instrumental music will be used; but the Revised Version translates this, "They that sing as well as they that dance shall say, All my fountains are in thee," which would nearer prove that dancing should be in the worship than instrumental music.
It is claimed that "psallo," translated "sing" in the Scriptures, carries with it the idea of instrumental accompaniment. This is not correct. Liddell and Scott's "Standard Greek-English Lexicon" defines it:
"'Psallo' to touch, feel, stir, or move by touching." It means the twanging or vibrating of a cord. Because singing is done by the twanging or vibration of the vocal cords, and is the most common form of music,
it came to be applied exclusively to singing. Just as the word "bury." Its original meaning was to cover up with anything. It is so generally applied to burying in the ground that we always understand "to bury" means to bury in the ground, unless a modifying word, such as "water," "clothing," or other substance, is mentioned, in which the thing was buried. "Baptize" and " bury" mean the same thing; but to baptize in water is so common that unless the word is modified by "spirit," "cloud," suffering," or something used to bury or baptize in, all understand, to baptize is to baptize in water.
"Psallo," unless modified by the name of an instrument, always means to sing. "Psallo" is frequently used in the Bible, and is never translated "to sing with an instrument" or "to play the instrument." When it is said that the harp or other instrument was played, the instrument is always named. This is true in all Greek literature. Bagster gives the same definition, and adds: "In the New Testament, to sing praises." Liddell and Scott say: "Late, In New Testament, to sing with instrumental accompaniment."
This means that it was never found so used in Greek literature; but in recent times persons have claimed it was so used in the New Testament just as "baptize" is claimed to mean to pour or sprinkle water upon people.
David's Praise word in the instrumental Psalms is Halal from which we get the word for LUCIFER which speaks of a light and sound show to steal people's prophecy. Hillel, Judges 12:13. -Sophocles, Antigone
 You seize the minds of just men and drag them to injustice, to their ruin. You it is who have incited this conflict of men whose flesh and blood are one.  But victory [Nike] belongs to radiant Desire swelling from the eyes of the sweet-bedded bride. Desire sits enthroned in power beside the mighty laws.  For in all this divine Aphrodite plays her irresistible game.
-Commentary  in that contest which nikai implies. We find empaizô with a dat. (1) of the object, as Her. 4.134 empaizontas hêmin, 'mocking us': (2) of the sphere, as Ar. Th. 975 choroisin empaizei, 'sports in dances.' The en of empaizei here might also be explained as (a) in the imeros, or the blephara, i.e. by their agency: or (b) 'on her victim.' But the interpretation first given appears simpler. (Cp. Vergil's absol. use of illudere, G. 1. 181, Tum variae illudant pestes.)
Both Zamar and Psallo are a WARFARE word and never a WORSHIP word.
Psallô (psao)1. to touch sharply, to pluck, pull, twitch, Aesch.; toxou neuran ps. to twang the bow-string, Eur.; belos ek keraos ps. to send a shaft twanging from the bow,
schoinos miltophurês psallomenêI phurôI. metaph. to mingle together so as to soil or defile, confuse, to be doomed to have one's hair defiled with earth, thêriôdous from a confused and savageTox-euma , atos, to, A. arrow, metaphor, of songs and words S.Ant.1085Sophocles, Antigone Teiresias There, now, are arrows for your heart, since you provoke me,  launched at you, archer-like, in my anger. They fly true--you cannot run from their burning sting. Boy, lead me home, so that he may launch his rage against younger men, and learn to keep a quieter tongue  and a better mind within his breast than he now bears
Verg. A. 12.394
Quickly to his side
came Iapyx, dear favorite and friend
of Phoebus [Abaddon, Apollyon], upon whom the god bestowed
his own wise craft and power, Iove-impelled.
The gifts of augury were given, and song,
with arrows of swift wing:
Sophocles, a native of Greece, and long professor of Greek at Harvard University, published a lexicon, the title-page of which is: "A Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (from B.C. 146 to A.D. 1100). It embraces the period of Jesus and his apostles." He enumerates the Greek writers embraced in, and bearing on, the period. In making a lexicon for that period he consulted all the writers of nearly two thousand years, embracing the New Testament and the Septuagint edition of the Old Testament.
During this period he did not find a single example of "psallo" being used to mean anything else, save to chant, to sing.
He defines "psallo" and its derivatives: "'Psallo' ; to chant, to sing; 'psalmos' psalm; 'psalmodia' psalm singing; 'psalmodas' psalmist; 'psaltarion' psalter, or collection of, songs; 'psaltes' ;a chanter, church singer; 'psaltria' ; chantress; 'psaltos' played upon the psaltery, sung; 'psaltodeo' to sing to the harp.
"Only "psaltos" carries the idea of playing on the instrument.
"Psaltodeo" is composed of two words the "psalm" and the "ode." The ode refers to lyric poetry, or poetry to be sung with the lyre. Hence the two words combined mean to sing to a harp or instrument. This shows "psallo" alone cannot refer to both the voice and the instrument. Had he found "psallo" used in a different sense during this period by an accredited writer, he would have been dishonest not to give this additional meaning. I do not believe an example of a different use of it can be found in the Greek literature of any age of the world.
Webster defines psalm, "'Psalm' is derived from the Latin word that means 'to play on a stringed instrument;'" but in giving the meaning in English no reference is made to the instrument. Webster gives these definitions:
''Psalm' a sacred song; a poetical composition for praise or worship of God. 'Psalmist' a writer or composer of sacred songs. 'psalmistry' the use of psalms in devotion. 'Psalmodic' relating to psalmody. 'Psalmodist' one who sings sacred songs. 'Psalrnodize' to practice psalmody. 'Psalmograph' a writer of psalms. 'Psalmographer' a writer of psalms, or divine songs and hymns 'Psalmography' the act of writing psalms, or sacred songs. 'Psalm singing' the act of singing psalms; psalmody."
There is not an allusion to the use of an instrument in any of the forms of the word. Words frequently lose their original meanings. The word "cancer," an eating sore, is derived from "crab," a fish, because it puts out roots like the legs of a crab. "Candidate" is from "candidus" white, pure; "prevent" meant to go before, to lead the way; "edify" meant to build a house (now it means to instruct the mind). Few words retain their original meanings.
Some claim that if they protest against it, yet work with it, they are blameless. Pilate protested against the crucifixion of Jesus, yet went with the party that crucified him. Was he guiltless? The protest is the proof of conscious guilt in participating in the wrong.
Then my faith is that it is the duty of those who believe a church sets aside the order of God to Strive to correct that wrong, to be patient and forbearing in it;
and if they fail in this, to withdraw and at once go actively to work to form a true church and observe the true service of God. If they quit work because others have gone wrong, they will die and the cause of truth will perish in their midst.
Go to work to maintain the truth of God and to induce others to accept it, and God will bless you. "I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that I have set before thee life and death, the blessing and the curse: therefore choose life, that thou mayest live, thou and thy seed: to love the Lord thy God, to obey his voice, and to cleave unto him: for he is thy life." (Deut. 30: 19, 20, R. V.)