Hell is for people who insult God's intellegince.

A CAPPELLA MUSIC by Edward Fudge

A cappella Music: Edward Fudge GracEmail: The New Testament neither requires instrumental music in worship nor forbids it. Edward Fudge has posted his GracEmail article here. The following remarks in red beg to disagree. A Cappella means "in the style of the church" where Catholics believe that the church has the right to overpower scripture. Modern churches of Christ do not sing A Cappella but "in the style of Scripture."

Edward Fudge Faith And Baptism Wine Skins But whoever believes in Jesus has remission of sins without baptism.

Edward is still fudging the Bible and history trying to remove hell

Edward Fudge No Everlasting Punishment 

Edward thinks that hell annihialates the sinner: if so, why is there so much text about God punishing the evil for EVER AND EVER? Couldn't God have been as smart as we and just said: "The Evil will die like Rover."

Edward Fudge says that sinners are cast into the lak of fire THEN they are Executed: doesn't that insult God's grace? Cast into the Lake of Fire IS THE SECOND DEATH but the Spirit says they will suffer for ever and ever: Aions and Aions.

Secondly, PERISHING is not the same as being cast into hell as Lake of Fire.
Matthew 5:29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee:
    for it is profitable for thee that
    one of thy members should perish,
    and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
Pĕr-ĕo   I. To pass away, come to nothing; to vanish, disappear, be lost:
II. To pass away, to be destroyed, to perish
1. To perish, lose one's life, die (class.): non intellego, quamobrem, si vivere honeste non possunt, perire turpiter velint;
Apollu_mi or apol-uō destroy utterly, kill, in Hom. mostly of death in battle, cease to exist, opp. gignesthai
The Fire That Consumes: the Musical Master for Abaddon is called the Fire Starter or Music Starter

Logos versus Mythos: Word versus Music Logos (modern) is rational of the word and STRAIGHT: Mythos and Sophia (postmodern) are irrational and Gender-Confused. Mythos Nomoi (traditional law)
(a) Eros is approved, and its excesses condoned, when directed towards superior youths approaching manhood.
(b) It appears to be condemned, in so far as parents forbid their boys to hold converse with “erastae.” The explanation of this ambiguous attitude must be sought in the principle laid down above, that the moral quality of an act depends upon the conditions of its performance.
GRACE is Kharizo 2. gratify or indulge a humour or passion, 3. in erotic sense, grant favours to a man,
give up as a favour by dropping a law aimed at him,
Grace Centered Magazine:  3.06.11. This forum has a Church of Christ thread dedicated to abusing those who do not deliberately reject the clear teaching of the Word and recorded history. A common lie is that the Church Fathers had nothing bad to say about the use of instruments based on Scripture. We have refuted that to prove that NO ONE used instruments in the churches but refute the Jews who did because they had been abandoned to Canaanite Baalism or the worship of the starry host.

See Jay Guin Review for the list of New Wineskins papers.
1.04.11 When people speak out of their own imagination instead of the Word as Spirit by Christ in the Prophets and Apostles, Christ calls it blasphemy.  Of Hezekiah's Plague stopping exorcism used to say that "God commanded instrumental praise and we must not be disobedient" Christ calls them BLASPHEMERS.

Those imposing musical instruments build their faith on the Levites defined by the Scribes: Jesus defined them as hypocrites and Christ in the Ezekiel 33 example named speakers, singers and instrument players.

The first two reasons assert that under the Old Testament, God did not just allow instrumental music, He commanded and blessed it. Rick offered the following passages for these contentions: 2 Chronicles 5:13-14; 7:6; 29:25-26; Psalm 33:1- 3; 92:1-3; 150:1-6.

Never mind that the godly tribes were quarantined. No singer or player went INTO or NEAR a holy thing or place on the penalty of death. Some of these patterns are separated from the last by up to 300 years.


Stand in the gate of the Lords house [courts], and proclaim there this word,
        and say, Hear the word of the Lord, all ye of Judah,
        that enter in at these gates to worship the Lord. Jeremiah 7:2

Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel,
        Amend your ways and your doings,
        and I will cause you to dwell in this place. Jeremiah 7:3 

Trust ye not in lying words, saying,
        The temple of the Lord, The temple of the Lord,
        The temple of the Lord, are these. Jeremiah 7:4

Jer. 8:8 How do ye say, We are wise, and the law of the LORD is WITH US?
        THE PEN OF THE SCRIBES IS in vain.

For I spake NOT unto your fathers, nor commanded them
        in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt,
        concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices: Jeremiah 7:22

Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on John,  

That the Pharisees puffed up unto strange boasting,
        were wont to pretend that the Divine Word was with them and in them,
        and therefore foolishly affirmed that they had advanced to marvellous wisdom, 
        the Spirit Itself will testify, 
        since Christ says by the Prophet Jeremiah unto them, 
                How do ye say, WE are wise, and the word of the Lord is with us?
                For nought to the scribes became their lying pen;
                the wise
men were ashamed, were dismayed and taken;
                what wisdom
is in them? because they rejected the word of the Lord.

For how are they not taken rejecting the Living and Hypostatic Word of God,
         receiving not the faith to Him-ward, 
         but dishonouring the Impress of God the Father,
         and refusing to behold His most true Form (so to say)
         through His God-befitting Authority and Power?


John 6:44 No man can come to me,
        except the Father which hath sent me draw him:
        and I will raise him up at the last day.
        And they shall be all taught of God.
        Every man therefore that hath heard,
        and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.

2Pet. 3:2 That ye may be mindful of the words
        which were spoken before by the HOLY PROPHETS
        and of the commandment of us the APOSTLES of the Lord and Saviour:

IT WAS THE SPIRIT OF CHRIST WHO SPOKE THROUGH THE PROPHETS AND NOT LYING SCRIBES whom He called hypocrites by naming speakers, singers and instrument players in Ezekiel 33.

    1Pet. 1:10 Of which salvation the PROPHETS have inquired and searched diligently,
            who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you:
    1Pet. 1:11 Searching what, or what manner of time
            the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify,
            when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ,
            and the glory that should follow.    

God did NOT speak through the lying pen of the Scribes who recorded the Monarchy which God had NOT commanded.

Heb. 1:1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners
        spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,
Heb. 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us BY HIS SON
        whom he hath appointed heir of all things,
        by whom also he made the worlds;
Heb. 1:3 Who being the brightness of his glory,
        and the express image of his person,
        and upholding all things by the WORD of his power,
        when he had by himself purged our sins,
        sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high

THOSE WHO DELIBERATELY SOW DISCORD BY QUOTING THE LYING PEN OF THE SCRIBES (hypocrites: speakers, singers, instrument players) are defined by the Spirit:

Jer. 23:16 Thus saith the LORD of hosts,
        Hearken not unto the words of the prophets that prophesy unto you:
        they make you vain: they speak a vision of their own heart,
        and not out of the mouth of the LORD.

Jer 23:17 They say still unto them that despise me,
        The Lord hath said, Ye shall have peace;
        and they say unto every one that walketh
        after the imagination of his own heart,
        No evil shall come upon you.   

Despise tthe Word of God of God and using your own words is:

Blasphēm-eō , pf. A. “beblasphēmēka” D.18.10:—speak profanely of sacred things, “eis theous” Pl.R.381e; offer rash prayers,

1. Because Christ as Spirit spoke ONLY through the prophets.
2. Those who use use the pattern of the Lying Pen of the Scribes, in fact despise and ignore the SPIRIT message.
3. Christ in Jeremiah defines that as blasphemy

Hebrew: H5006 nâ’ats naw-ats' A primitive root; to scorn; abhor, (give occasion to) blaspheme, contemn, despise, flourish, X great, provoke.

    Despise tthe Word of God of God and using your own words is:
Blasphēm-eō , pf.
A. beblasphēmēkaD.18.10:—speak profanely of sacred things, “eis theousPl.R.381e; offer rash prayers, Id.Alc.2.149c; b. kata tinosutter imprecations against, Aeschin.1.180.
2. speak ill or to the prejudice of one, slander,peri tēs emēs diatribēsIsoc.15.2, cf. D.l.c., ib.82; “b. kata tinosIsoc.12.65, cf. Arist.Fr.44; “hosa eis hēmas eblasphēmēsanD.51.3; “b. tinaBabr.71.6, Ev.Luc.23.39, etc.: abs., Phld.Lib.p.8 O.:—Pass., to have evil spoken of one, “beblasphēmēmenousId.Vit.p.12 J., cf. 1 Ep.Cor.10.30.
3. speak impiously or irreverently of God, blaspheme, “eis ton KurionLXX Da.3.29(96); “eis to pneuma to hagionEv.Marc.3.29; eis ta theia Vett. Val.58.12; “tous theousId.67.20: abs., LXX 2 Ma.10.34, al., Ev.Matt.9.3.
Edward Fudge ganged up with the AntiPatsPats (Anti-Patternists Patternists) in New Wineskins.  None of them grasp that the church is not a TUTU made up of lots of pieces: it is a one-piece pattern defined inclusively and exclusively as the synagogue or church in the wilderness.

Jesus warns about the WOLVES and that connects to the OLD WINESKIN religion which the Israelites practiced in Egypt and to which they were abandoned after the musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.  This patternism continued as Zeus and Dionysus worship as the abomination of desolation in the temple. They tried to get Jesus to bow: he said that as MEN they were like CHILDREN piping trying to force others to sing or lament and dance the Dionysus "initiation."

I have collected proof that the OLD WINESKIN was practiced at the Temple from which the AntiPatPats get their old patternism.  It isn't pretty but it fits the patternism of all recorded persona of religious musicians including the Levites.

The Old Wineskins Is the universal Dionysus Worship.  The School of Christ will have no room for performing artists: this is lef as a MARK.

Edward suggests: The Death of a Distinctive.  Watch out, they may have to take your vocal cords out.

If you begin with the Church in the Wilderness or Synagogue the issue is settled by Christ in Spirit:
  1. The Holy Convocation beginning with the first and seventh days of all festivals and then on each Sabbath day, the direct command was to REST, READ and REHEARSE the Word of God. Synagogue or Ekklesia was a school of the Word. It was in radical contrast to the Babylon and Israelite seventh day WORSHIP including the TITHE and work for the people. It was defined as an Academy which was OPPOSITE to the Academy of the CYNICS in the Latin Version.
  2. It was EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing which was the practice of the Cynics in the New Testament.  As the flute girls and Catamites plagued the temple and at times intruded, the Dionysiacs plagued Jerusalem and Rome and the DOGS Paul warned about were homosexuals who were shameless and identified by their howling kind of singing.
  3. This is clearly defined in a paper on the Synagogue which began in the Wilderness after the Israelites fell into musical idolatry.

Click for Edward Fudge's Baptist take on the Singular Plural argument. He teaches the Christian covenant for the guilty Jews and the Gentile Covenant of "faith only" for the rest. Updated 5/13/04

But that calls the prophets (by the Spirit of Christ) and God Himself a liar

Edward Fudge: the Core Gospel or the "bull's eye thing."

See A Cappella Worship Ministry.

"They [the Puritans] disallowed of the cathedral mode of worship; of singing their prayers, and of the antiphone or chanting of the Psalms by turns, which the ecclesiastical commissioners in King Edward the Sixth's time advised the laying aside. Nor did they approve of musical instruments, as trumpets, organs, etc., which were not in used in the church for above 1200 years after Christ" (George Giradeau, p. 134).

A Cappella Worship Leader
Aquinas, Thomas Praise Singing.
Praise Songs as Christian Voodoo
Ancient Pagan Praise Leader
Music as Brainwashing
Latter Rain, praise teams, praise singing, charismatic
Praise Worship Ploughs the Ground Hosea 10:ll
Rubel Shelly Praise and Thanksgiving
Rubel Shelly Psalm 106
See how CHARISMATIC music was born of sodomy preferably in the form of Pederasty.
See that ZOE is Eos or Helios or Aphrodite or Lucifer: the singing and harp-playing prostitute.
See how it works out when the "children and effeminate rule over you."
See more notes on a cappella.
See Edward Fudge on A Cappella

Edward Fudge GracEmail: A subscriber from the Churches of Christ writes: "I have been hearing much lately in tapes and lectureships about our 'tradition' of a cappella music.

Do you see singing
without accompaniment as a tradition,
 or as a biblical principle for public worship assemblies?"
The expression "our tradition" intends to teach the error that churches of Christ depend upon traditionalism for its rejection of instrumental music in worship. Since there have been non-instrumental churches for two thousand years and churches of Christ remained in that Biblical practice it is just wrong to claim that rejecting mechanical instruments for spiritual worship is based on traditionalism. There is NO MUSIC word used in the entire Bible about "worship." As TRADITION it was related to prostitutes, sodomites, warfare, slaughtering TYPES of Lord Jesus Christ, used as SLAVE DRIVERS to enslave even Israelites to build the temple, give glory to the EARTHLY KINGDOM and temple permitted as a CONCESSION to David who was TOO FEARFUL to ever return to Gibeon.

The SYNAGOGUE as Qahal began as the assembly or "church in the wilderness." Playing instruments and "making a joyful noise before the Lord" was OUTLAWED for the synagogue because it was the WARRIOR'S PANIC SONG. It carried the same meaning as external melody made with thousands of twanged bowstrings (zithers). See Numbers 10 and thw word ALARM. This was the same word used in prophesying of JUDAS who would aid the LEVITES in their musical TRIUMPH OVER Jesus which was not permanent. Psalm 41 translated at the Dead Sea sees Messiah warred over by musical instruments, but in the end he would use the harps of God or his own hear and mouth. The JUDAS BAG was ALWAYS attached to a flute case and it is pictured in the Greek paintings and pottery and defined as: FOR CARRYING THE MOUTHPIECES OF WIND INSTRUMENTS. The male flute players with the JUDAS BAG attached are usually naked.

Next, a cappella is not "congregational singing." Instrumental music could not be played in the Sistine Chapel in the 1700s. Therefore, castrated "males sounding female" formed choirs singing "organum" or in the style of the organ.

A Cappella does not mean "in the Bible style" or "in the synagogue style." A cappella was invented in the late 15th century. It was written for the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican which permitted no instruments. A Cappella is Italian for 'in the church style" meaning "in the Catholic church style." Contrary to singing "with one voice" or the teaching of the Bible commanded by Paul, a cappella was already polyphonic or multipart and was "sacred choral music." We have detailed the horrors of A cappella here.

"The papacy also continued the practice of creating castratos (boys castrated before puberty to keep their singing voices high-pitched) for their own entertainment, long after it had fallen in disfavor throughout Italy."

"Into this artificial world came the castrati, who had first gained a place in Italian churches for their 'angelic' voices. Castratos are said to have been the world's first superstars, because of the great sums paid to them for their singing, and scheduled engagements that took them to cities across Europe, to please their enthusiastic followers.

"How can we hear their music today, since we have no more castratos to listen to? Well, during the current renaissance in Baroque music, some castrato roles have been carefully recreated by counter-tenors also known as male altos or sopranos. Other musici parts are sung by women who use a natural alto or soprano range,

but adopt a style which attempts to make the music sound appropriately 'masculine', at least for male roles. There is much debate as to which is better--but keeping in mind the fact that most early composers wrote 'trouser' roles for women to sing, and that castratos frequently presented women's roles, especially in their youth, it would seem that gender stretching is an original part of this music, and perhaps one reason for its continuing dramatic impact."

-See More at Wikipedia

-The Castrato and English Poetics Around 1800

-"The practice reached its peak in 17th and 18th century opera. In Naples it is said that several barbershops had a sign that castration was performed there. However, this cannot be confirmed. The male heroic lead would often be written for a castrato singer (in the operas of Handel for example). When such operas are performed today, a woman (possibly cross-dressing as a man in a so-called trouser role) or a countertenor takes these roles. However, some Baroque operas with parts for castrati are so complex and difficult that they cannot be performed today."

You will notice that all of the Word of God and historical facts are turned on their heads. The use of this expression is part of the Navigating the Winds of Change to teach as a fact that the non-use of instruments has only traditionalism as it's foundation.

They get away with it because they, the same people, have fed the churches in which they have no right to exist with "Chicken Soup for the Crippled" to make an appeal to those who believe that the brightest fellow in the organization is the one who can find the dirt on the floor.

Edward Fudge GracEmail: In the Southern United States, the Churches of Christ historically sing without instrumental accompaniment in public worship. (Outside the South, "Churches of Christ" is sometimes synonymous with "Independent Christian Churches" who do use instruments.)
There are over 18,000 congregaton of The Church of Christ all around the world and North-South, East-West. No Church of Christ uses instruments.

The battle over the use of instrumental music
all took place in NORTHERN states. All division occurred in Northern States. Southern churches continued a two thousand year practice. However, rich northern cities prospering from the civil war decided to carpet bag the churches and evangelize churches to bring them under instrumental music and the denominational organization. J. H. Garrison wanted to enfold all of "christendom" within the group. Therefore, the use of law courts to confiscate non-instrumental churches was considered ethical. After all, northern theologians sent rifled guns into the South and declared that "there is more power from one of these guns than from a hundred Bibles."

In every attempt to defend instruments there is a "locked at the hip" need to define southern churches as ignorant and even racists. All churches of Christ in the South remain faithful to 2,000 of history and the Bible and do not use instruments. All who bear the name Church of Christ and who use instruments (North and South) are not "churches of Christ" but are often Disciples of Christ or independents. Instrumental churches are more numerous in the North because all of the "sectarian" battles to introduce instruments were in Northern states. Don't let anyone tell you an untruth: instruments were never an issue in the church until division was created by organizational men attempting to convert people to instruments and the restoration of the same form of institution they bled and died to escape. Before that time, musical and non-musical churches were in fellowship.

Churches of Christ sing without instruments but NOT as historical traditionalism but as a historical faithfulness to the total Bible and 2,000 years of faithfulness. A musical instrument is identified as "a machine for doing hard work mostly in making war and and creating the shock and awe of charismatic religion.  None of the Bible which is commanded for the church is metrical: you could not sing it tunfully if your life depended on it.

The Associate Presbyterians of America, and those from whom we descended in the old countries, and particularly those of Scotland and Ireland, from whom we have received our common faith, have always, and under all circumstances as a body,

opposed and rejected every human addition to God's word, God's ordinances, and God's worship.

Edward Fudge GracEmail: Other believers have also sung a cappella through the years -- including early Catholics, early protestants, and certain Presbyterians, Mennonites, Brethren and Eastern Orthodox today. Christians who think that instrumental music displeases God ought not to use it, for they cannot do so in good faith. It would be sinful for them to violate their own consciences (Rom. 14:23).
God's thoughts are not our thoughts and there is no remote hint that a Spirit God pays any attention to what mortals do in the flesh.  It isn't connected with human pleasure: Jesus meets with us to be our sole teacher when the elders teach that which has been taughts: it's just the fact that no spiritual human could even conceive of making musical noise during School of the Word.

The ACT of singing was imposed in the year 373 from the Syrian churches in order to sing the composer's own song. Before that everyone understood the clear command to use "that which is written" as the sole resource for the ekklesia, synagogue or school of the Bible.

The Catholics never engaged in "congregational singing with organ accompaniment." Therefore there is no pre Reformation use of congregational singing. The Calvinists had to recompose the Psalms (only) to make them metrical. Otherwise, there is nothing in the commanded Biblical text which can be sung in a tuneful sense.

The church never ceased while Catholicism reigned in a political sense. Among those groups there was no instrumental music. It was rejected for the same reason the Jews rejected music: without animal sacrifices in Canaan there was no legal or rational place for mechanical "noise." We note that the word "music" is not a Biblical word except in a secular or pagan sense. The Temple worship was the capitol of a "like the nations" kingdom and they worshiped like the nations and they were destroyed like the nations.

Yes, and let me count the ways (some of them). The blue links are articles which we have posted on these writers.

Some History of Instrumental music in worship 
Scholars who rejected Music
Augustine (354-430)
Psalm 149
Psalm 41
Aquinas, Thomas
Basil the Great (c. 329-379)
Beza, Theodore
Calvin, John
Campbell, Alexander
Cardinal Cajetan
Charles Spurgeon
Not Singing but Teaching
Music as the Mark
John Homily 1
Clark, Adam Methodist
The Serpent Role
Clement of Alexandria
Instrumental Music
Exhortation to Heathen
Post Flood musical idolatry
Cotton Mather
The Public Shows
Dabney, Presby.
Girardeau, John
Green, William
Gregory of Nyssa
(c. 330-c. 390)
The Making of Man
Gregory of Nazianzus
Oraton 2
Oration 5
Guess, Jack, Baptist
Ignatious defines unison to Ephesians c. 110ad
No Music in Islam
Jerome (c. 347-420)
John Knox
Justin Martyr
"Acts" of worship: no instruments
Martin Luther
McGarvey, J. W.
Smith, John
Stone, Barton W.
St. Ephraim
and on and on....

Churches which rejected or reject Music

Apostolic Christian Church
American Presbyterian Church
Baptists prior to the 19th century
Catholic church for 1250 years (The pope in 1906 outlawed most instruments)
Church of God groups
Church of Scotland
Church of the Brethren
Eastern Catholic Church
Gospel Hall
Irish Presbyterian Church
Is Music Allowed in Islam
Jews (some do not even today)
Methodist Episcopal Church
Old German Baptist Brethren
Primitive Baptists still do not
Quakers groups
Reformed (Calvinistic) church of North America
Restoration churches until the mid 1800's
Serbian Eastern Orthodox
The Established Church
Some modern Baptist churches
(Many other churches with denominational structures {Church of England etc.} made attempts to remove instruments from the worship services. Rejected by the queen).

Romans 14 does not allow you to violate God's will in the quest for unity.

Romans 14 shows a plan for unity for the assemblytime: The Orphic, Vegetarian, instrumental music background could meet with the Dionysic, meat-eating, wine-drinking, instrumental music background and Paul define a way quite identical to Ephesians 5 and Colossians 3. This would include Jews who had their own scruples. Paul's outlawing of "doubtful disputations" eleminated any personal views or diversities which were allowed in the marketplace.

WE then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves. Romans 15:1

Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification (teaching, education). Romans 15: 2
For even
Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me. Romans 15: 3

PLEASE in the synagogue sense would have the preacher READ the text and then sit down and have ox dialogued. You simply don't need a DIRECT COMMAND to have the uncommon decency to use REVERENCE and GODLY FEAR for that short period of time so that everyone can LEARN the psalms and then return home, teach them and use them for "speaking to yourself" to further teach yourself the words of CHRIST which are Spirit and Life: your musicians words ARE NOT.

MUSIC in the Bible PLEASES THE CARNAL SENSES. It FEELS good because it creates a drug high. Music knows NO OTHER FUNCTION than to entertain the mind

PLEASE IS: Aresko (g700) ares'-Jo; prob. from 142 (through the idea of EXCITING EMOTIONS)
IV. areskei is used impers. to express the opinion or resolution of a public body IV. areskei is used impers. to express the opinion or resolution of a public body

aeirō , Ep., Ion., and poet.; airō 2. ogkon arasthai to be puffed up, S.Aj. 129; “thaumaston ogkon aramenoi tou muthouPl.Plt.277b.
Plat. Stat. 277b we too, at this time, wishing to make quick progress, and also to make clear in a grand style the error of our previous course, and, moreover, fancying that the use of great illustrations was proper in the case of a king, have taken up a marvellous mass of myth and have consequently been obliged to use a greater part of it than we should. So we have made our discourse too long and after all have never made an end of the tale,

ogkos (B), o(,Id.Metaph.1085a12, 1089b14 ; also ho o. tēs phōnēs the volume of the note
 3. of style, loftiness, majesty,o. tēs lexeōsArist. Rh.1407b26 ; “ho tou poiēmatos o.Id.Po.1459b28, cf. Demetr.Eloc.36, al. : in bad sense, bombast,ho Aiskhulou o.Plu.2.79b.

Myth 2. fiction (opp. logos, historic truth), Pi.O.1.29 (pl.), N.7.23 (pl.), Pl.Phd.61b, Prt.320c, 324d, etc.

logos , o(, verbal noun of legō (B), with senses corresponding to legō (B)

Logos is the OPPOSITE of all AIDS of rhetoric, poetry, music, acting or dancing.

Pind. O. 1 But if, my heart, you wish to sing of contests, [5] look no further for any star warmer than the sun, shining by day through the lonely sky, and let us not proclaim any contest greater than Olympia. From there glorious song enfolds the wisdom of poets,1 so that they loudly sing [10] the son of Cronus, when they arrive at the rich and blessed hearth of Hieron, who wields the scepter of law in Sicily of many flocks, reaping every excellence at its peak, and is glorified [15] by the choicest music, which we men often play around his hospitable table. Come, take the Dorian lyre down from its peg, if the splendor of Pisa and of Pherenicus placed your mind under the influence of sweetest thoughts, [20] when that horse ran swiftly beside the Alpheus, not needing to be spurred on in the race, and brought victory to his master, the king of Syracuse who delights in horses. His glory shines in the settlement of fine men founded by Lydian Pelops, [25] with whom the mighty holder of the earth Poseidon fell in love, when Clotho took him out of the pure cauldron, furnished with a gleaming ivory shoulder. Yes, there are many marvels, and yet I suppose the speech of mortals beyond the true account can be deceptive, stories adorned with embroidered lies; [30] and Grace, who fashions all gentle things for men, confers esteem and often contrives to make believable the unbelievable. But the days to come are the wisest witnesses.

The School of Jesus Christ can have no opinions related to faith and worship.

Areskos [g142] A. pleasing, mostly in bad sense, obsequious, cringing, II. areskos, ho, the staff borne by pornoboskoi [brothel keeper] on the stage, Poll.4.120. Dem. 59 30

Aeschin. 3 246 For be assured, fellow citizens, it is not our wrestling halls or the schools or our system of liberal studies alone that educate the young, but far more our public proclamations. It is proclaimed in the theater that one is crowned for virtue and nobility and patriotism, a man whose life is shameful and loathsome; a younger man, at sight of that, is corrupted. A man has been punished who is a rascal and libertine

(g141) hahee-ret-ee-kos'; from the same as 140; a schismatic: - heretic [the Gr. word itself].

II. take, get into one's power, nēas ib.13.42; esp. take a city, 2.37, S.Ph.347, etc.; overpower, kill, Il.4.457, etc.; “heloimi ken ē ke haloiēn22.253:—freq. of passions, etc., come upon, seize, “kholosIl.18.322; “himeros3.446; “hupnos10.193; “lēthē2.34, etc.: c. dupl.acc., “ton d' atē phrenas heile16.805; of disease, Pl.Tht.142b.

A man that is an heretick, after the first and second admonition reject; Tit.3:10  AIRO (g142) awry; a prim. verb; to LIFT; by imp. to take up or AWAY; fig. to RAISE THE VOICE, KEEP IN SUSPENSE the MIND

Aoidê 1. art of song, autar aoidên thespesiên, spell, incantaation thing sung, song, whether of joy or sorrow, 5. = eppsdē, spell, incantation,okhēes ōkeiais . . anathrōskontes aoidaisA.R.4.42, cf. 59. Cf. ōdē. [Dissyll. in Hes.Th.48 (unless lēgousi t' aoidēs be read) and in Pi. l.c. (unless melizen be read).]

The LIKE JESUS means that He died to remove the burden defined as "creating spiritual anxiety through religious rituals."

Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Matthew 11:28

Jesus didn't tell you to COME to a church which has used PROGRAMS and PERFORMANCE to make music.

JESUS DID NOT COMMAND A CAPPELLA "MUSIC": SPEAK is defined as the opposite of poetry and music.

Romans XV.debemus autem nos firmiores inbecillitates infirmorum sustinere et non nobis placere 


Outlawed: Placeo to please, to be pleasing or agreeable, to be welcome, acceptable, to satisfy (class.). 1. In scenic lang., of players or pieces presented, to please, find favor, give satisfaction: scenico placenti

Outlawed: Scaenicus I. of or belonging to the stage, scenic, dramaticORGANA, theatrical
I. Lit.: poëtae, dramatic poets, ludi, stage-plays, theatrical representations, : fabula, a drama

Organa, modulatio Comedy. Orator
A. instrument, implement, tool, for making or doing a thing
3.musical instrument,of the pipe
Suet. Nero 44 In preparing for this expedition, his first care was to provide carriages for his musical instruments and machinery to be used upon the stage; to have the hair of the concubines he carried with him dressed in the fashion of men; and to supply them with battle-axes, and Amazonian bucklers. He summoned the city-tribes to enlist

II. composer of a poem, author, p. kômôidias Pl.Lg.935e; p. kainôn dramatôn, b. composer of music, 2. author of a speech

Vitr. 10, 1.--Of musical instruments, a pipe,. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 -Of hydraulic engines, an organ, water-organ: organa hydraulica,
Gen 4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
H8610 manipulate, figuratively to use unwarrantably:--catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, X surely, surprise, take.
H8608 taphaph to drum, that is, play (as) on the tambourine:taber, play with timbrels.
H8611 tôpheth to'-feth From the base of H8608 ; a smiting, that is, (figuratively) contempt:--tabret. MEANING HELL
Organon , to/, (ergon, erdōI. an implement, instrument, engine of any kind (mostly post-Aug.), Col. 3, 13, 12.--Of military or architectonic engines (whereas machina denotes one of a larger size and more complicated construction)

FOR DOING HARD WORK: Ergon  [Ergô] I.work, 1. in Il. mostly of deeds of war, polemêïaerga, 3. a hard piece of work, a hard task, Il.: also, a shocking deed or act,

. In partic., a rhythmical measure, modulation; hence, singing and playing, melody, in poetry and music, Quint. 9, 4, 139: modulatione produci aut corripi (verba), id. 9, 4, 89 : modulatio pedum, id. 1, 6, 2 : scenica, id. 11, 3, 57 : vocis, melody, id. 11, 3, 59 : musica, Aus. Ep. 25, 13 .

Clement of Alexandria:
"After having paid reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within [at church] what they have heard. And outside they foolishly amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quavering (feminine vibrato), occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxication, and all kinds of trash.

Saleuo (g4531) sal-yoo'-o; from 4535; to waver, i.e. agitate, rock, topple or (by impl.) destroy; fig. to disturb, incite: - move, shake (together), which can [-not] be shaken, stir up.

Salos (g4535) sal'-os; prob. from the base of 4525; a vibration, i.e. (spec.) billow: - wave.

Saino (g4525) sah'ee-no; akin to 4579: to wag (as a dog its tail fawningly), i.e. (gen.) to shake (fig. disturb): - move.

Salpigc (g4536) sal'-pinx; perh. from 4535 (through the idea of quavering or reverberation): a trumpet: - trump (- et).


Please for Edification or Education:

A.To take a thing by hearing, i. e., 1.To hear, to perceive, to observe, to learn (cf. opp. do = I give in words, i. e. I say): hoc simul accipe dictum, 2.To comprehend or understand any thing communicated 3. With the accessory idea of judging, to take a thing thus or thus, to interpret or explain

For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope. Romans 15: 4

Edification means LEARNING. Using music you shut down the learning centers and appeal directly to the emotional, pleasure centers. That is why music and sexuality have always been TWINS.

Aedificatio, I. Abstr., the act of building, a building or constructing. II. Concr., a building, a structure, edifice,

III. Figurative, building up, instructing, edification. Absolute: loquitur ad Aedificationem Ecclesiae, Vulg. 1 Cor. 14, 12 ; ib. Eph. 4, 12.

Loquor a. [Sanscr. lap-, to talk, whisper; Gr. lak-, elakon, laskô], to speak, talk, say (in the language of common life, in the tone of conversation; cf. Quint. 9, 4, 10; 11, 3, 45).

B. Act. 1. To speak out, to say, tell, talk about, mention, utter, name, declare, show, indicate or express clearly MESSENIO By my troth, young man, prithee, tell me your name, unless it's disagreable.

Ecclesia ekklêsia, an assembly of the (Greek) people.

The ekklesia in a legal sense was like a county court. They heard evidence and made legal decisions. If a flute player tried to PERFORM they would cast him out as an ignorant pervert.

The resources for the SYNAGOGUE which Paul is defining as a way to remove DIVERSITIES in the assembly as in Ehesiand and Colossians is the INSPIRED TEXT writen by the SPIRIT OF CHRIST:

For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope. Romans 15: 4

Now, even at the towers of Babylon, people understood that music was for entertainment, mind control or seduction:

Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus: Romans 15: 5

That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Romans 15: 6

Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us, to the glory of God. Romans 15: 7

The direct command is to TEACH OR PREACH, the resource was THE INSPIRED TEXT, the singing and melody were in the heart because both were SECULAR. The singers an flute-players were PROSTITUTES and were under the same CITY OFFICIALS as the cemetary and dung heap. Rhetoricians, sophists, singers, musicians and craftsmen (techne) were the SORCERERS in the Greek world and will go back into hell with the holy whore (Revelation 18). They were all PARASITES because they lived off people as performers, buffoons, (preacher jokes) without providing lasting good to the community.

There are no "music" words either in the Old or New Testament: music was pagan but teaching was God's demand.

Edward Fudge GracEmail: For many of us, however, unaccompanied singing is a tradition, not a matter of scriptural requirement.
After Israel fell into musical idolatry at Mount Sinai God turned them over to worship the starry host. Christ orgained the Qahal, synagogue or church in the wilderness. It was INCLUSIVE of rest, reading and rehearsing the Word of God: the object was to learn the Word of God.  It was EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing.  That was the pattern for the synagogue which ran parallel with the cursed sacrificial system.  You would need a direct command from Jesus Christ to abrogate the law established by Christ in Spirit for the Church for all times.

Because the direct commands and approved example of Jesus the Bible does not hint of "singing" in the sense of being tuneful.  The historic church had "singing" of NOT-Scriptural poems imposed from the Syriac churches in conflict with the West about the year 373.  So any kind of "music" in the ekklesia would be SOMEONE'S traditionalism.

Rubel Shelly
reaches the same false conclusions about "traditions." It is a fact that the total Bible is totally opposed to instruments because they dull the rational, decision making power. For 2000 years -- even in the Catholic Encyclopedia -- every student knows that instruments were rejected because the commands, examples and inferences were to teach with the Words of Christ. When instruments were imposed by the "doctors of the law" Jesus fired, it was purely as a Seeker-Friendly effort to proselyte the sheep from other's churches.

Singing is always unaccompanied singing unless the instrument is clearly defined. Paul defined one of the instruments allowed by the pre-Biblical Greek -- the human voice.

kithara the Lat. cithara (whence guitar), a kind of lyre or lute, Hhymn., Hdt., attic: --it was of triangular shape, with seven strings, Eur. Cf. ki^tha^rizô

Latin with similar definitions

parasi-tor . a-ri, v. dep. [id.] , to play the parasite, to sponge: parasitarier, Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 54 : parasitando pascere ventres suos, id. Pers. 1, 2, 3 .

Edward Fudge GracEmail: The earliest Jewish believers in Jesus continued to worship in the Temple (Acts 2:46; 3:1), where instruments were used.
Absolutely, 100% wrong!

The rule long ago was that when those not of Levi or officials heard the NOISE which is never called music they must be outside the gates.  The people met in the courts and porch to "continue in the Apostle's doctrine." They did that because that is where the potential converts were. The Apostle's doctrine never hinted at using instrumental music. The gatherins called synagogue were held in private houses.

We have defined the fall from grace because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.  God turned them over to worship the starry host and when they "fired" God and demanded a king He promised that the kings would enslave and destroy them.  Most of the prophets affirm that the Temple sacrificial system was not commanded but IMPOSED to make them like all of the other national temple-states.  Nehemiah confirms that they had been enslaved and destroyed so the imposed clergy could fleece them.  Click for the outline in our review of Terry Rush.

The sacrificial system had been dead for many centuries so that it is concluded that the Jews "had no God and had no Temple." The faithful Jews had fled rather than have the young males castrated to become the musical and sexual ministers in the Temple built by Herod and NOT by god.  However, none was so vile as to let singers, musicians or "worshipers" into the temple proper.

Justin Martyr b 110

Chapter XXII.-So Also Were Sacrifices and Oblations.

"And that you may learn that it was for the sins of your own nation, and for their idolatries and
        not because there was any necessity for such sacrifices,
        that they were likewise enjoined, listen to the manner in which He speaks of these by Amos, one of the twelve, saying:

`Woe unto you that desire the day of the Lord! to what end is this day of the Lord for you?

It is darkness and not light, as when a man flees from the face of a lion, and a bear meets him; and he goes into his house, and leans his hands against the wall, and the serpent [devil] bites [stings with tithes] him. Shall not the day of the Lord be darkness and not light, even very dark, and no brightness in it? I have hated, I have despised your feast-days, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies:

wherefore, though ye offer Me your burnt-offerings and sacrifices, I will not accept them; neither will I regard the peace-offerings of your presence.

Take thou away from Me the multitude of thy songs and psalms; I will not hear thine instruments.

BUT, let judgment be rolled down as water, and righteousness as an impassable torrent. 

Sure, your false preachers also lie about Amos. And I affirm that when you HEAR the sound of the instruments it is the sign that God is repaying His enemies for rejecting His word.  That is the ONLY way to really make the LOST OBVIOUS.

In response to Olan Hicks identical claim we have recorded the Biblical facts. Christians going into the temple and trying to "sing congregationally" while the Levites as the only temple instrument players "ministered to the priests" would have been killed instantly. Jesus was not a Levite nor from Aaron and He did not go into the holy places of the Temple.

The Jewish "congregation" had always been the clergy and civil leadership.

The "people" never worshiped by "singing with instrumental accompaniment."

If a Hezekiah claims that he will play the harp in the temple for the rest of his days you might want to understand how "little Manasseh" grew up to burn babies in the red-hot arms of Molech to the beat of instrumental music. People lost and afraid that God is going to remove his Spirit (life) is likely to fall into desperate efforts to find the lost God (Psalm 51).

This body of believers had come to Jerusalem to observe the Jewish festival. After their conversion they no longer were observant Jews or the clergy would not have been upset. They certainly were freed from making offerings at the temple. They could not participate in animal sacrifices with its music and be Christians. Therefore, these people gathered at the temple and went out from there. The word "continued" shows the nature of their new religion:

And they continued steadfastly in the apostles doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. Ac.2:42

They did not do any of these in the temple:

And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart, Acts 2:46

We have illustrated that Jesus and the Jews were not in the temple but Solomon's porch where about anyone could gather. It was not a place of worship and the Christians never "sang congregationally" by hitchhiking on the "music" of the Levites which was a great, crashing noise which signalled that you had better be flat on your face even on Solomon's porch. If Jesus and the church did that they they would have continued sacrificial worship and not the Christian assembly for instructions.

Therefore, by this argument, to use instruments by using sacrificial worship as the "proof text" actually denies the value of the sacrifice of Jesus.

When we get to the "parking lot" we are "at church." And when we are in the pews we are "at church." However, if we are temple-oriented or "high church" we will never get to the holy area where only the preacher serves. The people never worshiped where music was played over animal sacrifices. Later practices at the time of Jesus in connection with the Feast of Tabernacles was more of a pagan fertility ritual than worship.

The "temple" the Christians entered was the:

Hieron (g2411) hee-er-on'; neut of 2413; a sacred place, i.e. the entire precincts (whereas 3485 denotes the central sanctuary itself) of the Temple (at Jerus. or elsewhere): - temple.

And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomons porch. John 10:23

And as the lame man which was healed held Peter and John, all the people ran together unto them in the porch that is called Solomons, greatly wondering. Acts 3:11

And by the hands of the apostles were many signs and wonders wrought among the people; (and they were all with one accord in Solomons porch. Acts 5:12

Jesus came to replace that as the "place" where one worships 'in spirit" or in the mind rather than with sacrifices and noise:

But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple. Mt.12:6

The place where the Christians did not enter was the:

Naos (g3485) nah-os'; (to dwell); a fane, shrine, temple: - shrine, temple. Comp. 2411

The Jewish "people" never worshiped in the temple:

Edersheim points out that the "stationary men" represented the 'congregation" but that the people were shut out of the sacrificial offering:

First: As the last great gate slowly moved on its hinges, the priests, on a signal given, blew three blasts on their silver trumpets,

summoning the Levites
and the
'representatives' of the people (the 'stationary men') to their duties, and announcing to the city that the morning sacrifice was about to be offered.

Second: As the president gave the word of command, which marked that 'the time of incense had come,' '

the whole multitude of the people without' withdrew from the inner court, and fell down before the Lord, spreading their hands * in silent prayer.

Third, The temple Music was blown and songs sung. This excluded all people not of the tribe of Levi. It also excluded all women.

Fourth: This closed the morning service. [Note: only representatives of the people were present. The common Jews did not participate in this temple service]

It was immediately followed by the sacrifices and offerings which private Israelites might have to bring, and which would occasionally continue till near the time for the evening service

Conclusion: the sacrificial worship was for the secular Temple-State and not for the congregation of Israel.

Again: fulfillment in the New Covenant: The animals were burned outside the "worship center."

Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate. Hebrews 13:12

Let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach. Hebrews 13:13
For here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to come. Hebrews 13:14

By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips, giving thanks to his name. Hebrews 13:15

And Josephus warned that the musical Levites had been responsible for destroying the nation once and were intent on doing it again.

Conclusion: The Christians did not and must not now worship where the music was played

Edward Fudge GracEmail: The New Testament endorses the singing of Psalms (Eph. 5:19), which call for instruments of all sorts and kinds (Psalm 92:1-4; 150:3-5).
Psalm is a GREEK WORD. When the Greek translation was made the called the whole collection the BOOK OF PSALMS.   However, on 57 of them translates the Hebrew MIZMOR. Out of these 7 were dedicated and could only be sung for special occasion (the Hallels) or BY authorized Levites. The rest of the 50 DO NOT speak of worshiping with instrumental music. The Civilians never worshipped IN the Temple but assembled or synagogued even as the church in the wilderness to REST, read and rehearse the Word of God.

Click to see Danny Corbitt: Missing More than Music.  
Click to see Danny Corbitt oppose Gordon Ferguson on the word Psalmos

A musical instrument is for doing WORK:

Ergon  [Ergô] I.work, 1. in Il. mostly of deeds of war, polemêï aerga, 3. a hard piece of work, a hard task, Il.: also, a shocking deed or act

If you want to PLAY A HARP yu need a compound word:

Psal-tikos A. of or for harp playing, ps. organon a stringed instrument, (of the magadis); andra psaltikên agathon a good harpist, Ael. ap. Ar.Byz.Epit.84.8. 

A or secret worship
of the rites of Bacchus, Ekthusia, breaking out. Meaning the WRATH Paul put down by silencing the women and where no decent male would be outed by singing and playing instruments.

Phallikos, ê, on, of or for the phallos: to ph. (sc. MELOS) the phallic song, Ar.Ach.261, Arist.Po.1449a11; restd. in IG12.187.33; also a dance, Poll.4.100. 

Galliambus, i, m. [3. Gallus, II. A.] , a song of the priests [a castratos] of Cybele, Diom. p. 513 P.; Mart. 2, 86, 5; Quint. 9, 4, 6. [The Popes A capellas were GALLIAMBUS: don't do that in church, please]

Epi-psallô  A. play the lyre, S.Fr.60, Poll.4.58(Pass.); 
b.  melesi kai rhuthmois Plu.2.713b; measured motion, time, rhythm 
OR: c.  sing, tous humnous LXX 2  Ma.1.30 - Then the priests sang the hymns. 
That would mean that God endorsed instruments in Christian singing and we should not make it an optional tradition. Rubel Shelly says that musical instruments were the "gift of God." No.  We have noted that the operative word for the "school of the Bible" was SPEAK which is the opposite of poetry and music. Poets and singers composed MYTHS and not true history.  There are only 57 of the BOOK of Psalms which are Mizmors.  7 of these were dedicated to certain temple operatives (outside of the temple) and the other 50 which the Jews recited are NOT instrumental.

What Paul said was not: "Sing Psalms." He said, "Teach and admonish one another with the inspired text." Teach is the same word as "preach" and the operative word is teach or instruct and not "sing" and most assuredly not engage in "music" which was always secular or pagan.

(A Psalm or Song for the sabbath day.)

IT is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord, and to sing praises unto thy name, O most High: Psalm 92:1

To shew forth thy lovingkindness in the morning, and thy faithfulness every night, Psalm 92:2

Upon an instrument of ten strings, and upon the psaltery; upon the harp with a solemn sound. Psalm 92:3

If the writer wants to play the harp on the Sabbath I am sure that no one will be upset. He can play "when thy riseth up and before thy lieth down." However, the sabbath was not for WORSHIP but for rest. This quarantined the Israelites from the Babylonian Sabbath where the people SERVED the preacher or the agent of the gods in tithes, offerings, music and sexual pleasure. Both the First day and Seventh day Sabbath was also for a HOLY CONVOCATION. This boils down to READING or reciting any of the Law they had available. Jesus died to give us REST from "spiritual anxiety created by religious ritual." He threw out, more or less violently as one ejects dung, the musical ministels used to appeasing the gods and the dead spirit .

See Islamic Worship

Cantillation is also used in Islamic religious services in the recitation of the Qur'an and in the muezzin's call to prayer, or adhan.

Neither it nor the cantillation of the Qur'an are considered to be music, however, and music as such is forbidden in religious services.

At Mount Sinai as Smith notes below:

"...employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous,

After all, Paul commanded TEACHING which is preaching or to Timothy to "giving heed to the public reading of the Word."

"Psallo is best translated by chant, not sing. The Greeks sharply distinguish chanting (psalmodia) from singling (tragoudi). The first is a sacred activity; the second, a secular one. In English, unfortunately, the distinction is not sharp, and the word singing is frequently employed to refer to the sacred activity of chanting. A Greek would never, never say tragoudo (I sing), instead of psallo; the two terms have connotations and associations which are worlds apart -

> the first (singing) is related to the earthly realm,
> the second (chanting or as Paul commanded SPEAKING) to the heavenly."

(Letter to James D. Bales of Harding University, September 22, 1959, from Constantine Cavarnos, of the Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 113 Gilbert Road, Belmont 78, Massachusetts.)

However, if he attempts it in church on the Lord's Day he should be "thrown out more or less violently" as Jesus ejected the professional "team" while he healed the young girl.

It is a standard practice to name the instrument which is to accompany a psalm. That is, the word psalmos demands that you define the "instrument." The options are "the human voice" or a "mechanical" or Paul would say a "lifeless" instrument.

sing praises unto thy name Upon an instrument of ten strings

Jesus and the apostles at the Passover "hymned a psalm" and therefore there was no mechanical instrument.

Furthermore, the Jewish authorities are quite agreed that playing a harp on the Sabbath violated the law against work. The word Psallo or Melody is not a MUSICAL term: it is a warfare word directly related to Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon: the father of twanging bow strings to send singing arrows, thieves and liars.

Psallô [psaô]

I. to touch sharply, to pluck, pull, twitch, Aesch.; toxou neuran ps.

to twang the bow-string, Eur.; belos ek keraos ps.
to send a shaft twanging from the bow, Anth.; so, schoinos miltophurês psallomenê a
carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark, id=Anth.

II. to play a stringed instrument with the fingers, NOT with the plectron, Hdt., Ar., Plat.
2. later, to sing to a harp, SING NTest.

The connection betwee psallo and "singing" is that one spoke of "shooting out a hymn" or with Jesus "grieving out a hymn" to break your heart because of His Death.

To play upon the cithara identified one as a parasite.

Greek With similar to Psallo:

epi-psallô , play the lyre, S.Fr.60, Poll.4.58(Pass.); melesi kai rhuthmois Plu.2.713b ; sing, tous humnous LXX 2 Ma.1.30 :--Pass., Ph.1.626.

Latin with similar definition

parasi-tor . a-ri, v. dep. [id.] , to play the parasite, to sponge: parasitarier, Plaut. Stich. 4, 2, 54 : parasitando pascere ventres suos, id. Pers. 1, 2, 3 .

Greek with similar definition

mous-izô , sing or play, Dor. mous-isdô Theoc.8.38, 11.81:--Med. in act. sense, acharin keladon mousizomenos E.Cyc.489 (anap.)

The phrase: Belos ek keraos from Psallo means:

belos [ballô, as Lat. jaculum from jacio]

1. a MISSLE, esp. an ARROW, dart, bolt, Hom.; of the rock hurled by the Cyclops, Od.; of the ox's leg thrown at Ulysses, id=Od.; hupek beleôn out of the reach of darts, out of shot, Il.; so exô belôn Xen.

2. like enchos, used of any WEAPON, as a sword, Ar.: an axe, Eur.

We have discussed Psalm 149 and 150 here. Many of these instruments were not allowed in the temple; the people did not worship in the temple; therefore, this has nothing to do with Christian worship. Augustine, with most of the church "Fathers" treated the instruments as figurative because no Christian could literally sing Psalm 149.

The very word translated "Psalm" originally meant a song sung with a stringed instrument.
It later included an unaccompanied song, but it kept its original meaning as well.
We believe that it originally meant a poem set to meter so that it was composed so that it could be sung. For instance, we wouldn't try to sing the Declaration of Independence but we might read, speak, sing or use an instrument with The Star Spangled Banner. No one every demanded an instrument as worship while singing.

Psalmos (g5568) psal-mos'; from 5567; a set piece of music, i.e.
a sacred ode

(accmpanied with

the voice,
harp or
other instrument; a "psalm"); collect. the book of the Psalms: - psalm. Comp. 5603.

Ode (g5603) o-day'; from 103; a chant or "ode" the gen. term for any words sung; while 5215 denotes espec. a religious metrical composition, and

5568 still more spec. a Hebrew cantillation): - song.

Exactly like a psalm, an ode can be vocalized (accompanied with the human voice, harp or other instrument).

Nor in English there is any connection between "song" and musical instruments. However, all songs are written in meter and can be vocalized (accompanied with the human voice, harp or other instrument).

Paul was not silent, but He specificially named the 'first instrument of choice" which was the human heart.

When an instrument is intended it is named. For instance, "sing and make melody with a harp."

Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. Amos 5:23

This was the "song of the prostitute" for the king of Tyre, Lucifer's agent:

Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Is.23:16

Therefore without tradition, Paul issued a direct command to sing (psallo) psalms (psalmos) and the Spirit of Christ was not silent: He commanded that the "instrument" included in psalmos be speaking with the human voice and the melody or instrumental part be the "heart." We have discussed the words here. Scholarship is certain that psallo didn't demand the instrument in Koine Greek. Most apologists for instruments continue to erroneously misquote Lucian of Samosata.



Apollo or Abaddon or Apollyon in Revelation is the father of musical harmony, twanging bowstrings to send singing arrows into the literal (or sexual) heart. He was the father of liars and thieves.

Therefore, when you let go of the arrow the bow and string "twangs"but the "singing"is bringing death. This was the common Classical understanding.

Fragment 10, Aristotle, de mundo 5, 396b20

Things taken together are wholes and not wholes, something is being brought together and brought apart, which is in tune and out of tune; out of all things there comes a unity, and out of a unity all things.

The BOW is called STRIFE, but its WORK is DEATH

Fragment 209, Hippolytus Ref Ix, 9, I

They do not apprehend how being at variance it agrees with itself: there is a palintonos (counter-stretched) harmony, as in the bow and the lyre.(4)

See the Twanging Background

Fragment 54, Hippolytus Ref IX, 9,5

An unapparent harmony is stronger than an apparent one.

Heraclitus: "All things come into being by conflict of opposites, and the sum of things flows like a stream. This order, the same for all things, no one of gods or men has made, but it always was, and is, and ever shall be, an ever-living fire, kindling according to fixed measure, and extinguished according to fixed measure. Justice meant a balance of opposites, and strife.

Heraclitus cited as an example the tension between the string and the frame in a bow or a musical instrument. 'Harmony lies in the bending back, as for instance of the bow or of the lyre... Opposition unites. From what draws apart results the most beautiful harmony. All things take place by strife'."(Parkes, Henry Bamford, Gods and Men The Origins of Western Culture, p. 188, Knopf)

Psallo has origins ONLY in the instrument of warfare which Paul called Carnal Weapons. The psallo content of playing or singing is related ONLY to snapping the strings with the FINGERS. It cannot be used of plectrons or wind instruments.

Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon


I. to touch sharply, to pluck, pull, twitch, Aesch.; toxou neuran ps. to twang the bow-string, Eur.; belos ek keraos ps. to send a shaft twanging from the bow, Anth.;

so, schoinos miltophurês psallomenê a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark, id=Anth.

II. to play a stringed instrument with the fingers, NOT with the plectron, Hdt., Ar., Plat.

2. later, to sing to a harp, 


One superstition regarding the bow, universally and good-naturedly believed in, as we believe in the virtues of a horseshoe, is that the twanging of a bowstring will frighten ghosts and evil spirits from the house.

twang Audio pronunciation of twang ( P ) Pronunciation Key (twng)
v. twanged, twang·ing, twangs

1. To emit a sharp, vibrating sound, as the string of a musical instrument does when it is plucked.
2. To resound with a
sharp, vibrating sound.
3. To speak in a
strongly nasal tone of voice.

I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting. Isaiah 50:6

For, lo, the wicked bend their bow, they make ready their arrow upon the string, that they may privily shoot at the upright in heart. Psalm 11:2

Bend: Darak (h1869) daw-rak'; a prim. root; to tread; by impl. to walk; also to string a bow (by treading on it in bending): - archer, bend, come, draw, go (over), guide, lead (forth), thresh, tread (down), walk.

Edward Fudge GracEmail: Revelation, though symbolic, pictures harps in heavenly worship (Rev. 14:2-3).
This was symbolic or pictorial language. In the Greek-speaking world the DEAD were honored by bringing a harp to the tombstone which was often engraved with a musical instrument. The message was that the dead in Christ have not perished: they are spirituall alive, they have no earthly duties and they are free to enjoy music. This was symbolic of those "taking their ease" and was acceptable IN THE LAND OF THE DEAD. However, Amos speaks of those pretending that they had no earthly duties and were, therefore, engaged in the Marzeah which was a feast with and for dead ancestors.

There is another angel or messenger and he tells those STILL ALIVE to preach the gospel. Therefore, the book of revelation outlaws instrumental music as worship among the living with the duties of preaching the gospel.

The universal opinion, including the official view of the Catholic scholars in the Catholic Encyclopedia, is that instruments were not authorized because one cannot very well teach and admonish one another while being overpowered by a pipe organ.

No one ever rejected instruments "because the pagans" worshiped with instruments. Rather, the evil results of the pagan practices were used to defend the Biblical view. The mind is still deliberately drugged with music so that the sermons are tolerated.

Every ugly, dirty gender-confused Rock musician knows that he can sell endorphins for a huge income while peddling morphine would land him in jail. Click the medical and musicologists proof.

From the Classical writers and down through history everyone knows (should) that musical instruments were carved on tombstones or buried with the dead (the king of Ur and his bull-image harp idol). This was the symbol that the deceased had no more earthly responsibilities. However, for those still on earth the message of Jesus was to preach His Word. Click for the proof that John is not speaking of harps as worship. Furthermore, John was at worship "in the spirit" or in his mind when he saw the visions.

The message of Revelation is that if you are physically dead, you have no earthly responsibility and you may play your harp.

However, the message of the angel to THE LIVING was to preach the gospel.

Edward Fudge GracEmail: Through the centuries, those opposing instrumental music have argued that it is not "spiritual,"
Jesus said that God only seeks those who worship IN SPIRIT. Because He had spoken of Gerezim and Jerusalem as PLACES, the spirit or mind is also the PLACE. For instance, John was "in the spirit" on the Lord's Day. Paul only speaks of prayer and worship "in the spirit."

Therefore, if it is in the body then it is not IN THE SPIRIT and therefore not "spiritual." ALL of the church fathers argued that the use of INSTRUMENTS violated the direct words of God. Consistent with Lucifer's use of music to cause the fall of the angels, the MUSICAL ENCHANTER (Nachash) in the garden, the TERMINAL FALL FROM GRACE by the musical idolatry at Mount Sinai, the fact that the LAW was "added because of this musical transgression," the fact that the TEMPLE was granted to the elders to lead them into captivity and death, the fact that NO JEWISH CONGREGATION ever sang with instrumental accompaniment, the ways in which Jesus repudiated the MUSICAL PEFORMERS, Paul's direct command that the MELODY be in the heart and the warning in Revelation that the HARLOT is identified by her singers and musicians were the TRUE REASONS they rejected instruments. They knew that instruments were connected to the ORIGINAL FALL because they were intended to STEAL WORSHIP due only to God.

See some other classical and church fathers to disprove this false statement.

This argument is required only to those who believe that instruments are "spiritual." In fact, all of the pagans believed that instruments were the "homes" of the gods. Therefore, when you plucked or beat on the god the sounds which came out were the voice of the spirit. Worship teams still claim to have the power to lead you into the presence of God. Click to see the universal view that instruments were idols or homes of the "spirits" but not of the Holy Spirit.

Edward Fudge GracEmail: or have rejected instruments because someone else used them -- whether the pagans or Jews, or Roman Catholics or "the denominations."
The writer assuredly skips over the historical fact that when the American Restoration Movement was formed by Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians fleeing from clergy domination, instrumental music was not the problem. In fact, only some of the Anglican or Episcopal churches ever thought of using machines to worship God. And their earlier Church of England leaders had tried to remove music as a sure sign of Catholicism. They failed because of government control.

Jews knew that instruments and animal sacrifices were a matched pair: animal sacrifices cease there is no need for "noise" to mask the horrors of animal slaughter. The Jews never thought of using instruments in the synagogues until 1815 in a liberal, divisive synagogue. Then, they hired Gentiles to play the organ because it was illegal for Jews to play on the Sabbath.

Therefore, instruments were not part of the Restoration movement -- North or South -- and were never in the worship to reject.

Later, Baptist-oriented converts just out of liberal colleges imposed the first instrument over the objection of the elders. As they formed another earthly organization they aggressively pursued the policy of forcing instruments into the churches especially in Tennessee but with almost no success.

Any reader understands that the Catholics were forced to use instruments to compete among themselves as "seeker-friendly" churches. The Catholic Encyclopedia grasps that this was not the Biblical pattern whereas singing Psalms congregationally had Biblical commands, examples and inferences.

Catholic Encyclopedia Instrumental Music
Catholic Encyclopedia Singing
Catholic Encyclopedia Congregational Singing
Catholic Encyclopedia Ecclesiastical Music No Instruments for the Pope
Catholic Encyclopedia The Mass - Restoration of Levitical Music
Musical Minister - Catholic Precentor - First Heresy
Edward Fudge GracEmail: Some early church Fathers also rejected singing in harmony.
We haven't found a church Father who approved of instruments. On the contrary, they repudiate them as a continuation of the Jewish Legalism where instruments were connected to animal sacrifices.

To make the "mass" into the continual sacrifice of Jesus repudiated His once-for-all sacrifice and His present Mediatorship.

Modern musicians claim to be "priests and mediators between man and God." And the Catholic addition called the non-instrumental singers, "The Levitical Singers."

There was no harmony as we know it until the 19th century. Other forms were developing but it could not have been a church Father problem. What they opposed would be far less severe and distracting than four part harmony.

The word "melody" used by Paul literally means to "grind something or someone to bits" -- like the sop Jesus fed Judas. When you heard the "twang" of a bowstring it made you nervous because when you looked down you might see an arrow sticking out of your chest. Twanging bowstrings (harps) and beating on shields (drums or cymbals) was a way to panic the enemy into cowardice or to "triumph over" them in defeat. That is why God outlawed them when the congregation assembled for instruction (Num. 10:7)

Melody has nothing to do with "harmony." You cannot teach and admonish using modern four-part harmony. It is a fact that there was no true harmony for the church fathers to reject. What they objected to was the mixing of voice and instruments and of voices singing different words at the same time.

There is no Biblical authority for music or harmony so the fathers were just telling us what the Scriptures demand as a teaching rather than a secular entertainment. When the scramble described by Paul to the Corinthians took place, all of the Classical writers and Fathers knew that someone was attempting a charismatic mind-control effort to get the people's money.

Edward Fudge GracEmail: Many early protestants sang in harmony but rejected "uninspired hymns" -- singing only biblical Psalms.
That was because Paul defined it that way: not for singing but for teaching. In Romans 15 the resource is "that which is written," In Ephesians it is the Spirit and in Colossians it is the Word of Christ. Not difficult to understand. Even the slow ones in the slow group know that you don't use INSTRUMENTS when you are preaching.

"The first three centuries of the church witnessed many controversies; some of them concerned themselves directly with music. The most important of these issues were:

(a) organized versus spontaneous praying and singing;
(b) scriptural versus
extrascriptural poems;
(c) fusion with
Hellenistic music;
(d) vocal versus
instrumental music;
(e) the rise of
monasticism and its influence upon ecclesiastical chant." (Interpreter's Dict of the Bible, Music, p. 467).

The first problem occurred when the doxologies of the Bible which were like Psalms were replaced by "a great number of spontaneous and highly individualized doxologies."

However, the non-Biblical responses were ratified and codified at the second synod of Vaison in 529.

"The large displacement of the Psalter by other matter of praise in the Protestant Churches during the last one hundred years has been due, no so much to the lack of appreciation of the Psalms,
........ as to the commercial enterprise of music publishers." (Int Std Bible Ency., Psalms, p. 2494B).

Again, harmony as we know it is a product primarily of the 19th century. The song book of Alexander Campbell did not have notes. In fact, it was the later Great Awakenings where a style forged in black slavery as a blend of church singing and voodoo. This also developed because in the early colonies drumming was outlawed.

Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs are all inspired because the goal was not "singing" but teaching one another. Many groups, especially Presbyterians, still use "Psalmody only" because that is the only thing Paul spoke about. That is still what Paul spoke about. After all, the command was not to "sing" but to preach or teach. The only way to praise God is to teach with the "songs" He gave us for that purpose.

Edward Fudge GracEmail: The New Testament neither requires instrumental music in worship nor forbids it. What one makes of that silence has nothing to do with respect for biblical authority. It has everything to do with the human assumptions which one brings to the interpretation of Scripture.
The Law of Silence is used exclusively among the literate only by those trying to impose instruments on the church. The legalism is: "God has not said 'thou shalt not use instruments', therefore, there is no law against it." I can go 60 miles an hour in a school zone as long as there is not a speed limit posted!

However, Jesus 'CAST OUT' the musical team more or less violently as one EJECTS DUNG. This was a FULFILLED SIGN because the Levitical sounders whose service was HARD BONDAGE using a word similar to Abaddon, helped the priests endure the screams, burning flesh, smell of blood, smell of dung, maggots and the "eternal fire." The "music" had a rationale only in connection with ANIMAL SACRIFICES which were, with the law, added because of the MUSICAL IDOLATRY at Mount Sinai:

Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Put your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat flesh. Jeremiah 7:21

or I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices: Jeremiah 7: 22

But this thing commanded I them, saying, Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people: and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, that it may be well unto you. Jeremiah 7: 23

We have noted that the ENDORPHINS of sensuous pleasure MUST bring you GRIEF when the Drug High wears off. Jesus died to free us from RELIGIOUS JOY because He knew that it MUST bring 'spiritual anxiety through the CEREMONY.

Arnobius notes:

But the GODS should be FREE from both passions, if we would have them to be everlasting, and freed from the WEAKNESS of mortals.

Moreover, every PLEASURE is, as it were, a kind of FLATTERY of the body, and is addressed to the FIVE well-known senses; but if the gods above feel it, they must PARTAKE also of those bodies through which there is a way to the senses, and a door by which to RECEIVE PLEASURE.

Lastly, what pleasure is it to take delight in the SLAUGHTER of harmless creatures, to have the ears RINGING often with their piteous bellowings, to see RIVERS of blood, the LIFE FLEEYING away with the blood, and the secret parts having been laid open,

not only the INTESTINES to protrude with the EXCREMENTS, but also the heart still BOUNDING with the life left in it, and the trembling, palpitating veins in the viscera?

Clement in Stromata notes of Mount Sinai as Egyptian worship of the TRIAD under Apis, the golden calf:

The Beetle, cap. iv. p. 449, note 6.

Cicero notes the scarabus on the tongue, as identifying Apis, 244 the calf-god of the Egyptians. Now, this passage of our author seems to me to clear up the Scriptural word gillulimin Deuteronomy 29:17, where the English margin reads, literally enough, dungy-gods. The word means, things rolled about (Leviticus 26:30; Habakkuk 2:18, 19; 1 Kings 15:12); on which compare Leighton (St. Peter, PP. 239, 746, and note). Scripture seems to prove that this story of Clement's about the beetle of the Egyptians, was known to the ancient Hebrews, and was the point in their references to the gillulim (see Herod., book iii. cap. 28., or Rawlinson's Trans., vol. ii. 353). The note in Migne ad loc. is also well-worthy to be consulted.

Gilluwl (g1544) ghil-lool'; or (short.) gillul ghil-lool'; from 1556; prop. a log (as round); by impl. an idol: - idol

Galal (h1556) gaw-lal'; a prim. root; to roll (lit. or fig.): - commit, remove, roll (away, down, together), run down, seek occasion, trust, wallow.

If ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow,
shed not innocent blood in this place,
        neither walk after other gods to your hurt: Jeremiah 7:6 

Ashaq (h6231) aw-shak'; a prim. root (comp. 6229); to press upon, i. e. oppress, defraud, violate, overflow: - get deceitfully, deceive, defraud, drink up, (use) oppress ([-ion], -or), to violence (wrong).

HEAR this word, ye kine of Bashan, that are in the mountain of Samaria, which oppress the poor, which crush the needy, which say to their masters, Bring, and let us drink. Am.4:1 

Jesus identified the Hypocrites as slick speakers, singers and instrument players:
Job 20:5 That the triumphing of the wicked is short,
        and the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment?
Job 20:6 Though his excellency mount up to the heavens,
        and his head reach unto the clouds;
Job 20:7 Yet he shall perish for ever like his own dung:
        they which have seen him shall say, Where is he? 

Aristotle, Athenian Constitution

L. These then are the matters administered by the Council. Also ten men are elected by lot as Restorers of Temples, who draw 30 minae1 from the Receivers and repair the temples that most require it; and ten City Controllers, [2]

five of whom hold office in Peiraeus and five in the city;

it is they who supervise the flute-girls and harp-girls and lyre-girls to prevent their receiving fees of more than two drachmas, and if several persons want to take the same girl these officials cast lots between them and hire her out to the winner.

And they keep watch to prevent any scavenger from depositing ordure (dung) within a mile and a quarter of the wall;  and they prevent the construction of buildings encroaching on and balconies overhanging the roads, of overhead conduits with an overflow into the road, and of windows opening outward on to the road; and they remove for burial the bodies of persons who die on the roads, having public slaves for this service.

See Aristot. Ath. Pol. 7.3. A drachma (say 9 1/2d. or 1 franc) was a hundredth part of a mina (say 4 pounds.)


An Italian god of agriculture, and especially of MANURE, hence called son of Stercutus ("the dunger"--i. e. SATURN chaldee 666). He also appears as a forest-god with prophetic powers, and as father of Faunus ( Verg. Aen.viii. 48). In Latin legend he plays a prominent part as a warlike hero, the earliest king of Latium, of great wealth, who was finally changed into a woodpecker (picus) (ib. 187- 190). According to Ovid ( Met.xiv. 320-396), this was because he spurned the love of Circé and was faithful to the beautiful nymph Canens. Probably Picus was originally the woodpecker, the symbol of Mars as giver of fertility and warlike prowess, and from this symbol there was developed a separate deity.

Circe gave her name to the CHURCH. Therefore, those who spurn CHURCH may be turned into a woodpecker. Most were turned into animals and CIRCE (church) fed them with DUNG CAKES.

These "gods" were often worshipped by having a huge WOODEN PHALIC symbol leading them in procession.

The New Testament neither requires steak for the Lord's Supper nor doe it forbid steak. So, why do we eat unleavend bread and the fruit of the vine? Because Jesus told us so and exampled it.

There is no command: "Thou shalt use mechanical instruments."
There is no command: "Thou shalt not use mechanical instruments."
However, Jesus 'CAST OUT' the musical team more or less violently as one EJECTS DUNG.

Why do we not use them? Because the entire Old Testament warns us against it and Paul used the "law of psalmos" to designate the instrument as the human heart. He was consistent with the Jewish usage in the Old Testament.

To look for a law rather than the spirit is to be legalistic.

Rubel Shelly says the same thing:

There is no explicit instruction that either requires or excludes musical instruments in the church's worship.

The New Testament has no commandment on the subject.

We have shown that this is just dead wrong. Click here.

Dr. Rubel Shelly, like Edward Fudge, seems overly interested in disparaging non-instrumental people who have simply remained on the "main line" from the time of Jesus and Paul.

We have looked at the view of Rubel Shelly and others who hold to just a "core gospel" and reject commands, examples and inferences as binding on modern churches which must get their inspiration from "Chicken Soup From the Pulpit." Click for More. To them the "gospel" which they have invented is required but the rest of the Bible is the result of waring apostles involved in "just interpretations."

For more discussion, see Everett Ferguson against instrumental music (www.ovc.edu/bible/worship4.htm) and Charles Dailey for it (www.worldaccessnet.com/~cdailey/27-music.html).

Edward Fudge in GracEmail refers the readers to an article by Charles Dailey who reaches some of the same wrong conclusions. We have reviewed Charles Dailey's article here. We believe that every point ignores the context of the musical events and is not aware of the many events where God deliberately equates instrumental music to a wish to ignore the Words of God. We believe that GracEmail simply ignores the Biblical and historical facts of life.

Dr. Everett Ferguson's article is here.

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