I exist before the All, and] I am the All, since I exist in] everyone.
I am a Voice [speaking softly].

Many scriptures in the Nag Hammadi collection were influence by Valentinus (c. 100160 AD) and his tradition of Gnosis. Due to his importance, we have a large section of the library dedicated specifically to Valentinus and the Valentinian Tradition.

translated by
John D. Turner

From the Gnostic Gospel, Elaine Pagels:

As the American scholar Birger Pearson points out, the author uses an Aramaic pun to equate the serpent with the Instructor. . . . Other gnostic accounts add a four-way pun that includes Eve:

instead of tempting Adam, she gives life to him and instructs him:

After the day of rest, Sophia [literally, "wisdom"]

sent Zoe [literally, "life"], her daughter, who is called Eve, as an instructor to raise up Adam. . .

When Eve saw Adam cast down, she pitied him, and she said, "Adam, live! Rise up upon the earth!" Immediately her word became deed.

For when Adam rose up, immediately he opened his eyes. When he saw her, he said, "You will be called 'the mother of the living,' because you are the one who gave me life."

16) "Another newly discovered text from Nag Hammadi, Trimorphic Protennoai (literally, the "Triple-formed Primal Thought"), celebrates the feminine powers of Thought, Intelligence, and Foresight. The text opens as a divine figure speaks:

[I] am [Protennoia the] Thought that [dwells] in [the Light] . . . [she who exists] before the All . . .I move in every creature . . . I am the Invisible One within the All. "

She continues:

"I am perception and knowledge, uttering a Voice by means of Thought. [I] am the real Voice. I cry out in everyone, and they know that a seed dwells within."

The second section, spoken by a second divine figure, opens with the words

I am the Voice. . . [It is} I [who] speak within every creature. . . Now I have come a second time in the likeness of a female, and have spoken with them. . . . I have revealed myself in the Thought of the likeness of my masculinity.

Later the voice explains:

I am androgynous. [I am both Mother and] Father, since [I copulate] with myself. . . . [and with those who love] me . . . I am the Womb [that gives shape] to the All . . . I am Me[iroth]ea, the glory of the Mother.

35 1 [I] am [Protennoia, the] Thought that 2 [dwells] in [the Light.
I] am the movement 3 that dwells in the [All,
        she in whom the] All takes its 4 stand,
        [the first]-born 5 among those who [came to be,
        she who exists] before 6 the All.
[She (Protennoia) is called] by three names,
although she
7 dwells alone, [since she is perfect].
I am 8 invisible within the Thought of the Invisible 9 One.
I am revealed in the immeasurable 10 ineffable (things).
I am incomprehensible, 11 dwelling in the incomprehensible.
I 12 move in every creature.
I am the life 13 of my] Epinoia that dwells within 14
        every Power and
        every eternal movement 15 and (in)
        invisible Lights and 16 within
        the Archons and Angels and 17 Demons and
        every soul dwelling 18 in [Tartaros] and (in)
        every material soul. 19
I dwell in those who came to be.
I move in 20 everyone and
I delve into them all. 21
I walk uprightly, and those who 22 sleep I [awaken].
And I 23 am the sight of those who dwell in sleep. 24
I am the Invisible One within the All. 25
It is I who counsel those who are hidden, since I know 26 the All that exists in it. 27
I am numberless beyond everyone.
I 28 am immeasurable, ineffable, yet 29 whenever I [wish,
        I shall] reveal myself 30 of my own accord.
I [am the head of] the All.
I exist 31 before the All, and] I am the All, 32 since I exist in] everyone.
I am a Voice 33 [speaking softly].
I exist 34 [from the first. I dwell] within the Silence 35 [that surrounds every one] of them.
36 1 And [it is] the [hidden Voice] that [dwells within] 2 me,
[within the] incomprehensible, 3 immeasurable [Thought,
within the] immeasurable Silence. 4
I [descended to the] midst of the underworld 5 and
I shone [down upon the] darkness.
It is I who 6 poured forth the [water].
It is I who am hidden within 7 [radiant] waters.
I am the one who 8 gradually put forth the All by my 9 Thought.
It is I who am laden with the Voice.
It 10 is through me that Gnosis comes forth.
[I] 11 dwell in the ineffable and 12 unknowable ones.
I am perception and knowledge, 13 uttering a Voice by means of 14 thought.
[I] am the real Voice. 15
I cry out in everyone, and they recognize 16 it (the voice], since a seed indwells [them]. 17
I am the Thought of the Father and
through 18 me proceeded [the] Voice, 19
that is, the knowledge of the everlasting things.
I 20 exist as Thought for the [All] -
being joined 21 to the unknowable and incomprehensible Thought - 22
I revealed myself - yes, I - among 23 all those who recognize me.
For it is I 24 who am joined with everyone
by virtue of 25 the hidden Thought and
And it is immeasurable 28 since it dwells in the Immeasurable One.
It is invisible 31 [to all those who are] visible 32 in the All.
It is a Light] dwelling in 33 Light.

It is we [also who] alone [have separated] 34 [from the] visible [world] 35 since we [are saved by the] 36 hidden [wisdom by means of the]

37 1 ineffable, immeasurable [Voice]. And he who is 2 hidden within us pays the tributes of his fruit 3 to the Water of Life.

Then 4 the Son who is perfect in every respect - that is, 5 the Word who originated through that 6 Voice; who proceeded from the height; who 7 has within him the Name; who is 8 a Light - he (the Son) revealed the everlasting things and 9 all the unknowns were known. 10 And those things difficult to interpret 11 and secret, he revealed, and 12 as for those who dwell in Silence with the First 13 Thought, he preached to them. And 14 he revealed himself to those who dwell in darkness, and 15 he showed himself to those who dwell in the abyss, 16 and to those who dwell in the hidden treasuries he told 17 ineffable mysteries, 18 and he taught unrepeatable doctrines 19 to all those who became Sons of 20 the Light .

Now the Voice that originated 21 from my Thought exists as three 22 permanences:

the Father, the Mother, the Son.

Existing 23 perceptibly as Speech, it (Voice) has 24 within it a Word endowed with 25 every <glory>, and it has 26 three masculinities, three powers, 27 and three names. They exist in the 28 manner of Three ---- which are quadrangles - 29 secretly within a silence 30 Of the Ineffable One.

[It is he] alone who came to be, 31 that [is, the Christ. And] as for me I anointed him 32 as the glory [of the] Invisible [Spirit] with 33 [goodness].

Now [the Three] I established 34 [alone in] eternal [glory] over 35 [the Aeons in the] Living [Water], that 36 [is, the glory that surrounds him]

38 1 who first came forth to the Light 2 of those exalted Aeons, and it is in glorious 3 Light that he firmly perseveres. And [he] 4 stood in his own Light 5 that surrounds him, that is, the Eye of the Light 6 that gloriously shines on me. 7 He perpetuated the Father of all (the) Aeons, who am I, 8 the Thought of the Father, Protennoia, 9 that is, Barbelo, the [perfect] Glory 10 and the [immeasurable] Invisible One who is hidden. 11

I am the image of the Invisible Spirit 12 and it is through me that the All took shape, 13 and

(I am) the Mother (as well as) the Light which she appointed 14 as Virgin, she who is

called 15 Meirothea, the incomprehensible Womb, the 16 unrestrainable and immeasurable Voice.

Then 17 the Perfect Son revealed himself to his 18 Aeons who originated through him, 19 and he revealed them and glorified them and 20 gave them thrones and stood in 21 the glory with which he glorified himself. 22 They blessed the Perfect Son, the Christ, the 23 only-begotten God.

And they gave glory, 24 saying, "He is! He is! The Son 25 Of God! The Son of God! It is he who 26 is! The Aeon of Aeons beholding the 27 Aeons which he begot! For thou hast 28 begotten by thine own desire! Therefore [we] 29 glorify thee:


The [Aeon] 30 Of [Aeons! The] Aeon which he gave!"

Then, 31 moreover, the [God who was begotten] gave them (the Aeons) 32 a power of [life on which they might rely] and [he] 33 established [them.

The] first 34 Aeon, he established [over the first]: Armedon, 35 Nousa[nios, Armozel;

the] second 36 he established [over the second Aeon]:

39 1 Phaionios, Ainios, Oroiael;

the third 2 over the third Aeon: Mellephaneus, 3 Loios, Daveithai;

the fourth 4 over the fourth: Mousanios, Amethes, 5 Eleleth.

Now those Aeons were begotten 6 by the God who was begotten - the 7 Christ - and these Aeons received 8 as well as gave glory. They were the first to appear, 9 exalted in their thought, and each 10 Aeon gave myriads of glories within 11 great untraceable lights and 12 they all together blessed the Perfect 13 Son, the God who was begotten.

Then there 14 came forth a word from the great 15 Light Eleleth and said, "I 16 am King! Who belongs to Chaos and who 17 belongs to the underworld?" And at that instant his Light 18 appeared radiant, endowed 19 with the Epinoia. The Powers of the Powers 20 did not entreat him and likewise immediately 21 there appeared the great Demon 22 who rules over the lowest part of the underworld 23 and Chaos. He has neither form 24 nor perfection, but on the contrary possesses 25 the form of the glory of those 26 begotten in the darkness.

Now he is called 27 "Saklas," that is, "Samael," "Yaltabaoth," 28 he who had taken power, who had snatched 29 it away from the innocent one (Sophia); who had earlier overpowered 30 her who is the Light's Epinoia (Sophia) 31 who had descended, her from whom he (Yaltabaoth) had come forth 32 originally.

Now when the Epinoia of the [Light] realized 33 that [he (Yaltbabaoth)] had begged him (the Light), 34 for another [order, even though he was lower] than she, she said, 35 "Grant me another order so that you may become for me 36 [a dwelling place lest I dwell] in disorder 37 [forever." And the order of the] entire house of

40 1 glory [was agreed upon her 2 word. A blessing was brought for 3 her and the higher order released it 4 to her.

And the great Demon 5 began to produce 6 aeons in the likeness of the real Aeons, 7 except that he produced them out of his own power. 8

Then I too revealed 9 my Voice secretly, 10 saying, 'Cease ! Desist, 11 (you) who tread on matter; for behold 12 I am coming down to the world 13 of mortals for the sake of my portion that was in 14 that place from the time when 15 the innocent Sophia was conquered, she who 16 descended so that I might thwart 17 their aim which the one revealed 18 by her appoints." 19

And all were disturbed, 20 each one who dwells 21 in the house of the ignorant light 22 and the abyss trembled. And 23 the Archigenetor of ignorance 24 reigned over Chaos and the underworld and 25 produced a man in my likeness. But he neither 26 knew that that one would become 27 for him a sentence of dissolution nor 28 does he recognize the power in 29 him.

But now I have come down 30 and reached down to Chaos. And 31 I was [with] my own who 32 were in that place. [I am hidden] within 33 them, empowering [them and] giving 34 them shape. And [from the first day] until 35 the day [when I will grant mighty power] 36 to those who [are mine, I will reveal myself to] 37 those who have [heard my mysteries],

41 1 that is, the [Sons] of [the] Light.
I 2 am their Father and I shall tell you a 3 mystery, ineffable and indivulgeable 4 by [any] mouth: Every bond 5 I loosed from you, and
the 6 chains of the Demons of the underworld, I broke, 7
these things which are bound on my members, restraining them. And 8
the high walls of darkness I overthrew, 9 and
the secure gates of 10 those pitiless ones I broke, and
I smashed 11 their bars.

And the evil Force and 12 the one who beats you, and

the one who hinders 13 you, and
the Tyrant, and
the Adversary, 14 and
the one who is King, and
the present Enemy, 15

indeed all these I explained to those 16 who are mine, who are the Sons of the light, 17 in order that they might nullify them all 18 and be saved from all those bonds 19 and enter into the place where they were at 20 first.

I am the first one who descended 21 on account of my portion which remains, that is, 22 the Spirit that (now) dwells in the soul, (but) which originated 23 from the Water of Life and out 24 of the immersion of the mysteries, and I spoke, 25 I together with the Archons and Authorities. 26 For I had gone down below their 27 language and I spoke my mysteries to 28 my own - a hidden mystery - and 29 the bonds and eternal oblivion were nullified. 30 And I bore fruit in them, that 31 is, the Thought of the unchanging Aeon, and 32 my house, and their [Father]. And I went 33 down [to those who were mine] from the first and 34 I [reached them and broke] the first strands 35 that [enslaved them. Then 36 everyone [of those] within me shone, and

42 1 I prepared [a pattern] for those ineffable Lights that are 2 within me. Amen. 3

The Discourse of Protennoia: [One] 4

I am the Voice that appeared through 5 my Thought, for I am "He who is syzygetic," 6 since I am called "the Thought of the Invisible One." 7 Since I am called "the unchanging Speech," 8 I am called "She who is syzygetic."

I am a single 9 one (fem.) since I am undefiled.
I am the Mother [of] 10 the Voice, speaking in many ways, completing 11 the All.
It is in me that knowledge dwells, 12 the knowledge of (things) everlasting.
It is I [who] 13 speak within every creature and I was known 14 by the All.

It is I who lift up 15 the Speech of the Voice to the ears of those who 16 have known me, that is, the Sons of the Light. 17

Now I have come the second time in the likeness 18 of a female and have spoken with them. And 19 I shall tell them of the coming end of the Aeon 20 and teach them of the beginning of the Aeon 21 to come, the one without change, 22 the one in which our appearance will be changed. 23 We shall be purified within those Aeons from which I 24 revealed myself in the Thought 25 of the likeness of my masculinity. I settled 26 among those who are worthy in the Thought of my 27 changeless Aeon.

For I shall tell you a 28 mystery [of] this particular Aeon and 29 tell you about the forces that are in it. 30 The birth beckons: [hour] begets 31 hour, [day begets day]. The months 32 made known the [month. Time] has [gone round] 33 succeeding [time]. This particular Age

43 1 was completed in [this] fashion, and it was estimated, and 2 it (was) short, for it was a finger that released a 3 finger and a joint that was separated from 4 a joint.

Then when the great Authorities knew 5 that the time of fulfillment had appeared - 6 just as in the pangs of the parturient it (the time) had drawn near, 7 so also had 8 the destruction approached - all together the elements 9 trembled, and the foundations of the underworld and the ceilings 10 of Chaos shook and a great fire shone 11 within their midst, and the rocks and the earth 12 were shaken like a reed shaken by the wind. 13 And the lots of Fate and those who apportion 14 the domiciles were greatly disturbed over 15 a great thunder. And the thrones of 16 the Powers were disturbed since they were overturned, and their 17 King was afraid.

And those who pursue Fate 18 paid their allotment of visits to the path, and 19 they said to the Powers, "What is this disturbance 20 and this shaking that has come upon us through 21 a Voice (belonging) to the exalted Speech? 22 And our entire habitation has been shaken, and the entire 23 circuit of our path of ascent has met with 24 destruction, and the path upon which we go, 25 which takes us up to the Archigenetor 26 of our birth, has ceased to be established for us." 27

Then the Powers answered, saying, 28 "We too are at a loss about 29 it since we did not know what was responsible for it. But 30 arise, let us go up to the Archigenetor 31 and ask him."

And the 32 Powers all gathered and went up to the Archigenetor. 33 [They said to] him, "Where is your boasting 34 in which [you boast]? 35 Did we not [hear you say], 'I 36 am God [and I am] your Father

44 1 and it is I who [begot] you and there is no [other] 2 beside me'? Now behold, there has appeared 3 [a] Voice belonging to that invisible Speech 4 of [the Aeon] (and) which we know not. And 5 we ourselves did not recognize to whom we 6 belong, for that Voice which we listened to 7 is foreign to us, and we do not recognize 8 it; we did not know whence it was. It came 9 and put fear in our midst and weakening 10 in the members of our arms. So now let 11 us weep and mourn most bitterly! 12 As for the future, let us make our entire flight 13 before we are imprisoned perforce and 14 taken down to the bosom of the underworld. For already 15 the slackening of our bondage has approached, 16 and the times are cut short and the days have shortened 17 and our time has been fulfilled, and the weeping 18 of our destruction has approached us so that 19 we may be taken to the place we recognize 20 For as for our tree from which we grew, a fruit 21 of ignorance is what it has; and 22 also its leaves, it is death that dwells in them, 23 and darkness dwells under the shadow of its 24 boughs. And it was in deceit 25 and lust that we harvested it, this (tree) through 26 which ignorant Chaos became for us a dwelling place. 27 For behold, even he, the Archigenetor 28 of our birth, about whom we boast, 29 even he did not know this Speech."

So now, 30 O Sons of the Thought, listen to me, to the Speech 31 of the Mother of your mercy, for you have 32 become worthy of the mystery hidden from (the beginning of) 33 the Aeons, so that [you might receive] it. And the consummation 34 of this [particular] Aeon [and] of the evil life 35 [has approached and there dawns

45 1 the] beginning of the Aeon to come] which [has 2 no change forever].

I am androgynous. 3
[I am Mother (and) I am] Father since [I] 4 copulate] with myself.
I [copulate] with myself 5 [and with those who love] me, [and] 6
it is through me alone that the All [stands firm].
I am the Womb 7 [that gives shape] to the All
by giving birth to the Light that 8 [shines in] splendor.
I am the Aeon to [come. 9
I am] the fulfillment of the All, that is, Me[iroth]ea, 10 the glory of the Mother.
I cast [voiced] Speech 11 into the ears of those who know 12 me.
And I am inviting you into the exalted, perfect Light. 13 Moreover, (as for) this (Light), when you enter 14 it,
you will be glorified by those [who] 15 give glory, and
those who enthrone will 16 enthrone you.
You will accept robes from 17 those who give robes and
the Baptists 18 will baptize you and
you will become 19 gloriously glorious, the way you first were 20 when you were (Light). 21

And I hid myself in everyone and revealed [myself] 22 within them, and every mind seeking 23 me longed for me, for it is I 24 who gave shape to the All when it had no form. 25 And I transformed their forms 26 into (other) forms until the time when a form 27 will be given to the All. It is through me that the Voice 28 originated and it is I who put the breath 29 within my own. And I cast into 30 them the eternally holy Spirit and 31 I ascended and entered my Light. 32 [I went up] upon my branch and 33 sat [there among the] Sons of the [holy] Light. 34 And [I withdrew] to their dwelling place

46 1 [...] 2 which [...] 3 become [glorious .... Amen]. 4

[On Fate: Two] 5

I am [the Word] who dwells [in the] ineffable [Voice]. 6

I dwell in undefiled [Light] 7 and

a Thought [revealed itself] 8 perceptibly through [the great] 9 Speech of the Mother, although it is a male offspring [that supports me] 10 as my foundation. And it (the Speech) exists from the beginning 11 in the foundations of the All.

But there is a Light [that] 12 dwells hidden in Silence and it was first to [come] 13 forth. Whereas she (the Mother) alone exists as Silence. 14 I alone am the Word, ineffable, 15 unpolluted, immeasurable, inconceivable. 16 It (the Word) is a hidden Light, bearing a Fruit of 17 Life, pouring forth a Living Water from 18 the invisible, unpolluted, immeasurable 19 Spring, that is, the unreproducible Voice of the glory 20 of the Mother, the glory of the offspring 21 of God; a male Virgin by 22 virtue of a hidden Intellect, that is, 23 the Silence hidden from the All, being unreproducible, 24 an immeasurable Light, the source of the All 25 the Root the entire Aeon.

It is the Foundation that supports 26 every movement of the Aeons that 27 belong to the mighty Glory.

It is the Foundation of every foundation. 28
It is the Breath of the Powers.
It is the Eye of the 29 Three Permanences, which exist as Voice 30 by virtue of Thought.
And it is a Word 31 by virtue of Speech;
it was sent 32 to illumine those who dwell in the [darkness] 33

Now behold [I will reveal] 34 to you [my mysteries] since 35 you are my fellow [brethren, and you shall] know 36 them all [...].

47 1 [...] 2 [...] 3 [...] 4 [...] 5 I [told all of them about 6 my mysteries] that exist in [the 7 incomprehensible], inexpressible [Aeons]. I taught [them the mysteries] 8 through the [Voice that 9 exists] within a perfect Intellect [and 10 I] became a foundation for the All, and [I 11 empowered] them.

The second time I came in the [Speech] 12 of my Voice. I gave shape to those who [took] shape 13 until their consummation.

The third 14 time I revealed myself to them [in] 15 their tents as Word and I 16 revealed myself in the likeness of their shape. And 17 I wore everyone's garment and 18 I hid myself within them, and [they] did not 19 know the one who empowers me. For

I dwell within 20 all the Sovereignties and Powers and

within 21 the Angels and in every movement [that] exists 22 in all matter.

And I hid myself within 23 them until I revealed myself to my [brethren]. 24

And none of them (the Powers) knew me, [although] 25 if is I who work in them. Rather [they thought] 26 that the All was created [by them] 27 since they are ignorant, not knowing [their] 28 root, the place in which they grew.

[I] 29 am the Light that illumines the All. I 30 am the Light that rejoices [in my] 31 brethren, for I came down to the world [of] 32 mortals on account of the Spirit that remains [in] 33 that which [descended] (and) came forth [from] the 34 innocent Sophia. I [came] and I delivered 35 [...] and I [went] to

48 1 [...] 2 [...] 3 [...] 4 [...] 5 [...] 6 which he had [formerly and 7 I gave to him] from the Water [of Life, which 8 strips] him of the Chaos [that is 9 in the] uttermost [darkness] that exists [inside] 10 the entire [abyss], that is, the thought of [the corporeal] 11 and the psychic. All these I 12 put on. And I stripped him of it 13 and I put upon him a shining Light, that 14 is, the knowledge of the Thought of the Fatherhood. 15

And I delivered him to those who give robes - 16 Yammon, Elasso, Amenai -
and they [covered] 17 him with a robe from the robes of the Light, 18
and I delivered him to the Baptists and
they 19 baptized him - Micheus, Michar, 20 Mn[e]sinous - and
they immersed him in the spring of the [Water] 21 of Life.
And I delivered him to those who 22 enthrone - Bariel, Nouthan, Sabenai -
and they 23 enthroned him from the throne of glory. 24
And I delivered him to those who glorify - 25 Ariom, Elien, Phariel -
and they glorified 26 him with the glory of the Fatherhood
And 27 those who snatch away snatched away - Gamaliel, 28 [...]anen, Samblo,
the servants of <the> great 29 holy Luminaries -
and they took him into 30 the light-[place] of his Fatherhood.
And 31 he received the Five Seals from 32 [the Light] of the Mother, Protennoia,
and 33 it was granted] him [to] partake of the mystery of knowledge 34
and [he became a light] in 35 Light.

So, now, [... ]

49 1 [...] 2 [...] 3 [...] 4 [...] 5 [...] 6 I was] dwelling in them [in the form 7 of each one. [The Archons] thought 8 [that I] was their Christ. Indeed I [dwell 9 in] everyone. Indeed within those in whom [I revealed 10 myself as Light [I eluded] 11 the Archons.

I am their beloved, [for] 12 in that place I clothed myself [as] 13 the Son of the Archigenetor, and I was like 14 him until the end of his decree, which is 15 the ignorance of Chaos.

And among the 16 Angels I revealed myself in their likeness, 17
and among the Powers as if I were one 18 of them,
but among the Sons of Man as if 19 I were a Son of Man,
even though I am 20 Father of everyone.

I hid myself within them 21 all until I revealed myself among my members, 22 which are mine, and I taught them about the ineffable 23 ordinances, and (about) the brethren. But they are inexpressible 24 to every sovereignty and every ruling 25 power except to the Sons of the Light 26 alone, that is, the ordinances of the Father.

These are 27 the glories that are higher than every glory, that is, [the Five] 28 Seals complete by virtue of Intellect. He 29 who possesses the Five Seals of these 30 particular names has stripped off (the) garments 31 of ignorance and put on 32 a shining Light. And nothing 33 will appear to him that belongs to the Powers 34 of the Archons. Within those of this sort 35 darkness will dissolve and [ignorance] will die. 36 And the thought of the creature 37 which [is scattered will] present a single appearance 38 and [dark Chaos] will dissolve and

50 1 [...] 2 [...] 3 and the 4 [...] incomprehensible [...] 5 within the [...] 6 until I reveal myself [to all my fellow 7 brethren] and until I gather [together] 8 all [my fellow] brethren within my [eternal 9 kingdom. And I proclaimed to them the ineffable [Five 10 Seals in order that 11 [ I might] abide in them and they also 12 might abide in me.

As for me, I put on Jesus. 13 I bore him from the cursed 14 wood, and established him in the dwelling places 15 of his Father. And those who watch over 16 their dwelling places did not recognize me. For I, 17 I am unrestrainable together with my 18 Seed, and my Seed, which is mine, I shall [place] 19 into the Holy Light within an 20 incomprehensible Silence. Amen. 21

The Discourse of the Appearance: Three 22

Trimorphic Protennoia, in three parts 23

A Sacred Scripture written by the Father 24

with Perfect Knowledge

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