George Cunningham Heritage Church of Christ Colossians Justifies Instrumental Music

Tom Moulder Heritage Church of Christ Traditionalism

Johnny Miles Heritage Church of Christ Authority for Instrumental Music

Jim Hackney Instrumental Music

Anathema and Musical Worship

Heritage Church of Christ and Instrumental Music.

George Cunningham slays that people reading Colossians 3 would not even think that Paul was speaking about Instrumental Music.  If not, then the Heritage Church of Christ abandons one of the major PSALLO passages first used in 1878 to claim that it demanded instrumental music.  Paul was guided into all truth and therefore ASSERTS.  However, the words Paul used have to be translated.  For instance the LOGOS speaking words are the Opposite of Rhetoric, singing, playing or acting.  God is adult: you cannot sing Him into being happy with you.

The Godly Jews and many Gentiles attended the synagogues as the only place devoted 100% to education.  It had no "law of giving" and the Bible was one of the most reliable books of general history and its great epics inculcated justice and righteousness as God's only demand. They would have probably heard of the great falls from grace because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.  The Law of Christ and minimal reverence would not have even permitted to think that "making music" had any connection to God's righteous people.

They would have seen the Pipers in the marketplace entertaining you or serving you sexually as virtually mad parasites: Jesus consigned these pipers to the marketplace. Jesus called the Scribes and Pharisee clergy, parasites.  Because they would have understood Ezekiel not required to get a Phd, they would have heard the Spirit OF Christ define hypocrites as professional speakers (entertainers), singers and instrument players.  Singing and Playing was Jesus used of Ezekiel to define the mark of NOTHING AT ALL.  George says that Paul is NOT speaking about the assembly but Paul says that he was.

George Cunningham: Researched the psallo definition: it means "Singing to Music" or "Sing to the music of a harp."

George says that it was just a message  to let the peace of Christ live in your heart as you SING and Play instruments.  That's false: the use of the PSALLO word first in the year 1878 as a hate word against those who would NOT BOW when they piped is one of the ugliest and destructive attacks in history.  At no time in recorded history did the translators choice of the PSAO word have ANY musical content.  SOP and Psallo have the same root meaning.

I believe that is blasphemy: despising the Spirit OF Christ and of Paul. A child would think you were crazy if you told him to PLUCK.  He might be worried about his pubic hair as in the O.E.Payne's use of Alexander the Great plucking a harp seducing a young male: youth ministers for the mother goddess would be emasculated entertainers as Paul warned.

Psallo in ALL of the Greek texts means "to smite a string or hair with the fingers but NEVER with a plectrum."  Because simple harps needed more volume they were STRUCK with a plectrum--often a gold one. You distort fact if you try to "psallo" with a guitar pick, use a drum, a flute or ANY of the instruments the "team" plans to use at Heritage.


Secondary USE of Psallo, you may want to IMPOSE an act of Worship called plucking out hair including pubic hairs of the emasculated priests of the Mother Goddess.
Pluck, pull, twitch, ps. etheiran pluck the hair, A.Pers.1062:
Aesch. Pers. 1062
Xerxes [1060] And with your fingers tear the robe which drapes you.
Chorus Anguish, anguish!
Xerxes Pluck out your locks, and lament our host.
Xerxēs    kai psall' etheiran kai katoiktisai straton.

Plutarch, Lives [4] Such objects are to be found in virtuous deeds; these implant in those who search them out a great and zealous eagerness which leads to imitation. In other cases, admiration of the deed is not immediately accompanied by an impulse to do it. Nay, many times, on the contrary, while we delight in the work, we despise the workman
        as, for instance, in the case of perfumes and dyes;
        we take a
delight in them but dyers and perfumers we regard as illiberal and vulgar folk

[5] Therefore it was a fine saying of Antisthenes, when he heard that Ismenias was an excellent piper: But he's a worthless man," said he, "otherwise he wouldn't be so good a piper."
And so Philip [Philip of Macedon, to Alexander.] once said to his son, who, as the wine went round, plucked the strings charmingly and skilfully, "Art not ashamed to pluck the strings so well?" It is enough, surely, if a king have leisure to hear others pluck the strings, and he pays great deference to the Muses if he be but a spectator of such contests
Way down the list in SEVENTH place Psallo is USED To MARK for AVOIDANCE anyone who would impose instrumental sounds into the School of Christ:

II. mostly of the strings of musical instruments, psallo a stringed instrument with the fingers, and NOT with the plectron, “psēlai kai krouein plēktrō

Therefore, you violate the authority used to sow discord and silence the Words of Christ. Psallo has no musical content and you cannot use it to justify wind or percussion instruments.  Playing musical instruments in a worship sense is also enchantment or sorcery.
Psallo and Krouo with a plecktron
Pluck and Strike with a plektron
Krouo 2. strike one against another, strike together, k. kheiras clap the hands,
would have knocked their heads together,
4. metaph. from tapping an earthen vessel, to try whether it rings sound
5. strike a stringed instrument with a plectron, [but NOT unless the plectron is named]
pa^tassō II. with acc. of the thing set in motion, strike, smite, of a deadly blow
b. smite, slaughter, c. afflict, visit, pataxai se Kurios,  pothos kardian
Pothos , ho, A.longing, yearning, regret for something absent or lost,
2. personified, A.Supp.1039(lyr.), where P. and Peithō are children of “Kupris; Erōs kai Himeros kai P.Paus.1.43.6; “Kupri Pothōn mēter

"Jingling, banging, and rattling accompanied heathen cults, and the frenzying shawms of a dozen ecstatic cries intoxicated the masses. Amid this euphoric farewell feast of a dying civilization, the voices of nonconformists were emerging from places of Jewish and early Christian worship ..." (Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1971 ed., s.v. "Music")

Plēk-tron , 1. instrument for striking the lyre, plectrum,khruseo gold
2. spear-point, diobolon p., of lightning, E.Alc.129 (lyr.); a bee's sting
6. = glōssa,  The Tongue
You must name Psallo, smite or strike and name the guitar pick.

Using guitar picks, flutes, trumpets, drums, organs, piano or ANY musical instrument is OUTLAWED by Psallo.  Otherwise it speaks of vile people.
Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, Book 14
book 14, chapter 35: ... estin, ho men gar hēdistos Anakreōn legei pou: psallō d' eikosi khordaisi magadin ekhōn, ō Leukaspi, su
But some people raise a question how, as the magadis did not exist in the time of Anacreon (for instruments with many strings were never seen till after his time), Anacreon can possibly mention it, as he does when he says-
      I hold my magadis and sing,
      Striking [psallō] loud the twentieth string,
      O Leucaspis.
But Poseidonius is ignorant that the magadis is an ancient instrument, though Pindarus says plainly enough that Terpander invented the barbitos to correspond to, and answer the pectis in use among the Lydians-
      The sweet responsive lyre
      Which long ago the Lesbian bard,
      Terpander, did invent, sweet ornament
      To the luxurious Lydian feasts, when he
      Heard the high-toned pectis.
However, Diogenes the tragic poet represents the pectis as differing from the magadis; for in his Semele he says-
      And now I hear the turban-wearing women,
      Votaries of the Asiatic Cybele,
      The wealthy Phrygians' daughters, loudly sounding
      With drums, and bull-roarers, and brazen-clashing
      Cymbals, their hands each striking in concert,
      Pour forth a wise and healing hymn to the gods.
  Likewise the Lydian and the Bactrian maids
      Who dwell beside the Halys, loudly worship
      The Tmolian goddess Artemis, who loves
      The laurel shade of the thick leafy grove,
      Striking the clear three-cornered pectis, and
      Raising responsive tunes upon the magadis,
      While flutes in Persian manner neatly joined
      Accompany the chorus.
How to use PSALLO to turn captives into WOMEN
Grant, then, forgiveness to the Lydians, and to make sure of their never rebelling against thee, or alarming thee more, send and forbid them to keep any weapons of war,
        command them to wear tunics under their cloaks,
        and to put buskins upon their legs,
        and make them bring up their sons to cithern-playing (Kitharizein), singing (psallein),
        and shop-keeping (Hucksterism). 
So wilt thou soon see them become women instead of men,
and there will be no more fear of their revolting from thee."

-[4] Ludoisi de sungnômên echôn tade autoisi epitaxon, hôs mête aposteôsi mête deinoi toi eôsi: apeipe men sphi pempsas hopla arêia mê ektêsthai, keleue de spheas kithônas -[khiton  David's garment] te hupodunein toisi heimasi kai kothornous hupodeesthai, proeipe d' autoisi -kitharizein te kai psallein kai kapêleuein [prostitutes, petty trade, playing tricks, corrupting] paideuein tous paidas. kai tacheôs spheas ô basileu gunaikas ant' andrôn opseai gegonotas, hôste ouden deinoi toi esontai mê aposteôsi."

The word kitharizo means to PLAY THE CITHARA and does not include singing.

-Kitharizô 1 [kitharis] to play the cithara, phormingi [Apollo] kitharize Il., Hes.; lurêi eraton kitharizôn Hhymn. (so that there can have been no great difference between the kithara, lura, and phorminx ); kitharizein ouk epistatai, of an uneducated person,

-Kithar-isis , eôs, hê, playing on the cithara, Pl.Prt.325e; k. psilê, i.e. without the voice, Id.Lg.669e, cf. Pae.Delph.15; aulêsis kai k. Phld.Mus.p.23 K.

-Arassô ,of any violent impact, with collat. notion of rattling, clanging, as of horses, hoplais, pound in a mortar, strike with a shower of stones.
a). kitharēn strike the lyre, Orph.A.382; humnon, melos, etc., Nonn.D.1.15,440, etc.
2. c. dat. modi, arassein tina oneidesi, kakois, assail with reproaches or threats,
II. Pass., to be dashed against, dash one against the other
Pound in a mortar, “holmō a.Nic. Th.508

If he Spirit OF Christ wanted you to MAKE MUSICAL MELODY when He comes to be our only teacher He would have said something like ; humnon, melos, but that would have been a VIOLENT assault against those who came to hear from JESUS.

The Latin COR or heart is like the word CORDE: people knew enough to know that when you felt something emotionally the heart strings Llterally smote your heart.  In the Greek version "psallo" is ALWAYS translated sing.  If you SMITE a Harp then psallo just means smite and not music because simple harps like guitars are more percussion instruments.

ALL of Paul's letters were Scriptue: they were circular letters to be READ IN ALL of the Churches. The PATTERN was to PREACH the Word by READING the Word of Christ for education, doctrine and comfort.  These churches would not have a PREACHER as in STAFF ruling over the elders.

Col 3:5 Mortify therefore your members which are upon the earth;
......... fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence,
......... and covetousness, which is idolatry:

Col.3:6 For which things sake
......... the wrath of God cometh on the children of disobedience:

Col 3:7 In the which ye also walked sometime, when ye lived in them.

Col 3:8 But now ye also put off all these; anger, wrath [orge], malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth.

Col 3:9 Lie not one to another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his deeds;

Col 3:10 And have put on the new man,
......... which is renewed in knowledge
......... after the image of him that created him:

From the wilderness onward the PATTERN is to Read and Rehearse the Word: the knowledge of Christ is the ONLY way to educate and renew.

Col 3:14 And above all these things put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness.

George Cunningham says that Colossians 3 has nothing to do with the assembly: where else would widely-scattered people gather  (synagogue) to TEACH one another.  Note: there are no preachers involved: teaching one another happens by direct command in Romans 15 when you shut down all of the self-pleasure and "use one mind and one mouth to teach that which is written for our learning" or "Comfort of the Scripture."  You may insult God when you command them to hire someone to teach something HE HAS WRITTEN when you cannot find a less effective way than lectures which people ignore.

Col 3:15 And let the peace of God rule in your hearts,
        to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful.

Why would George want to DESTROY the peace by SPLITTING the church into TWO bodies based on their musical preferences? And then tell the people whose PEACE has been DESTROYED that if they don't attend the instrumental service it is none of their business.

Sōma  6. in NT, of the sacramental body of Christ, “touto esti to s. mouEv.Matt.26.26, cf. 1 Ep.Cor.10.16.
b. of the body of Christ's church, “hoi polloi hen s. esmen en KhristōEp.Rom.12.5; ekklēsia hētis esti to s. tou Khristou] Ep.Eph.1.23.

Both the Greek and Jewish synagogue assembled EACH Rest day: nothing was discussed which did not come from a higher authority.
The Ekklesia met roughly each week and nothing was allowed which did not come from a higher authority.
Stephen identified the Ekklesia with the Synagogue or Church of Christ in the wilderness.
If ANYONE tried to speak out of their own head or sing and play they would be cast out like dung just as Jesus cast out the musical minstrels "like dung."

Col 3:16 Let the word [logos] of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom;
teaching [didaskontes] and admonishing [nouthetountes] one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
         singing with
grace IN [en] your hearts to the Lord

Hymns "was that part of the Hallel consisting of Psalms 113-118; where the verb itself is rendered 'to sing praises' or 'praise' Acts 16:25; Heb 2:12. The Psalms are called, in general, 'hymns,' by Philo; Josephus calls them 'songs and hymns.'" Vine on Humneo

None of the instrumental discorders have ANY intention of using the poetic but not metrical history of the Jews as a way to TEACH or WARN people NOT to try to restore Animal Slaughter Music which was Soothsaying with instruments.

The Inclusive-Exclusive PATTERN left by Jesus was:
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations,
        baptizing them in the name [singular] of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:
        and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen. 

The only assembly from the wilderness onward:

          It  was INCLUSIVE of Rest, Reading and Rehearsing the Word of God.
                That is accomplished by Paul in the commands
                To SPEAK that which is written for our learning.
                Sing and Psallo IN THE HEART.

           It was EXCLUSIVE of the ALARM which was vocal or instrumental rejoicing.

           The Alarm means "vocal or instrumental rejoicing including self-speakers."
                    With Paul both Aoide and Psallo spoke of making war or enchantment or sorcery.

I don't intend to be nasty, but being BOUND to Rick Atchley will cause you to blaspheme.       
  1.         If you say that God COMMANDED instruments when He comes to be the only teacher when the elders (only) teach that which has been taught
  2.         And all of Scripture has God condemning instruments beginning with the "singing and harp playing prostitute" in the Garden of Eden.
  3.         Then the Spirit OF Christ (not the voice the preacher is hearing) says that you despise the Word
             and that means blaspheming the Holy Spirit OF CHRIST.
Paul commanded that we SPEAK that which is written: he includes NOT musical content because even we simple folk don't sing and clap and play when Jesus comes to HIS School of Christ in the words of the Campbells where worship is Reading and Musing the Word.
An ode is the opposite of SPEAK
Odesong, lay, ode, dirges, BUT, joyful songs
II. adorning or ennobling victory, melos, humnos, P
khairontes ōdēs . . melesinAr.Ra.244 [rejoicing in the song's diving melodies,
2  epōdos, magic song, spell, Longus 2.7.
And ODE Opposite lexis

And Speaking is Opposite to an ODE
lexis , eōs, , (legō B) A.speech, Opposite. ōdē, Pl.Lg.816d;

If you deny that then Christ sends strong delusions so that you perform lying wonders. Lying wonders are religious observations using the wonders of singing, playing, acting and dancing (Dancing is included in MUSIC).

That is why Christ warned about speakers, singers and instrument players as sorcerers.
When this happens it is the mark of Jesus coming to remove the lamps or seven spirits of knowledge.
That is why no church 'acting' in the hypocritic sense will ever obey the direct command to teach that which is written.
And in the boasts of Rick Atchley that is to Teach your youth to leave or movement.  A far, far more honorable thing would be for the false elders to go find an instrumental church so they can SAVE MORE SOULS.

tēnella ō kallinike Khair' anax Hēraklees

, on, (nikē) of dirges, “pollas thrēnōn ōdasS.El.88
A.gloriously triumphant, tōn ekhthrōntriumphant over one's HATED enemies,engage in hostility.
Epithet. of Helios, “tēnella ō kallinike Khair' anax Hēraklees
deka zeuxe Mousan en ōdais
II.adorning or ennobling victory, melos, humnos, Pi.P.5.106, N.4.16c odd.; ō'da, mousa

   1. c. dat. rei, rejoice at, take pleasure in a thing, “nikēhēdomai kai khairomai
Herakles [Eros] When Christ identifies Tyre as "lucifer the singing and harp playing prostitute" he was spaking of the Greek god Heracles and identified with the Phoenician Melqart.  This would later be the worship Antiochus tried to impose in Jerusalem: that involved the young Jewish men (who did not flee) to "to wear the Hat of Hermes" and become sexual priests right in the temple. Ezekiel opposed the cult of Baal by Jezebel (from Sidon)


Eur. Med. 197 You would be right to call men of old foolish, not at all wise:
        for while they invented songs for festivities, banquets, and dinners and added pleasant sounds to human life,
        [195] no one discovered how to put an end to mortals' bitter griefs with music and song sung to the lyre.
It is because of these griefs that deaths and terrible disasters overthrow houses. It would have been a gain for mortals [200] to cure these ills by song. Where there are feasts of plenty, why do they raise the loud song to no purpose? The abundance of the feast at hand provides mortals with its own pleasure.Exit Nurse into the house.

If you want Jesus to LAMENT (sing) and DANCE while you INITIATE Him into the always-gay priest hood then
pollas thrēnōn ōdasS.El.88

If your ODE is POETIC then just say so: don't accuse Jesus and Paul with being terminally ignorant
ōdai kai allē poiēsis lyric poetry and

If you want to ODE with MUSIC then for goodness sakes SAY SO.
deka zeuxe Mousan en ōdais

If you want to SING the ode with MELODY then you are smart enough to just SAY SO.
        “en tais ōdais kai melesin” Kai or and means that ODES do not include MELOS or melody
        Paul commanded SPEAK the Odes.

If you INTEND to use a harp you are SMART enough to SAY so.
        “kitharizein pros tēn ōdes.

Aristophanes connects SINGING as in ODES with Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon) and the Muses: the Muses were known as "dirty adulteresses" and John in Revelation 18 calls the Sorcerers: witches.  This was the same function of the Jacob-Cursed and God-Abandoned Levites to the worship of the STARRY HOST.  Apollo was worshipped as the SUN GOD in all paganism.

Aristoph. Frogs 225
Rightly so, you busybody.
the Muses of the fine lyre love us
And so does horn-crested Pan, playing his reed pipe.
And the harpist Apollo delights in us as well,
On account of the reed, which as a bridge for his lyre
I nourish in the water of the pond.
Brekekekex koax koax.

Aristophanes also knows that if you connect MUSICAL MELODY to and ODE you just say so.

No, all the more
will we sing, if ever
On a sunshiny day,
we leaped through the weeds
and the rushes, rejoicing in the song's
diving melodies, [Melos: Psallo never means Musical Melody. Psallo is parallel to GRACE0
or fleeing Zeus' rain
at the bottom our watery dance—
song we sang
with bubbles and splashes.

There can be no doubt that Churches of Christ which refused to COMFORM to the instrumental invasion and refuse to CONFIRM and continue to teach that imposing instruments into the School of Christ IS defined as a sin against people even in civil societies, have endured more than a hundred years of hatred.  The louder godly members protest against the ungodly concept of Worship Teams, the louder and more outrageous they become.   Such singing as in the MOCKING of Jesus has always been a way to GLORIOUSLY TRIUMPH over one's HATED ENEMIES. That is what Jesus promised to those who would be UNITED by Teaching the Word which God delivered by His breath (Spirit) to the SON Who SPAKE without METRON which in a religious sense means WITHOUT METER because "evil people set their lies to melodies to deceive the simple."


Forcing Paul to say "Singing audibly and making music WITH a harp" may be proof that strong delusions have set in.  The Judas bag was "for carrying the mouth pieces of wind instruments."  The SOP has the same root meaning as PSALLO: when Jesus flashed the SOP sign Judas was abandoned and Satan came into him and you know the rest of the story of self-redeemers.

Any Greek schoolboy could undersand that TWO things are to take place in the School OF Christ
Teaching is something you do by SPEAKING and the only recourse is the WORD of the Lord.
The EFFECT is IN the heart and directed TO the Lord and not the seeking butterflies.

See a Page on LOGOS to see that using "machines for doing hard work is ANTI-Christian."

logos , ho, verbal noun of legō (
c.  In Neo-Platonic Philos., of regulative and formative forces, derived from the intelligible and operative in the sensible universe,
IV.  inward debate of the soul

Opposite to epithumia
 A. desire, yearning, longing after a thing, desire of or for it, Theaomai :--gaze at, behold, mostly with a sense of wonder3. view as spectators

Opposite Pathos  A. that which happens to a person or thing, incident, accident,
where this incident took place, unfortunate accident,
2. what one has experienced, good or bad, experience
II. of the soul, emotion, passion (“legō de pathē . . holōs hois hepetai hēdonē ē lupēArist.EN1105b21), “sophiē psukhēn pathōn aphaireitai
Opposite Enthousi-astikos , ē, on, A. inspired,phusisPl.Ti.71e; esp. by music,
Without   Prooimion  A. opening, introduction; in Music, prelude, overture, Pi.P.1.4; in poems, proëm, preamble, 
Pind. P. 1 Golden lyre, rightful 
    joint possession of Apollo [Abaddon, Apollyon]
    and the violet-haired Muses, [Filthy shepherds, sorcerers Rev 18]

Col 3:17 And whatsoever ye do in word [logo] or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him

di^daskō   instruct a person, or teach a thing, have one taught or educated,, II. abs., explain,pōs ; didaxonA.Eu. 431; “saphōs d.Th.2.60, etc.; show by argument, prove,legōn didasketōX.An.5.7.11


Jesus didn't COMMAND musical instruments, therefore, you cannot IMPOSE musical instruments without violating the command of Paul.
The Spirit OF Christ outlawed rhetoric, singing or playing instruments in prophets such as Ezekiel 33.  These were called HYPOCRITES to identify the Scribes and Pharisees.

Psalms, Hymns and Spiritual songs are ALL in the book of psalms: speaking our own words was outlawed by Christ in Isaiah 58.
The Word of Christ IS SPIRIT (John 6:63) and the only source of LIFE.
The Word of Christ does not command instruments but repudiates them from the Church in the wilderness onward.
WORD has a clear ANTI-musical meaning because God is not infantile

EXTERNAL: Speak to yourselves with psalms, hymns and spiritual songs. These are all Biblical and there are about 50 Mizmors without naming an insrrument.
INTERNAL: The Warning and the Effect. Both singing AND psallo are to be IN the heard and directed to God.


From Summa Theologica by Aquinas
b. 1224/25, Roccasecca, near Aquino, Terra di Lavoro, Kingdom of Sicily
d. March 7, 1274, Fossanova, near Terracina, Latium, PapalStates;


Aquinas poses objections to audible "singing" when everyone knew that Paul never commanded singing or praising but teaching:

Objection 1: It would seem that God should not be praised with song. For the Apostle says (Col. 3:16): "Teaching and admonishing one another in psalms, hymns and spiritual canticles."

Now we should employ nothing in the divine worship, save what is delivered to us on the authority of Scripture. Therefore it would seem that, in praising God, we should employ, not corporal but spiritual canticles.

Reply to Objection 1: The name of spiritual canticle may be given not only to those that are sung inwardly in spirit, but also to those that are sung outwardly with the lips, inasmuch as such like canticles arouse spiritual devotion.

Objection 2: Further, Jerome in his commentary on Eph. 5:19, "Singing and making melody in your hearts to the Lord," says: "Listen, young men whose duty it is to recite the office in church: God is to be sung not with the voice but with the heart. Nor should you, like play-actors, ease your throat and jaws with medicaments, and make the church resound with theatrical measures and airs." Therefore God should not be praised with song.

Reply to Objection 2: Jerome does not absolutely condemn singing, but reproves those who sing theatrically in church not in order to arouse devotion, but in order to show off, or to provoke pleasure. Hence Augustine says (Confess. x, 33):

"When it befalls me to be more moved by the voice than by the words sung, I confess to have sinned penally, and then had rather not hear the singer."

Objection 4: Further, in the Old Law God was praised with musical instruments and human song, according to Ps. 32:2,3: "Give praise to the Lord on the harp, sing to Him with the psaltery, the instrument of ten strings. Sing to Him a new canticle." But the Church does not make use of musical instruments such as harps and psalteries, in the divine praises, for fear of seeming to imitate the Jews. Therefore in like manner neither should song be used in the divine praises.

Reply to Objection 4: As the Philosopher says (Polit. viii, 6), "Teaching should not be accompanied with a flute or any artificial instrument such as the harp or anything else of this kind: but only with such things as make good hearers."

For such like musical instruments move the soul to pleasure rather than create a good disposition within it. In the Old Testament instruments of this description were employed, both because the people were more coarse and carnal---so that they needed to be aroused by such instruments as also by earthly promises---and because these material instruments were figures of something else.

So, you see, it was a theological PERMISSION which approved of AUDIBLE singing as oposed to SILENT MEDITATION. That's certain because:

The Command is to use one mind and one mouth to speak that which is written for our learning
There is nothing written in the Bible which CAN be sung: people matched their voice to a harp note and never an accompaniment.
The Direct Command is to SPEAK the Word or that which is written.
The LOGOS as the speaking resource is Opposite to rhetoric, singing, poetry or acting.
These are defined as the HYPOCRITIC arts and crafts and the mark of Scribes and Pharisees.


And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David; Luke 1:69
And it came to pass, as she
continued praying before the Lord, that Eli marked her mouth. 1 Sam 1:12
AND Hannah prayed, and said,
My heart rejoiceth in the Lord, mine horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over mine enemies; because I rejoice in thy salvation. 1 Sa 2:1

Philo disparages instrumental in comparison to vocal music:
Johannes Quasten, Music and Worship in Pagan andd Christian Antiquity, notes of Philo:

All the melodious sounds produced by wind and stringed instruments fall as short of the music that comes from nightingales and swans, as a copy and imitation falls short of an original, or a perishable species of an imperishable genus. For we cannot compare the music produced by the human voice with that produced in any other way, since it has no pre-eminent gift of articulation, for which it is prized.


"And indeed though the worshippers bring nothing else, in bringing themselves they offer the best of sacrifices, the full and truly perfect oblation of noble living, as they honor with hymns and thanksgivings their Benefactor and Savior, God, sometimes with the organs of speech, sometimes without tongue or lips, when within the soul alone their minds recite the tale or utter the cry of praise. These one ear only can apprehend, the ear of God."

"According to what has been said, it can be seen that the doctrine of the 'spiritual sacrifice' not only repudiated bloody sacrifices but also rejected music, particularly instrumental music, as a means of worshipping God. Although the 'spiritual sacrifice' was originally explained in terms of hymns of praise to God's goodness and majesty, its logical development eventually considered singing unsuitalbe for divine worship." p. 54-55

Ode of Solomon 26:1-4  

The Word of God as His power is represented as waters, tongues of fire, wind, a played harp, a trumpet, and a sword. Ante-Nicene Fathers often contrasted the human voice and spirit to the musical instruments of paganism and some Jewish practices. Writers before and after the time of Christ had made this analogy clear. For instance, from the Odes of Solomon we hear:

"As the hand moves over the harp, and the strings speak, so speaks in my members the Spirit of the Lord, and I speak by His love. For it destroys what is foreign, and everything that is bitter." Ode 6:1-3

In the language of Paul, when Solomon's "plucked prophet" teaches the Word of the Lord a spirit of unity is produced. Later, the writer prays to God and asks:

"Teach me the Psalms of thy truth,
that I may bring forth fruit in thee: And
open to me the
harp of thy Holy Spirit,
that with all its notes I may praise thee, O Lord." Ode 14:7-8

Holding a harp does not mean p;laying a harp: it means to APPREHEND the Word of God

In a later Ode these harps, symbolic of Spirit, produce an ode which does not include literal instruments:

I poured out praise to the Lord, for I am His: and
I will
speak His Holy song, for my heart is with Him.
For His
harp is in my hands, and the Odes of His rest shall not be silent.

I will cry unto him from my whole heart: I will praise and exalt Him with all my members." Ode 26:1-4

"A new psalm with song in gladness of heart, the fruit of the lips with the well-tuned instrument of the tongue, the first fruits of the lips from a pious and righteous heart" Psalms of Solomon, 15:3

Justin Martyr Chapter VIII.-Antiquity, Inspiration, and Harmony of Christian Teachers.

Since therefore it is impossible to learn anything true concerning religion from your teachers, who by their mutual disagreement have furnished you with sufficient proof of their own ignorance, I consider it reasonable to recur to our progenitors, who both in point of time have by a great way the precedence of your teachers, and who have taught us nothing from their own private fancy, nor differed with one another, nor attempted to overturn one another's positions,

but without wrangling and contention received from God the knowledge which also they taught to us.
For neither by nature nor by human conception is it possible for men to know things so great and divine,

but by the gift which then descended from above upon the holy men, who had no need of rhetorical art, 25 nor of uttering anything in a contentious or quarrelsome manner, but to present Themselves  

to the energy of the Divine Spirit, in order that the divine plectrum itself, descending from heaven, and using righteous men as an instrument like a harp or lyre, might reveal to us the knowledge of things divine and heavenly.

Wherefore, as if with one mouth and one tongue, they have in succession, and in harmony with one another, taught us both concerning God, and the creation of the world, and the formation of man, and concerning the immortality of the human soul, and the judgment which is to be after this life, and concerning all things which it is needful for us to know, and thus in divers times and places have afforded us the divine instruction. 

[The diversities of Christian theology are to be regretted; but Justin here shows the harmony and order of truths, such as are everywhere received by Christians, to be an inestimable advantage.] (Justin's Horatory Address to the Greeks, Chapt. VIII)

Justin had read Romans 15 which is apparently off limits: self pleasue includes self-speaking, singing, playing or acting
Romans 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification.
Romans 15:3 For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written,
        The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me.
Romans 15:4 For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning,
        that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.
Romans 15:5 Now the God of patience and consolation
        grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:
Romans 15:6 That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Contrary to the Heritage Elders still remaining
Romans 15:18 For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ hath not wrought by me
        to make the Gentiles obedient, by word and deed,
Romans 15:19 Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God;
        so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum,
        I have fully preached the gospel of Christ.
Romans 15:20 Yea, so have I strived to preach the gospel,
        not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon another man’s foundation:


Speaking HYMNS means SPEAKING HYMNS: the effect is singing in the heart or spirit.

Ode (g5603) o-day'; from 103; a chant or "ode" the gen. term for any words sung; while 5215 denotes espec. a religious metrical composition, and 5568 still more spec. a Heb. cantillation): - song.

THE PATTERN DEFINED BY JESUS FOR A ONCE A YEAR HYMN: Songs were dedicated and rote singing was called Idolatry: we don't use INSTRUMENTS when we PRAY a HYMN.

Matthew 26.30 When they had 'hymned" they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Matthew 26.30  et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Oliveti

Hymnus , i, m., = humnos, I. a song of praise, a hymn: “hymnus cantus est cum laude Dei,Aug. Enarr. in Psa. 148, 17; Ambros. Expos. Psa. 118, prol. § 3; Lucil. ap. Non. 330, 9; Prud. Cath. 37 praef.; 4, 75: “divinorum scriptor hymnorum, Lact. 4, 8, 14; Vulg. Psa. 60 tit.; id. Matt. 26, 30.

Plat. Laws 700b one class of song was that of PRAYERS to the gods, which bore the name of “HYMNS

Psalm 60 A teaching poem by David, when he fought with Aram Naharaim and with Aram Zobah, and Joab returned, and killed twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt.
God, you have rejected us. You have broken us down. You have been angry. Restore us, again. [2] You have made the land tremble. You have torn it. Mend its fractures, For it quakes. [3] You have shown your people hard things. You have made us drink the wine that makes us stagger.
There is no SINGING TUNEFULLY involved in hymning:

Dīcoto say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor stands for the Gr. eipein pros tina,
4. To describe, relate, sing, celebrate in writing (mostly poet.): “tibi dicere laudes,

Ontōs , Adv. part. of eimi A. (sum), really, actually, verily, with Verb
Alēth-ēs a^, Dor. ala_thēs , es, (lēthō, [THY WORD IS TRUTH]
I. Hom., Opposite. pseudēs, in phrases alēthea muthēsasthai, eipein, agoreuein, alēthes enispein
3. of oracles, true, unerring, “alathea mantiōn thōkonPi. P.11.6, cf. S.Ph.993, E.Ion1537; of dreams, A.Th.710. “alēthei logō khrasthaiHdt. 1.14
        Opposite Epos 1. song or lay ACCOMPANIED by music, 8.91,17.519. b. generally, poetry, even lyrics
        5. celebrate, of poets, “Aiantos bian

Pliny. In a letter to the Roman Emperor Trajan he wrote: 
The word for "chant" is dicere carmen, which more appropriately describes the act of reciting a set form of words than it does singing. "Taking turns" refers to antiphonal recitations Justin Martyr, a pagan converted to Christianity in the second century, composed the First Apology and sent it to his Emperor, Antonius Pius. His treatise includes a description of the early church's liturgy:

And so on the day called Sunday, there is an assembly in one place of all who live in the cities or in the country; the memorial of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read as long as time allows. After the reader has finished, the presiding officer verbally instructs and exhorts us to imitate these shining examples.

This practice of reading in Christian worship had its roots in Judaism. The first record of the use of oral performance of texts is in 2 Kings 22:3. In the eighteenth year of the reign of King Josiah (which is dated 621 BC), the Book of Deuteronomy was discovered in the Temple by Hilkiah, the high priest, and was given to Shaphan, Josiah's secretary. Josiah heard it read aloud, then ordered it to be read aloud to the people:

The Apostle Paul certainly expected that his letters should be read aloud in worship, and he wrote them with that understanding. At the end of 1 Thessalonians, Paul instructs "that this letter be read to all of them" (5:27), and in Colossians, Paul says, "when this letter has been read among you, have it read also in the church of the Laodiceans; and see that you read also the letter from Laodicea" (4:16-17). Oral reading was so important at this time that silent reading was often forbidden! One Jewish rabbi admonished another as follows: "O keen scholar, open your mouth and read (the written tradition), open your mouth and repeat (the oral tradition) so that (your knowledge) may be maintained in you and that which you have learned may live." 7

In I Timothy 4:13, Paul exhorts Timothy to "give attention to the public reading of scripture" until he arrives. One scholar believes that the reading of 1 Thessalonians was an "event which contributed to the formation of the Christian church at Thessalonica.118 First Thessalonians is an example in early church history where an act of public reading "allowed the believers at Thessalonica to come into existence as the church of God."9 Public reading of the apostolic letter was aimed at "building up" the "Body of Christ"! (1 Corinthians 14).

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