The Epistle of Barnabas and the Lord's DayPut your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat flesh. Jer 7:21 For I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices: INTRODUCTORY NOTE TO THE EPISTLE OF BARNABAS.
[a.d. 100.] The writer of this Epistle is supposed to have been an Alexandrian Jew of the times of Trajan and Hadrian. He was a layman; but possibly he bore the name of "Barnabas," and so has been confounded with his holy and apostolic name-sire. It is more probable that the Epistle, being anonymous, was attributed to St. Barnabas, by those who supposed that apostle to be the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and who discovered similarities in the plan and purpose of the two works. It is with great reluctance that I yield to modern scholars, in dismissing the ingenious and temperate argument of Archbishop Wake for the apostolic origin of this treatise. The learned Lardner shares his convictions; and the very interesting and ingenious views of Jones never appeared to me satisfactory, weighed with preponderating arguments, on the other side.
The Maccabaean spirit of the Jews never burned more furiously than after the destruction of Jerusalem, and while it was kindling the conflagration that broke out under Barchochebas, and blazed so terribly in the insurrection against Hadrian. It is not credible that the Jewish Christians at Alexandria and elsewhere were able to emancipate themselves from their national spirit; and accordingly the old Judaizing, which St. Paul had anathematized and confuted, would assert itself again. If such was the occasion of this Epistle, as I venture to suppose, a higher character must be ascribed to it than could otherwise be claimed. This accounts, also, for the degree of favour with which it was accepted by the primitive faithful.
It is interesting as a specimen of their conflicts with a persistent Judaism which St. Paul had defeated and anathematized, but which was ever cropping out among believers originally of the Hebrews. Their own habits of allegorizing, and their Oriental tastes, must be borne in mind, if we are readily disgusted with our author's fancies and refinements. St.
Paul himself pays a practical tribute to their modes of thought, in his Epistle to the Galatians 4: 24. This is the ad hominemform of rhetoric, familiar to all speakers, which laid even the apostle open to the slander of enemies (2 Corinthians 12: 16),- that he was "crafty," and caught men with guile. It is interesting to note the more Occidental spirit of Cyprian, as compared with our author, when he also contends with Judaism. Doubtless we have in the pseudo-Barnabas something of that aeconomywhich is always capable of abuse, and which was destined too soon to overleap the bounds of its moral limitations.
It is to be observed that this writer sometimes speaks as a Gentile, a fact which some have found it difficult to account for, on the supposition that he was a Hebrew, if not a Levite as well. But so, also, St. Paul sometimes speaks as a Roman, and sometimes as a Jew; and, owing to the mixed character of the early Church, he writes to the Romans 4: 1 as if they were all Israelites, and again to the same Church (Romans 11: 13) as if they were all Gentiles. So this writer sometimes identifies himself with Jewish thought as a son of Abraham, and again speaks from the Christian position as if he were a Gentile, thus identifying himself with the catholicity of the Church.
But the subject thus opened is vast; and "the Epistle of Barnabas," so called, still awaits a critical editor, who at the same time shall be a competent expositor. Nobody can answer these requisitions, who is unable, for this purpose, to be a Christian of the days of Trajan.
But it will be observed that this version has great advantages over any of its predecessor, and is a valuable acquisition to the student. The learned translators have had before them the entire Greek text of the fourth century, disfigured is true by corruptions, but still very precious, the rather as they have been able to compare it with the text of Hilgenfeld. Their editorial notes are sufficient for our own plan; and little has been left for me to do, according to the scheme of this publication, save to revise the "copy" for printing. I am glad to presume no further into such a labyrinth, concerning which the learned and careful Wake modestly professes, "I have endeavoured to attain to the sense of my author, and to make him as plain and easy as I was able. If in anything I have chanced to mistake him, I have only this to say for myself: that he must be better acquainted with the road than I pretend to be, who will undertake to travel so long a journey in the dark and never to miss his way."
Whatever its origin, "Barnabas" expresses his opinions which have at least the value of people removed 2,000 years from the events.
The Epistle of Barnabas 1
Chapter I.-After the Salutation, the Writer Declares that He Would Communicate to His Brethren Something of that Which He Had Himself Received.
All hail, ye sons and daughters, in the nameof our Lord 2 Jesus Christ, who loved us in peace.
Seeing that the divine fruits 3 of righteousness abound among you, I rejoice exceedingly and above measure in your happy and honoured spirits, because ye have with such effect received the engrafted 4 spiritual gift. Wherefore also I inwardly rejoice the more, hoping to be saved,
I am therefore pursuaded of this, and fully convinced in my own mind, that since I began to speak among you I understand many things, because the Lord hath accompanied me in the way of righteousness. I am also on this account bound 7 by the strictest obligation to love you above my own soul, because great are the faith and love dwelling in you, while you hope for the life which He has promised. 8
Considering this, therefore, that if I should take the trouble to communicate to you some portion of what I have myself received,
it will prove to me a sufficient reward that I minister to such spirits, I have hastened briefly to write unto you, in order that, along with your faith, ye might have perfect knowledge.
Who also hath made us able ministers of the new testament; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. 2Co.3:6
For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting. Ga.6:8
The doctrines of the Lord, then, are three: 9 the hope of life, the beginning and the completion of it.
For the Lord hath made known to us by the prophets both the things which are past and present, giving us also the first-fruits of the knowledge 10 of things to come, which things as we see accomplished, one by one, we ought with the greater richness of faith 11 and elevation of spirit to draw near to Him with reverence. 12 I then, not as your teacher, but as one of yourselves, will set forth a few things by which in present circumstances ye may be rendered the more joyful.
Chapter II.-The Jewish Sacrifices are Now Abolished.
........... Since, therefore, the days are evil, and Satan 13 possesses the power of this world,
........... we ought to give heed to ourselves, and diligently inquire into the ordinances of the Lord.
Fear and patience, then, are helpers of our faith; and long-suffering and continence are things which fight on our side. While these remain pure in what respects the Lord, Wisdom, Understanding, Science, and Knowledge rejoice along with them. 14
AND there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots: Isa 11:1
And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord; Isa 11: 2
And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the Lord: and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears: Isa 11: 3
But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. Isa 11: 4
For He hath revealed to us by all the prophets that He needs neither sacrifices, nor burnt-offerings, nor oblations, saying thus,
"What is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me, saith the Lord? I am full of burnt-offerings, and desire not the fat of lambs, and the blood of bulls and goats, not when ye come to appear before Me:
for who hath required these things at your hands?
Tread no more My courts, not though ye bring with you fine flour. Incense is a vain abomination unto Me, and your new moonsand sabbaths I cannot endure." 15
Hear the word of the Lord, ye rulers of Sodom; give ear unto the law of our God, ye people of Gomorrah. Isaiah 1:10
To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the Lord: I am full of the burnt offerings of rams, and the fat of fed beasts; and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats. Isaiah 1:11
When ye come to appear before me, who hath required this at your hand, to tread my courts? Isaiah 1:12
Bring no more vainoblations; incenseis an abomination unto me; the new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with; it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting. Isaiah 1:13
Your new moons and your appointed feasts my soul hateth: they are a trouble unto me; I am weary to bear them. Isaiah 1:14
He has therefore abolished these things, that the new law of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is without the yoke of necessity, might have a human oblation. 16
16 Thus in the Latin. The Greek reads, "might not have a man-made oblation." The Latin text seems preferable, implying that, instead of the outward sacrifices of the law,
........... there is now required a dedication of man himself.
........... Hilgenfeld follows the Greek.
And again He says to them, "Did I command your fathers, when they went out from the land of Egypt, to offer unto Me burnt-offerings and sacrifices?
But this rather I commanded them, Let no one of you cherish any evil in his heart against his neighbour, and love not an oath of falsehood." 17
Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Put your burnt offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat flesh. Jer 7:21
For I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices: Jer 7:22
But this thing commanded I them, saying, Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people: and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you, that it may be well unto you. Jer 7:23
But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked in the counsels and in the imagination of their evil heart, and went backward, and not forward. Jer 7:24
Since the day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Egypt unto this day, I have even sent unto you all my servants the prophets, daily rising up early and sending them: Jer 7:25
Yet they hearkened not unto me, nor inclined their ear, but hardened their neck: they did worse than their fathers. Jer 7:26
We ought therefore, being possessed of understanding, to perceive the gracious intention of our Father; for He speaks to us, desirous that we, not 18 going astray like them, should ask how we may approach Him.
To us, then, He declares, "A sacrifice [pleasing] to God is a broken spirit;
a smell of sweet savour to the Lord is a heart that glorifieth Him that made it." 19 We ought therefore, brethren, carefully to inquire concerning our salvation, lest the wicked one, having made his entrance by deceit, should hurl 20 us forth from our [true] life.
He says then to them again concerning these things, "Why do ye fast to Me as on this day, saith the Lord, that your voice should be heard with a cry? I have not chosen this fast, saith the Lord, that a man should humble his soul. Nor, though ye bend your neck like a ring, and put upon you sackcloth and ashes, will ye call it an acceptable fast." 21
To us He saith, "Behold, this is the fast that I have chosen, saith the Lord, not that a man should humble his soul, but that he should loose every band of iniquity, untie the fastenings of harsh agreements, restore to liberty them that are bruised, tear in pieces every unjust engagement, feed the hungry with thy bread, clothe the naked when thou seest him, bring the homeless into thy house, not despise the humble if thou behold him, and not [turn away] from the members of thine own family. Then shall thy dawn break forth, and thy healing shall quickly spring up, and righteousness shall go forth before thee, and the glory of God shall encompass thee; and then thou shalt call, and God shall hear thee; whilst thou art yet speaking, He shall say, Behold, I am with thee; if thou take away from thee the chain [binding others], and the stretching forth of the hands 22 [to swear falsely], and words of murmuring, and give cheerfully thy bread to the hungry, and show compassion to the soul that has been humbled." 23 To this end, therefore, brethren, He is long-suffering, foreseeing how the people whom He has prepared shall with guilelessness believe in His Beloved. For He revealed all these things to us beforehand, that we should not rush forward as rash acceptors of their laws. 24
It therefore behoves us, who inquire much concerning events at hand, 25 to search diligently into those things which are able to save us. Let us then utterly flee from all the works of iniquity, lest these should take hold of us; and let us hate the error of the present time, that we may set our love on the world to come: let us not give loose reins to our soul, that it should have power to run with sinners and the wicked, lest we become like them.
The final stumbling-block (or source of danger) approaches, concerning which it is written, as Enoch 26 says, "For for this end the Lord has cut short the times and the days, that His Beloved may hasten; and He will come to the inheritance."
Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity,
........... and to bring in everlasting righteousness,
........... and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. Dan 9:24
Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem, unto the Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. Dan 9:25
And after threescore and two weeks
........... shall Messiah be cut off,
........... but not for himself:
and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. Dan 9:26
And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week
........... he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease,
........... and for the overspreading of abominationshe shall make it desolate,
........... even until the consummation,
........... ........... and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate. Dan 9:27
And the prophet also speaks thus: "Ten kingdoms shall reign upon the earth, and a little king shall rise up after them, who shall subdue under one three of the kings. 27 In like manner Daniel says concerning the same, "And I beheld the
fourth beast, wicked and powerful, and more savage than all the beasts of the earth, and how
from it sprang up ten horns, and out of them a little budding horn, and how it subdued under one three of the great horns." 28
Ye ought therefore to understand. And this also I further beg of you, as being one of you, and loving you both individually and collectively more than my own soul, to take heed now to yourselves, and not to be like some, adding largely to your sins, and saying,
"The covenant is both theirs and ours." 29
........... But they thus finally lost it, after Moses had already received it.
For the Scripture saith, "And Moses was fasting in the mount forty days and forty nights,
and received the covenant from the Lord,
........... tables of stone written with the finger of the hand of the Lord; " 30
........... but turning away to idols, they lost it.
For the Lord speaks thus to Moses: "Moses go down quickly; for the people whom thou hast brought out of the land of Egypt have transgressed." 31 And Moses understood [the meaning of God],
and cast the two tables out of his hands; and their covenant was broken,
in order that the covenant of the beloved Jesus might be sealed upon our heart,
........... in the hope which flows from believing in Him. 32
Now, being desirous to write many things to you, not as your teacher, but as becometh one who loves you, I have taken care not to fail to write to you from what I myself possess, with a view to your purification. 33 We take earnest 34 heed in these last days; for the whole [past] time of your faith will profit you nothing, unless now in this wicked time we also withstand coming sources of danger, as becometh the sons of God.
That the Black One 35 may find no means of entrance, let us flee from every vanity, let us utterly hate the works of the way of wickedness. Do not, by retiring apart, live a solitary life, as if you were already [fully] justified; but coming together in one place, make common inquiry concerning what tends to your general welfare. For the Scripture saith, "Woe to them who are wise to themselves, and prudent in their own sight!" 36
Let us be spiritually-minded: let us be a perfect temple to God.
As much as in us lies, let us meditate upon the fear of God,
and let us keep His commandments, that we may rejoice in His ordinances.
The Lord will judge the world without respect of persons. Each will receive as he has done: if he is righteous, his righteousness will precede him; if he is wicked, the reward of wickedness is before him. Take heed, lest resting at our ease, as those who are the called [of God], we should fall asleep in our sins, and the wicked prince, acquiring power over us, should thrust us away from the kingdom of the Lord. And all the more attend to this, my brethren, when ye reflect and behold, that after so great signs and wonders were wrought in Israel, they were thus [at length] abandoned. Let us beware lest we be found [fulfilling that saying], as it is written, "Many are called, but few are chosen." 37
For to this end the Lord endured to deliver up His flesh to corruption, that we might be sanctified through the remission of sins, which is effected by His blood of sprinkling.
For it is written concerning Him, partly with reference to Israel, and partly to us; and [the Scripture] saith thus: "He was wounded for our transgressions, and braised for our iniquities: with His stripes we are healed. He was brought as a sheep to the slaughter, and as a lamb which is dumb before its shearer." 38 Therefore we ought to be deeply grateful to the Lord, because He has both made known to us things that are past, and hath given us wisdom concerning things present, and hath not left us without understanding in regard to things which are to come. Now, the Scripture saith, "Not unjustly are nets spread out for birds." 39 This means that the man perishes justly, who, having a knowledge of the way of righteousness, rushes off into the way of darkness.
And further, my brethren: if the Lord endured to suffer for our soul, He being Lord of all the world, to whom God said at the foundation of the world, "Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness," 40 understand how it was that He endured to suffer at the hand of men.
The prophets, having obtained grace from Him, prophesied concerning Him. And He (since it behoved Him to appear in flesh),
........... that He might abolish death,
........... and reveal the resurrection from the dead,
endured [what and as He did], in order that He might fulfill the promise made unto the fathers, and by preparing a new people for Himself, might show, while He dwelt on earth, that He, when He has raised mankind, will also judge them.
Moreover, teaching Israel, and doing so great miracles and signs, He preached [the truth] to him, and greatly loved him. But when He chose His own apostles who where to preach His Gospel, [He did so from among those] who were sinners above all sin, that He might show He came "not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." 41
Then He manifested Himself to be the Son of God.
For if He had not come in the flesh,
how could men have been saved by beholding Him? 42
Since looking upon the sun which is to cease to exist, and is the work of His hands, their eyes are not able to bear his rays.
The Son of God therefore came in the flesh with this view,
that He might bring to a head the sum of their sins
who had persecuted His prophets 43 to the death.
For this purpose, then, He endured. For God saith, "The stroke of his flesh is from them; " 44 and 45 "when I shall smite the Shepherd, then the sheep of the flock shall be scattered." 46 He himself willed thus to suffer, for it was necessary that He should suffer on the tree.
For says he who prophesies regarding Him,
"Spare my soul from the sword, 47 fasten my flesh with nails;
for the assemblies of the wicked have risen up against me." 48
And again he says, "Behold, I have given my back to scourges, and my cheeks to strokes,
and I have set my countenance as a firm rock." 49
When, therefore, He has fulfilled the commandment, what saith He? "Who is he that will contend with Me? let him oppose Me: or who is he that will enter into judgment with Me? let him draw near to the servant of the Lord." 50 "Woe unto you, for ye shall all wax old, like a garment, and the moth shall eat you up." 51
And again the prophet says,
"Since 52 as a mighty stone He is laid for crushing,
behold I cast down for the foundations of Zion a stone, precious, elect, a corner-stone, honourable."
Next, what says He? "And he who shall trust 53 in it shall live for ever." Is our hope, then, upon a stone? Far from it. But [the language is used] inasmuch as He laid his flesh [as a foundation] with power; for He says,
I write the more simply unto you, that ye may understand. I am the off-scouring of your love. 57 What, then, again says the prophet?
"The assembly of the wicked surrounded me; they encompassed me as bees do a honeycomb," 58 and "upon my garment they cast lots." 59 Since, therefore, He was about to be manifested and to suffer in the flesh, His suffering was foreshown.
For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet. Ps.22:16
Keleb (h3611) keh'leb; from an unused root mean. to yelp, or else to attack; a dog; hence (by euphemism) a male prostitute: - dog.
Edah (h5712) ay-daw'; fem. of 5707 in the orig. sense of fixture; a stated assemblage (spec. a concourse, or gen. a family or crowd: - assembly, company, congregation, multitude, people, swarm.Raa (h7489) raw-ah'; a prim. root; prop. to spoil (lit. by breaking to pieces); fig. to make (or be) good for nothing, i. e. bad (phys., soc. or mor.): - afflict, associate selves [by mistake for 7462], break (down, in pieces), se.
For the prophet speaks against Israel, "Woe to their soul, because they have counselled an evil counsel against themselves, 60 saying, Let us bind the just one, because he is displeasing to us." 61 And Moses also says to them, 62 "Behold these things, saith the Lord God: Enter into the good land which the Lord swore [to give] to Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and inherit ye it, a land flowing with milk and honey." 63 What, then, says Knowledge? 64 Learn: "Trust," she says, "in Him who is to be manifested to you in the flesh-that is, Jesus."
For man is earth in a suffering state, for the formation of Adam was from the face of the earth. What, then, meaneth this:
"into the good land, a land flowing with milk and honey? "Blessed be our Lord, who has placed in us wisdom and understanding of secret things.
For the prophet says, "Who shall understand the parable of the Lord, except him who is wise and prudent, and who loves his Lord? " 65
Therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder: for the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid. Is.29:14
Who hath directed the Spirit of the Lord, or being his counsellor hath taught him? Isa 40:13
A wise man will hear, and will increase learning; and a man of understanding shall attain unto wise counsels: Prov 1:5
To understand a proverb, and the interpretation; the words of the wise, and their dark sayings. Prov 1:6
The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge: but fools despise wisdom and instruction. Prov 1:7
The heart of the prudent getteth knowledge; and the ear of the wise seeketh knowledge.Pr.18:15
At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Mt.11:25
For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent. 1Co.1:19
A holy spirit
Since, therefore, having renewed us by the remission of our sins, He hath made us after another pattern, [it is His purpose] that we should possess the soul of children, inasmuch as He has created us anew by His Spirit. 66
For the Scripture says concerning us, while He speaks to the Son, "Let Us make man after Our image, and after Our likeness; and let them have dominion over the beasts of the earth, and the fowls of heaven, and the fishes of the sea." 67 And the Lord said, on beholding the fair creature 68 man, "Increase, and multiply, and replenish the earth." 69 These things [were spoken] to the Son. Again, I will show thee how, in respect to us, 70 He has accomplished a second fashioning in these last days. The Lord says, "Behold, I will make 71 the last like the first." 72 In reference to this, then, the prophet proclaimed, "Enter ye into the land flowing with milk and honey, and have dominion over it." 73 Behold, therefore, we have been refashioned, as again He says in another prophet, "Behold, saith the Lord, I will take away from these, that is, from those whom the Spirit of the Lord foresaw, their stony hearts, and I will put hearts of flesh within them," 74 because He 75 was to be manifested in flesh, and to sojourn among us.
He says, 78 "I will confess to thee in the Church in the midst 79 of my brethren; and I will praise thee in the midst of the assembly of the saints." 80 We, then, are they whom He has led into the good land. What, then, mean milk and honey? This, that as the infant is kept alive first by honey, and then by milk, so also we, being quickened and kept alive by the faith of the promise and by the word, shall live ruling over the earth.
But He said above, 81 "Let them increase, and rule over the fishes." 82 Who then is able to govern the beasts, or the fishes, or the fowls of heaven? For we ought to perceive that to govern implies authority, so that one should command and rule. If, therefore, this does not exist at present, yet still He has promised it to us. When? When we ourselves also have been made perfect [so as] to become heirs of the covenant of the Lord. 83
Understand, then, ye children of gladness, that the good Lord has foreshown all things to us, that we might know to whom we ought for everything to render thanksgiving and praise. If therefore the Son of God, who is Lord [of all things], and who will judge the living and the dead, suffered, that His stroke might give us life, let us believe that the Son of God could not have suffered except for our sakes. Moreover, when fixed to the cross, He had given Him to drink vinegar and gall. Hearken how the priests of the people 84 gave previous indications of this. His commandment having been written, the Lord enjoined, that whosoever did not keep the fast should be put to death, because He also Himself was to offer in sacrifice for our sins the vessel of the Spirit, in order that the type established in Isaac when he was offered upon the altar might be fully accomplished.
What, then, says He in the prophet? "And let them eat of the goat which is offered, with fasting, for all their sins." 85 Attend carefully: "And let all the priests alone eat the inwards, unwashed with vinegar."
Wherefore? Because to me, who am to offer my flesh for the sins of my new people, ye are to give gall with vinegar to drink: eat ye alone, while the people fast and mourn in sackcloth and ashes.
Take two goats of goodly aspect, and similar to each other, and offer them.
"And all of you spit upon it, and pierce it, and encircle its head with scarlet wool, and thus let it be driven into the wilderness." And when all this has been done, he who bears the goat brings it into the desert, and takes the wool off from it, and places that upon a shrub which is called Rachia, 90 of which also we are accustomed to eat the fruits 91 when we find them in the field.
Of this 92 kind of shrub alone the fruits are sweet. Why then, again, is this? Give good heed. [You see] "one upon the altar, and the other accursed; "and why [do you behold] the one that is accursed crowned? Because they shall see Him then in that day having a scarlet robe about his body down to his feet; and they shall say,
Is not this He whom we once despised, and pierced, and mocked, and crucified? Truly this is 93 He who then declared Himself to be the Son of God. For how like is He to Him! 94 With a view to this, [He required] the goats to be of goodly aspect, and similar, that, when they see Him then coming, they may be amazed by the likeness of the goat.
Behold, then, 95 the type of Jesus who was to suffer. But why is it that they place the wool in the midst of thorns? It is a type of Jesus set before the view of the Church. [They 96 place the wool among thorns], that any one who wishes to bear it away may find it necessary to suffer much, because the thorn is formidable, and thus obtain it only as the result of suffering. Thus also, says He, "Those who wish to behold Me, and lay hold of My kingdom, must through tribulation and suffering obtain Me." 97
Now what do you suppose this to be a type of, that a command was given to Israel, that men of the greatest wickedness 98 should offer a heifer, and slay and burn it, and, that then boys should take the ashes, and put these into vessels, and bind round a stick 99 purple wool along with hyssop, and that thus the boys should sprinkle the people, one by one, in order that they might be purified from their sins? Consider how He speaks to you with simplicity. The calf 100 is Jesus: the sinful men offering it are those who led Him to the slaughter. But now the men are no longer guilty, are no longer regarded as sinners. 101 And the boys that sprinkle are those that have proclaimed to us the remission of sins and purification of heart. To these He gave authority to preach the Gospel, being twelve in number, corresponding to the twelve tribes 102 of Israel. But why are there three boys that sprinkle? To correspond 103 to Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, because these were great with God. And why was the wool [placed] upon the wood? Because by wood Jesus holds His kingdom, so that [through the cross] those believing on Him shall live for ever. But why was hyssop joined with the wool? Because in His kingdom the days will be evil and polluted in which we shall be saved, [and] because he who suffers in body is cured through the cleansing 104 efficacy of hyssop. And on this account the things which stand thus are clear to us, but obscure to them because they did not hear the voice of the Lord.
He speaks moreover concerning our ears, how He hath circumcised both them and our heart. The Lord saith in the prophet, "In the hearing of the ear they obeyed me." 105 And again He saith, "By hearing, those shall hear who are afar off; they shall know what I have done." 106 And, "Be ye circumcised in your hearts, saith the Lord." 107 And again He says, "Hear, O Israel, for these things saith the Lord thy God." 108 And once more the Spirit of the Lord proclaims, "Who is he that wishes to live for ever? By hearing let him hear the voice of my servant." 109 And again He saith, "Hear, O heaven, and give ear, O earth, for God 110 hath spoken." 111 These are in proof. 112 And again He saith, "Hear the word of the Lord, ye rulers of this people." 113 And again He saith, "Hear, ye children, the voice of one crying in the wilderness." 114 Therefore He hath circumcised our ears, that we might hear His word and believe, for the circumcision in which they trusted is abolished. 115 For He declared that circumcision was not of the flesh, but they transgressed because an evil angel deluded them. 116 He saith to them, "These things saith the Lord your God"-(here 117 I find a new 118 commandment)-"Sow not among thorns, but circumcise yourselves to the Lord." 119 And why speaks He thus: "Circumcise the stubbornness of your heart, and harden not your neck? " 120 And again: "Behold, saith the Lord, all the nations are uncircumcised 121 in the flesh, but this people are uncircumcised in heart." 122 But thou wilt say, "Yea, verily the people are circumcised for a seal." But so also is every Syrian and Arab, and all the priests of idols: are these then also within the bond of His covenant? 123 Yea, the Egyptians also practise circumcision. Learn then, my children, concerning all things richly, 124 that Abraham, the first who enjoined circumcision, looking forward in spirit to Jesus, practised that rite, having received the mysteries 125 of the three letters. For [the Scripture] saith, "And Abraham circumcised ten, and eight, and three hundred men of his household." 126 What, then, was the knowledge given to him in this? Learn the eighteen first, and then the three hundred. 127 The ten and the eight are thus denoted-Ten by I, and Eight by H. 128 You have [the initials of the, name of] Jesus. And because 129 the cross was to express the grace [of our redemption] by the letter T, he says also, "Three Hundred." He signifies, therefore, Jesus by two letters, and the cross by one. He knows this, who has put within us the engrafted 130 gift of His doctrine. No one has been admitted by me to a more excellent piece of knowledge 131 than this, but I know that ye are worthy.
Now, wherefore did Moses say, "Thou shalt not eat the swine, nor the eagle, nor the hawk, nor the raven, nor any fish which is not possessed of scales? " 132 He embraced three doctrines in his mind [in doing so]. Moreover, the Lord saith to them in Deuteronomy, "And I will establish my ordinances among this people." 133 Is there then not a command of God they should not eat [these things]? There is, but Moses spoke with a spiritual reference. 134 For this reason he named the swine, as much as to say, "Thou shalt not join thyself to men who resemble swine." For when they live in pleasure, they forget their Lord; but when they come to want, they acknowledge the Lord. And [in like manner] the swine, when it has eaten, does not recognize its master; but when hungry it cries out, and on receiving food is quiet again. "Neither shalt thou eat," says he "the eagle, nor the hawk, nor the kite, nor the raven." "Thou shalt not join thyself," he means, "to such men as know not how to procure food for themselves by labour and sweat, but seize on that of others in their iniquity, and although wearing an aspect of simplicity, are on the watch to plunder others." 135 So these birds, while they sit idle, inquire how they may devour the flesh of others, proving themselves pests [to all] by their wickedness. "And thou shalt not eat," he says, "the lamprey, or the polypus, or the cuttlefish." He means, "Thou shalt not join thyself or be like to such men as are ungodly to the end, and are condemned 136 to death." In like manner as those fishes, above accursed, float in the deep, not swimming [on the surface] like the rest, but make their abode in the mud which lies at the bottom. Moreover, "Thou shall not," he says, "eat the hare." Wherefore? "Thou shall not be a corrupter of boys, nor like unto such." 137 Because the hare multiplies, year by year, the places of its conception; for as many years as it lives so many 138 it has. Moreover, "Thou shall not eat the hyena." He means, "Thou shall not be an adulterer, nor a corrupter, nor be like to them that are such." Wherefore? Because that animal annually changes its sex, and is at one time male, and at another female. Moreover, he has rightly detested the weasel. For he means, "Thou shalt not be like to those whom we hear of as committing wickedness with the mouth, 139 on account of their uncleanness; nor shall thou be joined to those impure women who commit iniquity with the mouth. For this animal conceives by the mouth."
Moses then issued 140 three doctrines concerning meats with a spiritual significance; but they received them according to fleshly desire, as if he had merely spoken of [literal] meats.David, however, comprehends the knowledge of the three doctrines, and speaks in like manner:"Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly," 141 even as the fishes [referred to] go in darkness to the depths [of the sea];Take a full and firm grasp of this spiritual 143 knowledge.
"and hath not stood in the way of sinners," even as those who profess to fear the Lord, but go astray like swine;
"and hath not sat in the seat of scorners," 142 even as those birds that lie in wait for prey.
But Moses says still further, "Ye shall eat every animal that is cloven-footed and ruminant."
What does he mean? [The ruminant animal denotes him] who, on receiving food, recognizes Him that nourishes him, and being satisfied by Him, 144 is visibly made glad. Well spake [Moses], having respect to the commandment.
What, then, does he mean?
That we ought to join ourselves to those that fear the Lord,
those who meditate in their heart on the commandment which they have received,
those who both utter the judgments of the Lord and observe them,
........... those who know that meditation is a work of gladness,
........... and who ruminate 45 upon the word of the Lord.
But what means the cloven-footed? That the righteous man also walks in this world, yet looks forward to the holy state 146 [to come]. Behold how well Moses legislated. But how was it possible for them to understand or comprehend these things? We then, rightly understanding his commandments, 147 explain them as the Lord intended. For this purpose He circumcised our ears and our hearts, that we might understand these things.
Lightfoot's Translation: Barnabas 10:11 Again Moses saith; Ye shall everything that divideth the hoof and cheweth the cud. What meaneth he?
He that receiveth the food knoweth Him that giveth him the food, and being refreshed appeareth to rejoice in him.
- Well said he, having regard to the commandment. What then meaneth he?
- Cleave unto those that fear the Lord,
- with those who meditate in their heart
- on the distinction of the word which they have received,
- with those who tell of the ordinances of the Lord and keep them,
- with those who know that meditation is a work of gladness
- and who chew the cud of the word of the Lord.
- But why that which divideth the hoof?
- Because the righteous man both walketh in this world,
- and at the same time looketh for the holy world to come.
- Ye see how wise a lawgiver Moses was.
Let us further inquire whether the Lord took any care to foreshadow the water [of baptism] and the cross.
Concerning the water, indeed, it is written, in reference to the Israelites,
that they should not receive that baptism which leads to the remission of sins,
but should procure 148 another for themselves.
The prophet therefore declares, "Be astonished, O heaven, and let the earth tremble 149 at this, because this people hath committed two great evils:
they have forsaken Me, a living fountain,
and have hewn out for themselves broken cisterns. 150
Jeremiah 2:7 And I brought you into a plentiful country, to eat the fruit thereof and the goodness thereof;
but when ye entered, ye defiled my land, and made mine heritage an abomination.
The priests said not, Where is the Lord? and they that handle the law knew me not: the pastors also transgressed against me, and the prophets prophesied by Baal, and walked after things that do not profit. Jeremiah 2:8Wherefore I will yet plead with you, saith the Lord, and with your childrens children will I plead. Jeremiah 2:9
Jeremiah 2:10 For pass over the isles of Chittim, and see; and send unto Kedar, and consider diligently, and see if there be such a thing.
Jeremiah 2:11 Hath a nation changed their gods, which are yet no gods?
but my people have changed their glory for that which doth not profit.
Jeremiah 2:12 Be astonished, O ye heavens, at this, and be horribly afraid, be ye very desolate, saith the Lord.
Jeremiah 2:13 For my people have committed two evils;
they have forsaken me the fountain of living waters,
and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no water.
A cistern is defined as:
Bear (g874) baw-ar'; a prim. root; to dig; by anal. to engrave; figurative to explain: - declare, (make) plain (-ly).
Is my holy hill Zion a desolate rock? For ye shall be as the fledglings of a bird, which fly away when the nest is removed." 151 And again saith the prophet, "I will go before thee and make level the mountains, and will break the brazen gates, and bruise in pieces the iron bars; and I will give thee the secret, 152 hidden, invisible treasures, that they may know that I am the Lord God." 153 And "He shall dwell in a lofty cave of the strong rock." 154 Furthermore, what saith He in reference to the Son? "His water is sure; 155 ye shall see the King in His glory, and your soul shall meditate on the fear of the Lord." 156
151 Comp. Isa. xvi. 1, 2.
152 Literally, "dark." Cod. Sin. has, "of darkness."
153 Isa. xlv. 2, 3.
154 Isa. xxxiii. 16. Cod. Sin. has, "thou that dwell."
155 Cod. Sin. entirely omits the question given above, and joins "the water is sure" to the former sentence.
156 Isa. xxxiii. 16-18.
And again He saith in another prophet, "The man who doeth these things shall be like a tree planted by the courses of waters, which shall yield its fruit in due season; and his leaf shall not fade, and all that he doeth shall prosper. Not so are the ungodly, not so, but even as chaff, which the wind sweeps away from the face of the earth. Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in judgment, nor sinners in the counsel of the just; for the Lord knoweth the way of the righteous, but the way of the ungodly shall perish." 157 Mark how He has described at once both the water and the cross. For these words imply, Blessed are they who, placing their trust in the cross, have gone down into the water; for, says He, they shall receive their reward in due time: then He declares, I will recompense them. But now He saith, 158 "Their leaves shall not fade."
This meaneth, that every word which proceedeth out of your mouth in faith and love shall tend to bring conversion and hope to many. Again, another prophet saith, "And the land of Jacob shall be extolled above every land." 159 This meaneth the vessel of His Spirit, which He shall glorify.
Further, what says He? "And there was a river flowing on the right, and from it arose beautiful trees; and whosoever shall eat of them shall live for ever." 160
This meaneth, 161 that
we indeed descend into the water full of sins and defilement,
but come up, bearing fruit in our heart,
having the fear [of God] and trust in Jesus in our spirit.
"And whosoever shall eat of these shall live for ever," This meaneth: Whosoever, He declares, shall hear thee speaking, and believe, shall live for ever.
In like manner He points to the cross of Christ in another prophet, who saith, 162 "And when shall these things be accomplished? And the Lord saith, When a tree shall be bent down, and again arise, and when blood shall flow out of wood." 163 Here again you have an intimation concerning the cross, and Him who should be crucified. Yet again He speaks of this 164 in Moses, when Israel was attacked by strangers.
And that He might remind them, when assailed, that it was on account of their sins they were delivered to death, the Spirit speaks to the heart of Moses, that he should make a figure of the cross, 165 and of Him about to suffer thereon; for unless they put their trust in Him, they shall be overcome for ever. Moses therefore placed one weapon above another in the midst of the hill, 166 and standing upon it, so as to be higher than all the people, he stretched forth his hands, 167 and thus again Israel acquired the mastery.
But when again he let down his hands, they were again destroyed.
For what reason? That they might know that they could not be saved unless they put their trust in Him. 168
And in another prophet He declares, "All day long I have stretched forth My hands to an unbelieving people, and one that gainsays My righteous way." 169
And again Moses makes a type of Jesus, [signifying] that it was necessary for Him to suffer, [and also] that He would be the author of life 170 [to others], whom they believed to have destroyed on the cross 171 when Israel was failing.
For since transgression was committed by Eve through means of the serpent, [the Lord] brought it to pass that every [kind of] serpents bit them, and they died, 172
that He might convince them, that on account of their transgression they were given over to the straits of death. Moreover Moses, when he commanded, "Ye shall not have any graven or molten [image] for your God," 173 did so that he might reveal a type of Jesus.
Moses then makes a brazen serpent, and places it upon a beam, 174 and by proclamation assembles the people. When, therefore, they were come together, they besought Moses that he would offer sacrifice 175 in their behalf, and pray for their recovery.
And Moses spake unto them, saying, "When any one of you is bitten, let him come to the serpent placed on the pole; and let him hope and believe, that even though dead, it is able to give him life, and immediately he shall be restored." 176
And they did so. Thou hast in this also [an indication of] the glory of Jesus; for in Him and to Him are all things. 177
What, again, says Moses to Jesus (Joshua) the son of Nave [Non, Nuwn a perpetuity],
Nuwn (h5125) noon; a prim. root; to resprout, i. e. propagate by shoots; fig., to be perpetual: - be continued.
(A Psalm for Solomon.)
GIVE the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the kings son. Psalm 72:1
His name shall endure for ever: his name shall be continued as long as the sun: and men shall be blessed in him: all nations shall call him blessed. Psa 72:17
This name then being given him when he sent him to spy out the land, he said, "Take a book into thy hands, and write what the Lord declares, that the Son of God will in the last days cut off from the roots all the house of Amalek." 180 Behold again: Jesus who was manifested, both by type and in the flesh, 181 is not the Son of man, but the Son of God.
Since, therefore, they were to say that Christ was the son 182 of David, fearing and understanding the error of the wicked, he saith, "The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool." 183
And again, thus saith Isaiah, "The Lord said to Christ, 184 my Lord, whose right hand I have holden, 185 that the nations should yield obedience before Him; and I will break in pieces the strength of kings." 186 Behold how David calleth Him Lord and the Son of God.
But let us see if this people 187 is the heir, or the former, and if the covenant belongs to us or to them. Hear ye now what the Scripture saith concerning the people. Isaac prayed for Rebecca his wife, because she was barren; and she conceived. 188 Furthermore also, Rebecca went forth to inquire of the Lord; and the Lord said to her,
"Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples in thy belly; and the one people shall surpass the other, and the elder shall serve the younger." 189
You ought to understand who was Isaac, who Rebecca, and concerning what persons He declared that this people should be greater than that. And in another prophecy Jacob speaks more clearly to his son Joseph, saying, "Behold, the Lord hath not deprived me of thy presence; bring thy sons to me, that I may bless them." 190
And he brought Manasseh and Ephraim, desiring that Manasseh 191 should be blessed, because he was the elder.
With this view Joseph led him to the right hand of his father Jacob. But Jacob saw in spirit the type of the people to arise afterwards. And what says [the Scripture]?
And Jacob changed the direction of his hands, and laid his fight hand upon the head of Ephraim, the second and younger, and blessed him. And Joseph said to Jacob, "Transfer thy right hand to the head of Manasseh, 192 for he is my first-born son." 193 And Jacob said, "I know it, my son, I know it; but the elder shall serve the younger: yet he also shall be blessed." 194 Ye see on whom he laid 195 [his hands], that this people should be first, and heir of the covenant.
If then, still further, the same thing was intimated through Abraham, we reach the perfection of our knowledge.
Yes [it is even so]; but let us inquire if the Lord has really given that testament which He swore to the fathers that He would give to the people.
........ He did give it; but they were not worthyto receive it, on account of their sins.
For the prophet declares, "And Moses was fasting forty days and forty nights on Mount Sinai, that he might receive the testament of the Lordfor the people (Ex. xxiv. 18.) And he received from the Lord (Ex. xxxi. 18.) two tables, written in the spiritby the finger of the hand of the Lord. And Moses having received them, carried them down to give to the people. And the Lord said to Moses,
"Moses, Moses, go down quickly; for thy people hath sinned, whom thou didst bring out of the land of Egypt.
Ex. xxxii. 7; Deut. ix. 12.
And Moses understood that they had again (made for themselves) made molten images; and he threw the tables out of his hands, and the tables of the testament of the Lord were broken.
Moses then received it, but they proved themselves unworthy.
Learn now howwe have received it. Moses, as a servant, (Comp. Heb. iii. 5.) received it; but the Lord himself, having suffered in our behalf,
hath given it to us, that we should be the people of inheritance.
But He was manifested, in order that they might be perfected in their iniquities,
and that we, being constituted heirs through Him, (through him who inherited) might receive the testament of the Lord Jesus,
who was prepared for this end, that by His personal manifestation, redeeming our hearts (which were already wasted by death, and given over to the iniquity of error) from darkness,
He might by His word enter into a covenant with us. For it is written how the Father, about to redeem (through Christ) us from darkness, commanded Him to prepare
(Cod. Sin. reads, "be prepared." Hilgenfeld follows Cod. Sin. so far, and reads, "For it is written how the Father commanded Him who was to redeem us from darkness (autw-lutrwsamenoj) to prepare a holy people for Himself.")
........ a holy people for Himself.
The prophet therefore declares, "I, the Lord Thy God, have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thy hand, and will strengthen Thee; and I have given Thee for a covenant to the people, for a light to the nations, to open the eyes of the blind, and to bring forth from fetters them that are bound, and those that sit in darkness out of the prison-house.( Isa. xlii. 6, 7.) Ye perceive, (Cod. Sin. has, "we know.") then, whence we have been redeemed.
And again, the prophet says, "Behold, I have appointed Thee as a light to the nations, that Thou mightest be for salvation even to the ends of the earth, saith the Lord God that redeemeth thee. (Isa. xlix. 6.) And again, the prophet saith,
"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; because He hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the humble: He hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to proclaim deliverance to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind; to announce the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of recompense; to comfort all that mourn (Isa. lxi. 1, 2.)
Further, 211 also, it is written concerning the Sabbath in the Decalogue which [the Lord] spoke, face to face, to Moses on Mount Sinai,
"And sanctify ye the Sabbath of the Lord with clean hands and a pure heart." 212
And He says in another place, "If my sons keep the Sabbath, then will I cause my mercy to rest upon them." 213 The Sabbath is mentioned at the beginning of the creation [thus]:
"And God made in six days the works of His hands, and made an end on the seventh day, and rested on it, and sanctified it." 214 Attend, my children, to the meaning of this expression, "He finished in six days."
This implieth that the Lord will finish all things in six thousand years, for a day is 215 with Him a thousand years. And He Himself testifieth, 216 saying, "Behold, to-day 217 will be as a thousand years." 218 Therefore, my children, in six days, that is, in six thousand years, all things will be finished. "And He rested on the seventh day."
This meaneth: when His Son, coming [again],
Moreover, He says, "Thou shalt sanctify it with pure hands and a pure heart."
Behold, therefore: 223 certainly then one properly resting sanctifies it, when we ourselves, having received the promise, wickedness no longer existing, and all things having been made new by the Lord, shall be able to work righteousness. 224
Your present Sabbaths are not acceptable to Me, but that is which I have made, [namely this, ] when, giving rest to all things,
I shall make a beginning of the eighth day, that is, a beginning of another world.
"Barnabas here bears testimony to the observance of the Lord's Day in early times."-Hefele.
We here follow the punctuation of Dressel: Hefele places only a comma between the clauses, and inclines to think that the writer implies that the ascension of Christ took place on the first day of the week.
Moreover, I will also tell you concerning the temple, how the wretched [Jews], wandering in error,
trusted not in God Himself, but in the temple, as being the house of God.
........For almost after the manner of the Gentiles they worshipped Him in the temple. 229
But learn how the Lord speaks, when abolishing it:
"Who hath meted out heaven with a span, and the earth with his palm? Have not I?"Isa. xl. 12
"Thus saith the Lord, Heaven is My throne, and the earth My footstool: what kind of house will ye build to Me, or what is the place of My rest? " 231
Ye perceive that their hope is vain. Moreover, He again says, "Behold, they who have cast down this temple, even they shall build it up again." 232 It has so happened. 233 For through their going to war, it was destroyed by their enemies; and now: they, as the servants of their enemies, shall rebuild it.
Again, it was revealed that the city and the temple and the people of Israel were to be given up. For the Scripture saith, "And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the Lord will deliver up the sheep of His pasture, and their sheep-fold and tower, to destruction." 234
And it so happened as the Lord had spoken.
Let us inquire, then, if there still is a temple of God. There is-where He himself declared He would make and finish it. For it is written, "And it shall come to pass, when the week is completed, the temple of God shall be built in glory in the name of the Lord." 235
I find, therefore, that a temple does exist. Learn, then, how it shall be built in the name of the Lord. Before we believed in God, the habitation of our heart was corrupt and weak, as being indeed like a temple made with hands.
- For it was full of idolatry,
- and was a habitation of demons,
- through our doing such things as were opposed to [the will of] God.
But it shall be built, observe ye, in the name of the Lord, in order that the temple of the Lord may be built in glory. How? Learn [as follows].
Having received the forgiveness of sins, and placed our trust in the name of the Lord, we have become new creatures, formed again from the beginning.
Wherefore in our habitation God truly dwells in us.
How? His word of faith; His calling 236 of promise; the wisdom of the statutes; the commands of the doctrine; He himself prophesying in us; He himself dwelling in us;
openingto us who were enslaved by death the doors of the temple, that is, the mouth; and by giving us repentance introduced us into the incorruptible temple. 237
He then, who wishes to be saved, looks not to man, 238 but to Him who dwelleth in him, and speaketh in him,
amazed at never having either heard him utter such words with his mouth,
nor himself having ever desired to hear them. 239
This is the spiritual temple built for the Lord .
As far as was possible, and could be done with perspicuity, I cherish the hope that, according to my desire, I have omitted none 240 of those things at present [demanding consideration], which bear upon your salvation. For if I should write to you about things future, 241 ye would not understand, because such knowledge is hid in parables. These things then are so.
But let us now pass to another sort of knowledge and doctrine.
........... There are two ways of doctrine and authority,
........... ........... the one of light,
........... ........... and the other of darkness.
But there is a great difference between these two ways. For over one are stationed the light-bringing angels of God,
242: And lest I should be exalted above measure through the abundance of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure. 1 Cor 12:7
The way of light, then, is as follows. If any one desires to travel to the appointed place, he must be zealous in his works.
The knowledge, therefore, which is given to us for the purpose of walking in this way, is the following.
Thou shalt love Him that created thee: 244
thou shalt glorify Him that redeemed thee from death.
Thou shalt be simple in heart, and rich in spirit.
Thou shalt not join thyself to those who walk in the way of death.
Thou shalt hate doing what is unpleasing to God: thou shalt hate all hypocrisy.
Thou shalt not forsake the commandments of the Lord. Thou shalt not exalt thyself, but shalt be of a lowly mind. 245
Thou shalt not take glory to thyself. Thou shalt not take evil counsel against thy neighbour. Thou shalt not allow over-boldness to enter into thy soul. 246 Thou shalt not commit fornication: thou shalt not commit adultery: thou shalt not be a corrupter of youth. Thou shalt not let the word of God issue from thy lips with any kind of impurity. 247 Thou shalt not accept persons when thou reprovest any one for transgression. Thou shalt be meek: thou shalt be peaceable.
Thou shalt tremble at the words which thou hearest. 248 Thou shalt not be mindful of evil against thy brother. Thou shalt not be of doubtful mind 249 as to whether a thing shall be or not. Thou shalt not take the name 250 of the Lord in vain. Thou shalt love thy neighbour more than thine own soul. 251
Thou shalt not slay the child by procuring abortion; nor, again, shalt thou destroy it after it is born.
Thou shalt not withdraw thy hand from thy son, or from thy daughter, but from their infancy thou shalt teach them the fear of the Lord. 252 Thou shalt not covet what is thy neighbour's, nor shalt thou be avaricious. Thou shalt not be joined in soul with the haughty , but thou shalt be reckoned with the righteous and lowly. Receive thou as good things the trials 253 which come upon thee. 254 Thou shalt not be of double mind or of double tongue, 255 for a double tongue is a snare of death. Thou shalt be subject 256 to the Lord, and to [other] masters as the image of God, with modesty and fear. Thou shalt not issue orders with bitterness to thy maidservant or thy man-servant, who trust in the same [God 257 ], lest thou shouldst not 258 reverence that God who is above both;
259 And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; neither is there respect of persons with him. Eph 6:9
260 For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. Rom 8:29
Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified. Rom 8:30
Thou shalt communicate in all things with thy neighbour; thou shalt not call 261 things thine own; for if ye are partakers in common of things which are incorruptible, 262 how much more [should you be] of those things which are corruptible! 263 Thou shalt not be hasty with thy tongue, for the mouth is a snare of death. As far as possible, thou shalt be pure in thy soul. Do not be ready to stretch forth thy hands to take, whilst thou contractest them to give. Thou shalt love, as the apple of thine eye, every one that speaketh to thee the word of the Lord. Thou shalt remember the day of judgment, night and day.
Thou shalt seek out every day the faces of the saints, 264 either by word examining them, and going to exhort them, and meditating how to save a soul by the word, 265 or by thy hands thou shalt labour for the redemption of thy sins. Thou shalt not hesitate to give, nor murmur when thou givest. "Give to every one that asketh thee," 266 and thou shalt know who is the good Recompenser of the reward. Thou shalt preserve what thou hast received [in charge], neither adding to it nor taking from it. To the last thou shalt hate the wicked 267 [one]. 268 Thou shalt judge righteously. Thou shalt not make a schism, but thou shalt pacify those that contend by bringing them together. Thou shalt confess thy sins. Thou shalt not go to prayer with an evil conscience. This is the way of light. 269
But the way of darkness 270 is crooked, and full of cursing; for it is the way of eternal 271 death with punishment, in which way are the things that destroy the soul, viz., idolatry, over-confidence, the arrogance of power, hypocrisy, double-heartedness, adultery, murder, rapine, haughtiness, transgression, 272 deceit, malice, self-sufficiency, poisoning, magic, avarice, 273 want of the fear of God. [In this way, too, ] are those who persecute the good, those who hate truth, those who love falsehood, those who know not the reward of righteousness, those who cleave not to that which is good, those who attend not with just judgment to the widow and orphan, those who watch not to the fear of God, [but incline] to wickedness, from whom meekness and patience are far off; persons who love vanity, follow after a reward, pity not the needy, labour not in aid of him who is overcome with toil; who are prone to evil-speaking, who know not Him that made them, who are murderers of children, destroyers of the workmanship of God; who turn away him that is in want, who oppress the afflicted, who are advocates of the rich, who are unjust judges of the poor, and who are in every respect transgressors.
It is well, therefore, 274 that he who has learned the judgments of the Lord, as many as have been written, should walk in them. For he who keepeth these shall be glorified in the kingdom of God; but he who chooseth other things 275 shall be destroyed with his works. On this account there will be a resurrection, 276 on this account a retribution. I beseech you who are superiors, if you will receive any counsel of my good-will, have among yourselves those to whom you may show kindness: do not forsake them. For the day is at hand on which all things shall perish with the evil [one]. The Lord is near, and His reward. Again, and yet again, I beseech you: be good lawgivers 277 to one another; continue faithful counsellors of one another; take away from among you all hypocrisy. And may God, who ruleth over all the world, give to you wisdom, intelligence, understanding, knowledge of His judgments, 278 with patience. And be ye 279 taught of God, inquiring diligently what the Lord asks from you; and do it that ye maybe safe in the day of judgment. 280
And if you have any remembrance of what is good, be mindful of me, meditating on these things, in order that both my desire and watchfulness may result in some good. I beseech you, entreating this as a favour. While yet you are in this fair vessel, 281 do not fail in any one of those things, 282 but unceasingly seek after them, and fulfil every commandment; for these things are worthy. 283 Wherefore I have been the more earnest to write to you, as my ability served, 284 that I might cheer you. Farewell, ye children of love and peace.
The Lord of glory and of all grace be with your spirit. Amen. 285
9 The Greek is here totally unintelligible: it seems impossible either to punctuate or construe it. We may attempt to represent it as follows: "The doctrines of the Lord, then, are three: Life, Faith, and Hope, our beginning and end; and Righteousness, the beginning and the end of judgment; Love and Joy and the Testimony of gladness for works of righteousness." We have folloed the ancient Latin text, which Hilgenfeld also adopts, though Weitzäcker and others prefer the Greek.
there is now required a dedication of man himself. Hilgenfeld follows the Greek.
29 We here follow the Latin text in preference to the Greek, which reads merely, "the covenant is ours." What follows seems to show the correctness of the Latin, as the author proceeds to deny that the Jews had any further interest in the promises.
33 The Greek is here incorrect and unintelligible; and as the Latin omits the clause, our translation is merely conjectural. Hilgenfeld's text, if we give a somewhat peculiar meaning to ellipein, may be translated: "but as it is becoming in one who loves you not to fail in giving you what we have, I, though the very offscouring of you, have been eager to write to you."
35 The Latin here departs entirely from the Greek text, and quotes as a saying of "the Son of God" the following precept, nowhere to be found in the New Testament: "Let us resist all iniquity, and hold it in hatred." Hilgenfeld joins this clause to the former sentence.
37 An exact quotation from Matt. xx. 16 or xxii. 14. It is worthy of notice that this is the first example in the writings of the Fathers of a citation from any book of the New Testament, preceded by the authoritative formula, "it is written."
65 Not found in Scripture. Comp. Isa. xl. 13; Prov. i. 6. Hilgenfeld, however, changes the usual punctuation, which places a colon after prophet, and reads, "For the prophet speaketh the parable of the Lord. Who shall understand," etc.
85 Not to be found in Scripture, as is the case also with what follows. Hefele remarks, that "certain false traditions respecting the Jewish rites seem to have prevailed among the Christians of the second century, of which Barnabas here adopts some, as do Justin (Dial. c. Try. 40) and Tertullian (adv. Fud. 14; adv. Marc.iii. 7)."
94 The text is here in great confusion, though the meaning is plain. Dressel reads, "For how are they alike, and why [does He enjoin] that the goats should be good and alike?" The Cod. Sin. reads, "How is He like Him? For this that," etc.
135 Cod. Sin. inserts, "and gaze aboutfor some way of escape on account of their greediness, even as these birds alond do not procure food for themselves (by labour), but sitting idle, seek to devour the flesh of others." The text as above seems preferable: Hilgenfeld, however, follows the Greek.
137 Dressel has a note upon this passage, in which he refers the words we have rendered, "corrupters of boys," to those who by their dissolute lives waste their fortunes, and so entail destruction on their children; but this does not appear satisfactory. Comp. Clem. Alex. Paedag. ii. 10.
166 Cod. Sin. reads pugmhj, which must here be translated "heap" or "mass." According to Hilgenfeld, however, pugmh is here equivalent to pugmaxia, "a fight." The meaning would then be, that "Moses piled weapon upon weapon in the midst of the battle," instead of "hill" ( phghj), as above.
206 Cod. Sin. reads, "be prepared." Hilgenfeld follows Cod. Sin. so far, and reads, "For it is written how the Father commanded Him who was to redeem us from darkness ( autw- lutrwsamenoj) to prepare a holy people for Himself."
223 Cod. Sin. has, "But if not." Hilgenfeld's text of this confused passage reads as follows: "Who then can sanctify the day which God has sanctified, except the man who is of a pure heart? We are deceived (or mistaken) in all things. Behold, therefore," etc.
228 We here follow the punctuation of Dressel: Hefele places only a comma between the clauses, and inclines to think that the writer implies that the ascension of Christ took place on the first dayof the week.Isaiah 5:5 And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard:
I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up;
and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down:
Isaiah 5:6 And I will lay it waste: it shall not be pruned, nor digged;
but there shall come up briers and thorns:
I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it.
Isaiah 5:7 For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel,
and the men of Judah his pleasant plant:
and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry.
Isaiah 5:8 Woe unto them that join house to house, that lay field to field, till there be no place,
that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth!
Isaiah 5:9 In mine ears said the LORD of hosts, Of a truth many houses shall be desolate, even great and fair, without inhabitant.
Isaiah 5:10 Yea, ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, and the seed of an homer shall yield an ephah.
Isaiah 5:11 Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them!
Isaiah 5:12 And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands.
Isaiah 5:13 Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge: and their honourable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst.
Isaiah 5:14 Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.
Jeremiah 25:2 The which Jeremiah the prophet spake unto all the people of Judah, and to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, saying,
Jeremiah 25:3 From the thirteenth year of Josiah the son of Amon king of Judah, even unto this day, that is the three and twentieth year, the word of the LORD hath come unto me, and I have spoken unto you, rising early and speaking; but ye have not hearkened.
Jeremiah 25:4 And the LORD hath sent unto you all his servants the prophets, rising early and sending them; but ye have not hearkened, nor inclined your ear to hear.
Jeremiah 25:5 They said, Turn ye again now every one from his evil way, and from the evil of your doings, and dwell in the land that the LORD hath given unto you and to your fathers for ever and ever:
Jeremiah 25:6 And go not after other gods to serve them, and to worship them, and provoke me not to anger with the works of your hands; and I will do you no hurt.
Jeremiah 25:7 Yet ye have not hearkened unto me, saith the LORD; that ye might provoke me to anger with the works of your hands to your own hurt.
Jeremiah 25:8 Therefore thus saith the LORD of hosts; Because ye have not heard my words,
Jeremiah 25:9 Behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the LORD, and Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about, and will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and an hissing, and perpetual desolations.
Jeremiah 25:10 Moreover I will take from them the voice of mirth, and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride, the sound of the millstones, and the light of the candle.
Jeremiah 25:34 Howl, ye shepherds, and cry; and wallow yourselves in the ashes, ye principal of the flock: for the days of your slaughter and of your dispersions are accomplished; and ye shall fall like a pleasant vessel.
Jeremiah 25:35 And the shepherds shall have no way to flee, nor the principal of the flock to escape.
Jeremiah 25:36 A voice of the cry of the shepherds, and an howling of the principal of the flock, shall be heard: for the LORD hath spoiled their pasture.
Jeremiah 25:37 And the peaceable habitations are cut down because of the fierce anger of the LORD.
Jeremiah 25:38 He hath forsaken his covert, as the lion: for their land is desolate because of the fierceness of the oppressor, and because of his fierce anger.
241 Cod. Sin., "about things present or future." Hilgenfeld's text of this passage is as follows: "My mind and soul hopes that, according to my desire, I have omitted none of the things that pertain to salvation. For if I should write to you about things present or future," etc. Hefele gives the text as above, and understands the meaning to be, "points bearing on the presentargument."
265 The text is here confused in all the editions; we have followed that of Dressel. Cod. Sin. is defective. Hilgenfeld's text reads, "Thou shalt seek out every day the faces of the saints, either labouring by word and going to exhort them, and meditating to save a soul by the word, or by thy hands thou shalt labour for the redemption of thy sins"-almost identical with that given above.
286 See Amyot's translation, and a more modern one by De Maistre (Euvres, vol. ii. Paris, 1833). An edition of The Delays(the original, with notes by Professor Hackett) has appeared in America (Andover, circ., 1842), and is praised by Tayler Lewis.
(in Gen. i. 4), on which see Nordheimer,Gram., vol. i. p. 7, New York, 1838.
Counter added 12.14.04 11p 1747 11.10.07 885 3.10.13 5257
Codex Sinaiticus was originally a complete Bible. The NT portion (148 leaves) is well preserved and includes the Letter of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas.