Everett Ferguson Congregational Singing in Early Church

No A Cappella Music in Scripture or any church you are aware of

There was NO A.Cappella.Music.In.The.Public.Worship.of.The.Church. There is no command, example or remote inference that God called anyone out of their REST to engage in congregational singing with or without instruments.  The Qahal, synagogue, ekklesia or Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness quarantined the godly people from the Jacob-cursed and God-abandoned Levites.  The Holy Convocation began on the first and seventh days of festivals. When the nation was settled the synagogue met each REST DAY.  Sabbath never meant a day of worship but a REST FROM the worship of the starry host held on the seventh day of the week. God abandoned the Civil-Military-Clergy to Star and Serpent worship because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.

The Pattern was later defined just as the Campbells tried to restore:
EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing or rhetoric: this is the triumph over concept as a prophetic signal to watch for Judas.
INCLUSIVE of Rest, Reading and Rehearsing: the object never changed.

The Jewish clergy as "musical children" did play their pipes and tried to force John and Jesus into their dance of ecstasy in violation of God's will:

But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. Nu 10:7

The truimph-over alarm, suitable to tribal movements, panicking the enemy or national rejoicing where no word from God was expected is:

Ruwa (h7321) roo-ah'; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears with sound, i. e. shout (for alarm or joy): - blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout for joy, sound an alarm, triumph.

--torreo carmina flammā, B. Transf., of streams, rushing, roaring, boiling, impetuous, rapid, etc
3. Trop., of speech: “torrens dicentis oratio,Quint. 3, 8, 60; so, “oratio,Plin. 26, 3, 7, § 12:
b. Subst.: “se inani verborum torrenti dare,a stream of words,

--carmen , I. In gen., a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumental (mostly poet.; in prose, instead of it, cantus; cf. “also versus, numeri, modi): carmen tuba ista peregit ( = sonus),Enn. Ann. 508 Vahl.: “carmine vocali clarus citharāque Philammon,Ov. M. 11, 317; cf. “vocum,id. ib. 12, 157: “per me (sc. Apollinem) concordant carmina nervis,
cygnorum,id. ib. 5, 387; cf. id. ib. 14, 430; Mart. 13, 77: “citharae liquidum carmen,Lucr. 4, 981; cf. id. 2, 506; Hor. C. 1, 15, 15: “lyrae carmen,Prop. 2, 1, 9 Hertzb.: “canere miserabile carmen,Ov. M. 5, 118: “harundineum,

By this I know that thou favourest me, because mine enemy (Judas) doth not triumph over me. Ps.41:11

Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread,
        hath
lifted up his heel against me. Psalm 41: 9
But thou, O Lord, be merciful unto me, and raise me up, that I may
requite them.
Psalm 41: 10
By this I know that thou favourest me,
        because mine enemy doth not triumph over me. Psalm 41: 11
FULFILLED BY THE CLERGY. Worship or Praise Teams (sorcerers) do not sing a cappella but they perform as VOCAL BANDS. Even complex harmony intends to do a legalistic end run around the "no instruments." The effect is the same why you use music meaning to deceive and make the lambs dumb before the slaughter.
Mark 10:34 And they shall mock him,
Latin Illudo  as a female: Applied as a term of reproach, effeminate men, eloquence, rhētor but with idea of contempt, caneret,
A. Of men: “si absurde canat, of the crooked race, a reed pipe, a guitar, crowing of a hen tibiae, tubaeGallus , i, m., = Gallos Strab., A. Galli , the priests of Cybele, on account of their emasculated condition) Gallic:turma, the troop of the priests of Isis, Ov. Am. 2, 13, 18.  “resupinati cessantia tympana Galli,” [resupinati cessantia tympana Galli, i. e. prostrate from drunkenness]
Gallos , ho, A. priest of Cybele,
gallazō , A. practise cult of Cybele,
Galli. Eunuch priests of Cybele or the great mother: begun under the reign of Erichthonius, king of Attica, B.C. 1506;

Galli A form gallantes, as if from gallare, "to rave like a priest of Cybelé," is cited from Varro (ap. Non. p. 119Non., 5). In their wild, enthusiastic, and boisterous rites the Galli recalled the legends of the Corybantes (q.v.). According to an ancient custom, they were always castrated (spadones, semimares, semiviri, nec viri nec feminae), and it would seem that, impelled by religious enthusiasm, they performed this operation on themselves... Other names, however, are of distinctly Semitic affinities; Rhea perhaps=the Babylonian Ri (Mulita or Mylitta), and Nana more certainly=the Babylonian Nana, modern Syrian Nani.  Nana motherof Attis

Verg. A. 9.634
Of such loud insolence and words of shame
Ascanius brooked no more, but laid a shaft
athwart his bowstring, and with arms stretched wide
took aim, first offering suppliant vow to Jove:

The Father heard, and from a cloudless sky
thundered to leftward, while the deadly bow
resounded and the arrow's fearful song
hissed from the string; it struck unswervingly
the head of Remulus and clove its way
deep in the hollows of his brow. “Begone!
Proud mocker at the brave!

Paizo, 4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16. 5. play amorously, “pros allēlousX.Smp.9.2

Prospaizō, prospaizousa tois ōmois komē playing over, II. c. acc., theous p. sing to the gods, sing in their praise or honour, Pl.Epin.980b: c. dupl. acc., humnon prosepaisamen . . ton . . Erōta sang a hymn in praise of Eros, Id.Phdr.265c. 2. banter , “tous rhētorasId.Mx.235c, cf. Euthd.285a; p. ton kuna, ton arkton, , humnon pr. ton

FROM THE GARDEN ONWARD EVIL MEN (SUMERIANS) SET THEIR LIES TO MELODIES TO DECEIVE: That is why God did not give the deceivers anything metricai.  God breathed (spirit) and Jesus SPOKE the WORD without metron which means without meter.

The Catholic Clergy and especially the Monks "adopted music because it was common to all pagan cults"  (Catholic Encyclopedia, Candles)

In [10.3.7] Strabo "The accounts which are more remotely related, however, to the present subject, but are wrongly, on account of the identity of the names, brought into the same connection by the historians--Curetan History" and "History of the Curetes," just as if they were the history of those Curetes who lived in Aetolia and Acarnania, not only are different from that history, but are more like the accounts of the Satyri, Sileni, Bacchae, and Tityri;

for the Curetes (clergy or priests), like these, are called genii or ministers of gods by those who have handed down to us the Cretan and the Phrygian traditions, which are interwoven with certain sacred rites, some mystical, the others connected in part with the rearing of the child Zeus in Crete and inpart with the orgies in honor of the mother of the gods which are celebrated in Phrygia and in the region of the Trojan Ida.

In the Babylonian account Jubal, Jabal, Tubal-Cain and Naamah are collected as GENUN or GENII.

But the variation in these accounts is so small that, whereas some represent the Corybantes, the Cabeiri, the Idaean Dactyli, and the Telchines as identical with the Curetes, others represent them as all kinsmen of one another and differentiate only certain small matters in which they differ in respect to one another; but, roughly speaking and in general, they represent them, one and all, as a kind of inspired people and as subject to Bacchic frenzy, and,  in the guise of ministers, as inspiring terror at the celebration of the sacred rites  by means of war-dances,  accompanied by uproar and noise and cymbals and drums and arms, and also by flute and outcry; and consequently these rites are in a way regarded as having a common relationship, I mean these and those of the Samothracians and those in Lemnos and in several other places, because the divine ministers are called the same. However, every investigation of this kind pertains to theology, and is not foreign to the speculation of the philosopher.

Cassandra (naked) in --Aeschylus' Agamemnon is instructive of the pagan practice of hiding their words in riddles. Like the presumptious women of Corinth proclaimed:

"No more by riddles will I instruct you. And bear me witness, as, running close behind, I scent the track of crimes done long ago.

"For from this roof never departs a choir chanting in unison, but singing no harmonious tune; for it tells not of good. And so, gorged on human blood, so as to be the more emboldened, a revel-rout of kindred Furies haunts the house, hard to be drive away.

"Lodged within its halls they chant their chant, the primal sin; and, each in turn, they spurn with loathing a brother's bed, for they bitterly spurn the one who defiled it. Have I missed the mark, or, like a true archer, do I strike my quarry?

Or am I prophet of lies, a door-to-door babbler? Bear witness upon your oath that I know the deeds of sin, ancient in story, of this house."

Aristotle: Melody Deceives: "Poets also make use of this in inventing words, as a melody "without strings" or "without the lyre"; for they employ epithets from negations, a course which is approved in proportional metaphors..

The form of diction should be neither metrical nor without rhythm.
If it is metrical, it lacks persuasiveness, for it appears artificial, and at the same time it distracts the hearer's attention, since it sets him on the watch for the recurrence of such and such a cadence..

According to Philo, the gods of the pagans exploit this weakness of men. For the sake of a better effect, and with the intention of more easily cheating their devotes, that they have set their lies to melodies, rhythms and meters.." Click for more.

"Philodemos considered it paradoxical that music should be regarded as veneration of the gods while musicians were paid for performing this so-called veneration. Again, Philodemus held as self-deceptive the view that music mediated religious ecstasy. He saw the entire condition induced by the noise of cymbals and tambourines as a disturbance of the spirit. (Paul called it mad or insane) He found it significant that, on the whole, only women and effeminate men fell into this folly."

and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him:
        and the third day he shall rise again

Mark 14:65 And some began to spit [blasphemi] on him, and to cover his face,
        and to buffet him, and to say unto him, Prophesy: (sing, lament, dance)
        and the servants did strike him with the palms of their hands.
Alăpa , ae, f. akin to -cello, to smite, as if calapa; cf. kolaphos,
I. a stroke or blow upon the cheek with the open hand, a box on the ear: “ducere gravem alapam alicui,to give, Phaedr. 5, 3: “ministri eum alipis caedebant,Vulg. Marc. 14, 65; ib. Joan. 18, 22; 19, 3; esp. among actors, for the purpose of exciting a laugh among their auditors, * Juv. 8, 192

ălăpus , i, m. alapa, I. a parasite, who submitted to the box on the ear for gold,

PRUDENTIUS 40   Domus Caiphae
Inpia blasphemi cecidit domus ecce Caiphae,  [Blasphemy: denying that instruments are forbidden]
in qua pulsata est alapis facies sacra Christi,  [Using the Psallo word against Jesus and His Word]
hic peccatores manet exitus, obruta quorum
vita ruinosis tumulis sine fine iacebit.

The universal root:  
Pulso
, I. inf. parag. pulsarier, Lucr. 4, 931), 1, v. freq. a. id., to push, strike, beat (cf.: tundo, ferio, pello).
Of all musical instruments: Of musical instruments:chordas digitis et pectine eburno,to strike, play upon, Verg. A. 6, 647: chelyn, [harp] ” Val. Fl. 1, 139: “pectine nervos,Sil. 5, 463: “cymbala, Juv. 9, 62.—Of things: “pulsant arva ligones,Ov. Am. 3, 10, 31; id. M. 11, 529: “nervo pulsante sagittae,Verg. G. 4, 313.—
THE TRIUMPH-OVER INCLUDES ANY FORM OF SINGING WHICH DESPISES THE LOGOS OR REGULATIVE PRINCIPLE.


h7321Ruwa.gif

h7321Ruwa.gif
Psalms 41 in the Dead Sea Version The Thanksgiving Hymns (1QH) from the Dead Sea Scrolls interprets Psalm 41:
DSS: And they, teachers of lies and seers of falsehood, have schemed against me a devilish scheme,
to exchange the Law engraved on my heart by Thee for the smooth things which they speak to Thy people.
"The priests shall blow the trumpets of massacre, and
the Levites and all the blowers of the ram's horn shall sound a battle alarm,and the foot soldiers shall stretch out their hands against the host...and at the sound of the alarm they shall begin to bring down the slain.

All the people shall cease their clamor, but the priests shall continue to blow the trumpets of massacre."  - War Scroll
9 DSS: They have overtaken me in a narrow pass (gap) without escape And there is no rest for me in my trial. They sound my censure upon a harp
 and their murmuring and storming upon a zither." Ps.41:1
18 DSS:  I will groan with the zither of lamentation in all grief-stricken mourning and bitter complaint until iniquity and wickedness are consumed and the disease-bringing scourge is no more.

An evil disease, say they, cleaveth fast unto him: and now that he lieth he shall rise up no more. Ps.41:8

DSS: Then will I play on the zither of deliverance
and harp of joy, on the tabors of prayer and the pipe of praise without end.

See the Musical Mocking of Jesus fulfilled.



Everett Ferguson "allows" antiphonal or responsorial "singing" but his very resource says:

"Antiphonal singing
existed already among the heathen in the arrangements of the Greek Chorus."  It is not possible to have ever read the Bible for content and find a command, example or remote inference of God violating the commands for the Church of Christ (the Rock) or synagogue in the wilderness.  There is not a jot or tittle about congregational singing with or without instruments. Therefore, any discussion of "music in worship" proves that people do not understand the meaning of the assembly of the Godly quarantined from the Civil-Military-Clergy complex which God turned over to worship the starry host.

Acappella, A cappella not Biblical: Modern songs sung with complex harmony by groups have no more Biblical authority than the use of Instrumental music.

Mike Cope A Cappella Music

A Cappella Worship Leaders 

A deeper-reaching attempt to explain the significance of the castrato age has been made by Moses (1960) in an interesting paper on the psychology of the castrato voice. He interprets the emergence of this vocal fashion as the fulfillment of an age-old dream wish of bisexual hermaphroditism. Even if one does not follow Moses in some of his somewhat overdrawn conclusions, there is left enough of a solid basis for his theory. Hermaphroditic mythology plays an important part in cultural history. In collections of primitive art one sometimes see sculptures of idols each with female breasts and a penis ... And the phoniatrist sees among his patients an increasing number of young adult males who do not use the deep masculine voice that the pubertal growth of the larynx offers but continue to speak in an artificial high pitch of almost female sound. Friedrich S. Brodnitz, M.D.

One cannot sing praise songs
without noticing
how first person pronouns
tend to eclipse
every other subject.
No one practices ORGANUM in the CAPPELA. Therefore, the "music wars" sell lots of books and fuel lots of "make work" for the clergy but isn't it all a lie when we don't know anyone who obeys the command and examples to SING psalmns, hymns or spiritual songs with or without instruments.

Psalms: - psalm.(5603 = a Hebrew cantillation or metrical composition.)

"Meter" or measure did not mean modern melody or tunefulness: the cantillation as "speaing" was broken into syllables and sounded screechy or screamy to our ears. 

Most of Everett Ferguson is surfing historic documents but these all fall under the usually-monkish men who prayed all day and night: there is no example of congregational singing out in the local congregations who understood the meaning of reverence and godly fear.  Because the direct command was to SPEAK that which is written for our learning not even the simple minded lacked reverence or any God-supplied metrical text.

The Epistle of Ignatius to the Antiochians
Chapter XII.-Salutations.

I salute the holy presbytery. I salute the sacred deacons, and that person most dear to me, whom may I behold, through the Holy Spirit, occupying my place when I shall attain to Christ. My soul be in place of his. I salute the sub-deacons, the readers, the singers, the doorkeepers, the labourers, the exorcists, the confessors. I salute the keepers of the holy gates, the deaconesses in Christ. I salute the virgins betrothed to Christ, of whom may I have joy in the Lord Jesus. I salute the people of the Lord, from the smallest to the greatest, and all my sisters in the Lord.

ACAPPELLA is a steal word and has become a CULT word which claims as we will show all kinds of SINGING as long as we are SINGING: since "that which is written" no longer means that which is written, the ACappella cult has become the stalking horse for imposing instruments because that which is written by singing boylings and girls are WRITTEN and performed in an instrumental or "vocal band style."

Capella is the PLACE: the Sistine Chapel named after a Goat Skin cloak used as chapel or "closet." Capella or Caper is the mark of PAN.
SINGING + a or in the style of singing IN the Capella is not a cappella
The STYLE was ORGANUM which was a castrated opry "worship team" speaking the same things at the same time beginning with using two notes. The Greeks magadized or sang (never tunefully) with the women and children singing one octave up.

The Synagogue or Church of Christ the Rock in the wilderness referencing Albert Edersheim

John Calvin who understood the LOGOS as the Regulative Principle on the Synagogue in the Wilderness.
Matt. 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matt. 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations,
        baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Matt. 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:
        and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
Contrary to Everett Ferguson Jesus never SANG but SPOKE A (singular) hymn: the PATTERN was to RECITE another hymn same time next year.
Jesus didn't COMMAND any king of SINGING: The absolute word in Scripture is to SPEAK that which is WRITTEN. The Logos speak words are opposite to ODE. Paul commanded SPEAKING that which is written: both ODE and PSALLO are IN the heart which means SILENT.

The Campbells and others long before the American Restoration Movement followed John Calvin who called for the Restoration of the Church of Christ.

The only worship concept for the synagogue from the wilderness onward, the record of the Old Testament, the commands and examples of Jesus, the commands and examples of the epistles and church history for hundreds of years.  Jesus said that Scribes and Pharises as Hypocrites "take away the key to knowledge." In Ezekiel 33 Christ names hypocrites as self-speakers for pay, singers and instrument players.

Everett Ferguson believes that they engaged in responsive SINGING but there is no command, example or remote inference of singing with or without instruments in the whole Bible.

"After having paid reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within [at church] what they have heard. And outside they foolishly amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quavering (feminine vibrato), occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxication, and all kinds of trash. They who sing thus, and sing in response, are those who before hymned immortality, -- found at last wicked and wickedly singing this most pernicious palinode, 'Let us eat and drink, for tommorrow we die.' But not tommorrow in truth, but already, are these dead to God; buring their dead, that is, sinking themselves down to death. The appostle firmly assails them." (Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, p. 290).

By posting the REST OF THE STORY you will find that the authority for SINGING as LITURGY is confined within the monkish clergy for which Jesus gave no role and no dole.  Local congregations continued faithful to the direct commands.

Paul said use ONE MIND and ONE MOUTH to speak that which is written for our LEARNING or Scripture for our COMFORT.
Everett Ferguson says that is not true: they can use all forms of "singing" from solos to worship teams defined by the term "a cappella" which IS NOT a style of singing.


The big Joke on the internet and probably your confiscated "theater for holy entertainment" is the absolute connection of sexuality, homosexuality and "religionism" which is THRESKIA and not PURE THRESKIA.  The Androgynous Worship Leader may account for the demise of the mega churches built on lies and fairy tales.  The clearly erotic "making love to a god" or "daring to dance with God" or "sit in God's lap is a bad PERSONA.
Worship Androgyny the Pagan Sexual Ideal Peter Jones

Arnobius "At daybreak on opening, and at night on closing the temple, the priests of Isis sang hymns in praise of the goddess; and to these Aronibius refers sarcastically as though they had been calls to awake, and lullabies to sing her asleep." (Ante-Nicene, VI, p. 531 editor's note).

"Take up a harp, walk through the city, O prostitute forgotten; play the harp well, sing many a song, so that you will be remembered." Isa 23:16
Jesus said that God HIDES from the wise or Sophists meaning self-speakers, singers and instrument players.

The Word or LOGOS is defined as the Regulative or Governing Principle.  Logos is the opposite of preachers tales or opinions, singing, playing instruments or anything which does not contribute to the command to use one mind and one mouth to speak that which is written for our learning.

Everett Ferguson has worked really hard to find the passages which align with his thesis. However, we will post the REAL DOCUMENTS and the rest of the story marks those who were Lord, Lord Sayers as idle clergy who took people captive to a 24/7 Cultish or Monkish life.
"What I recently learned is that the term “acapella” in its etymology actually means “in the manner of the chapel (church).” When you combine those two definitions, you get “singing in the manner of the chapel (church) without instrumental accompaniment.
Before you decide to be a Doctor of the Law selling learning at wholesale (corrupting the word) you should read a bit of fact.

Again because no one seems to grasp it or care:

Capella is Caper is a GOAT:  The Sistine Chapel was a CHAPEL and not a worship center.  The Chapel was named after a general's goat-skinned chapel: he is said to have used one under which he prayed and gave the other half to Jesus. Capella was named after the goat constellation as in "worship of the starry hosts."

CAPELLA is a PLACE and it has nothing to do with SINGING with or without instruments.
Singing as in the Capella was called ORGANUM.  The Pope had a "worship team" of young boys singing FALSETTO. That is because of the Jewish and other patterns worship must be by males but they must perform the role of women.

Organum was a simple style of "the pope's worship team" where no instruments were allowed in the chapel or "closet."
A Pope IMPORTED castrated Opry singers to aid or replace the FALSETTOS (CCM) singing ORGANUM.

"In its earliest written form, found in the treatise Musica enchiriadis (c. 900; "Musical Handbook"), organum consisted of two melodic lines moving simultaneously note against note.

"Sometimes a second, or organal, voice doubled the chant, or principal voice, a fourth or a fifth below (as G or F below c, etc.). In other instances,

the two voices started in unison, then moved to wider intervals. Both melodies might in turn be doubled at the octave. Early organum of this sort (9th-11th century) was, it seems, spontaneously produced by specially trained singers before being committed to manuscript.

This harmonizing technique, called organum, is the first true example of harmony. The first instances were extremely simple, consisting of adding a voice that exactly paralleled the original melody at the interval of a fourth or fifth (parallel organum).

Everett.Ferguson.Congregational.Singing.Early.Church

THE EARLY CHURCH Everett Ferguson1

Everett Ferguson: 1 This paper began as a lecture for the Lita Witt Foundation at the Preston Road Church of Christ, Dallas, TX, May 21, 2000; repeated with modifications at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, Nov. 7, 2001 (published in Acta Patristica et Byzantina 15 [2004]:144-159; and revised and expanded for the symposium “Ascending Voice” at Pepperdine University, June 5, 2007.

According to Matthew 26:30 and Mark 14:26 at the conclusion of the Last Supper, Jesus and his disciples "sang hymns and went out to the Mount of Olives." Since this meal was apparently for Jesus and the disciples a Passover meal, these hymns were presumably the Hallel Psalms. According to later Rabbinic literature the Levites sang Psalms 113-118 during the slaughter of the lambs for the Passover offering. In the celebration of Passover at home, Psalms 113-114 were recited during the Passover meal and at the conclusion of the meal the remaining Hallel Psalms (Psalms 115- 118) were sung. 
2 Mishnah, Pesahim 5.7; 10.5-7.

The Passover was killed, roasted and eaten. There was no bread or fruit of the vine involved.
The Feast of Unleavened Bread followed immediately. During this feast Jesus probably used only the fifth cup which would be a sign that the forerunner had announced Messiah. The Jews followed the Babylonian Talmud and even children drank four cups of wine enough to make you dumb drunk.

As acted parables Jesus HIDE from the clergy who had no need to know.

Matt. 26:30 And when they had sung [hymnedAN hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives

In the rubrics of the Maḥzor of the northern uses "be-niggun N." heads a piyyuṭ with the signification "to the tune of N," as does "laḥn N." () in the southern liturgies. The word is also used to designate a droning, formless intonation set to a text, and, more especially, the particular mellody-type or prayer-motive to which a service is traditionally rendered, e.g., the Sabbath Niggun. See Music, Synagogal.

This presented little that to modern ears would appear worthy the name of melody, being, like the Greek melodies which have been deciphered, entirely of the character of a cantillation; that is, a recitation dependent on the rhythm and sequence of the words of the text instead of on the notes of the tune, and influenced by the syntactical structure of the sentence instead of by the metrical form of the musical phrase. Nor would the style of singing, nasal, shrill, and alternately full of intricate graces and of sudden pressures on emphatic notes, altogether commend itself to Western ears as graceful or harmonious.

Cantillation or Jewish Liturgical "singing."

Ritual music was at first only cantillation, i.e., recitative chanting, of the prose books of the BibleLater the prayers and biblical poetry were chanted, presumably in a modal system similar to the ragas of Hindu music or the maqamat of Arab music, i.e., melodies with improvisations.

I.2. A. Raba b. R. Hanin said to Abbayye, "We have learned in the Mishnah [M. Bes. 5:2]: [On a festival day] they do not clap hands, slap the thigh or dance, [lest they come also to play musical instruments].

NOT:
-Aoidê
1. art of song, autar aoidên thespesiên, spell, incantation, thing sung, song, whether of joy or sorrow,

-Aeidô
sing,.hence of all kinds of vocal sounds, crow as cocks, hoot as owls, croak as frogs,; hoi tettiges chamothen aisontai, crowing too soon.

Sing in that time meant RECITING or READING a poetic or spiritual piece: There is NO meter in the Bible as "that which is for our LEARNING" so to use "sing" in thheir sense as in modern SANGING AND CLANGING is not truthful

When you sing to a deity you SPEAK or RECITE: We know exactly WHAT they recited so that we do not have any authority to FABRICATE our own song and sing complex HARMONY while PLAYING the harp which would not seem adult.

Legō  1.to say, speak, Hdt., Trag., etc.; lege say on, Hdt.; so, legois an Plat.: of oracles, to say, declare,
6. like Lat. dicere, to mean, ti touto legei; what does this mean?
7.Pass., legetai, like Lat. dicitur, it is said, on dit
9. to recite what is written, labe to biblion kai lege
dīco   to say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor, verba facio, dicto, dictito, oro, inquam, aio, fabulor, concionor, pronuntio, praedico, recito, declamo, affirmo, assevero, contendo
opp. ouden legei has no meaning [songs[, no authority, “ouden l. to sōphronōs traphēnaiAr.Eq.334,
Click for Jesus and the apostles SPOKE a HYMN (Biblical text) and WENT OUT which would be a good PATTERN withought having musicians PRETEND to be mediators.

Matthew 26.30 When they had 'hymned" they went out to the Mount of Olives.

I believe that the Latin agrees with the common understanding that "singing was using the normal inflections of the human voice." Especially when you are confessing God the Father by the use of a hymn or prayer which gives HIM the glory. Mature males then and now do not agree to get together to appease God with singing.

Matthew 26.30  et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Oliveti

Hymnus , i, m., = humnos, I. a song of praise, a hymn: “hymnus cantus est cum laude Dei,Aug. Enarr. in Psa. 148, 17; Ambros. Expos. Psa. 118, prol. § 3; Lucil. ap. Non. 330, 9; Prud. Cath. 37 praef.; 4, 75: “divinorum scriptor hymnorum, Lact. 4, 8, 14; Vulg. Psa. 60 tit.; id. Matt. 26, 30.

The Greeks called a HYMN a PRAYER.  You don't congregationally sing a prayer.

Psalm 60 A teaching poem by David, when he fought with Aram Naharaim and with Aram Zobah, and Joab returned, and killed twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt.

There is no SINGING TUNEFULLY involved in hymning:

Dīcoto say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor stands for the Gr. eipein pros tina,
Ontōs , Adv. part. of eimi A. (sum), really, actually, verily, with Verb
Alēth-ēs a^, Dor. ala_thēs , es, (lēthō,
I. Hom., Opposite. pseudēs, in phrases alēthea muthēsasthai, eipein, agoreuein, alēthes enispein
3. of oracles, true, unerring, “alathea mantiōn thōkonPi. P.11.6, cf. S.Ph.993, E.Ion1537; of dreams, A.Th.710. “alēthei logō khrasthaiHdt. 1.14
        Opposite Epos
1. song or lay accompanied by music, 8.91,17.519. b. generally, poetry, even lyrics
        5. celebrate, of poets, “Aiantos bian
Acts 7:38 This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel
        which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us:
Romans 3:2 Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.
Hebrews 5:12 For when for the time ye ought to be teachers,
        ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God;
         and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat.

Real men don't SING oracles of the true God:

1Peter 4:11 If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
Luke 2.34 and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against.

Everett Ferguson: How was the singing done? We do not have much information, but let us pursue what the sources that we do have tell us. The plural verbal form in the text of Matthew and Mark indicates that all participated. What form did this participation take?

 Did ____________

2 Jesus or someone else LEAD, and the others respond? Did they divide into two groups and alternate in the singing? Did they sing in unison?

No: everyone attended synagogue which was a WORD ONLY assembly identical to the ekklesia. The command was to READ and REHEARSE or memorize the whole passage for the day. The synagogues reaad through especially the Psalms and prophets. Contrary to modern churches which can sing A song over and over for 50 years and learn absolutely nothing.  Groups could recite a Psalm at the drop of a hat. No one LED congregational singing

Other statements in the New Testament do not offer much help.

Ephesians 5:19, "Speaking to one another in Psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making melody WITH your heart to the Lord."

RECOURSE TO REMEDIAL READING:

The command is to SPEAK the Biblical teaching resource in the BOOK of Spalms.
The results is that the singing AND melody is IN the heart and directed to God.

-LOGOS or rational discord of God.  If you add or subtract to the Word then you have less interest in God and His Word than yourself.

Logos is Opposite Pathos  A. that which happens to a person or thing, incident, accident, where this incident took place, unfortunate accident,
2. what one has experienced, good or bad, experience
II. of the soul, emotion, passion (“legō de pathē . . holōs hois hepetai hēdonē ē lupēArist.EN1105b21), “sophiē psukhēn pathōn aphaireitai
2. incidents of things, changes or happenings occurring in them,
V.
Rhetoric, emotional style or treatment, to sphodron kai enthousiastikon   A.inspired,phusisPl.Ti.71e; especially by music
Logos is Opposite Sophia, A. cleverness or skill in handicraft and art in music and singing, tekhnē kai s. h.Merc.483, cf. 511; in poetry, Sol.13.52, Pi.O.1.117, Ar.Ra.882, X.An.1.2.8,
in divination, S.OT 502 
e. ekstasis  If you get too aroused Paul would call it MANIA.
Logos is Opposite Poiein to excite passion, Arist.Rh.1418a12; V. Rhet., emotional style or treatment, to sphodron kai enthousiastikon p. Longin.8.1; “pathos poieinArist. Rh.1418a12; “
4.speech, delivered in court, assembly
VI. verbal expression or utterance, lego, lexis
      -Lexis A.speech, OPPOSITE ôidê

-ôidê, 1.art of song 5. = eppsdê, spell, incantation
4. text of an author,  OPPOSITE exegesis [Peter's private interpretation outlaws exegesis]
Arist.En1142a26
It's a darn good thing that Paul commanded to
SPEAK to one another using the LOGOS
ODE and PSALLO are IN THE PLACE of the human heart or Spirit which means Keep It Silent Silly.

The fact that everyone wanted to SING our of their own spirit DOES NOT have anything to do with SOLOS.  Paul equated speaking in their native dialect to playing on lifeless instruments.  The PATTERN was to PREACH the WORD by reading the word for Comfort and Doctrine.  In pure irony Paul insisted that if these people thought that they were "prophets" often delivered in gibberish or foreign tongues LET SOMEONE translate his gibberish. There is NOT singing as in tunefulness because there is nothing in the commanded Scriptures which is metrical.

1Corinthians 14:28 But if there be no interpreter, let him keep silence in the church;
        and let him speak to himself, and to God.

Habakkuk 2:20 But the LORD is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him.
Sileo  to be noiseless, still, or silent, to keep silence; act., not to speak of, to keep silent respecting a thing (class.; stronger than tacere). I.  Transf., to be still or quiet (OPPOSITE. to being in action), to remain inactive, to rest, cease (in class. prose, for the most part only of things; cf. “quiesco): et cycnea mele Phoebeaque Carmina consimili ratione oppressa silerent,Lucr. 2, 506: “silent diutius Musae Varronis quam solebant
A Christian is a Disciple or a Student: The command of Jesus was to teach what HE commanded to be taught.  If you add your own words and body performance then you are violating a Direct command and are proven NOT to care much about what you get paid for.

Everett Ferguson:  Colossians 3:16, "Singing Psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs with your hearts to God." The plural verbal forms once again indicate group participation.

Ferguson makes his own translation which is false. 

Eph. 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is

Col. 3:15 And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye are called in one body; and be ye thankful.
Col. 3:16 Let the WORD [LOGOS] of Christ [Spirit John 6:63] dwell in you richly in all wisdom;
             teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
             singing with grace IN your hearts to the Lord.

The command is to TEAch WHAT JESUS COMMANDED TO BE TAUGHT.

di^daskō  instruct a person, or teach a thing, have one taught or educated, esp. of a father,
II. abs., explain,pōs ; didaxon”  show by argument, prove,legōn didasketō
TEACH SHOOTING: Who could hallucinate teaching shooting by singing?

Nouthet-eō , (tithēmi) A  put in mind : hence, admonish, put in mind, advise concerning, warn

The LOGOS forms of SPEAKING are for teaching: Logos is opposite to rhetoric, singing, playing instruments, acting or preacher's tales.

Col. 3:16BBE Let the word of Christ be in you in all wealth of wisdom;
        teaching and helping one another with songs of praise and holy words,
        making melody to God with grace IN your hearts.
Col. 3:16WEB Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly; in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace IN your heart to the Lord
Col. 3:16ASV Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly; in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace IN your hearts unto God.

Colossians 3.16 ho logos tou khristou enoikeitō en humin plousiōs en pasē sophia: didaskontes kai nouthetountes heautous psalmois, humnois, ōdais pneumatikais en khariti, adontes en tais kardiais humōn theō:

adontes en

en, OF PLACE, b.  en tois ikhthusin in the fish-market, 3  in, within, surrounded by
eis or es  into, and then more loosely, to with Verbs expressing restin a place, when a previous motion into or to it is implied

Col. 3:17 And whatsoever ye do in word or deed,
        do all in the name of the Lord Jesus,
        giving thanks to God and the Father by him.

Everett Ferguson: The "one another" is sometimes taken to indicate antiphonal or responsorial singing. That is possible as to the manner of rendition, as we shall see, but probably overinterprets the reflexive pronoun.3 The singing was in some way mutual, reciprocal.

SPEAK was one to another with that which is written for our LEARNING
ODE and PSALLO are IN the heart or silent: how can you SING and SPEAK at the same time.

Rom. 15:1 We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to PLEASE ourselves.

-Romans 15.1  debemus autem nos firmiores inbecillitates infirmorum sustinere et non nobisplacere

-Placeo to please, to be pleasing or agreeable, to be welcome, acceptable, to satisfy (class.).
1. In scenic lang., of players or pieces presented, to please, find favor, give satisfaction: “primo actu placeo, Ter. Hec. prol. alt. 31: cui scenico placenti,populo ut placerent quas fecisset fabulas,

Făcĭoto compose, id. Pis. 29, 70: “carmina,Juv. 7, 28: “versus,id. 7, 38: “sermonem,Cic. Fam. 9, 8, 1; cf. “litteram,id. Ac. 2, 2, 6: ludos, to celebrate, exhibit = edere, id. Rep. 2, 20; id. Att. 15, 10; “also i. q. ludificari,
 4. To represent a thing in any manner, to feign, assert, 8. In relig. lang., like the Gr . rhezein, to perform or celebrate a religious rite; to offer sacrifice, make an offering, to sacrifice compositio,

Outlawed:modulatio,”  II. In partic., a rhythmical measure, modulation; hence, singing and playing, melody, in poetry and music, Quint. 9, 4, 139: “modulatione produci aut corripi (verba),id. 9, 4, 89: “modulatio pedum,id. 1, 6, 2: “scenica,id. 11, 3, 57: “vocis,melody, id. 11, 3, 59: “musica,

Clement of Alexandria: "After having paid reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within [at church] what they have heard. And outside they foolishly amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quavering (feminine vibrato), occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxication, and all kinds of trash.
Rom. 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification. [education]
The Purpose Driven Church is to TEACH: singing or gibberish prevents TEACHING. Maybe people just don't WANT people to hear from Jesus.
1Corinthians 14:19 Yet in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that by my voice I might teach others also, than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue.

Rom. 15:3 For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written,
        The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me.
Rom. 15:4 For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning,
        that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.
Rom. 15:5 Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:
Rom. 15:6 That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Rom. 15:7 Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us to the glory of God.

Everett Ferguson: Paul describes his participation in the assembly in 1 Corinthians 14:15, "I will pray with the Spirit, and I will pray also with the mind; I will sing praise with the Spirit, and I will sing praise also with the mind." He individualizes his instructions to the Corinthians in order to correct their practices. As is true throughout 1 Corinthians 14, he describes his own practice in order to instruct the Corinthians on what they are to do in the assembly. He intends his practice to model what they are all to do. Hence, we should not be too quick to conclude that 1 Corinthians 14:26 refers to someone offering a solo in the assembly. Once more, Paul is individualizing group practices:

____________ 3 The reflexive was often used for the reciprocal pronoun, as in Eph. 4:32 and Col. 3:13.

"When you come together, each one has a Psalm, each one has a teaching; each one has a revelation, each one has a tongue, each one has an interpretation. Let all things be done for building up."

Paul speaks irony:

1Cor. 14:14 For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful.
1Cor. 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also:
      
I will sing with the spirit, andI will sing with the understanding also.
Paul had the spiritual gift of speaking all of the minor dialects.  If he spoke Aramic in a Koine speaking church his mind would grasp it but now one else could. Therefore, HE is the example to repudiate the Corinthians.
1Cor. 14:16 Else when THOU shalt bless with the spirit,
        how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at THY giving of thanks,
        seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest?
1Cor. 14:17 For thou verily givest thanks well, but the other is not edified.
1Cor. 14:18 I thank my God, I speak with tongues more than ye all:
1Cor. 14:19 Yet in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding,
        that by my voice I might TEACH others also,
        than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue.
1Cor. 14:20 Brethren, be not children in understanding:
        howbeit in malice be ye children, but in understanding be men.
1Cor. 14:21 In the law it is written,
        With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people;
        and yet for all that will they not hear me, saith the Lord.

Everett Ferguson: It should also be noted that Paul may here be speaking descriptively, not prescriptively; his prescription has to do with the purpose of edification, and how that is to be carried out is detailed later in the chapter. But, assuming that Paul is here giving instructions on what should be done, we may consider several possibilities of how each one brings a Psalm to the meeting. One could make a selection out of the book of Psalms for the congregation to sing; one could bring a new composition to be taught to the congregation; or one could bring a new set of words to which a traditional response was given by the congregation.

This is connected only to the many who claimed that what came out of their own spirit had teaching value as "praise singers" claim that they are speaking by the Holy Spirit.  Paul is silencing them all.  In Chapter 12 it is clear that IF there happened to be a PROPHETS able to speak by inspiration that you would only need ONE. If everyone has a Psalm this is NOT a PATTERN for the educational assembly then or now.
1Cor. 12:7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.
1Cor. 12:8 For to ONE is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit;
1Cor. 12:9 To another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit;
1Cor. 12:10 To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits;
        to another divers kinds of tongues;
        to another the interpretation of tongues:

It was common then and now for clergy to think that their words are inspired. Many of the transiente moving through Corinth might have WANTED to CHANT a song but none of the Biblical Psalms are metrical and cannot be SUNG: that is why the command is always to SPEAK which normal people do for other people.  If Everett Ferguson MIGHT CONSIDER how each one performed THEIR material PAUL put a stop to the nonesense.

Cor. 14:26 How is it then, brethren? when YE come together,
        everyone of you hath a psalm,
        hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation.
        Let all things be done unto edifying.

But, Paul said

For to ONE is given by the Spirit the word of
Paul didn't say "let all things be done" but all things for edification. That means education by teaching that which is written. Individuals both men and women are commanded to be silent "so that all might be saved and come to a knowledge of the truth." He silenced the women because they BELIEVED that they could mediate the word in song or sermon. Paul silenced them all by not COMMANDING singing but SPEAKING.
1Tim. 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;
1Cor. 14:27 If any man [singular] SPEAK in an unknown tongue, [IF they are apostle-ordained prophets]
        let it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by course; and let one interpret.
1Cor. 14:28 But if there be no interpreter,
         let him keep silence in the church;
        and let him speak to himself, and to God.
1Cor. 14:29 Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge.
1Cor. 14:30 If any thing be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace.
There is not hint that anyone one in Corinth has a SINGLE spiritual gift: Paul is speaking IRONY which should have silenced them and any modern proponet of SINGING when the command is to SPEAK
1Cor. 14:31 For ye may all prophesy one by one, [teach the Word of God by INSPIRATION]
         that all may LEARN, and all may be COMFORTED.
1Cor. 14:32 And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets.
1Cor. 14:33 For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints.
1Cor. 14:34 Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak;
        but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law.

There is no evidence that there was a single PROPHET in Corinth: Paul said your assemblies do more harm than good.  By laying out some LAWS Paul would silence all self-speak which violates the LOGOS.
The reason the women and anyone NOT an ordained prophety by the hands of an apostle MUST be silent is because anyone who needs to speak beyond the sacred page in violation of the LOGOS or Regulative Principle THINKS that they have something more important than the command to PREACH the word by READING the word for Doctrine and Comfort.

The CLEARLY thought that whatever they did was a REVELATION from God: Paul denies that and removes this as a PATTERN for singing in the assembly.
1Cor. 14:36 What? came the word of God out from you? or came it unto you only?
1Cor. 14:37 If any man THINK himself to be a prophet, or spiritual,
        let him acknowledge that the things that I WRITE unto you are the commandments of the Lord.
1Cor. 14:38 But if any man be ignorant, let him be ignorant.

Everett Ferguson: The Psalm might not be sung as strictly a solo in the same manner that only one person at a time ought to give a teaching or a revelation; indeed we know that the Corinthians were not giving their revelations and messages in tongue one at a time, which was the confusing situation requiring the regulations in 14:27-31.

Paul's command was to SPEAK the Psalm. Speak is the opposite of Sing. One does not teach by singing out of their own head.

Similarly, in Hebrews 2:12, Psalm 22:22 is quoted as describing Jesus “in the midst of the church” hymning praise to God. Whether a solo or some other method of singing was employed must be determined in part by what evidence we have from contemporary sources as to what Paul's words in 1 Corinthians 14:26 would have meant to his hearers.

Hymns are prayers and one SPEAK the Hymns.

Hebrews 2:1 Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed [that worship concept]
        to the things which we have heard,
        lest at any time we should let them slip.
Hebrews 2:2 For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast,
        and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward;
Hebrews 2:3 How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation;
        which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord,
        and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;
Hebrews 2:4 God also bearing them witness,
        both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles,
        and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?

LATIN: Hebrews 2.12 nuntiabo nomen tuum fratribus meis in medio ecclesiae laudabo te
 
laud

This is a parallelism: the way to hymn Jesus Christ in the church is to speak and declare what He has done .

Hebrews 2:11 For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one:
        for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,
Hebrews 2:12 Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren,
         in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.


Jesus Christ speaks when the elders "teach that which has been taught" or that whic is written for our learning.

TO DECLARE NEVER MEANS SING   

GREEK  Legō 3  1.  to say, speak, Hdt., Trag., etc.; lege say on, Hdt.; so, legois an Plat.: of oracles, to say, declare,
9. to boast of, tell of, Xen.: to recite what is written, labe to biblion kai lege Plat., etc.:—but the sense of Lat. lego, to read, only occurs in compds., analegomai, epilegomai.


Apagg-ellō
1. of a messenger, bring tidings, report,
2. of a speaker or writer, report, relate,opsis apaggellei
3. recite, declaim,
humn-eō  2. descant upon, in song or speech, “en katērephei stegē . . humnēseis kaka
II. tell over and over again, harp upon, repeat, recite
ton nomon humnein recite the form of the law, Id.Lg.871a
LATIN  Nuntĭo (nunc- ), āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. nuntius,
I. to announce, declare, report, relate, narrate, make known, inform, give intelligence of, etc.
(cf.: narro, indico, trado, scribo, dico, certiorem facio, etc.). I. In gen., alike of verbal and of written communications;
Laudo, I. to praise, laud, commend, extol, eulogize, approve
1. To pronounce a funeral oration over a person:
3. To praise, compliment, i. e. dismiss with a compliment, leave,
        to adduce, name, quote, cite a person as any thing: sermo

Sermo , ōnis, m. 2. sero, qs. serta, conserta oratio, Of prose as opposed to poetry
b. of verses in a conversational style, To Inculcate
II. Transf., a manner of speaking, mode of expression, language, style, diction, etc. (cf. lingua):
lingua  A. Since the tongue is an organ of speech, a tongue, utterance, speech, language:
2. The tongue or language of a people
3. Poet. of animals. the voice, note, song, bark,

Everett Ferguson:  So, let us go outside the New Testament to see if other sources offer us any help. I begin with one of the earliest notices of Christianity by a non-Christian, and it reports what 4 Christians did when they met together. The governor of the Roman province of Bithynia in Asia Minor, Pliny the Younger, wrote a letter about the year 110 to the emperor Trajan. In it he states the practice of Christians "to come together on a certain fixed day before daylight and to sing in alternate verses a hymn to Christ as to a God."4 Like the passages in Ephesians and Colossians, this description indicates all were involved but not necessarily in unison or simultaneously. Beyond that, one must speculate as to details, and many interpretations have been offered.5 Although the passage is often translated so as to indicate a kind of antiphonal singing, the practice may have been responsorial, but we cannot be sure even what Pliny understood the practice to be, much less that he correctly understood what was told him.

Allow me to fast forward to the fourth century and take a passage that, although late, in describing Christian practice at that time conveniently summarizes the options available for interpreting the first-century Christian practice. From it we will be in a position to work back to earlier evidence with more understanding.

Basil was a presbyter (362-370) and then bishop (370-379) of the church at Caesarea in Cappadocia. His critics in the ecclesiastical conflicts of his time forced him to defend many

5 See discussion and notes in my Early Christians Speak, 3rd edn. (Abilene: ACU Press, 1999), pp. 79, 81-82, 88. "Alternately" could be translated "in turn," "mutually," or "reciprocally."

5 of his practices. One of those charges was connected with psalmody, the singing of the Psalms, probably the practice of antiphonal singing, for there is no indication that the other ways of singing the Psalms were ever in doubt. In the following letter he describes an early morning vigil of his church, probably not a regular Sunday service; but presumably the congregation did at the vigil things with which it was familiar on Sunday, just as Christians’ Sunday practice is followed in many respects at midweek or other additional meetings.

____________ 4 Pliny, Letters 10.96.

PLINY 10 "They affirmed, however, the whole of their guilt, or their error, was, that they were in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it was light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a god, and bound themselves by a solemn oath, not to any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft, or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor to deny a trust when they should be called on to deliver it up..."  Pliny, "Letters" X, xcvi. Loeb Classical Library. English translation by William Melmoth, revised by W. M. L. Hutchinson. (London: William Heinemann; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1935), Vol. II, p. 103

Paul often uses SYNAGOGUE words so that Pliny is not describing either the synagogue or the historic ekklesai
Melmoth They affirmed the whole of their guilt, or their error, was, that they met on a stated day before it was light, and addressed a form of prayer to Christ, as to a divinity, binding themselves by a solemn oath,
However, here is another version:
Still others there were, whose names were supplied by an informer. These first said they were Christians, then denied it, insisting they had been, "but were so no longer"; some of them having "recanted many years ago," and more than one "full twenty years back." These all worshiped your image and the god's statues and cursed the name of Christ.

But they declared their guilt or error was simply this -- on a fixed day they used to meet before dawn and recite A hymn among themselves to Christ, as though he were a god. So far from binding themselves by oath to commit any crime, they swore to keep from theft, robbery, adultery, breach of faith, and not to deny any trust money deposited with them when called upon to deliver it.

This ceremony over, they used to depart and meet again to take food -- but it was of no special character, and entirely harmless. They also had ceased from this practice after the edict I issued -- by which, in accord with your orders, I forbade all secret societies.

A HYMN IS A PRAYER AND NOT A CONGREGATIONAL SINGING TUNEFULLY

Justin Martyr (100-165 A.D.) wrote, "We manifest our gratitude to him by worshiping him in spiritual songs and hymns, praising him for our birth, for our health, for the vicissitudes of the seasons, and for the hope of immortality " (Apology, 5:28). "
However, the real Justin wrote in First Apology

Chapter XIII.-Christians Serve God Rationally.

What sober-minded man, then, will not acknowledge that we are not atheists, worshipping as we do the Maker of this universe, and declaring, as we have been taught, that He has no need of streams of blood and libations and incense;

whom we praise to the utmost of our power by the exercise of prayer and thanksgiving for all things wherewith we are supplied, as we have been taught that the only honour that is worthy of Him is not to consume by fire what He has brought into being for our sustenance, but to use it for ourselves and those who need, and with gratitude to Him to offer thanks by invocations and hymns 15

for our creation, and for all the means of health, and for the various qualities of the different kinds of things, and for the changes of the seasons; and to present before Him petitions for our existing again in incorruption through faith in Him.

Note: 15 [Psalm singing is actually interpolated from other writings] pompaj kai umnouj. "Grabe, and it should seem correctly, understands pompaj to be solemn prayers. . . . He also remarks, that the umnoi (hymns) were either psalms of David, or some of those psalms and songs made by the primitive Christians, which are mentioned in Eusebius, H. E., v. 28."-Trollope.

He also notes that these were not for the assembly because non-Biblical hymns were added close to the fourth century.
humnos , ho, A. hymn, ode, in praise of gods or heroes (“kai ti ēn eidos ōdēs eukhai pros theous, onoma de humnoi epekalounto Pl.Lg.700b;

ODE is the opposite of LEXIS or SPEAK


Plat. Laws 700b one class of song was that of prayers to the gods, which bore the name of “hymns

1 i.e., solemn chants sung to the “cithara” or lyre. “Dithyrambs” were choral odes to Dionysus; “paeans” were mostly hymns of praise to Apollo. [Abaddon, Apollyon: the name of the SERVICE of the Levites or soothsayers]

Plat. Laws 936c There shall be no beggar in our State; and if anyone attempts to beg, and to collect a livelihood by ceaseless [making Poieo meter, hymns] prayers, the market-stewards shall expel him from the market, and the Board of city-stewards from the city, and from any other district he shall be driven across the border by the country-stewards, to the end that the land may be wholly purged of such a creature. If a slave, male or female, do any injury to another man's goods,
We know that the word for ODE defines a PSALMOS as in Hebrew Cantillation: Paul said SPEAK and did not say SING ONE TO ANOTHER.  There was no tunefulness and the Biblical text was not metrical and they could not be sung if their life depended on it.

Because the purpose was to LEARN A PSALM they probably did "lining out" as a way for everyon to memorize a whole chapter a verse at a time.  However, the RESPONSIVE SINGING is claimed to be based a Jewish monastic sect in Egypt:
From the very beginning, even during its Jewish phase, monasticism cultivated choral singing as an integral part of its observance. A later historographer of the church,

Eusebius, was aware of the musical predilections of the old ascetic sects in Judaism. In fact, he excerpted Philo's description of the ritual of the Alexandrian Therapeutes, which he likened to the Christian practices of his own time (4 centuries later):

The men and women rise, each group forming a choir, and sing thanksgiving hymns to God the Redeemer' (Hist. II.17). (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

"The majority of Christian monks in Egypt and Palestine championed organized choral chant, often in the face of a sternly opposed authority. When all historical circumstances are taken into account, there can be no doubt that the tremendious expansion and refinement of Christian chant before Pope Gregory was due to the intensive and continuous musical activities of the monks... Soon after his (Augustine's 430) death, the regional- ethnic forces of Gentile Christianity caused the split in the liturgico-musical development of the Eastern and Western churches." (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

See the Gregorian Chants

Gordon Ferguson: The customs we observe are in agreement and harmony with all the churches of God. At night our people are awake and go to the house of prayer. In labor, affliction, and continuous tears they make confession to God. At last, arising from their prayers, they enter into psalmody. At one time, divided into two groups, they sing antiphonally to one another. This practice strengthens their recitation of the words, and at the same time controls their attention and keeps their hearts from distraction.

Believers don't ever do that: the synagogue or Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness was to REST, READ AND REHEARSE  the Word. checkit

Matt. 11:27 All things are delivered unto me of my Father:
        and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father;
        neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son,
        and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him.
Matt. 11:28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.
Matt. 11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart:
        and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
Matt. 11:30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

phort-izō , A.load,phortisas ton ononBabr.111.3; phortia ph. tinas load them with burdens, Ev.Luc.11.46; perissē dapanē ph. ta koina
To carry away a load of honey

phort-ion , to, Barus   III. of impressions on the senses,

1. of sound, strong, deep, bass, opp. to oxus, Od.9.257, S.Ph.208, Pl.Prt.332c, Arist.EN1125a14, etc.; “baru amboasonA.Pers. 572 (lyr.); “phtheggontai barutaton anthrōpōn” esp. of musical pitch, low, opp. “oxus, barutatē khordēPl.Phdr.268e; akhos, phōna,

-Phortos is less complicated but is the same meaning as Phortos
A. load, freight, cargo, Od.8.163, 14.296, Hes.Op. 631, Hdt.1.1, S.Tr.537, and later Prose, as PEnteux.2.11 (iii B. C.), Plu.Marc.14, Luc.VH1.34; epoiēsanto me ph., expld. as pepragmateumai, prodedomai, phortos gegenēmai, Call.Fr.4.10P.; ph. erōtos, of Europa on the bull, Batr.78, cf. Nonn.D.4.118.
2. metaph., heavy load or burden, ph. khreias, kakōn, E.Supp.20, IT1306; cf. phortion.
II. Att., vulgar stuff, rubbish, balderdash, Ar.Pax748 (anap.) Pl.796.
III. mass of detail, 'stuff', in semi-colloquial sense, Aret.CD1.4

Nasa (h5347) accept, advance, arise, (able to, [armour], suffer to) bear (-er, up), bring (forth), burn, carry (away), cast, contain, desire, ease, exact, exalt (self), extol... utterly, wear, yield
Is. 41:28 For I beheld, and there was no man; even among them, and there was no counseller, that, when I asked of them, could answer a word.
Is. 41:29 Behold, they are all vanity; their works are nothing: their molten images are wind and confusion.
Is. 42:1 Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.
Is. 42:2 He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street.

h5375
The Laded Burden in Hebrew Jesus PutDown

h5375.Nasa.gif
 
Is. 42:3 A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he not quench: he shall bring forth judgment unto truth.
Is. 42:4 He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall wait for his law.
ac-cĭpĭo  Receive or entertain as a guest, admittance of political privileges,
A. To take a thing by hearing, i. e 1. To hear, to perceive, to observe, to learn carmen auribus,Lucr. 4, 983 (so id. 6, 164);
to get or receive intelligence of any thing, to learn:

Example of listening to a laded burden.
H5376.nasa.gif
 

h5377
h5377.Nasha.gif








Jesus would not LISTEN to:
Lucr. 4.983
A man most clings absorbed, or what the affairs
On which we theretofore have tarried much,
And mind hath strained upon the more, we seem
In sleep not rarely to go at the same...

And thus it is
For many a day thereafter those appear
Floating before the eyes, that even awake
They think they view the dancers moving round
Their supple limbs, and catch with both the ears
The liquid song of harp and speaking chords,
And view the same assembly on the seats,
And manifold bright glories of the stage-
So great the influence of pursuit and zes
carmen
I.a tune, song; poem, verse; an oracular response, a prophecy; a form of incantation (cf.: cano, cantus, and canto)
I. In gen., a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumental
also versus, numeri, modi): carmen tuba ista peregit ( = sonus),
per me (sc. Apollinem) concordant carmina nervis
harundineum,id. Tr. 4, 1, 12: “socialia carmina,id. H. 12, 139: “barbaricum,id. M. 11, 163.—With allusion to playing on the cithara “tragicum,
carmen funebre proprie Naenia,[Jesus cast out these musical minstrels "like dung" and refused to listen to them to ASSIST His healing power]
BURDEN: 7.Moral sentences composed in verses: “Appii Caeci carmen,Cic. Tusc. 4, 2, 4

Modo 2. The measure of tones, measure, rhythm, melody, harmony, time; in poetry, measure, metre, mode: “vocum,Cic. Div. 2, 3, 9: “musici,Quint. 1, 10, 14: “lyrici,Ov. H. 15, 6: “fidibus Latinis Thebanos aptare modos,Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 12: Bacchico exsultas (i. e. exsultans) modo, Enn. ap. Charis. p. 214 P. (Trag. v. 152 Vahl.): “flebilibus modis concinere,Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 106: saltare ad tibicinis modos, to the music or sound of the flute, Liv. 7, 2: “nectere canoris Eloquium vocale modis,Juv. 7, 19.—Fig.: “verae numerosque modosque ediscere vitae,moral harmonies, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 144.—

Quint. Inst. 8 2.8 for example, the proper term for a funeral song is naenia, and for the general's tent augurale.  Augural I. Of or belonging to augurs, relating to soothsaying or prophecy, augurial

tăbernācŭlum capere





PAUL SILENCED THE SELF-PLEASURE which was "mental excitement" as the "laded burden Jesus silenced.}
Rom. 15:1 We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.
Rom. 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification.
Rom. 15:3 For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me.
Rom. 15:4 For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.
Rom. 15:5 Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:
Rom. 15:6 That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

G700 areskō ar-es'-ko Probably from G142 (through the idea of exciting emotion); to be agreeable (or by implication to seek to be so):—please.
Airo (h142) ah'ee-ro; a prim. verb; to lift; by impl. to take up or away; fig. to raise (the voice), keep in suspense (the mind); spec. to sail away (i.e. weigh anchor); by Heb. [comp. 5375] to expiate sin: - away with, bear (up), carry, lift up, loose, make to doubt, put away, remove, take (away, up).
aeirō  mēkhanēn, in the theatre,
esp. of pride and passion, exalt, excite, hupsou ai. thumon grow excited,
4. take up and bear, as a burden, “moronA.Pers.547; “athlonS.Tr.80; “algosA.R.4.65.
2. raise by words, hence, praise, extol, E.Heracl.322, etc.; ai. logō to exaggerate, D.21.71.
Thaumastos III. to be worshipped, “oudeis m' areskei nukti thaumastos theōnE.Hipp.106.

The burden in Greek includes:

epōd-os , on, (epadō A. singing to or over, using songs or charms to heal wounds, “epōdoi muthoiPl.Lg.903b.

b. Subst., enchanter,e. kai goēsE.Hipp. 1038 (but “goēs e.Ba.234): c. gen., a charm for or against,ethusen hautou paida epōdon Thrēkiōn aēmatōnA.Ag.1418 ; e. tōn toioutōn one to charm away such fears, Pl.Phd.78a.

2. epōdos, ho, verse or passage returning at intervals, in Alcaics and Sapphics, D.H.Comp.19 ; chorus, burden, refrain, Ph. 1.312 : metaph., ho koinos hapasēs adoleskhias e. the 'old story', Plu.2.507e.

Cyclopaedia p 133
In music, the burden is an archaic term[1] for the drone or base in some musical instruments, and the pipe or part that plays it, such as a bagpipe or pedal point in an organ. Burden also refers to a part of a song that is repeated at the end of each stanza, i.e. the chorus or refrain. The term comes from the French bourdon, a staff; or a pipe made in the form of a staff, imitating the gross murmurs of bees or drones. This is what was anciently called proslambanomenos.
[John Chalmers, Divisions of the Tetrachord]

Lowest note, a whole tone below the hypaton tetrachord in the P.I.S [in ancient Greek music theory].

The LADED BURDEN:

Encyclopedia Encyclopedia, phrase, line, or group of lines repeated at intervals throughout a poem, generally at the end of the stanza. Refrains are found in the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead and are common in primitive tribal chants. They appear in literature as varied as ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Latin verse, popular ballads, and Renaissance and Romantic lyrics. Three common refrains are the chorus, recited by more than one person; the burden, in which a whole stanza is repeated; and the repetend, in which the words are repeated erratically throughout the poem.

Again contrary to the Scriptures Gordon Ferguson: The customs we observe are in agreement and harmony with all the churches of God. At night our people are awake and go to the house of prayer. In labor, affliction, and continuous tears they make confession to God. At last, arising from their prayers, they enter into psalmody. At one time, divided into two groups, they sing antiphonally to one another. This practice strengthens their recitation of the words, and at the same time controls their attention and keeps their hearts from distraction.
We know for a fact that this is not true
: in the enclaves or monastic centers people were NOT an ekklesia or Synagogue or School of the Word. History notes that the WORKING people often had a hard time attending an assembly and did what the laws for the synagogue commanded: to remain in their local villages to Rest, Read and Rehearse the Word of God.  The Spirit OF Christ outlawed "vocal or instrumental rejoicing or rhetoric.

Matt. 6:2 Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee,
        as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
Matt. 6:3 But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth:
Matt. 6:4 That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly.
Matt. 6:5 And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are:
        for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets,
        that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
Matt. 6:6 But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet,
        and when thou hast shut thy door,
        pray to thy Father which is in secret;
        and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.
Matt. 6:7 But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions,
        as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking.
Matt. 6:8 Be not ye therefore like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him.

Nor, indeed, because thanksgiving at all times has been enjoined even by law and has been proved necessary to our life from both reason and nature, should we therefore be negligent in observing those times for prayer customarily established in communities-times which we have inevitably selected because each period contains a reminder peculiar to itself of blessings received from God. Prayers are recited early in the morning

Gordon Ferguson: Next, entrusting to one person the task of leading the melody, the others sing the response. Thus they pass the night in a variety of psalmody interspersed with prayers. When day begins to dawn, all in common--as if of one mouth and one heart--lift up the psalm of confession to the Lord, each one making the words of repentance his or her own.6

WORKING people don't have the freedom to do that monkish or clergy thing.

It is a fact that Melody as Tunefulness belongs to the 19th century. And certainly the harmony of congregational singing which is NOT A CAPPELLA was not known and would have been called madness in the assembly devoted to PREACHING the WORD by READING the Word for comfort and doctrine did NOT EXIST for many centuries.

There is no command, example or remote inference of God calling His students out of their rest to engage in congregational singing with or without instruments. The universal command is to SPEAK and there is no command to SING in the audible sense at the same time you are SPEAKING that which is written for our learning.

____________ 6 Basil, Letter 207.3, 4. Dated about 375. The translation is also found in my Inheriting Wisdom: Readings for Today from Ancient Christian Writers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2004), p. 242. 6

Basil

(Homily X, 1; On Psalm I.)

When, indeed, the Holy Spirit saw that the human race was guided only with difficulty toward virtue, and that, because of our inclination toward pleasure, we were neglectful of an upright life, what did He do?

The delight of melody He mingled with the doctrines so that by the pleasantness and softness of the sound heard
we might receive without perceiving it the
benefit of the words,
just as wise physicians who, when giving the fastidious rather bitter drugs to drink, frequently smear the cup with honey.

Therefore, He devised for us these harmonious melodies of the psalms, that they who are children in age or even those who are youthful in disposition might to all appearances chant but, in reality, become trained in soul.

For, never has any one of the many indifferent persons gone away easily holding in mind either an apostolic or prophetic message, but they do chant the words of the psalms even in the home,

and they spread them around in the market place, and if perchance someone becomes exceedingly wrathful, when he begins to be soothed by the psalm, he departs with the wrath of his soul immediately lulled to sleep by means of the melody.

BASIL PRAYER. HYMNS Singing Psalms

Chapter 9 defines the Sunday Practices of the Monks.

Letter CCVII
The customs which now obtain are agreeable to those of all the Churches of God.
Among us the people go at night to the house of prayer, and, in distress, affliction, and continual tears, making confession to God, at last rise from their prayers and begin to sing psalms.
And now, divided into two parts, they sing antiphonally with one another, thus at once confirming their study of the Gospels,[1] and at the same time producing for themselves a heedful temper and a heart free from distraction.

Afterwards they again commit the prelude of the strain to one, and the rest take it up; and so after passing the night in various psalmody, praying at intervals as the day begins to dawn, all together, as with one voice and one heart, raise the psalm of confession to the Lord, each forming for himself his own expressions of penitence.

11. Hours of Prayer
In the final excerpt we draw from his Ascetic work. He again outlines the schedule of prayer throughout the day.

The services of the day are thus marked out.  The first movements of heart and mind ought to be consecrated to God.  Therefore early in the morning nothing ought to be planned or purposed before we have been gladdened by the thought of God; as it is written, “I remembered God, and was gladdened;”[Ps. lxxvii. 3, LXX.]the body is not to be set to work before we have obeyed the command, “O Lord, in the morning shalt thou hear my voice; in the morning will I order my prayer unto thee.”[Ps. v. 3.]

Again at the third hour there is to be a rising up to prayer, and the brotherhood is to be called together, even though they happen to have been dispersed to various works.  The sixth hour is also to be marked by prayer, in obedience to the words of the Psalmist ,[ Ps. lv. 17.] “evening, and morning, and at noon will Ipray, and cry aloud:  and He shall hear my voice.”  To ensure deliverance from the demon of noon-day, [ Ps. xci. 6, LXX.]  the XCIst Psalm is to be recited.  The ninth hour is consecrated to prayer by the example of the [Acts iii. 1] Peter and John, who at that hour went up into the Temple to pray.  Now the day is done.  For all the boons of the day, and the good deeds of the day, we must give thanks.  For omissions there must be confession.  For sins voluntary or involuntary, or unknown, we must appease God in prayer.

Only the parasitic monks did that: THEY DID NOT DO THAT IN ALL OF THE CHURCHES

Yet Gordon Ferguson: Basil had polemical reasons to want to emphasize that the practice of his church was not unique, so there may be rhetorical exaggeration in his claim that its customs agreed with those of "all the churches." Nonetheless, we must grant a substantial truth in his claim, for complete falsehood would have been too readily refuted. He is not describing an isolated practice. His description shows a variety of methods of engaging in psalmody, a variety that would have assisted in keeping people awake for an early morning service. These three kinds of singing are antiphonal, responsorial, and unison. In antiphonal singing the congregation was divided into two parts, each group singing alternately. In responsorial singing a leader carried the main part of the singing with the congregation responding either with a set phrase (like a refrain), which was more common, or with a repetition of what the leader had sung. In unison singing the whole congregation "as if of one mouth and one heart" sang together the same words. The phrase “one mouth” did not mean unison in the sense of all singing the same note but was a phrase for joint participation in which all agreed in speaking the same thing.7 Accordingly, I will use “unison” not for singing the same melodic line (although this may often have been the case) but for unified congregational singing.

There was NO KNOWN MELODY as tunefulness so we can be DOGMATIC in saying that SPEAK THE SAME THINGS MEANS SPEAK THE SAME THINGS and not SING your own part.
Rom. 15:4 For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning,
        that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.
Rom. 15:5 Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:
Rom. 15:6 That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Rom. 15:7 Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us to the glory of God.


Yet Gordon Ferguson The phrase “one mouth” did not mean unison in the sense of all singing the same note but was a phrase for joint participation in which all agreed in speaking the same thing

____________ 7 Everett Ferguson, “Praising God with ‘One Mouth’/’One Voice’,” in Mark H. Hamilton, Thomas H. Olbricht, and Jeffrey Peterson, eds., Renewing Tradition: Studies in Texts and Contexts in Honor of James W. Thompson (Eugene: Pickwick, 2007), pp. 3-23.

Everett Ferguson: 7 Before saying something more about each of these forms of expression, I note that solo singing was known in a monastic setting. Thus John Cassian, who was influential in transferring the spirituality of Egyptian ascetics to western Europe (Gaul) in the early fifth century, relates the following story of the early leaders of Egyptian monasticism:

As they were going to celebrate their daily rites and prayers, one rose up in the midst to chant the Psalms to the Lord. And while they were all sitting (as is still the custom in Egypt), with their minds intently fixed on the words of the chanter, when he had sung eleven Psalms, separated by prayers introduced between them, verse after verse being evenly enunciated, he finished the twelfth with a response of Alleluia.8

Earlier, about the year 200, Tertullian reported that solos were sung at love feasts. He says that after the meal the following occurred:

After the washing of hands and lighting of lamps, each one who is able is called into the center to chant praise to God either from the holy scriptures or from his own talents.9

So far as I know, explicit testimony for such solo recitation at the other church services is lacking, but it may have occurred in situations where only one was learned in the Psalms or skilled in music.

____________ 8 John Cassian, Institutes 2.5; the practice is further regulated in 2.12.

9 Tertullian, Apology 39.18.

Chapter XXXIX.

I shall at once go on, then, to exhibit the peculiarities of the Christian society, that, as I have refuted the evil charged against it, I may point out its positive good.55 We are a body knit together as such by a common religious profession, by unity of discipline, and by the bond of a common hope. We meet together as an assembly and congregation, that, offering up prayer to God as with united force, we may wrestle with Him in our supplications. This violence God delights in. We pray, too, for the emperors, for their ministers and for all in authority, for the welfare of the world, for the prevalence of peace, for the delay of the final consummation.56

We assemble to read our sacred writings, if any peculiarity of the times makes either forewarning or reminiscence needful.57 However it be in that respect, with the sacred words we nourish our faith, we animate our hope, we make our confidence more stedfast; and no less by inculcations of God's precepts we confirm good habits. In the same place also exhortations are made, rebukes and sacred censures are administered. For with a great gravity is the work of judging carried on among us, as befits those who feel assured that they are in the sight of God; and you have the most notable example of judgment to come when any one has sinned so grievously as to require his severance from us in prayer, in the congregation and in all sacred intercourse.

The tried men of our elders preside over us, obtaining that honour not by purchase, but by established character. There is no buying and selling of any sort in the things of God. Though we have our treasure-chest, it is not made up of purchase-money, as of a religion that has its price. On the monthly day,58 if he likes, each puts in a small donation; but only if it be his pleasure, and only if he be able: for there is no compulsion; all is voluntary. These gifts are, as it were, piety's deposit fund. For they are not taken thence and spent on feasts, and drinking-bouts, and eating-houses, but to support and bury poor people, to supply the wants of boys and girls destitute of means and parents, and of old persons confined now to the house; such, too, as have suffered shipwreck; and if there happen to be any in the mines, or banished to the islands, or shut up in the prisons, for nothing but their fidelity to the cause of God's Church, they become the nurslings of their confession.

The only mention of singing was the statement of Pliny

as to what he was to do with the rest, explaining to his master that,

except an obstinate disinclination to offer sacrifices, he found in the religious services nothing but meetings at early morning for singing hymns to Christ and God, and sealing home their way of life by a united pledge to be faithful to their religion, forbidding murder, adultery, dishonesty, and other crimes.
And we noted above that another versions says: But they declared their guilt or error was simply this -- on a fixed day they used to meet before dawn and recite A hymn among themselves to Christ, as though he were a god. So far from binding themselves by oath to commit any crime, they swore to keep from theft, robbery, adultery, breach of faith, and not to deny any trust money deposited with them when called upon to deliver it.

Everett Ferguson: 8 The use of antiphonal singing may be the specific practice Basil had to defend, for it is the manner of singing for which he gives an explanation of its value: It helps to strengthen the recitation of the words (it helps to say things together with others), and it helps to maintain the attention of the heart (since one has to pay attention when his or her part comes). Moreover, we know that there was some controversy over the introduction of antiphonal singing reflected in fourth-century sources. One historian testified that the practice was introduced at Antioch in the middle of the century.10 Another historian, however, reported the claim of a greater antiquity of the practice, attributing it to Ignatius, bishop of Antioch at the beginning of the second century.11 The practice of dividing into

____________ 10 Theodoret, Church History 2.19--"Flavian and Diodore were the first to divide choirs into two parts, and to teach them to sing the Psalms of David antiphonally. Introduced first at Antioch, the practice spread in all directions, and penetrated to the ends of the earth. Its originators now collected the lovers of the divine word and work into the churches of [that is, dedicated to] the martyrs, and with them spent the night in singing Psalms to God."

Theodoret: cunning of Leontius Chapter XIX

Men, on the other hand, who sided with the Arian superstition, were both allowed perfect liberty in expressing their opinions, and were from time to time admitted to priestly office. At this juncture Aetius, the master of Eunomius, who promoted the Arian error by his speculations, was admitted to the diaconate. Flavianus and Diodorus, however, who had embraced an ascetic career, and were open champions of the Apostolic decrees, publicly protested against the attacks of Leontius against true religion. That a man nurtured in iniquity and scheming to win notoriety by ungodliness should be counted worthy of the diaconate, was, they urged, a disgrace to the Church. They further threatened that they would withdraw from his communion, travel to the western empire, and publish his plots to the world. Leontius was now alarmed, and suspended Aetius from his sacred office, but continued to show him marked favour.

That excellent pair Flavianus and Diodorus,120 though not vet admitted to the priesthood and still ranked with the laity, worked night and day to stimulate men's zeal for truth. They were the first to divide choirs into two parts, and to teach them to sing the psalms of David antiphonally. Introduced first at Antioch, the practice spread in all directions, and penetrated to the ends of the earth. Its originators now collected the lovers of the Divine word and work into the Churches of the Martyrs, and with them spent the night in singing psalms to God.

When Leontius perceived this, he did not think it safe to try to prevent them, for he saw that the people were exceedingly well-disposed towards these excellent men. However, putting a colour of courtesy on his speech, he requested that they would perform this act of worship in the churches. They were perfectly well aware of his evil intent. Nevertheless they set about obeying his behest and readily summoned their choir121 to the Church, exhorting them to sing praises to the good Lord. Nothing, however, could induce Leontius to correct his wickedness, but be put on the mask of equity,122 and concealed the iniquity of Stephanus and Placidus. Men who had accepted the corruption of the faith of priests and deacons, although they had embraced a life of vile irregularity, he added to the roll; while others adorned with every kind of virtue and firm adherents of apostolic doctrines, he left unrecognised. Thus it came to pass that among the clergy were numbered a majority of men tainted with heresy, while the mass of the laity were champions of the Faith, and even professional teachers lacked courage to lay bare their blasphemy. In truth the deeds of impiety and iniquity done by Placidus, Stephanus, and Leontius, in Antioch are so many as to want a special history of their own, and so terrible as to be worthy of the lament of David; for of them too it must be said "For lo thy enemies make a murmuring and they that hate thee lift up their head. They have imagined craftily against the people and taken counsel against thy secret ones. They have said come and let us root them out that they be no more a people: and that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance."123

Everett Ferguson: 11 Socrates Scholasticus, Church History 6.8.11--"We must now, however, make some allusion to the origin of this custom in the church of antiphonal singing. Ignatius, third bishop of Antioch in Syria from the apostle Peter . . . saw a vision of angels hymning in alternate chants the holy Trinity. Accordingly he intro9 two groups and singing back and forth was almost certainly known earlier than the fourth century, as we shall see. Was the practice of antiphonal singing introduced at Antioch a revival of an earlier practice that seemed new at the time, or was there something new about the manner in which it was done?12 We cannot be sure.

Socrates (vi. 8), describing the rivalry of the Homoousians and Arians in singing partizan hymns antiphonally in the streets of Antioch in the days of Arcadius, traces the mode of chanting to the great Ignatius, who once in a Vision heard angels so praising God.

But, remarks Bp. Lightfoot (Apostolic Fathers Pt. 2. I. p. 31.) "Antiphonal singing did not need to be suggested by a heavenly Vision. It existed already among the heathen in the arrangements of the Greek Chorus. It was practised with much elaboration of detail in the Psalmody of the Jews, as appears from the account which is given of the Egyptian Therapeutes. Its introduction into the Christian Church therefore was a matter of course almost from the beginning: and when we read in Pliny (Ep. x. 97) that the Christians of Bithynia sang hymns to Christ as to a god, `alternately 0' (secure invicem) we may reasonably infer that the practice of antiphonal singing prevailed far beyond the limits of the church of Antioch, even in the time of Ignatius himself."

Everett Ferguson:One reason that antiphonal singing seemed novel was that the common practice was responsorial singing. There is an abundance of evidence, of which we will cite only a sampling. The instructions concerning a Sunday assembly in the fourth-century Apostolic Constitutions include the following directions:

____________ duced the mode of singing he had observed in the vision into the Antiochian church; whence it was transmitted by tradition to all the other churches. Such is the account we have received in relation to these antiphonal hymns." Earlier in 6.8.2 he uses the same word for antiphonal singing to describe the musical practices of the Arians.

12 Other references from the fourth century cited for antiphonal singing are the following: Gregory of Nazianzus, Songs 18; Ambrose, Hexaemeron 3.5; Augustine, Explanations of the Psalms 26 pref. A notice of the introduction of antiphonal singing at Milan by Ambrose is given by Paulinus, Life of Ambrose 4.13 and Augustine, Confessions 9.7.

10 When there have been two lessons [from the Scriptures] read, let some other person sing the hymns of David, and let the people join in the singing at the conclusions of the verses.13 John Chrysostom considered the practice to go back to apostolic times:

They all met together in old time and sang in response to the Psalms in common. This we do also now, but then among all there was one soul and one heart.14

A work by Methodius, bishop of Olympus (d. about 311), entitled the Banquet in 11.2 contains a responsorial hymn sung by a group of virgins with the text of the song sung by the leader given in full and the refrain repeated by the others as a response after each verse. I am spending more time on the fourth century because our evidence is fuller and more descriptive, and so permits us to read the earlier evidence with greater clarity.

There is more evidence than is commonly recognized for unison or congregational song. In fact, one historian of church music argued that congregational singing was the oldest form of church music.15 Some of the statements about everybody participating,

____________ 13 Apostolic Constitutions 2.57.6.

14 Homily 36 On 1 Corinthians 14:33. Other references from the fourth century given for responsorial singing include Chrysostom, Commentary on Psalms 137; Athanasius, Defense of his Flight 24. 15 Joseph Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church (London: Bohn, 1845; repr. of 1708, 1722 edition), Book 14, chapter 1, pp. 680-683, citing Hilary, On the Psalms 65; Augustine, De Verb.

11 however, could refer to antiphonal or responsorial participation. Some passages, nonetheless, do sound as if they were talking about everyone singing the whole Psalm. Ambrose, bishop of Milan (374- 397), has this to say:

What a labor it is to achieve silence in church while the lessons are being read. When one man would speak, the congregation makes a disturbance. But when the Psalm is recited, it makes its own "silence," since all are speaking and there is no disturbance. . . . The singing of praise is the very bond of unity, when the whole people join in song a single act of song.16

The same passage continues with a defense of women singing in spite of Paul's words, "Let women keep silent in church" (1 Cor. 14:34), which, Ambrose says (and I think correctly), do not apply to group participation in song. Basil of Caesarea in his commentary on the Psalms discusses what psalmody accomplishes and comments on the whole congregation participating: Singing the Psalms together is a bond of unity, "uniting the people into the harmony of one chorus."17 Eusebius, the church historian and bishop of Caesarea in Palestine (313-339), gives this impressive testimony from the early fourth century:

____________ Apost. Serm. 10; and the Chrysostom passages that I translate as referring to responsorial singing.

16 Ambrose, On Psalm 1, Exposition 9. Translation by Erik Routley, The Church and Music (London: Duckworth, 1950), p. 129.

17 Basil, Homilies on the Psalms 1.2.

12 Throughout the world--in cities, in villages, and in the country-- in all the churches of God the people of Christ, who have been chosen out of all the nations, send up, not to the native gods nor to demons but to the one God spoken of by the prophets, hymns and psalmody with a loud voice so that the sound of those singing can be heard by those standing outside.18

A frequent expression for this common participation by all was "one mouth." It is already in the New Testament--Romans 15:6- -but also in the passage quoted from Basil that provides a framework for our discussion of three types of congregational singing. An equivalent expression was "one voice." Niceta of Remesiana gives this advice:

Let us sing all together, as with one voice, and let all of us modulate our voices in the same way. If one cannot sing in tune with the others, it is better to sing in a low voice rather than drown out the others.19 [I follow this advice.]

"One voice" or unison singing, as I said, referred to congregational participation, not the same pitch, for some passages make explicit that different ages and sexes participated. John Chrysostom writes:

[God] invites every age to sing: old men, mature men, youths, adults, women, all inhabitants of the world.20

____________ 18 Commentary on Psalms 65.10-15; cf. his Commentary on Psalms 91.2-3.

19 On the Utility of Hymn Singing 13.

20 John Chrysostom, Commentary on the Psalms 150.6. 13

In another passage he speaks similarly: Our tongues are the strings of our kithara [a string instrument played by plucking--the body, as commonly in patristic sources, is the instrument21], putting forth a different sound yet a godly harmony. For indeed women and men, old and young, have different voices, but they do not differ in the word of hymnody, for the Spirit blends the voice of each and effects one melody in all.22 I would insist that all three of these methods of singing, not just the unison, are "congregational singing," for the whole congregation is involved even if not all at the same time. In neither case is there performance, whether by one person (although one person, the precentor or “song leader," has great prominence in responsorial singing) or by a chorus (actually two choruses comprising the whole congregation in antiphonal singing). In each instance the group that is silent part of the time is not simply listening but is actively engaged and must enter in at the appropriate time. We may compare, although not exactly

____________ 21 See further below and my “Toward a Patristic Theology of Music,” Studia Patristica 24 (1993):266-283 (269, 273, 276-277), to which add Gregory of Nyssa, Making of Man 9, on the body as an instrument used by the mind; also my “The Active and Contemplative Lives: The Patristic Interpretation of Some Musical Terms,” Studia Patristica 16 (1985):15-23.

22 John Chrysostom, Homily on Psalm 145 [English 146].2. Cf. Basil, Hexaemeron 4.7 (PG 29.93C), “mingled voice of men, women, and children.”

14 equivalent, the practice of soprano, alto, tenor, or bass leads (or singing of one verse) and then other parts joining in. The congregation or one of the choruses might not sing the whole song. In those passages where it is emphasized that the whole congregation was involved, can we tell more about how? Which of the three methods was involved in any given case? Here I think it is instructive to compare Basil's statement with a Rabbinic passage that describes similar but not identical practice. The time of writing was nearly contemporary, but it cites earlier Rabbis. The subject is the song of Moses and Miriam in Exodus 15, and the discussion is how the singing was done. The passage compares different ways in which the congregation participated in a synagogue service:

Our Rabbis taught: On that day R. Akiba [early second century] expounded: At the time the Israelites ascended from the Red Sea, they desired to utter a song; and how did they render the song? Like an adult who reads the Hallel (for a congregation) and they respond after him with the leading word. (According to this explanation) Moses said, "I will sing unto the Lord," and they responded, "I will sing unto the Lord"; Moses said, "For He hath triumphed gloriously" and they responded, "I will sing unto the Lord." R. Eliezer [mid-second century], son of R. Jose the Galilean, declares, Like a minor who reads the Hallel (for a congregation), and they repeat after him all that he says. (According to this explanation) Moses said, "I will sing unto the Lord" and they responded, "I will sing unto the Lord";

Moses said, "For he hath triumphed gloriously" and they responded, "For He 15 hath triumphed gloriously." R. Nehemiah [second century] declares: Like a school-teacher who recites the Shema ["Hear, O Israel"] in the Synagogue, viz., he begins first and they respond after him. On what do they differ? -R. Akiba holds that the word "saying" refers to the first clause; R. Eliezer, son of R. Jose the Galilean, holds that "saying" refers to every clause; and R. Nehemiah holds that "and spake" indicates that they sang all together "and saying" that Moses began first.23

The passage describes two types of responsorial participation and one type of unison participation. In the first type the response is with a key phrase repeated as a refrain each time; in the second type the response is to repeat the words of the leader (who might be a minor);24 and in the third type the leader starts and everyone joins in unison. The whole congregation is involved in all three types. The passage would indicate various types of singing were known among the Jews in the period shortly after the beginning of the church. Can we go back earlier? The interpretation of the Song of the Sea in Exodus 15 points us to a Jewish writer on the eve of the New Testament, Philo of Alexandria.

Philo describes a Jewish sect known as the Therapeutae, who lived as a kind of monastic community composed of both men and ____________

23 Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 30b.

24 Is the congregational repetition of everything because the minor might speak indistinctly and it was important for everything to be clearly understood?

16 women not far from Alexandria. The following passage describes their celebration on the fiftieth day (presumably Pentecost). [Following a discourse by the president,] The president having stood up sings a hymn addressed to God, either a new one composed by himself or an old one by poets of an earlier time [one of the Psalms?],

 for they have left behind in many meters and melodies verses in trimeters, hymns for processions, at libations, and at the altars, and careful metrical arrangements for the stops and varied movements of choruses.25

After him the others [sing] in proper order according to their rank, while all the rest listen in great silence except when they must sing the closing phrases or refrains, for then all, both men and women, lift up their voices. [When each has finished his hymn, the meal is served.]

[Then came an all-night vigil of the community that was spent in song.] They all rise together in the midst of the dining room and first form two choruses, one of men and one of women. For each chorus the most honored and most musical is chosen as precentor and leader. Then they sing hymns to God composed in many meters and melodies, sometimes singing together and at other times with antiphonal harmonies, motioning with their hands and dancing, inspiring in turn processional odes and then performing the stops, turnings, and movements of a choric dance. Then when each of the ____________

25 Alternatively, instead of referring to the dances ("varied movements"), we could translate "the stationary choral songs well arranged with versatile strophes."

17 choruses has taken its own part in the feast, . . . they combine and out of the two become one chorus, a copy of what was constituted at the Red Sea on account of the marvelous things done there. . . . [At that time (Ex. 15)] filled with divine enthusiasm, the men together with the women, becoming one chorus, sang thanksgiving hymns to God their Savior, the prophet Moses leading the men and the prophetess Miriam the women. On this model the male and female members with responsive and antiphonal strains, blending the bass sound of the men with the treble of the women, perform a harmonious and truly musical symphony. Truly beautiful are the thoughts, truly beautiful the words, reverent are the chorus members. The goal of the thoughts, the words, and the choruses is godliness.26

Philo adopts the terminology of the choral music and dances of the Greek theater and religious festivals. My interest here is not in the possible bodily movements he describes as accompanying the singing but what he says about the way the singing was done. He mentions a solo by the president of the assembly, community responses to songs (both new and old) sung by the various members,

____________ 26 Philo, On the Contemplative Life 10.80; 11.83-85, 87-88. For Philo’s treatment of music in general, see my “The Art of Praise: Philo and Philodemus on Music,” in John T. Fitzgerald, Thomas H. Olbricht, and L. Michael White, Early Christianity and Classical Culture: Comparative Studies in Honor of Abraham J. Malherbe (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 391-426 (417-422 on the Therapeutae). 18

antiphonal choruses (one of men and one of women),27 and unison singing of all together. The passage has the great interest of describing the extensive musical practices of a Jewish community contemporary with the beginnings of Christianity. It would be supposed that Jewish musical practices would provide the pattern for those of Christians. That supposition and the interest of the passage for historians of early Christianity are confirmed by what the church historian Eusebius says about it.

Eusebius in the early fourth century thought that Philo in the first century in writing about the Therapeutae was describing early Christians. He singles out one aspect of Philo's account of their musical practices as agreeing with the church music of his own day. What need is there in connection with these things to speak of their meetings together, . . . the exercises even now customarily accomplished by us, especially those we are accustomed to fulfill at the festival of the passion of the Savior with fasting, vigils through the night, and attention to the divine words? The writer

____________ 27 This is the interpretation that my translation assumes, but antiphonos (“answer in response”) may not have yet had the technical sense of answering choruses. The wording may refer only to the contrasting pitches of male and female voices. Philo elsewhere in Life of Moses 1.180 and 2.256-257 also refers to the choruses of men and women in Exodus 15, where he seems to describe the men and women singing together with the low voices of the men and the high voices of the women blended into a harmonious melody. 19

referred to [Philo] gave in his own writing a description exactly agreeing with those things that are observed until now by us alone. He narrates the vigils of the great festival, its exercises, the hymns we are accustomed to recite, and how while one sings the Psalm decorously in time, the rest listen attentively in quietness and join in singing the refrains of the hymns.28

Eusebius claims (certainly incorrectly) that the description is of Christians because they alone observe the customs that Philo describes. That seems to refer to the all-night vigils and would not include the responsorial singing (which Jews also did), but it is notable that this manner of singing (that is, responsorial) is the only aspect of the musical practices that he singles out for mention as done by Christians. Eusebius's words are a testimony to responsorial singing being the common form of Christian practice in his day. He underscores the attentiveness of the congregation in listening to the one who sings the lead and their participation in singing the ending of the Psalms. Some information about pagan practices fills out the background.29 Literary sources once more do not tell us much about ____________

28 Church History 2.17.21-22.

29 A brief introduction to the available sources on music (especially singing) in pagan clubs and associations is now available in Stephen G. Wilson, "Early Christian Music," in Julian V. Hills et al., eds., Common Life in the Early Church: Essays Honoring Graydon Snyder (Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 1998), 20

the manner in which singing was done; the treatises that were produced "On Music" mostly deal with the technical aspects of music. There is a first-century pictorial representation, however, that provides a suggestive parallel to Philo's description of the Therapeutae. The scene comes from a wall painting at Herculaneum, one of the cities destroyed by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in A.D. 79.30 It depicts a temple of the Egyptian goddess Isis. In front of the temple an attendant kindles a fire on the altar. At the head of the stairs two figures each hold a sistrum (a metal rattle used in the cult of Isis) and at the bottom of the picture two more figures each hold a sistrum and one person plays an aulos (a pipe). Between the altar and the temple there are arranged two choruses, each containing about twenty persons. As far as can be made out from the heads for which details are given, the chorus on the spectator’s left is made up of men and the one on the right of women. A director stands between them, apparently leading them in

____________ pp. 390-401, although he (to my mind incorrectly) downplays Jewish evidence in favor of pagan evidence relative to Christian practice. Wilson notes (pp. 399-400) that for the associations the evidence points to communal participation rather than solo performance; where the singular (hymnodos, hymn singer) is used it refers to member of a group.

30 A black and white reproduction is found in my Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 3rd edn., 2nd printing (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2004), p. 273.

21 song. The arrangement of the singers suggests some sort of antiphonal or alternating song, although unison singing cannot be excluded. The practice of the Therapeutae described by Philo, therefore, would fit the cultural context as to manner of singing. Returning to the Christian sources, we can now bring the evidence for church practice back closer to New Testament times with some confidence that the allusions do indeed refer to what was actually done in church. We do not have explicit reference to antiphonal singing in early Christian sources, but it may be that Pliny the Younger is referring to such soon after the New Testament period in the early second century. Origen in commenting on the Song of Solomon speaks of two choirs answering each other, one composed of the bride and her maids and the other of the bridegroom and his companions. Presumably he offers this explanation because he is familiar with such a practice of male and female choruses singing antiphonally, but we do not know if he was acquainted with this practice from churches.31

Responsorial singing is confirmed by sources widely separated geographically at the end of the second century. We may note the words of Tertullian from Carthage in North Africa at the beginning of the third century:

The more diligent in prayer are accustomed to add to their prayers the "Hallelujah" Psalms and such other Psalms, at the closing of which the company responds.32

____________ 31 Origen, Commentary on the Song of Songs 1.1.

32 Tertullian, On Prayer 27.

Everett Ferguson:  22 Clement of Alexandria in Egypt at the end of the second century criticized the hypocrisy of some church members by making a contrast between worldly and Christian singing:

After having paid reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within what they have heard. And outside [the meeting] they foolishly amuse themselves with impious playing and amatory quavering, occupied with pipe-playing and dancing, and intoxication, all kinds of trash. They who sing thus and sing in response are those who before hymned immortality. 33 Clement does not say how they "hymned immortality," but his specifying "sing in response" in reference to the worldly singing is likely suggested by the parallel practice of responsorial singing in church. At least, Clement implies that they had all participated in the church's singing.

33 Clement of Alexandria, Instructor 3.11.80.4.

PEDAGOGUE 3 Out of Church.

Such ought those who are consecrated to Christ appear, and frame themselves in their whole life, as they fashion themselves in the church  for the sake of gravity; and to be, not to seem such-so meek, so pious, so loving.

But now I know not how people change their fashions and manners with the place. As they say that polypi, assimilated to the rocks to which they adhere, are in colour such as they;
        so, laying aside the
inspiration of the assembly,
        after their departure from it, they become like others with whom they associate.
Nay, in laying aside the
artificial mask of solemnity, they are proved to be what they secretly were.

After having paid reverence to the DISCOURSE about God, they leave within [the church] what they have heard.
And outside they foolishly
amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quavering, occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxication, and all kinds of trash.

They who sing thus, and SING in response,
are those who before HYMNED
immortality,-found at last wicked and wickedly singing this most pernicious palinode,

A HYMN was SPOKEN by Jesus (and all males) and a HYMN is defined as a PRAYER. This was not "praise singing" as the world's oldest profession.

The responsive singing AT FEASTS is in contrast to HYMNED in unison IN CHURCH.

Notice the CONTRAST between SING and those who HYMNED.  Jesus and the Apostles HYMNED or DICTO a HYMN. That is they SP0KE and DISCORSED that which is written for our LEARNING.

"Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die." But not to-morrow in truth, but already, are these dead to God; burying their dead, that is, sinking themselves down to death. The apostle very firmly assails them. "Be not deceived; neither adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor railers," and whatever else he adds to these, "shall inherit the kingdom of God." 

Clement makes another statement that refers to the unison or group singing of the Psalms, whether by Jews or Christians or both is not absolutely clear. In describing the singing at Greek banquets he mentions as two alternatives singing by all together "with one voice after the manner of the Hebrew Psalms" or taking turns in the singing.34

The implication seems to be that the usual manner of rendering the Psalms known to Clement was for the whole group to join in singing them. I think that we can add testimony from the beginning of the second century for this unison congregational singing.

Melody as tunefulness belongs to the 19th century we are told. Even now, melody is a series of SINGLE NOTES.

Clement of Alexandria (150-216)  See Clement of Alexander define "singing."

Click for Pedagogue 3 34 Instructor 2.4.44.

THIS IS HOW TO CONDUCT OURSELVES AT FEASTS. Meals were often taken in the marketplaces.

In their wars, therefore, the Etruscans use the trumpet, the Arcadians the pipe, the Sicilians the pectides, the Cretans the lyre, the Lacedaemonians the flute, the Thracians the horn, the Egyptians the drum, and the Arabians the cymbal.

The one instrument of peace, the Word alone by which we honour God, is what we employ.

We no longer employ the ancient psaltery, and trumpet, and timbrel, and flute,
which those
expert in war and contemners of the fear of God
were wont to make use of also in the choruses at their
festive assemblies;
that by such strains they might
raise their dejected minds.

But let our genial feeling in drinking be twofold, in accordance with the law.

For "if thou shalt love the Lord try God," and then "thy neighbour," let its first manifestation be towards God in thanksgiving and psalmody, and the second toward our neighbour in decorous fellowship.

For says the apostle, "Let the Word of the Lord dwell in you richly." And this Word suits and conforms Himself to seasons, to persons, to places.

THIS IS STILL HOW TO CONDUCT OURSELVES AT FEASTS

In the present instance He is a guest with us. For the apostle adds again, "Teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace IN your heart to God." And again, "Whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and His Father." This is our thankful revelry.

And even if you wish to sing and play to the harp or lyre, there is no blame.

THIS IS STILL HOW TO CONDUCT OURSELVES AT FEASTS
and he is still speaking metaphors

Everett Ferguson: 23 Even as Philo drew on pagan musical practice to describe the activities of a Jewish religious group, so a Christian author nearly a century after Philo, Ignatius of Antioch, at the beginning of the second century drew on that practice in alluding to Christian practice. He is exhorting to unity, but seems to employ Christian musical practice as well as a pagan musical illustration to make his point:

When the brothers and sisters have too much idle time on their hands strange things happen and the history is ugly

"Philo of Alexandria had already emphasized the ethical qualities of music, spurning the 'effeminate' art of his Gentile surroundings. Similarly, early synagogue song intentionally foregoes artistic perfection, renounces the playing of instruments, and attaches itself entirely to 'the word'--the TEXT of the Bible" (Encyclopedia Judaica, 1971 ed., "Music")

"The majority of Christian monks in Egypt and Palestine championed organized choral chant, often in the face of a sternly opposed authority.

See the MONKISH beginning of CHANTS which was nothing like modern congregational mix and match.

But, remarks Bp. Lightfoot (Apostolic Fathers Pt. 2. I. p. 31.) "Antiphonal singing did not need to be suggested by a heavenly Vision. It existed already among the heathen in the arrangements of the Greek Chorus. It was practised with much elaboration of detail in the Psalmody of the Jews, as appears from the account which is given of the Egyptian Therapeutes

Augustine (Conf. ix. 7) states that the fashion of singing "secundum morem orientalium partium" was introduced into the Church of Milan at the time of the persecution of Ambrose by Justina, "ne populus moeroris toedio contabesceret," and thence spread all over the globe.

From the very beginning,
even during its Jewish phase, monasticism cultivated choral singing as an integral part of its observance. A later historographer of the church,

Eusebius, was aware of the musical predilections of the old ascetic sects in Judaism. In fact, he excerpted Philo's description of the ritual of the Alexandrian Therapeutes, which he likened to the Christian practices of his own time (4 centuries later):  The men and women rise, each group forming a choir, and sing thanksgiving hymns to God the Redeemer' (Hist. II.17). (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

"The majority of Christian monks in Egypt and Palestine championed organized choral chant, often in the face of a sternly opposed authority. When all historical circumstances are taken into account, there can be no doubt that the tremendious expansion and refinement of Christian chant before Pope Gregorywas due to the intensive and continuous musical activities of the monks...  Soon after his (Augustine's) death, the regional- ethnic forces of Gentile Christianity caused the split in the liturgico-musical development of the Eastern and Western churches."   (Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, p. 460, Abingdon).

It was clear that the musical practices in Egypt, like the play at Mount Sinai, was derived from pagan sources. These practices have strong roots in the beginning and ending system of musical worship practices which began in Babylon and will end in spiritual "Babylon" not necessarily in Rome:

"Herodotus mentions that when in Egypt, he was astonished to hear the very same mournful but ravishing 'Song of Linus, sung by the Egyptians (although under another name)... Linus was the same god as the Bacchus of Greece, or Osiris of Egypt; for

Homer introduces a boy singing the song of Linus (this was soprano), while the vintage (new wine festival) is going on, and the Scholiast says that this song was sung in memory of Linus, who was torn in pieces by dogs... In some places in Egypt, for the song of Linus or Osiris, a peculiar melody seems to have been used. Savary says that, in the temple of Abydos, 'the priest repeated the seven vowels in the form of hymns, and that musicians were forbid to enter it.' Hislop

"Now the name of Linus or Osiris, as the 'husband of his mother,' in Egypt, was Kamut. "When Gregory the great introduced into the church of Rome what are not called the Gregorian Chants, he got them from the Chaldean mysteries, which had long been established in Rome; for the Roman Catholic priest, Eustace, admits that these chants were largely composed of 'Lydian and Phrygian tunes.' Lydia and Phrygia being among the chief seats in later times of those mysteries of which the Egyptian mysteries were only a branch. Thes tunes were sacred--the music of the great god,

and in introducing them Gregory introduced the music of Kamut. And thus, to all appearance, has it come to pass, that the name of Osiris or Kamut, 'the husband of the mother,' is in every day use among ourselves as the name of the musical scale; for

what is the melody of Osiris, consisting of the 'seven vowels' formed into a hymn, but--the Gamut?" (Hislop, Alexander, The Two Babylons, p. 22, Loizeaux Brothers.)

-- that is: "Gifted with divine harmony the shepherd leads his sheep to life . . . for while following the footsteps of holy Gregory you have won your reward." According to this it was thought in Rome, less than forty years after the death of St. Gregory, that the greatest praise for a music-loving pope was to compare him to his predecessor Gregory.

The feasts known to have been introduced after St. Gregory use in the main melodies borrowed from older feasts. See the detailed proof for this in Frere's "Introduction". See Hislop.

For your deservedly famous presbytery, worthy of God, is attuned to the bishop as strings [are] to a harp. Therefore by your concord and harmonious love Jesus Christ is being sung. Now all of you together become a chorus so that being harmoniously in concord and receiving the key note from God in unison you may sing with one voice through Jesus Christ to the Father.35 Ignatius uses a musical instrument as an illustration, a common illustration in other Christian authors, but Ignatius, like them, speaks of the church's practice as only vocal music, singing.36

The unity of the church makes it like a chorus that sings with one voice. I take it that the illustration reflects actual church practice--the whole church singing in unison. The pagan background of his imagery is a chorus gathered around an altar, as is clear in another of Ignatius's statements:

THE BISHOPS OFTEN HAD TROUBLE FORCING EVERYONE TO WALK THE LINE. Therefore, not everything he writes is remotely similar to a modern "worship service" replacing and displacing "the school of Christ."

Ignatius to the Ephesians Chapter IV   ____________ 35 Ignatius, Ephesians 4.

Wherefore it is fitting that ye should run together in accordance with the will of your bishop, which thing also ye do. For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as exactly to the bishop as the strings are to the harp.

Therefore in your concord and harmonious love, Jesus Christ is sung.
And do ye, man by man,
become a choir, that being harmonious in love,
and
taking up the song of God in unison,
ye may
with one voice sing TO the Father through Jesus Christ,

so that He may both hear you, and perceive by your works that ye are indeed the members of His Son.
It is profitable, therefore, that you should live in an
unblameable unity, that thus ye may always enjoy communion with God.
WE then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves. Rom 15:1
Let every one of us
please his neighbour for his good to edification. Rom 15: 2
For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me. Rom 15: 3

For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope. Rom 15: 4
Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to
be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus: Rom 15: 5
That ye may with
one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Rom 15: 6

Chapter XIII.-Exhortation to Meet Together Frequently for the Worship of God.

Take heed, then, often to come together to give thanks to God, and show forth His praise. For when ye come frequently together in the same place, the powers of Satan are destroyed, and his "fiery darts"  urging to sin fall back ineffectual. For your concord and harmonious faith prove his destruction, and the torment of his assistants. Nothing is better than that peace which is according to Christ, by which all war, both of aërial and terrestrial spirits, is brought to an end.

"For we wrestle not against blood and flesh, but against principalities and powers, and against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in heavenly places."

Chapter XV.-Exhortation to Confess Christ by Silence as Well as Speech.

It is better for a man to be silent and be [a Christian], than to talk and not to be one. It is good to teach, if he who speaks also acts.

There is then one Teacher, who spake and it was done; while even those things which He did in silence are worthy of the Father.

He who possesses the word of Jesus, is truly able to hear even His very silence, that he may be perfect, and may both act as he speaks, and be recognised by his silence.

There is nothing which is hid from God, but our very secrets are near to Him.

Let us therefore do all things as those who have Him dwelling in us, that we may be His temples, and He may be in us as our God, which indeed He is, and will manifest Himself before our faces. Wherefore we justly love Him.

And if those that corrupt mere human families are condemned to death, how much more shall those suffer everlasting punishment who endeavour to corrupt the Church of Christ, for which the Lord Jesus, the only-begotten Son of God, endured the cross, and submitted to death! Whosoever, "being waxen fat," and "become gross," sets at nought His doctrine, shall go into hell. See the universal name of the universal church.

In like manner, every one that has received from God the power of distinguishing,
and yet follows an unskilful shepherd, and receives a false opinion for the truth,
shall be punished.

"What communion hath light with darkness? or Christ with Belial? Or what portion hath he that believeth with an infidel? or the temple of God with idols? "  And in like manner say I, what communion hath truth with falsehood? or righteousness with unrighteousness? or true doctrine with that which is false?

Everett Ferguson: 36 Examples collected in my A Cappella Music in the Public Worship of the Church, 3rd edn. (Fort Worth: Star Bible Publishing Co., 1999), pp. 43-58 and further bibliography given through the book. 24

While an altar is still ready, so that by becoming a chorus in love, you may sing to the Father in Christ Jesus.37 It probably goes without saying in this context that the singing in the early church was unaccompanied by instrumental music. This fact is recognized by nearly all historians of church music and of Christianity in the ancient and early Medieval periods. I could say “by all of the historians,” but I cover myself in case of possible exceptions. The fact of early Christian a cappella music nonetheless needs to be stated, because so much of what is styled “Christian music” today is instrumentally conceived. Classic church music, however, is vocal music and was so until quite modern times. Even when organs were present, the music initially was primarily vocal.

There is no evidence for the use of a musical instrument in the congregational assemblies of early Christians. The congregational singing was not accompanied by a musical instrument. The only instrument used was the human voice. When the musical instruments of the Old Testament were applied to Christians, the instruments were interpreted of the human body. Clement of Alexandria is typical in his comments on Psalm 150:

The Spirit, distinguishing from such revelry [at pagan banquets that he has referred to] the divine service, sings, "Praise him with the sound of the trumpet"; for with the sound of trumpet he shall raise the dead. "Praise him on the psaltery"; for the tongue is the psaltery of the Lord. "And praise him on the lyre."

____________ 37 Ignatius, Romans 2.2.

25 By the lyre is meant the mouth struck by the Spirit, as it were by a plectrum. "Praise with the timbrel and dance," refers to the church meditating on the resurrection of the dead in resounding skin [the timbrel was made of skin stretched tight on a frame]. "Praise him on the chords and organ." Our body he calls an organ, and its nerves are the strings, by which it has received harmonious tension, and when struck by the Spirit, it gives forth human voices. "Praise him on the clashing cymbals." He calls the tongue the cymbal of the mouth, which resounds with the pulsation of the lips. Therefore he cried to humanity, "Let every breath praise the Lord," because he cares for every breathing thing which he has made. For a human being is truly a pacific instrument; while other instruments, if you investigate, you will find to be warlike, inflaming to lusts, or kindling up amours, or rousing wrath.38

Many other passages could be quoted that take a similar approach. The interpretation of the human body as an instrument of music is found in Judaism in Philo and the Dead Sea Scrolls also. Early Christians understood the human body to be the only instrument God approved for use in his praise. As a modern correspondent of mine put it, "The voice is the only instrument created by God."

Different from this allegorical approach to the instruments of the Old Testament taken by the school of Alexandria, the school

____________ 38 Clement of Alexandria, Instructor 2.4.41.4-42.1. Translation from the Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. II, pp. 248-249. 26

of Antioch took the historical approach of distinguishing the covenants. Theodoret of Cyrhus in Syria is quite explicit:

Theodoret of Cyrus(Cyrrhus) (c. 393 - c. 460). Theodoret was born at Antioch towards the close of the fourth century and died at Cyrus, or Cyrrhus,
http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2013/2013-09-59.html
, Pseudo-Justin’s Questions and Answers for the Orthodox.

Question: If songs were invented by unbelievers to seduce men,
        but were allowed to those under the law on account of their childish state,
        why do those who have received the perfect teaching of grace in their churches still use songs,
        just like the children under the law?

Answer: It is not simple singing that belongs to the childish state,
        but singing with [accompanied by] lifeless instruments, with dancing, and with clappers.

Hence the use of such instruments and the others that belong to the childish state is excluded from the singing in the churches,
        and simple singing is left.
        For it awakens the soul to a fervent desire for that which is described in the songs.
        (Questions and Answers for the Orthodox 107)

Of course, all "scholars" miss the point that the Israelite state like all states consisted of two sectors:
The Civil-Military-Clergy complex was abandoned by God because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.
The godly people attended synagogue as a school of the Word only where vocal or instrumental rejoicing was outlawed.

To summarize, early Christian, Jewish, and pagan sources indicate the following forms of vocal rendition:

None of these were "melody as tunfulness which belongs to the 19th century." If you are going to SPEAK where the Bible SPEAKS by definition you cannot SING what the Bible does not Speak.  A Church of Christ is defined inclusively and exclusively as a SCHOOL OF THE WORD.  LOGOS is called the regulative principle principle and is the OPPOSITE of singing, playing, acting or dancing: dancing or moving the body parts is absolutely included in the meaning of MUSIC or moving your voices together.

(1) solo,

(2) responsorial of two types--with the community responding either by repeating what the leader has sung or singing a set refrain,

(3) antiphonal, and

(4) unison or group. Solo performance is largely absent from the Christian sources, except in settings other than the Sunday service for the Lord's supper. The other options, I would repeat, are all forms of "congregational singing." They each (responsorial, antiphonal, as well as unison) involve participation by all the congregation, even if not all at the same time. They required close attention by everyone to the words and to the part of others as well as one's own. And that would be the 27 point of the New Testament references to singing and its purposes of instruction, edification, reciprocal concern, and mutuality.

The option of "participating" is not the issue: the command is to SPEAK using one mind and one mouth THAT WHICH IS WRITTEN FOR OUR LEARNING.

It is hard to grasp that if a TEAM singings which can be no other than showing and telling involves the SPEAKING ONE TO ANOTHER of Congregational singing. Furthermore there is no command, example or remote inference of congregational singing from Genesis until after John Calvin.

Rom. 15:1 We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak,
        and not to please ourselves.

Outlawed: Placeo to please, to be pleasing or agreeable, to be welcome, acceptable, to satisfy (class.). 1. In scenic lang., of players or pieces presented, to please, find favor, give satisfaction: scenico placenti

Outlawed: Scaenicus I. of or belonging to the stage, scenic, dramatic, theatrical

I. Lit.: poëtae, dramatic poets, ludi, stage-plays, theatrical representations, : fabula, a drama, organa, Suet. Ner. 44 : coronae, id. ib. 53 : habitus, id. ib. 38 : gestus, Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 220 : modulatio Comedy. Orator

Poi-êtês II. composer of a poem, author, p. kômôidias Pl.Lg.935e; p. kainôn dramatôn, b. composer of music, 2. author of a speech

Outlawed: Organum Vitr. 10, 1.--Of musical instruments, a pipe,. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 et saep.--Of hydraulic engines, an organ, water-organ: organa hydraulica,

Gen 4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.

H8610 manipulate, figuratively to use unwarrantably:--catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, X surely, surprise, take.

H8608 taphaph to drum, that is, play (as) on the tambourine:taber, play with timbrels.

H8611 tôpheth to'-feth From the base of H8608 ; a smiting, that is, (figuratively) contempt:--tabret. MEANING HELL

Outlawed: Modulatio. In partic., a rhythmical measure, modulation; hence, singing and playing, melody, in poetry and music, Quint. 9, 4, 139: modulatione produci aut corripi (verba), id. 9, 4, 89 : modulatio pedum, id. 1, 6, 2 : scenica, id. 11, 3, 57: vocis, melody, id. 11, 3, 59 : musica, Aus. Ep. 25, 13 .

Clement of Alexandria: "After having paid reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within [at church] what they have heard. And outside they foolishly amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quavering (feminine vibrato), occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxication, and all kinds of trash.

Rom. 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification.
Rom. 15:3 For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me.
Rom. 15:4 For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning,
        
that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.
Rom. 15:5 Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:
Rom. 15:6 That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Rom. 15:17 I have therefore whereof I may glory through Jesus Christ in those things which pertain to God.
Rom. 15:18 For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the Gentiles obedient, by word and deed,
Rom. 15:19 Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ.

The usual manner of congregational singing in the present, with four-part harmony, occasional voice leads, and western or African style melodies are obviously different and culturally conditioned. But the essential of congregational participation with all the people singing most or some of the time and even such an incidental as a song leader have very ancient roots indeed. And we can aspire to a similarity in spiritual content and purpose in what is sung.

SINGING was

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