Euripides Ion. How Musical Worship of Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon is revealed in the book of Revelation.
By Euripides Written 414-412 B.C.E Translated by Robert Potter. It is important to understand that both the Old and New Testaments define people tightly bound with the religions of Babylon, Canaan, Egypt and the Greek world. Each nation had names for their own "gods" and traditions but they all tell much story. When people lived right and treated others with justice things went well. However, people who oppress others almost always use forms of religious superstitious to bind people to themselves and support them. The Babylon "gods" created mankind as a "labor-saving" device; but Moses explains that God is Creator and therefore serves His creatures.
CREUSA, daughter of Erechtheus
XUTHUS, husband of CREUSA
PRIESTESS OF APOLLO
CHORUS OF HANDMAIDENS OF CREUSA
Before the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. The sun is about to rise. MERCURY enters.
Atlas, that on his brazen shoulders rolls
Yon heaven, the ancient mansion of the gods,
Was by a goddess sire to Maia; she
To supreme Jove bore me, and call'd me Hermes;
Attendant on the king, his high behests
I execute. To Delphi am I come,
This land where Phoebus from his central throne
Utters to mortals his high strain, declaring
The present and the future; this is the cause;
Greece hath a city of distinguish'd glory,
Which from the goddess of the golden lance
Received its name; Erechtheus was its king;
His daughter, call'd Creusa, to the embrace
Of nuptial love Apollo strain'd perforce,
Where northward points the rock beneath the heights
Crown'd with the Athenian citadel of Pallas,
Call'd Macrai by the lords of Attica.
Her growing burden, to her sire unknown
(Such was the pleasure of the god,) she bore,
Till in her secret chamber to a son
The rolling months gave birth: to the same cave,
Where by the enamour'd god she was compress'd,
Creusa bore the infant: there for death
Exposed him in a well-compacted ark
Of circular form, observant of the customs
Drawn from her great progenitors, and chief
From Erichthonius, who from the Attic earth
Deriv'd his origin: to him as guards
Minerva gave two dragons, and in charge
Consign'd him to the daughters of Aglauros:
This rite to the Erechthidae hence remains,
Mid serpents wreathed in ductile gold to nurse
Their children. What of ornament she had
She hung around her son, and left him thus
To perish. But to me his earnest prayer
Phoebus applied, "To the high-lineaged sons
Of glorious Athens go, my brother; well
Thou know'st the city of Pallas; from the cave
Deep in the hollow rock a new-born babe,
Laid as he is, and all his vestments with him;
Bring to thy brother to my shrine, and place
At the entrance of my temple; of the rest
(For, know, the child is mine) I will take care."
To gratify my brother thence I bore
The osier-woven ark, and placed the boy
Here at the temple's base, the wreathed lid
Uncovering, that the infant might be seen.
It chanced, as the orient sun the steep of heav'n
Ascended, to the god's oracular seat
The priestess entering, on the infant cast
Her eye, and marvelled, deeming that some nymph
Of Delphi at the fane had dared to lay
The secret burden of her womb: this thought
Prompts her to move it from the shrine: but soon
To pity she resign'd the harsh intent;
The impulse of the god secretly acting
In favour of the child, that in his temple
It might abide; her gentle hand then took it,
And gave it nurture; yet conceived she not
That Phoebus was the sire, nor who the mother
Knew aught, nor of his parents could the child
Give information. All his youthful years
Sportive he wandered round the shrine, and there
Was fed: but when his firmer age advanced
To manhood, o'er the treasures of the god
The Delphians placed him, to his faithful care
Consigning all; and in this royal dome
His hallow'd life he to this hour hath pass'd.
Meantime Creusa, mother of the child,
To Xuthus was espoused, the occasion this:-
On Athens from Euboean Chalcis roll'd
The waves of war; be join'd their martial toil,
And with his spear repell'd the foe; for this
To the proud honour of Creusa's bed
Advanc'd; no native, in Achaea sprung
From Aeolus, the son of Jove. Long time
Unbless'd with children, to the oracular shrine
Of Phoebus are they come, through fond desire
Of progeny: to this the god hath brought
The fortune of his son, nor, as was deem'd,
Forgets him; but to Xuthus, when he stands
This sacred seat consulting, will he give
That son, declared his offspring; that the child,
When to Creusa's house brought back, by her
May be agnized; the bridal rites of Phoebus
Kept secret, that the youth may claim the state
Due to his birth, through all the states of Greece
Named Ion, founder of the colonies
On the Asiatic coast. The laurell'd cave
Now will I visit, there to learn what fortune
Is to the boy appointed, for I see
This son of Phoebus issuing forth to adorn
The gates before the shrine with laurel boughs.
First of the gods I hail him by the name
Of Ion, which his fortune soon will give him.
MERCURY vanishes. ION and the attendants of the temple enter.
 Now flames this radiant chariot of the sun
High o'er the earth, at whose ethereal fire
The stars into the sacred night retreat:
2 Kings 23:4 And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, and the priests of the second order, and the keepers of the door, to bring forth out of the temple of the Lord all the vessels that were made for Baal, and for the grove, and for all the host of heaven: and he burned them without Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried the ashes of them unto Beth-el.
H3627 vessel or weapon, instrument, psaltery
2 Kings 23:7 And he brake down the houses of the sodomites, that were by the house of the Lord, where the women wove hangings for the grove.
- H6945 qadesh kaw-dashe' From H6942 ; a (quasi) sacred person, that is, (technically) a (male) devotee (by prostitution) to licentious idolatry: sodomite, unclean.
2 Kings 23:10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech.
2 Kings 23:11 And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun, at the entering in of the house of the Lord, by the chamber of Nathan-melech the chamberlain, which was in the suburbs, and burned the chariots of the sun with fire.
- H8612 topheth toeth The same as H8611 ; Topheth, a place near Jerusalem:Tophet, Topheth.
- H8608 tophaph taw-faf' A primitive root; to drum, that is, play (as) on the tambourine: taber, play with timbrels.
- H8610 taphas taw-fas' A primitive root; to manipulate, that is, seize; chiefly to capture, wield; specifically to overlay; figuratively to use unwarrantably: catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, X surely, surprise, take.
- Gen 4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.
2 Kings 23:13 And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption,
- which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, did the king defile.O'er the Parnassian cliffs the ascending wheels
To mortals roll the beams of day; the wreaths
Of incense-breathing myrrh mount to the roof
Of Phoebus' fane; the Delphic priestess now
Assumes her seat, and from the hallow'd tripod
Pronounces to the Greeks the oracular strains
Which the god dictates. Haste, ye Delphic train,
Haste to Castalia's silver-streaming fount;
The ministers of the Glorious Face in the abode of the gods of knowledge fall down before him, and the cherubim utter blessings.
And as they rise up , there is a divine small voice and loud praise ; there is a divine small voice as they fold their wings.
The cherubim bless the image of the Throne-Chariot above the firmament, and they praise the majesty of the fiery firmament beneath the seat of his glory. And between the turning wheels,
angels of holiness come and go, as it were a fiery vision of most holy spirits; and about them flow seeming rivulets of fire,
like gleaming bronze, a radiance of many gorgeous colors, of marvelous pigments magnificiently mingled.
The Spirits of the Living God move perpetually with the glory of the wonderful Chariot. The small voice of blessing accompanies the tumult as they depart, and on the path of their return they worship the Holy One, Ascending they rise marvelously ; settling, they stay still. The sound of joyful praise is silenced and there is a small voice of blessing in all the camp of God.
Bathed in its chaste dews to the temple go;
There from your guarded mouths no sound be heard
But of good omen, that to those who crave
Admission to the oracle, your voice
May with auspicious words expound the answers.
My task, which from my early infancy
Hath been my charge, shall be with laurel boughs
And sacred wreaths to cleanse the vestibule
Of Phoebus, on the pavement moistening dews
To rain, and with my bow to chase the birds
Which would defile the hallow'd ornaments.
A mother's fondness, and a father's care
I never knew: the temple of the god
Claims then my service, for it nurtured me.
The attendants leave. ION busies himself before the temple as he continues to sing.
Haste, thou verdant new-sprung bough,
Haste, thy early office know;
Branch of beauteous laurel come,
Sweep Apollo's sacred dome,
Cropp'd this temple's base beneath,
Where the immortal gardens breathe,
And eternal dews that round
Water the delicious ground,
Bathe the myrtle's tresses fair.
Lightly thus, with constant care,
The pavement of the god I sweep,
When over the Parnassian steep
Flames the bright sun's mounting ray;
This my task each rising day.
Son of Latona, Paean, Paean, hail!
Never, O never may thy honours fail!
Grateful is my task, who wait
Serving, Phoebus, at thy gate;
Honouring thus thy hallow'd shrine,
Honour for the task is mine.
Labouring with unwilling hands,
Me no mortal man commands:
But, immortal gods, to you
All my pleasing toil is due.
Phoebus is to me a sire;
Grateful thoughts my soul inspire;
Nurtured by thy bounty here,
Thee, Apollo, I revere;
As a father's I repeat.
Son of Latona, Paean, Paean, hail!
Never, O never may thy honours fail!
- Now from this labour with the laurel bough
I cease; and sprinkling from the golden vase
The chaste drops which Castalia's fountain rolls,
Bedew the pavement. Never may I quit
This office to the god; or, if I quit it,
Be it, good Fortune, at thy favouring call!
But see, the early birds have left their nests,
And this way from Parnassus wing their flight.
Come not, I charge you, near the battlements,
Nor near the golden dome. Herald of Jove,
Strong though thy beak beyond the feather'd kind,
My bow shall reach thee. Towards the altar, see,
A swan comes sailing: elsewhere wilt thou move
Thy scarlet-tinctured foot? or from my bow
 The lyre of Phoebus to thy notes attuned [sunoidos]
You will note that the HARP - MUSIC connection is based on the fact that APOLLO tuned his LYRE to his BOW.
The Greek word "psallo" translated "melody" has no connection to MUSIC. There is NO musical concept or name of instrument in the Bible which does not point to Lucifer, warriors, prostitutes or Sodomites. The temple musicians were Levitical Warriors under the king and commanders of the army and NOT the priests. The word means to PLUCK and has its FUNDAMENTAL meaning in connection with Apollo's (Phoebus') harp. Apollo ran around with both his bow and lyre. He might kill you or serenade you with his harp and the shoot a LOVE ARROW into you.
The second meaning of PSALLO points directly to BLOOD and POLUTION. See Below.
Only in a remote sense did people speak of SHOOTING OUT HYMNS. That is why Paul ABSOLUTELY demanded that both the singing AND melody be IN THE HEART. Rather than a musical concept, in Col 3:16 Paul uses the word GRACE: both melody and grace were qualities of the word SPEAK which is what Paul commanded.
hode pros thumelas allos eressei
kuknos. ouk allai
phoinikophae poda kineseis;
ouden s' ha phorminx ha Phoibou
Phorm-inx, ingos, he,
A. lyre, freq. in Hom., esp. as the instrument of Apollo, phormingos perikalleos hen ech' Apollon Il.1.603 , cf. 24.63, Od.17.270, Hes.Sc.203; of Achilles, phrena terpomenon phormingi ligeiei kalei daidaleei Il.9.186 ; with seven strings (after Terpander's time), heptaktupos, heptaglossos, Pi.P.2.71, N.5.24; antipsallon elephantodeton ph. Ar.Av.219 (anap.).
2. ph. achordos, metaph. for a bow, Arist.Rh.1413a1.
Summolpos , on,= sunoidos, E.Ion165 (lyr.), dub. in Ath.Mitt.24.93 (Tire, Asia Minor).
Sunoidos (also suna^oidos E.HF787 (lyr.)), on, ( [oide] )
A. singing or sounding in unison with, echoing or responsive to, ornis . . achesi s. E. Ph.1518 (lyr.); threnemasi philai xunoidoi Id.Or.133 , cf. Hel.174 (lyr.).
2. abs., in harmony, accordant, logos Pl.Phd.92c ; echos D.H.Comp.22 ; rhema APl.4.226 (Alc.); o xunoidoi ktupoi cj. in E. Supp.73 (lyr.).
II. metaph., according with, in harmony with, c. dat., Hdt.5.92.g, E.Med.1008, etc.; emoi phronon xunoida Ar.Av. 635 (lyr.); logoi s. tois ergois Arist.EN1172b5 , cf. 1098b30; s. eisin hoi asteres tois apoteles masi PMich. in Class.Phil.22.16; hokosa peperei xunoida pepper and cognate substances, Aret.CA1.10: c. gen., ten homoeideian s. tou tonou A.D.Adv.165.23 : abs., isos xunoidos toi chronoi genesetai Call.Com.2 (a) D.
Neuro-lalos [a^], on,
A. with sounding strings, chorde AP9.410 (Tull. Sab.).
- Aster , ho, gen. eros: dat. pl.
- A. astrasi Il.22.28 ,317 (Aristarch.; astrasi Sch.Ven., Choerob.):--star (v. astron), aster' oporinoi Il. 5.5 ; oulios a. 11.62 ; Seirios a. Hes.Op.417 ; a. Arktouros the chief star in the constellation, ib.565, etc.; shooting star or meteor, Il.4.75; hoi diatrechontes a. Ar.Pax838 ; aittontas hosper asteras Pl.R. 621b , cf. Arist.Mete.341a33, Plu.Agis11.
- 2. flame, light, fire, E.Hel.1131 (lyr.).
- 3. aster petrinos meteoric stone, Placit.2.13.9.
- II. metaph. of illustrious persons, etc., phanerotaton aster' Athenas E.Hipp.1122 (lyr.); Mousaon astera kai Chariton AP7.1.8 (Alc. Mess.)
- Daniel 11:36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
- Mousaon astera kai Chariton
- Cara or Grace was a prostitute goddess: the Muses were the prostitute "musicians" and other "liberal arts" operatives working for pagan religions. They are the "musicians" in Revelation 18:22 and John connects them to the Harlot Religion and calls them sorcerers. "Prophesiers" were singers and musicians.
- Plato Protagoras
- [347c] But if he does not mind, let us talk no more of poems and verses, but consider the points on which I questioned you at first, Protagoras, and on which I should be glad to reach, with your help, a conclusion. For it seems to me that arguing about poetry is comparable to the wine-parties of common market-folk. These people, owing to their inability to carry on a familiar conversation over their wine by means of their own voices and discussions--
- James A. Towle, Commentary on Plato: Protagoras
- Sumposiois: this custom is followed in Xen. Symp. 2. 1 erchetai tis autois epi komon (revel) Surakosios anthropos, echon te auletrida agathen kai orchestrida (dancing-girl) ton ta thaumata dunamenon poiein kai paida panu ge horaion kai panu kalos kitharizonta kai orchoumenon. These show their skill during the whole banquet. Plato, however, has the same view as the one here, when he says Symp. 176 e eisegoumai ten men arti eiselthousan auletrida chairein ean, aulousan heautei, e an bouletai tais gunaixi tais endon, hemas de dia logon allelois suneinai to temeron
- [347d] such is their lack of education--put a premium on flute-girls by hiring the extraneous voice of the flute at a high price, and carry on their intercourse by means of its utterance. But where the party consists of thorough gentlemen who have had a proper education, you will see neither flute-girls nor dancing-girls nor harp-girls, but only the company contenting themselves with their own conversation, and none of these fooleries and frolics--each speaking and listening decently in his turn,
- suneimi: To be joined with, Intercourse is II. to have intercourse with a person, live with hedone, desires after pleasure, pleasant lusts, voluptuosus,
- 2. esp. in erotic sense, of favours granted (v. charizomai 1.3 ), alochou charin idein Il.11.243 , cf. A.Ag.1206: more freq. in pl., X.Hier.1.34, 7.6, etc.; biai d' epraxas charitas e peisas koren; Trag.Adesp.402; in full, charites aphrodision eroton Pi.Fr.128 , cf. Pl.Phdr.254a, al.
- And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven. Luke 10:18
- Astrape (g796) as-trap-ay'; from 797; lightning; by anal. glare: - lightning, bright shining.
- Rev 9:1 AND the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.
- Aster (g792) as-tare'; prob. from the base of 4766; a star (as strown over the sky), lit. or fig.: - star.
- Revelation 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
- And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee; Rev 18:22
- Rev 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.
- Revelation 13:7 And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.
- Jude 1:6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlastingchains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.
- 2Peter 2:4 For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast [them] down to hell, and delivered [them] into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment;
- Daniel 11:36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
- John 8:44 Ye are of [your] father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
- Luke 10:18 And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven. (even the New Testament parallels Isaiah 14:12 and confirms that the KJV is correct.) Revelation 9:1 And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. Revelation 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
- The Soncino interprets the phrases as follows.
- 12: day-star [Or, 'Lucifer' (light-bearer). The morning-star (son of the morning) under the name of Istar was worshipped by the Babylonians, and Nebuchadnezzar's days of power and glory are well represented by their comparison with the shining star.] Arbarbanel points out that this star, namely Venus, is the heavenly prince of Babylon.
- summolpos toxon rhusait' an.
limnas epiba tas Deliados:
haimaxeis, ei me peisei,
tas kalliphthongous oidas.
- Haimasso --make bloody, stain with blood
- Kalli-phthongos , on,
- A. beautiful-sounding, oidai E.Ion169 (lyr.); histoi Id.IT222 (lyr.).
- Euripides Iphigenia
- From the beginning my fate was unhappy, from that first night of my mather's marriage;  from the beginning the Fates attendant on my birth directed a hard upbringing for me, wooed by Hellenes, the first-born child in the home,  whom the unhappy daughter of Leda, by my father's fault, bore as a victim and a sacrifice not joyful, she brought me up as an offering. In the horse-drawn chariot,  they set me as a bride on the sands of Aulis, oh woe, a wretched bride for the son of the Nereid, alas! But now, as a stranger I live in an unfertile home on this sea that is hostile to strangers,
-  without marriage, or children, or city, or friends, not raising hymns to Hera at Argos, nor embroidering with my shuttle, in the singing loom, the likeness of Athenian Pallas and the Titans; but
- agamos ateknos apolis aphilos,
ou tan Argei melpous' Heran
oud' histois en kalliphthongois
kerkidi Pallados Atthidos eiko
<kai> Titanon poikillous', all'
- haimorranton dusphorminga
 . . . a bloody fate, not to be hymned by the lyre, of strangers who wail a piteous cry and weep piteous tears. And now I forget these things,  and lament my brother, killed in Argos, whom I left at the breast, still a baby, still an infant, still a young child in his mother's arms and at her breast,  the holder of the scepter in Argos, Orestes.Will not protect thee; farther stretch thy wings;
Go, wanton, skim along the Delian lake,
Or wilt thou steep thy melody in blood.
She said, and from her quiver chose with speed
The winged shaft, predestin'd for the deed;
Then to the stubborn yew her strength applied,
Till the far distant horns approach'd on either side.
The bowstring touch'd her breast, so strong she drew;
Whizzing in air the fatal arrow flew.
At once the twanging bow and sounding dart
The traitor heard, and felt the point within his heart.
Him, beating with his heels in pangs of death,
His flying friends to foreign fields bequeath.
The conqu'ring damsel, with expanded wings,
The welcome message to her mistress brings.
Look, what strange bird comes onwards; wouldst thou fix
Beneath the battlements thy straw-built nest?
My singing bow shall drive thee hence; begone,
Or to the banks of Alpheus, gulfy stream,
Or to the Isthmian grove; there hatch thy young;
The "oft copied" second definition of PSALLO is:
carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark, id=Anth.
However, there is a specific word for CHALK LINE and the RED is often identified with blood and NEVER with "music."
Miltoo 1 2 [miltos] to paint red:--Pass. to paint oneself red or be painted red, Hdt.; schoinion memiltomenon the rope covered with red chalk with which they swept loiterers out of the Agora to the Pnyx
Miltophures 1 [phuro] daubed with red, Anth.
- I. to mix something dry with something wet, mostly with a sense of mixing so as to soil or defile, dakrusin heimat' ephuron they wetted, sullied their garments with tears, Il.; also c. gen., cheilea phurso haimatos Od.:--Pass., dakrusi pephurmene id=Il.; haimati oikos ephurthe Aesch.
- 2. of dry things, konei phurousa kara Eur.; gaiai pephursesthai koman to be doomed to have one's hair defiled with earth, Pind.
- II. metaph. to mingle together, confuse, ephuron eike panta they mixed all things up together, did all at random, Aesch., etc.:--Pass. to be mixed up, ek pephurmenou kai theriodous from a confused and savage state, Eur.
- 2. in Pass. also to mix with others, have dealings with him, Plat.
- Latin: Con-fundo
- B. Meton 2. Esp., with the idea of confounding, disarranging, to confound, confuse, jumble together, bring into disorder
- b. Trop., of intellectual confusion, to disturb, disconcert, confound, perplex
- Clamor: I. A loud call, a shout, cry; of men and (poet.) of animals (very freq. in all periods and species of composition) B. In partic., a friendly call, acclamation, applause:<>
- A. blood, Il. 1.303, etc.; phonos haimatos 16.162 ; psuches akraton haima S.El.786 : in pl., streams of blood, A.Ag.1293, S.Ant. 121, E.El.1172, Alc.496.
- Aeschylus, Agamemnon
- For Puthian oracles, thy speech, and hard too.
- Papai: what fire this! and it comes upon me!
Ototoi, Lukeion Apollon, ah me -- me!
She, the two-footed lioness that sleeps with
The wolf, in absence of the generous lion,
Kills me the unhappy one: and as a poison
Brewing, to put my price too in the anger,
- She vows, against her mate this weapon whetting
To pay him back the bringing me, with slaughter.
Why keep I then these things to make me laughed at,
Both wands and, round my neck, oracular fillets?
Thee, at least, ere my own fate will I ruin:
- Go, to perdition falling! Boons exchange we --
Some other Até in my stead make wealthy!
See there -- himself, Apollon stripping from me
- The oracular garment! having looked upon me
-- Even in these adornments, laughed by friends at,
As good as foes, i' the balance weighed: and vainly --
- For, called crazed stroller, -- as I had been gipsy,
- Beggar, unhappy, starved to death, -- I bore it.
- And now the Prophet -- prophet me undoing,
- Has led away to these so deadly fortunes!
- Instead of my sire's altar, waits the hack-block
- She struck with first warm bloody sacrificing!
- Yet nowise unavenged of gods will death be:
- For there shall come another, our avenger,
- The mother-slaying scion, father's doomsman:
- Fugitive, wanderer, from this land an exile,
- Back shall he come, -- for friends, copestone these curses!
- For there is sworn a great oath from the gods that
- Him shall bring hither his fallen sire's prostration.
- Why make I then, like an indweller, moaning? Since at the first I foresaw Ilion's city Suffering as it has suffered: and who took it, Thus by the judgment of the gods are faring. I go, will suffer, will submit to dying!
- But, Haides' gates -- these same I call, I speak to, And pray that on an opportune blow chancing, Without a struggle, -- blood the calm death bringing In easy outflow, -- I this eye may close up!
- Theriodes [eidos]
- I. full of wild beasts, infested by them, Lat. belluosus, of countries, Hdt.
- Beluo-sus (bell- ), a, um, adj. [id.] , abounding in beasts or monsters: Oceanus, _ast; Hor. C. 4, 14, 47; so Avien. Ora Marit. 204.
- II. of men, beast-like, wild, savage, brutal, Lat. bellui_nus, Eur., Plat., etc.:-- to th. the animal nature, Eur.
- Mito-omai , Med.,
- A. ply the woof in weaving, AP6.285 (Nicarch.): metaph., phthongon mitosasthai let one's voice sound like a string, ib.7.195 (Mel.); also, of Fate, Moira houto emitosato IG12(9).1240.15 (Aedepsus).
- Surig-matodes , es,
- A. like the sound of a pipe, whistling, echos Cass.Pr.82
- ea ea:
tis hod' ornithon kainos proseba;
mon hupo thrinkous eunaias
karphuras theson teknois;
psalmoi s' eirxousin toxon.
ou peisei; choron dinais
- Psalmoi is twitching sound.
- Erixousin shall bar or drive, to bar one's way
- Toxon = bow
- Toxon III. metaph., toxa heliou its rays, E.HF 1090; ampelinois toxois damentes, of the effects of wine, Pi.Fr.218; toxon merimnes Trag.Adesp.354; kottabos . . hon skopon es latagon toxa kathistametha for shooting of liquor from the cup, Critias 2.2.Mar not these pendent ornaments, nor soil
The temple of the god: I would not kill you:
'Twere pity, for to mortal man you bear
The message of the gods; yet my due task
Must be perform'd, and never will I cease
My service to the god who nurtured me.
tais Alpheiou paidourgei, a
e napos Isthmion,
hos anathemata me blaptetai
The CHORUS enters. The following lines between ION and the CHORUS are chanted responsively as they gaze admiringly at the decorations on the temple.
The stately column, and the gorgeous dome
Raised to the gods, are not the boast alone
Of our magnificent Athens; nor the statues
That grace her streets; this temple of the god,
Son of Latona, beauteous to behold,
Beams the resplendent light of both her children.
Turn thine eyes this way; look, the son of Jove
Lops with his golden scimitar the heads
Of the Lernean Hydra: view it well.
I see him.
And this other standing nigh,
Who snatches from the fire the blazing brand.
What is his name? the subject, on the web
Design'd, these hands have wrought in ductile gold.
The shield-supporting Iolaus, who bears
The toils in common with the son of Jove.
View now this hero; on his winged steed
The triple-bodied monster's dreadful force
He conquers through the flames his jaws emit.
I view it all attentively.
The battle of the giants, on the walls
Sculptured in stone.
Let us note this, my friends.
See where against Enceladus she shakes
Her gorgon shield.
I see my goddess, Pallas.
Mark the tempestuous thunder's flaming bolt
Launch'd by the hand of Jove.
The furious Mimas
Here blazes in the volley'd fires: and there
Another earth-born monster falls beneath
The wand of Bacchus wreathed with ivy round,
No martial spear. But, as 'tis thine to tend
This temple, let me ask thee, is it lawful,
Leaving our sandals, its interior parts
Strangers, this is not permitted.
Yet may we make inquiries of thee?
What wouldst thou know?
Whether this temple's site
Be the earth's centre?
Ay, with garlands hung,
And gorgons all around.
So fame reports.
If at the gate the honey'd cake be offer'd,
Would you consult the oracle, advance
To the altar: till the hallow'd lamb has bled
In sacrifice, approach not the recess.
I am instructed: what the god appoints
As laws, we wish not to transgress: without
Enough of ornament delights our eyes.
Take a full view of all; that is allow'd.
To view the inmost shrine was our lord's order.
Who are you call'd? Attendants on what house?
Our lords inhabit the magnific domes
Of Pallas.-But she comes, of whom thou askest.
CREUSA and attendants enter.
Lady, whoe'er thou art, that liberal air
Speaks an exalted mind: there is a grace,
A dignity in those of noble birth,
That marks their high rank. Yet I marvel much
That from thy closed lids the trickling tear
Water'd thy beauteous cheeks, soon as thine eye
Beheld this chaste oracular seat of Phoebus.
What brings this sorrow, lady? All besides,
Viewing the temple of the god, are struck
With joy; thy melting eye o'erflows with tears.
Not without reason, stranger, art thou seized
With wonder at my tears: this sacred dome
Awakes the sad remembrance of things past.
I had my mind at home, though present here.
How wretched is our sex! And, O ye gods,
What deeds are yours! Where may we hope for right,
If by the injustice of your power undone?
Why, lady, this inexplicable grief?
It matters not; my mind resumes its firmless:
I say no more; cease thy concern for me.
But say, who art thou? whence? what country boasts
Thy birth? and by what name may we address thee?
Creusa is my name, drawn from Erechtheus
My high-born lineage; Athens gave me birth.
Illustrious is thy state; thy ancestry
So noble that I look with reverence on thee.
Happy indeed is this, in nothing farther.
But tell me, is it true what fame has blazon'd?
What wouldst thou ask? Stranger, I wish to know.
Sprung the first author of thy line from the earth?
Ay, Erichthonius; but my race avails not.
And did Minerva raise him from the earth?
Held in her virgin hands: she bore him not.
And gave him as the picture represents?
Daughters of Cecrops these, charged not to see him.
The virgins ope'd the interdicted chest?
And died, distaining with their blood the rock.
But tell me, is this truth, or a vain rumour?
What wouldst thou ask? I am not scant of time.
Thy sisters did Erechtheus sacrifice?
He slew the virgins, victims for their country.
And thou of all thy sisters saved alone?
I was an infant in my mother's arms.
And did the yawning earth swallow thy father?
By Neptune's trident smote; and so he perish'd.
And Macrai call you not the fatal place?
Why dost thou ask? What thoughts hast thou recall'd?,
Does Phoebus, do his lightnings honour it?
Honour! Why this? Would I had never seen it!
Why? Dost thou hate the place dear to the god?
No: but for some base deed done in the cave.
But what Athenian, lady, wedded thee?
Of Athens none, but one of foreign birth.
What is his name? Noble he needs must be.
Xuthus, by Aeolus derived from Jove.
How weds a stranger an Athenian born?
Euboea is a state neighbouring on Athens.
A narrow sea flows, I have heard, between.
Joining the Athenian arms, that state he wasted.
Confederate in the war, thence wedded thee?
The dowral meed of war, earn'd by his spear.
Comest thou with him to Delphi, or alone?
With him, gone now to the Trophonian shrine.
To view it, or consult the oracle?
Both that and this, anxious for one response.
For the earth's fruits consult you, or for children?
Though wedded long, yet childless is our bed.
Hast thou ne'er borne a child, that thou hast none?
My state devoid of children Phoebus knows.
Bless'd in all else, luckless in this alone.
But who art thou? Bless'd I pronounce thy mother.
Call'd as I am the servant of the god.
Presented by some state, or sold to this?
I know not aught save this, I am the god's.
And in my turn, stranger, I pity thee.
As knowing not my mother, or my lineage.
Hast thou thy dwelling here, or in some house?
The temple is my house, ev'n when I sleep.
A child brought hither, or in riper years?
An infant, as they say, who seem to know.
What Delphian dame sustain'd thee at her breast?
I never knew a breast. She nourish'd me.
Who, hapless youth? Diseased, I find disease.
The priestess: as a mother I esteem her.
Who to these manly years gave thee support?
The altars, and the still-succeeding strangers.
Wretched, whoe'er she be, is she that bore thee.
I to some woman am perchance a shame.
Are riches thine? Thou art well habited.
Graced with these vestments by the god I serve.
Hast thou made no attempt to trace thy birth?
I have no token, lady, for a proof.
Ah, like thy mother doth another suffer.
Who? tell me: shouldst thou help me, what a joy
One for whose sake I come before my husband.
Say for what end, that I may serve thee, lady.
To ask a secret answer of the god.
Speak it: my service shall procure the rest.
Hear then the tale: but Modesty restrains me.
Ah, let her not; her power avails not here.
My friend then says that to the embrace of Phoebus-
A woman and a god! Say not so, stranger.
She bore a son: her father knew it not.
Not so: a mortal's baseness he disdains.
This she affirms; and this, poor wretch, she suffer'd.
What follow'd, if she knew the god's embrace?
The child, which hence had birth, she straight exposed.
This exposed child, where is he? doth he live?
This no one knows; this wish I to inquire.
If not alive, how probably destroyed?
Torn, she conjectures, by some beast of prey.
What ground hath she on which to build that thought?
Returning to the place she found him not.
Observed she drops of blood distain the path?
None, though with anxious heed she search'd around.
What time hath pass'd since thus the child was lost?
Were he alive, his youth were such as thine.
The god hath done him wrong: the unhappy mother-
Hath not to any child been mother since.
What if in secret Phoebus nurtures him!
Unjust to enjoy alone a common right.
Ah me! this cruel fate accords with mine.
For thee too thy unhappy mother mourns.
Ah, melt me not to griefs I would forget!
I will be silent: but impart thy aid.
Seest thou what most the inquiry will suppress?
And to my wretched friend what is not ill?
How shall the god what he would hide reveal?
As placed on the oracular seat of Greece.
The deed must cause him shame: convict him not.
To the poor sufferer 'tis the cause of grief.
It cannot be; for who shall dare to give
The oracle? With justice would the god,
In his own dome affronted, pour on him
Severest vengeance, who should answer thee.
Desist then, lady: it becomes us ill,
In opposition to the god, to make
Inquiries at his shrine; by sacrifice
Before their altars, or the flight of birds,
Should we attempt to force the unwilling gods
To utter what they wish not, 'twere the excess
Of rudeness; what with violence we urge
'Gainst their consent would to no good avail us:
What their spontaneous grace confers on us,
That, lady, as a blessing we esteem.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
How numberless the ills to mortal man,
And various in their form! One single blessing
By any one through life is scarcely found.
Nor here, nor there, O Phoebus, art thou just
To her; though absent, yet her words are present.
Nor didst thou save thy son, whom it became thee
To save; nor, though a prophet, wilt thou speak
To the sad mother who inquires of thee;
That, if he is no more, to him a tomb
May rise; but, if he lives, that he may bless
His mother's eyes. But even thus behooves us
To omit these things, if by the god denied
To know what most I wish.-But, for I see
The noble Xuthus this way bend, return'd
From the Trophonian cave; before my husband
Resume not, generous stranger, this discourse,
Lest it might cause me shame that thus I act
In secret, and perchance lead on to questions
I would not have explain'd. Our hapless sex
Oft feel our husbands' rigour: with the bad
The virtuous they confound, and treat us harshly.
XUTHUS and his retinue enter.
With reverence to the god my first address
I pay: Hail, Phoebus! Lady, next to thee:
Absent so long, have I not caused thee fear?
First may the god rejoice when he has the first-fruits of my addresses, and then you, lady. You weren't afraid at my long absence, were you?
Not much: as anxious thoughts 'gan rise, thou'rt come.
But, tell me, from Trophonius what reply
Bearest thou; what means whence offspring may arise?
No; you have come upon my anxiety. But  tell me, what oracle do you bring from Trophonius about the begetting of children?
Unmeet he held it to anticipate
The answer of the god: one thing he told me.
That childless I should not return, nor thou,
Home from the oracle.
He did not think it right to anticipate the answer of the god; but he said one thing, that neither you nor I would go home from the oracle childless.
Mother of Phoebus, be our coming hither
In lucky hour; and our connubial bed
Be by thy son made happier than before!
 O revered lady, mother of Phoebus, may we have come here auspiciously, and may our former engagements with your son fall out better!
It shall be so. But who is president here?
It shall be so. But who is the interpreter of the god?
Without, that charge is mine; within, devolved
On others, stranger, seated near the tripod;
The chiefs of Delphi these, chosen by lot.
I am, outside; within, it belongs to others  seated near the tripod, stranger, the best men of Delphi, chosen by lot
'Tis well: all that I want is then complete.
Let me now enter: for the oracle
Is given, I hear, in common to all strangers
Before the shrine; on such a day, that falls
Propitious thus, the answer of the god
Would I receive: meanwhile, these laurel boughs
Bear round the altars; lady, breathe thy prayers
To every god, that from Apollo's shrine
I may bring back the promise of a son.
Good; I have everything I need. I will go inside; for, as I hear, the victim has been sacrificed for foreigners  in common before the shrine; I want, on this day--for it is propitious--to receive the answer of the god. But you, lady, take these laurel twigs around the altars and pray to the gods for me to bring from Apollo's temple oracles that give hope of children. Xuthus, after giving the laurel boughs to Creusa, enters the temple.
XUTHUS, after giving the laurel boughs to CREUSA, enters the temple.
It shall, it shall be so. Should Phoebus now
At least be willing to redress the fault
Of former times, he would not through the whole
Be friendly to us: yet will I accept
What he vouchsafes us, for he is a god.
CREUSA departs to the shrines in the outer precinct of the temple.
 It shall be so, it shall. If Phoebus is even now willing to redress his earlier wrong, he would not be wholly dear to me, yet I will accept what he foretells for us, as he is a god. Creusa departs to the shrines in the outer precinct of the temple.
Why does this stranger always thus revile
With obscure speech the god? Is it through love
Of her, for whom she asks? or to conceal
Some secret of importance? But to me
What is the daughter of Erechtheus? Naught
Concerns it me. Then let me to my task,
And sprinkle from the golden vase the dew.
Yet must I blame the god, if thus perforce
He mounts the bed of virgins, and by stealth
Becomes a father, leaving then his children
To die, regardless of them. Do not thou
Act thus; but, as thy power is great, respect
The virtues; for whoe'er, of mortal men,
Dares impious deeds, him the gods punish: how
Is it then just that you, who gave the laws
To mortals, should yourselves transgress those laws?,
If (though it is not thus, yet will I urge
The subject,)-if to mortals you shall pay
The penalty of forced embraces, thou,
Neptune, and Jove, that reigns supreme in heaven,
Will leave your temples treasureless by paying
The mulcts of your injustice: for unjust
You are, your pleasures to grave temperance
Preferring: and to men these deeds no more
Can it be just to charge as crimes, these deeds
If from the gods they imitate: on those
Who gave the ill examples falls the charge.
Why is the stranger always making abusive riddles,  in obscure words, against the god? Is it because she loves the one for whom she is consulting the oracle, or is she being silent about something that she must conceal? But what is the daughter of Erechtheus to me? It is not my concern. I will go  and pour water from golden pitchers into the sacred vessels. But I must give Apollo some advice; what is he about? Does he betray virgins by forced rape? Does he secretly breed children and leave them to die? Do not do so; but, since you have power,  seek after virtue. For if any mortal is bad, the gods punish him. How then is it just for you to write laws for mortals, and yourselves incur a charge of lawlessness? If--for it is not so, but I will handle the subject--  you pay the penalty to mortals for rape, you and Poseidon, and Zeus, who rules heaven, you will empty your temples paying for your crimes. For you do wrong to go eagerly after your pleasures without thinking. No longer is it right  to speak badly of men, if we imitate what the gods think good, but rather of the ones who taught us these things. Ion goes out.
ION goes out.
Thee prompt to yield thy lenient aid,
And sooth a mother's pain:
And thee, my Pallas, martial maid,
I call: O, hear the strain!
Thou, whom the Titan from the head of Jove,
Prometheus, drew, bright Victory, come,
Descending from thy golden throne above;
Haste, goddess, to the Pythian dome,
Where Phoebus, from his central shrine,
Gives the oracle divine,
By the raving maid repeated,
On the hallow'd tripod seated:
O haste thee, goddess, and with thee
The daughter of Latona bring;
A virgin thou, a virgin she,
Sisters to the Delphian king;
Him, virgins, let your vows implore,
That now his pure oracular power
Will to Erechtheus' ancient line declare
The blessing of a long-expected heir!
To mortal man this promised grace
Sublimest pleasure brings,
When round the father's hearth a race
In blooming lustre springs.
The wealth, the honours, from their high-drawn line
From sire to son transmitted down,
Shall with fresh glory through their offspring shine,
And brighten with increased renown:
A guard, when ills begin to lower,
Dear in fortune's happier hour;
For their country's safety waking,
Firm in fight the strong spear shaking;
More than proud wealth's exhaustless store,
More than a monarch's bride to reign,
The dear delight, to virtue's lore
Careful the infant mind to train.
Doth any praise the childless state?
The joyless, loveless life I hate;
No; my desires to moderate wealth I bound,
But let me see my children smile around.
Ye rustic seats, Pan's dear delight;
Ye caves of Macrai's rocky height,
Where oft the social virgins meet,
And weave the dance with nimble feet;
Descendants from Aglauros they
In the third line, with festive play,
Minerva's hallow'd fane before
The verdant plain light-tripping o'er,
O seats of Pan and rocks that lie near the hollows of Makrai,  where the three daughters of Aglauros dance over the green courses before the temples of Pallas, to the quavering wail of pipes, of songs,  when you play the pipes in your sunless caves, O Pan, where an unhappy maiden bore a child to Phoebus and exposed it as a feast for birds  and a bloody banquet for wild beasts, the outrage of the bitter rape; neither at the loom nor in speeches have I heard that the children born to mortals from gods claim a report of good fortune. Robert Potter
When thy pipe's quick-varying sound
Rings, O Pan, these caves around;
Where, by Apollo's love betray'd,
Her child some hapless mother laid,
Exposed to each night-prowling beast,
Or to the ravenous birds a feast;
For never have I heard it told,
Nor wrought it in historic gold,
That happiness attends the race,
When gods with mortals mix the embrace.
Ye female train, that place yourselves around
This incense-breathing temple's base, your lord
Awaiting, hath he left the sacred tripod
And oracle, or stays he in the shrine,
Making inquiries of his childless state?
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
Yet in the temple, stranger, he remains.
But he comes forth; the sounding doors announce
His near approach; behold, our lord is here.
XUTHUS enters from the temple. He rushes to greet ION.
Health to my son! This first address is proper.
I have my health: be in thy senses thou,
And both are well.
O let me kiss thy hand,
And throw mine arms around thee.
Art thou, stranger,
Well in thy wits? or hath the god's displeasure
Bereft thee of thy reason?
That which is dearest being found, to wish
A fond embrace.
Off, touch me not; thy hands
Will mar the garlands of the god.
Asserts no pledge: my own, and that most dear,
Wilt thou not keep thee distant, ere
Thou hast my arrow in thy heart?
Why fly me,
When thou shouldst own what is most fond of thee?
I am not fond of curing wayward strangers,
Kill me, raise my funeral pyre;
But, if thou kill me, thou wilt kill thy father.
My father thou! how so? it makes me laugh
To hear thee.
This my words may soon explain.
What wilt thou say to me?
I am thy father,
And thou my son.
Who declares this?
That nurtured thee, though mine.
Thou to thyself
By the oracle inform'd.
Misled by some dark answer.
Well I heard it.
What were the words of Phoebus?
That who first
Should meet me-
As I pass'd.
Forth from the temple.
What the event to him?
He is my son.
Born so, or by some other
Though a present, born my son.
And didst thou first meet me?
None else, my son.
This fortune whence?
At that we marvel both.
Who is my mother?
That I cannot say.
Did not the god inform thee?
Through my joy,
For this I ask'd not.
Haply from the earth
I sprung, my mother.
No, the earth no sons
How then am I thine?
I know not.
To Phoebus I appeal.
Be this discourse
Chang'd to some other.
This delights me most.
Hast thou e'er mounted an unlawful bed?
In foolishness of youth.
Was that before
Thy marriage with the daughter of Erechtheus?
Owe I then my birth to that?
The time agrees.
How came I hither then?
I can form no conjecture.
Was I brought
From some far distant part?
That fills my mind
With doubtful musing.
Didst thou e'er before
Visit the Pythian rock?
Once, at the feast
By some public host received?
Who with the Delphian damsels-
To the orgies
Led thee, or how?
And with the Maenades
In the temperate hour, or warm
Amid the revels of the god.
From thence I date my birth.
And fate, my son,
Hath found thee.
How then came I to the temple?
The state of servitude
Have I escaped.
Thy father now, my son,
Indecent were it in the god
Not to confide.
Thy thoughts are just.
Thou seest what thou oughtst to see.
Am I the son then of the son of Jove?
Such is thy fortune.
Those that gave me birth
Do I embrace?
Obedient to the god.
My father, hail!
That dear name I accept
This present day-
Hath made me happy.
O my dear mother, when shall I behold
Thy face? Whoe'er thou art, more wish I now
To see thee than before; but thou perchance
Art dead, and nothing our desires avail.
We in the blessing of our house rejoice.
Yet wish we that our mistress too were happy
In children, and the lineage of Erechtheus.
Well hath the god accomplish'd this, my son,
Discovering thee, well hath he joined thee to me;
And thou hast found the most endearing ties,
To which, before this hour, thou wast a stranger.
And the warm wish, which thou hast well conceived,
Is likewise mine, that thou mayst find thy mother;
I from what woman thou derivest thy birth.
This, left to time, may haply be discover'd.
Now quit this hallow'd earth, the god no more
Attending, and to mine accord thy mind,
To visit Athens, where thy father's sceptre,
No mean one, waits thee, and abundant wealth:
Nor, though thou grieve one parent yet unknown,
Shalt thou be censured as ignobly born,
Or poor: no, thou art noble, and thy state
Adorn'd with rich possessions. Thou art silent.
Why is thine eye thus fixed upon the ground?
Why on thy brow that cloud? The smile of joy
Vanish'd, thou strikest thy father's heart with fear.
Far other things appear when nigh, than seen
At distance. I indeed embrace my fortune,
In thee my father found. But hear what now
Wakes sad reflections. Proud of their high race
Are your Athenians, natives of the land,
Not drawn from foreign lineage: I to them
Shall come unwelcome, in two points defective,
My father not a native, and myself
Of spurious birth: loaded with this reproach,
If destitute of power, I shall be held
Abject and worthless: should I rush among
The highest order of the state, and wish
To appear important, inferior ranks
Will hate me; aught above them gives disgust.
The good, the wise, men form'd to serve the state,
Are silent, nor at public honours aim
Too hastily: by such, were I not quiet
In such a bustling state, I should be deem'd
Ridiculous, and proverb'd for a fool.
Should I attain the dignity of those,
Whose approved worth hath raised them to the height
Of public honours, by such suffrage more
Should I be watch'd; for they that hold in states
Rule and pre-eminence, bear hostile minds
To all that vie with them. And should I come
To a strange house a stranger, to a woman
Childless herself, who that misfortune shared
Before with thee, now sees it her sole lot,
And feels it bitterly, would she not hate me,
And that with justice? When I stand before them.
With what an eye would she, who hath no child,
Look on thy child? In tenderness to her,
Thy wife, thou must forsake me, or embroil
Thy house in discord, if thou favour me.
What murderous means, what poisonous drugs for men
Have women with inventive rage prepared!
Besides, I have much pity for thy wife,
Now growing old without a child, that grief
Unmerited, the last of her high race,
The exterior face indeed of royalty,
So causelessly commended, bath its brightness;
Within, all gloom: for what sweet peace of mind,
What happiness is his, whose years are pass'd
In comfortless suspicion, and the dread
Of violence? Be mine the humble blessings
Of private life, rather than be a king,
From the flagitious forced to choose my friends,
And hate the virtuous through the fear of death.
Gold, thou mayst tell me, hath o'er things like these
A sovereign power, and riches give delight:
I have no pleasure in this noisy pomp,
Nor, while I guard my riches, in the toil:
Be mine a modest mean that knows not care.
And now, my father, hear the happy state
I here enjoy'd; and first, to mortal man
That dearest blessing, leisure, and no bustle
To cause disturbance: me no ruffian force
Shoved from the way: it is not to be borne,
When every insolent and worthless wretch
Makes you give place. The worship of the god
Employ'd my life, or (no unpleasing task)
Service to men well pleased: the parting guest
I bade farewell-welcomed the new-arrived.
Thus something always new made every hour
Glide sweetly on; and to the human mind
That dearest wish, though some regard it not,
To be, what duty and my nature made me,
Just to the god: revolving this, my father,
I wish not for thy Athens to exchange
This state; permit me to myself to live;
Dear to the mind pleasures that arise
From humble life, as those which greatness brings.
Well hast thou said, if those whom my soul holds
Most dear shall in thy words find happiness.
No more of this discourse; learn to be happy.
It is my will that thou begin it here,
Where first I found thee, son: a general feast
Will I provide, and make a sacrifice,
Which at thy birth I made not: at my table
Will I receive thee as a welcome guest,
And cheer thee with the banquet, then conduct the
To Athens with me as a visitant,
Not as my son: for, mid my happiness,
I would not grieve my wife, who hath no child.
But I will watch the occasions time may bring,
And so present thee, and obtain her leave
That thou mayst hold the sceptre which I bear.
Ion I name thee, as befits thy fortune,
As first thou met'st me from the hallow'd shrine
As I came forth; assemble then thy friends,
Invite them all to share the joyful feast,
Since thou art soon to leave the Delphic state.
And you, ye females, keep, I charge you, keep
This secret; she that tells my wife shall die.
Let us then go; yet one thing to my fortune
Is wanting: if I find not her that bore me,
Life hath no joy. Might I indulge a wish,
It were to find her an Athenian dame,
That from my mother I might dare to assume
Some confidence; for he whose fortune leads him
To a free state proud of their unmix'd race,
Though call'd a citizen, must close his lips
With servile awe, for freedom is not his.
XUTHUS and ION go out.
Yes, sisters, yes, the streaming eye,
The swelling heart I see, the bursting sigh,
When thus rejoicing in his son
Our queen her royal lord shall find,
And give to grief her anguish'd mind,
Afflicted, childless, and alone.
What means this voice divine,
Son of Latona, fate-declaring power?
Whence is this youth, so fondly graced,
That to ripe manhood, from his infant hour,
Hath in thy hallow'd courts been plac'd
And nurtured at thy shrine?
Thy dark reply delights not me;
Lurking beneath close fraud I see:
Where will this end? I fear, I fear-
'Tis strange, and strange events must hence ensue:
But grateful sounds it to his ear,
The youth, that in another's state
(Who sees not that my words are true?)
Enjoys the fraud, and triumphs in his fate.
Say, sisters, say, with duteous zeal
Shall we this secret to our queen reveal?
She, to her royal lord resign'd,
With equal hope, with equal care,
Form'd her his joys, his griefs to share,
And gave him an her willing mind.
But joys are his alone;
While she, poor mourner, with a weight of woes,
To hoary age advancing, bends;
He the bright smile of prosperous fortune knows.
Ev'n thus, unhonour'd by his friends,
Plac'd on another's throne,
Mischance and ruin on him wait,
Who fails to guard its happy state.
Him may mischance and ruin seize,
Who round my lov'd queen spreads his wily trains.
No god may his oblation please,
No favouring flame to him ascend!
To her my faith, my zeal remains,
Known to her ancient royal house a friend.
Now the father and the new-found son
The festive table haste to spread,
Where to the skies Parnassus lifts his head,
And deep beneath the hanging stone
Forms in its rudely-rifted side
A cavern wild and wide;
Where Bacchus, shaking high his midnight flames,
In many a light fantastic round
Dances o'er the craggy ground,
And revels with his frantic dames.
Ne'er to my city let him come,
This youth: no, rather let him die,
And sink into an early tomb!
With an indignant eye
Athens would view the stranger's pride
Within her gates triumphant ride:
Enough for her the honour'd race that springs
From old Erechtheus and her line of kings.
CREUSA and her aged TUTOR enter.
Thou venerable man, whose guiding voice
My father, while he lived, revered, advance
Up to the oracular seat thy aged steps;
That, if the royal Phoebus should pronounce
Promise of offspring, thou with me mayst share
The joy; for pleasing is it when with friends
Good fortune we receive; if aught of ill
(Avert it, Heaven!) befalls, a friend's kind eye
Beams comfort; thee, as once thou didst revere
My father, though thy queen, I now revere.
In thee, my child, the nobleness of manners
Which graced thy royal ancestors yet lives;
Thou never wilt disgrace thy high-born lineage.
Lead me, then, lead me to the shrine, support me:
High is the oracular seat, and steep the ascent;
Be thou assistant to the foot of age.
Follow; be heedful where thou set thy steps.
I am: my foot is slow, my heart hath wings.
Fix thy staff firm on this loose-rolling ground.
That hath no eyes; and dim indeed my sight.
Well hast thou said; on cheerful then, and faint not.
I have the will, but o'er constraint no power.
Ye females, on my richly-broider'd works
Faithful attendants, say, respecting children,
For which we came, what fortune hath my lord
Borne hence? if good, declare it: you shall find
That to no thankless masters you give joy.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS
To thy speech this is a proem
Not tuned to happiness.
But why distress me for the oracle
Given to our lords? Be that as fate requires
In things which threaten death, what shall we do?
What means this strain of woe? Whence are these fears?
What! shall we speak, or bury this in silence?
Speak, though thy words bring wretchedness to me.
It shall be spoken, were I twice to die.
To thee, my queen, it is not given to clasp
In thy fond arms a child, or at thy breast
To hold it.
O my child, would I were dead!
Yes, this is wretchedness indeed, a grief
That makes life joyless.
This is ruin to us.
Unhappy me! this is a piercing grief,
That rends my heart with anguish.
Groan not yet.
Yet is the affliction present.
Till we learn-
To me what tidings?
If a common fate
Await our lord, partaker of thy griefs,
Or thou alone art thus unfortunate.
To him, old man, the god hath given a son,
And happiness is his unknown to her.
To ill this adds the deepest ill, a grief
For me to mourn.
Born of some other woman
Is this child yet to come, or did the god
Declare one now in being?
To manhood's prime he gave him: I was present.
What hast thou said? Thy words denounce to me
Sorrows past speech, past utterance.
And to me.
How was this oracle accomplish'd? Tell me
With clearest circumstance: who is this youth?
Him as a son Apollo gave, whom first,
Departing from the god, thy lord should meet.
O my unhappy fate! I then am left
Childless to pass my life, childless, alone,
Amid my lonely house! Who was declared?
Whom did the husband of this wretch first meet?
How meet him? Where behold him? Tell me all.
Dost thou, my honoured mistress, call to mind
The youth that swept the temple? This is he.
O, through the liquid air that I could fly,
Far from the land of Greece, ev'n to the stars
Fix'd in the western sky! Ah me, what grief,
What piercing grief is mine I
Say, by what name
Did he address his son, if thou hast heard it?
Or does it rest in silence, yet unknown?
Ion, for that he first advanced to meet him.
And of what mother?
That I could not learn:
Abrupt was his departure (to inform thee
Of all I know, old man) to sacrifice,
With hospitable rites, a birthday feast;
And in the hallow'd cave, from her apart,
With his new son to share the common banquet.
Lady, we by thy husband are betrayed,
For I with thee am grieved, with contrived fraud
Insulted, from thy father's house cast forth.
I speak not this in hatred to thy lord,
But that I love thee more: a stranger he
Came to the city and thy royal house,
And wedded thee, all thy inheritance
Receiving, by some other woman now
Discover'd to have children privately:
How privately I'll tell thee: when he saw
Thou hadst no child, it pleased him not to bear
A fate like thine; but by some favourite slave,
His paramour by stealth, he hath a son.
Him to some Delphian gave he, distant far,
To educate; who to this sacred house
Consign'd, as secret here, received his nurture.
He knowing this, and that his son advanced
To manhood, urged thee to attend him hither,
Pleading thy childless state. Nor hath the god
Deceived thee: he deceived thee, and long since
Contrived this wily plan to rear his son,
That, if convicted, he might charge the god,
Himself excusing: should the fraud succeed,
He would observe the times when he might safely
Consign to him the empire of thy land.
And this new name was at his leisure form'd,
Ion, for that he came by chance to meet him.
I hate those ill-designing men, that form
Plans of injustice, and then gild them over
With artificial ornament: to me
Far dearer is the honest simple friend,
Than one whose quicker wit is train'd to ill.
And to complete this fraud, thou shalt be urged
To take into thy house, to lord it there,
This low-born youth, this offspring of a slave.
Though ill, it had been open, had he pleaded
Thy want of children, and, thy leave obtain'd,
Brought to thy house a son that could have boasted
His mother noble; or, if that displeased thee,
He might have sought a wife from Aeolus.
Behooves thee then to act a woman's part,
Or grasp the sword, or drug the poison'd bowl,
Or plan some deep design to kill thy husband,
And this his son, before thou find thy death
From them: if thou delay, thy life is lost:
For when beneath one roof two foes are met,
The one must perish. I with ready zeal
Will aid thee in this work, and kill the youth,
Entering the grot where he prepares the feast;
Indifferent in my choice, so that I pay
What to my lords I owe, to live or die.
If there is aught that causes slaves to blush,
It is the name; in all else than the free
The slave is nothing worse, if he be virtuous.
I too, my honour'd queen, with cheerful mind
Will share thy fate, or die, or live with honour.
How, o my soul, shall I be silent, how
Disclose this secret? Can I bid farewell
To modesty? What else restrains my tongue?
To how severe a trial am I brought!
Hath not my husband wrong'd me? Of my house
I am deprived, deprived of children; hope
Is vanish'd, which my heart could not resign,
With many an honest wish this furtive bed
Concealing, this lamented bed concealing.
But by the star-bespangled throne of Jove,
And by the goddess high above my rocks
Enshrined, by the moist banks that bend around
The hallow'd lake by Triton form'd, no longer
Will I conceal this bed, but ease my breast,
The oppressive load discharged. Mine eyes drop tears,
My soul is rent, to wretchedness ensnared
By men, by gods, whom I will now disclose,
Unkind betrayers of the beds they forced.
O thou, that wakest on thy seven-string'd lyre
Sweet notes, that from the rustic lifeless horn
Enchant the ear with heavenly melody,
- o tas heptaphthongou melpon
kitharas enopan, hat' agraulois
kerasin en apsuchois achei
mousan humnous euachetous,
- See heredotus1.html
- -Hepta-phthongos , on, A. seven-toned, kithara E.Ion881 (lyr.); sumphonia Nicom.Exc.6 .
- -Horn is: -Keras I. the horn of an animal, in Hom. mostly of oxen, as a symbol of strength
- III. anything made of horn, 1. bow, 2. of musical instruments, horn for blowing, also, the Phrygian flute, because it was tipped with horn
- 8. of the pecheis of the lyre, chrusodeton k. S.Fr.244 (lyr.) (rather than the bridge, because made of horn, Ael.Dion.Fr.133, Poll.4.62).
You remember that Paul connected the "gibberish" form of speaking in tongues as the uncovered women "prophesiers" to lifeless musical instruments:
- And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? 1 Cor 14:7
- Apsuchos (g895) ap'-soo-khos; from 1 (as a neg. particle) and 5590 [breath]; lifeless, i.e. inanimate (mechanical): - without life.
- -Apsuch-os, on, lifeless, inanimate, pothoi Archil.84 ; mnemei' apsuch' empsuchon Simon.106.4 , cf. E.Fr.655, Tr. 623; lotos a. empnoun [breath] aniei -Mousan Sopat.10 ; ha -otata ton oston with least life or sensation, Pl.Ti.74e, cf. Arist.de An.413a21, etc.; a. theoi, of statues, Timae.127.
- 2. a. bora non-animal food, E.Hipp. 952.
- II. spiritless, faint-hearted, kake A.Th.192 ; aner Trag.Adesp.337: apsuchoterai hai theleiai [elephantes] Arist.HA610a21; of style, lifeless, D.H.Dem.20. Adv. -chos Poll.2.227 .
- III. materialistic, logos Porph.Gaur.14.4 (Comp.).
- Peal forth
- Ech-eo I. intr., sound, ring, peal, of the grasshopper, chirp 2. suffer from noises in the ears, chalkeon achei sound the cymbal! to sound his praises, hymn
- 1 Sam 13: Yahweh said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears of everyone who hears it shall tingle.  In that day I will perform against Eli all that I have spoken concerning his house, from the beginning even to the end.  For I have told him that I will judge his house forever, for the iniquity which he knew, because his sons did bring a curse on themselves, and he didn't restrain them.
- Calal (h6750) tsaw-lal'; a prim. root [rather ident. with 6749 through the idea of vibration]; to tinkle, i. e. rattle together (as the ears in reddening with shame, or the teeth in chattering with fear): - quiver, tingle.
- And David and all the house of Israel played before the Lord on all manner of instruments made of fir wood, even on harps, and on psalteries, and on timbrels, and on cornets, and on cymbals. 2S.6:5
- Praise him upon the loud cymbals: praise him upon the high sounding cymbals. Ps.150:5
- High is:
- Teruwah (h8643) ter-oo-aw'; from 7321; clamor, i. e. acclamation of joy or a battle-cry; espec. clangor of trumpets, as an alarum: - alarm, blow (-ing) (of, the) (trumpets), joy, jubile, loud noise, rejoicing, shout (-ing), (high, joyful) sound (-ing).
- WOE to the land shadowing with wings, which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia: Is.18:1
- Celacal (h6767) tsel-aw-tsal'; from 6749 redupl.; a clatter, i. e.
- (abstr.) whirring (of wings); (concr.) a cricket; also a harpoon (as rattling), a cymbal (as clanging): - cymbal, locust, shadowing, spear.
- As with all musical instruments, the cymbal has vile or violent roots--
- Calal (h6749) tsaw-lal' a prim. root; prop. to tumble down, i. e. settle by a waving motion: - sink. Comp. 6750, 6751.
- Calal (h6750) tsaw-lal'; a prim. root [rather ident. with 6749 through the idea of vibration]; to tinkle, i. e. rattle together (as the ears in reddening with shame, or the teeth in chattering with fear): - quiver, tingle
- 885 soi momphan, o Latous pai,
pros tand' augan audaso.
elthes moi chrusoi chaitan
marmairon, eut' es kolpous
krokea petala pharesin edrepon [pluck],
-  son of Leto, I will blame you before this light. You came to me, your hair glittering with gold, when I was plucking into the folds of my robe yellow flowers
-  to bloom with golden light; grasping my white hand in yours, you led me to the bed in the cave, hearing me call on my mother, god and consort,
-  shamelessly paying homage to Aphrodite. I, the unhappy one, bore you a son, whom in fear of my mother I placed in that bed of yours,
- ages anaideiai
Kupridi charin prasson.
tikto d' ha dustanos soi
kouron, ton phrikai matros
eis eunan ballo tan san,
-  where you joined with me, the miserable, the unfortunate one, in unhappy union. Alas! and now my son and yours, oh cruel one, is gone, torn apart, a feast for birds;
hina me lechesi melean meleois
ezeuxo tan dustanon.
oimoi moi: kai nun errei
ptanois harpastheis thoina
pais moi -- kai sos, tlamon:
-  but you are singing to the lyre, chanting hymns.
- Modern scholars agree that the basic facts of Aspasia's life as recorded by Diodoros the Athenian (FGrHist 372 F 40 ), Plutarch (Plut. Per. 24.3 ) and the lexicographers are correct. She was born in the city of Miletus between 460-455 B.C., the daughter of Axiochus. Miletus, part of the Athenian empire, was one of the leading cities in Ionia, an area of Greek settlement located along the coast of Asia Minor.
- It was probably in Ionia, before she left for Athens, that Aspasia was educated. Women in that part of the Greek world were generally given more of an education than women in Athens.
- As a hetaira she would have been trained in the art of conversation and of musical entertainment including singing, dancing and playing instruments.
- Oh! son of Leto, I invoke you, who send forth your holy voice from your golden seat,
- su de -kithara klazeis
paianas melpōn. .
-Melpon celebrate with song and dance
ton Latous audo ,
host' omphan klerois
pros chruseous thakous
-  your central throne, I shall announce it in your ear: O wicked lover, you received no favor from my husband,
kai gaias messereis hedras,
eis ous audan karuxo:
Io kakos eunator,
hos toi men emoi numpheutai
charin ou prolabon
-  but you settle a child in the house for him; while my son and yours, unknown, is gone, plundered by birds, and has given up the baby-clothes from his mother. Delos hates you, and so do the laurel shoots
paid' eis oikous oikizeis:
ho d' emos genetas kai sos g', amathes,
oionois errei sulatheis,
spargana materos exallaxas.
misei s' ha Dalos kai daphnas
-  beside the palm with delicate leaves, where Leto gave birth to you, a holy birth, in the plants of Zeus.
- Chorus Leader
- Alas, what a mighty treasury of ills is opened; anyone might weep at it!
ernea phoinika par' habrokoman,
entha locheumata semn' elocheusato
Lato Dioisi se karpois.
- oimoi, megas thesauros hos anoignutai
kakon, eph' hoisi pas an ekbaloi dakru.
-  My daughter, I cannot get my fill of looking on your face; I am astonished. For I had just now drained one wave of troubles from my heart, when another one from the stern seizes me at your words, which you have diverted from the present woes,
o thugater, outoi son blepon empimplamai
prosopon, exo d' egenomen gnomes emes.
kakon gar arti kum' hupexantlon phreni,
prumnethen airei m' allo son logon hupo,
hous ekbalousa ton parestoton kakon
metelthes allon pematon kakas hodous.
ti pheis; tina logon Loxiou kategoreis;
poion tekein pheis paida; pou theinai poleos
thersin philon tumbeum'; anelthe moi palin.Son of Latona, thee before this light
Will I reprove. Thou camest to me, with gold
Thy locks all glittering, as the vermeil flowers
I gather'd in my vest to deck my bosom
With the spring's glowing hues; in my white hand
Thy hand enlocking, to the cavern'd rock
Thou led'st me; naught avail'd my cries, that call'd
My mother; on thou led'st me, wanton god,
Immodestly, to Venus paying homage.
A son I bare thee, O my wretched fate!
Him (for I fear'd my mother) in thy cave
I placed, where I unhappy was undone
By thy unhappy love. Woe, woe is me!
And now my son and thine, ill-fated babe,905
Is rent by ravenous vultures; thou, meanwhile,
Art to thy lyre attuning strains of joy.
su de -kithara klazeis
-Melpon celebrate with song and dance
-klazo make a sharp piercing sound:
3. of things, as of arrows in the quiver, clash, rattle, “eklagxan d ar' oistoi” Il.1.46; of the wind, whistle
klazousi kōdōnes phobon ring forth terror of the musician, “kithara klazeis paianas melpōn” E.Ion905 (lyr.); of Pan on his pipes, h.Pan.14; klazeis melisma luras (of the tettix)
Zēna . . epinikia klazōn sounding loudly the song of victory in honour of Z., ib.174 (lyr.).
An ODE in the modern church Praise Singing is OFF the World:
-kalli-ni_kos , on, (nikē) of dirges, “pollas thrēnōn ōdas” S.El.88
A.gloriously triumphant, tōn ekhthrōntriumphant over one's HATED enemies,engage in hostility.
Epithet. of Helios, “tēnella ō kallinike Khair' anax Hēraklees”
deka zeuxe Mousan en ōdais”
II.adorning or ennobling victory, melos, humnos, Pi.P.5.106, N.4.16c odd.; ō'da, mousa
Set of Latona, thee I call aloud
Who from thy golden seat, thy central throne,
Utterest thine oracle: my voice shall reach
Thine ear: ungrateful lover, to my husband,
No grace requiting, thou hast given a son
To bless his house; my son and thine, unown'd,
Perish'd a prey to birds; the robes that wrapp'd
The infant's limbs, his mother's work, lost with him.
Delos abhors thee, and the laurel boughs
With the soft foliage of the palm o'erhung,
Grasping whose round trunk with her hands divine,
Latona thee, her hallow'd offspring, bore.
Ah, what a mighty treasury of ills
Is open'd here, a copious source of tears!
Never, my daughter, can I sate my eyes
With looking on thy face: astonishment
Bears me beyond my senses. I had stemm'd
One tide of evils, when another flood
High-surging overwhelm'd me from the words
Which thou hast utter'd, from the present ills
To an ill train of other woes transferr'd.
What say'st thou? Of what charge dost thou implead
The god? What son hast thou brought forth? Where placed him
A feast for vultures? Tell me all again.
Though I must blush, old man, yet I will speak.
I mourn with generous grief at a friend's woes.
Hear then: the northward-pointing cave thou knowest,
And the Cecropian rocks, which we call Macrai.
Where stands a shrine to Pan, and altars nigh.
There in a dreadful conflict I engaged.
What! my tears rise ready to meet thy words.
By Phoebus drawn reluctant to his bed.
Was this, my daughter, such as I suppose?
I know not: but if truth, I will confess it.
Didst thou in silence mourn this secret ill?
This was the grief I now disclose to thee.
This love of Phoebus how didst thou conceal?
I bore a son. Hear me, old man, with patience.
Where? who assisted? or wast thou alone?
Alone, in the same cave where compress'd.
Where is thy son, that childless now no more
Dead, good old man, to beasts of prey exposed.
Dead! and the ungrateful Phoebus gives no aid?
None: in the house of Pluto a young guest.
Whose hands exposed him? Surely not thine own.
Mine, in the shades of night, wrapp'd in his vests.
Hadst thou none with thee conscious to this deed?
My misery, and the secret place alone.
How durst thou in a cavern leave thy son?
How? uttering many sad and plaintive words.
Ah, cruel was thy deed, the god more cruel.
Hadst thou but seen him stretch his little hands!
Seeking the breast, or reaching to thine arms?
To this, deprived of which he suffer'd wrong.
And what induced thee to expose thy child?
Hope that the god's kind care would save his son.
How are the glories of thy house destroy'd!
Why, thine head cover'd, dost thou pour these tears?
To see thee and thy father thus unhappy.
This is the state of man: nothing stands firm.
No longer then, my child, let grief oppress us.
What should I do? In misery all is doubt.
First on the god that wrong'd thee be avenged.
How shall a mortal 'gainst a god prevail?
Set this revered oracular shrine on fire.
I fear: ev'n now I have enough of ills.
Attempt what may be done then; kill thy husband.
The nuptial bed I reverence, and his goodness.
This son then, which is now brought forth against thee.
How? Could that be, how warmly should I wish it.
Thy train hath swords: instruct them to the deed.
I go with speed: but where shall it be done?
In the hallow'd tent, where now he feasts his friends.
An open murder, and with coward slaves!
If mine displease, propose thou some design.
I have it, close and easy to achieve.
In both my faithful services are thine.
Hear then: not strange to thee the giants' war.
When they in Phlegra fought against the gods.
There the earth brought forth the Gorgon, horrid monster.
In succour of her sons to annoy the gods?
Ev'n so: her Pallas slew, daughter of Jove.
What fierce and dreadful form did she then wear?
Her breastplate arm'd with vipers wreathed around.
A well-known story; often have I heard it.
Her spoils before her breast Minerva wore.
The aegis; so they call the vest of Pallas.
So named, when in the war she join'd the gods.
But how can this, my child, annoy thy foes?
Thou canst not but remember Erichthonius.
Whom first of thy high race the earth brought forth.
To him while yet an infant Pallas gave-
What? Thy slow preface raises expectation.
Two drops of blood that from the Gorgon fell.
And on the human frame what power have these?
The one works death, the other heals disease.
In what around the infant's body hung?
Enclosed in gold: he gave them to my father.
At his decease then they devolved to thee?
Ay, and I wear it as a bracelet; look.
Their double qualities how temper'd, say.
This drop, which from her hollow vein distill'd,-
To what effect applied? What is its power?
Medicinal, of sovereign use to life.
The other drop, what faculties hath that?
It kills, the poison of the Gorgon dragons.
And dost thou bear this gore blended in one?
No, separate; for with ill good mixes not.
O my dear child, thou hast whate'er we want.
With this the boy shall die, and thou shalt kill him.
Where? How? 'Tis thine to speak, to dare be mine.
At Athens, when he comes beneath my roof.
I like not this; what I proposed displeased.
Dost thou surmise what enters now my thoughts?
Suspicion waits thee, though thou kill him not.
Thou hast judged well: a stepdame's hate is proverb'd.
Then kill him here; thou mayst disown the deed.
My mind ev'n now anticipates the pleasure.
Thus shalt thou meet thy husband's wiles with wiles
This shalt thou do: this little golden casket
Take from my hand, Minerva's gift of old;
To where my husband secretly prepares
The sacrifice, bear this beneath thy vest.
That supper ended, when they are to pour
Libations to the gods, thou mayst infuse
In the youth's goblet this: but take good heed,
Let none observe thee; drug his cup alone
Who thinks to lord it in my house: if once
It pass his lips, his foot shall never reach
Illustrious Athens: death awaits him here.
She gives him the casket.
Go thou then to the hospitable house
Prepared for thy reception: be it mine,
Obedient to thy word to do this deed.
Come then, my aged foot, be once more young
In act, though not in years, for past recall
That time is fled: kill him, and bear him forth.
Well may the prosperous harbour virtuous thought;
But when thou wouldst avenge thee on thy foes,
There is no law of weight to hinder thee.
They both go out.
Counter added 9.30.06 6:46p 12.15.07 701 10.08 3000