Deborah was a military leader who shamed the males into taking the authority. She is not a pattern for a modern church leader
See Rubel Shelly and John York on Deborah. They will deny the clear reading against SPEAKING or NON-SEDENTARY roles for women by repudiating Paul. At the same time "taking liberties" gives them the authority to use DEBORAH as a civil judge as absolute PROOF that women should RULE in the Ekklesia or body of Christ as synagogue or school of the Bible.
Abraham was a godly or inspired man but his task was not to predict, preach or sing with instruments. His relationship with God gave Abraham the right to pray and be heard. Miriam answered or repeated what Moses had heard from God. Only in the faithful repeating of the once-revealed Word of God can one "prophesy" in the assembly. Deborah was the "general of the army" and not the worship leader. Huldah was a "prophetess" in that she faithfully preserved the writings of the Law as more "librarian" than preacher. She could read the law when it had been so distorted by the priests that the king thought it untrustworthy.
By analogy, the King of Kings would insist that we ignore the "songs and sermons" and dig out the almost-unused Bible as the only authority available to a modern "prophet."
Hannah, too, had that right: "she prayed and her lips moved but there was no sound." Anna, too, was a prophetess because she reminded everyone of Messiah which she had learned from Scripture.
Alexander Hislop defines the worship of Babylonia dominated after the flood by Nimrod. Nimrod dominated in part with a team of female musicians or prophetess.
A later use was by Laban as he first seduced Jacob into marrying the wrong woman with "wine, women, tabrets and harps" which proved that it was a secular party. Then when God told Jacob to "escape" from the Babylonian-like environment, Laban again wanted to deceive him:
Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me; and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth, and with songs, with tabret, and with harp? Genesis 31:27
Laban would have sent him away empty handed just as he seduced him to marry the wrong woman. But Rachel took his "gods" with her.
Abraham is the first prophet so named. In the days of Moses, Aaron his brother, is to be in the role of prophet to Moses rather than God. Exodus 6:29 ff.
Now when the LORD spoke to Moses in Egypt, he said to him, "I am the LORD. Tell Pharaoh king of Egypt everything I tell you." But Moses said to the LORD "Since I speak with faltering lips, why would Pharaoh listen to me?" Then the LORD said to Moses, "See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet." (Exodus 7:1 NIV)
The definition here is apparently that of a spokesperson because Moses had just objected that he was unskilled in speech. The definition implied here is that of a forthteller.
Thou shalt speak all that I command thee: and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of Israel out of his land. Exodus 7:2
Dabar (g1696) daw-bar'; a prim. root; perh. prop. to arrange; but used fig. (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue: - answer, appoint, bid, command, commune, declare, destroy, give, name, promise, pronounce, rehearse, say, speak, be spokesman, subdue, talk, teach, tell, think, use [entreaties], utter, * well, * work.
As a "prophet" Abraham could speak to God; as a "prophet" Aaron had no independant opinions to utter or mutter. Moses and Jesus Who was a "Prophet like Moses" spoke only what He heard from the Father (source) and Paul insisted that our "preaching one to another" be the The Word of Christ or Spirit.
Neither Moses, Jesus as "son," Paul or we have any independant voice or else we are not "prophesying in church." Singing human compositions and playing instruments is in many Old Testament references the antithesis of being a "prophet" in the true sense.
To do otherwise means that we claim superiority over Moses, Jesus and consequently God.
God gave Moses another song and commanded:
Now therefore write ye this song for you, and teach it the children of Israel: put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel. Deut 31:19
For when I shall have brought them into the land which I sware unto their fathers, that floweth with milk and honey; and they shall have eaten and filled themselves, and waxen fat;
then will they turn unto other gods, and serve them, and provoke me, and break my covenant. Deut 31:20
Moses therefore wrote this song the same day, and taught it the children of Israel. Deut 31:22
And Moses spake in the ears of all the congregation of Israel the words of this song, until they were ended. Deut 31:30KJV
And Moses recited the words of this song from beginning to end in the hearing of the whole assembly of Israel: Deut 31:30NIV
A "psalm" is written in metrical form to be easily memorized and repeated. There were not originally connected with instruments in most cases. The assembly was the synagogue or church in the wilderness. God outlawed instruments and "making a joyful noise before the Lord" during the congregational assembly (Nu 10:7)
Therefore, not even Moses was an "independant" prophet. If he had not written the song down this divine interchange would be lost. Moses then had the duty to teach it as written and "put it into their mouths." That is, when the son was sung later on it would still be God's prophetic, Divine witness against them. No human "composer" has had the authority to change what came directly from God to Moses, was written down, was taught to the people who in turn could speak it as a witness against themselves.
Pause for a Refreshing Look at Prophets and Prophesying
Before you get too deeply involved in believing that the word "prophet" or "prophetess" gives you the right to improvize your own Scripture (songs and sermons) and accompany them with instrumental music, you must not accept that as gospel. You must know the deep, dark background which cannot be gained by "assuming."
The Britannica Online notes that:
The nature of prophecy is twofold:
either inspired (by visions or revelatory auditions),
or acquired (by learning certain techniques). In many cases both aspects are present.
The goal of learning certain prophetic techniques is to reach an ecstatic state in which revelations can be received.
That state might be reached through the use of music, dancing, drums, violent bodily movement, and self-laceration.
[All music-induced "feelings" is a mild or radical form of ecstasy which, in its Corinthian form, was identified as madness, outside of oneself.]
The ecstatic prophet is regarded as being filled with the divine spirit, and in this state the deity speaks through him.
Ecstatic oracles, therefore, are generally delivered by the prophet in the first-person singular pronoun and are spoken in a short, rhythmic style (singing). (I say to you)
The functions of the prophet and priest occasionally overlap, for priests sometimes fulfill a prophetic function by uttering an oracle of a deity.
Such an oracle often serves as part of a liturgy, as when ministers or priests in modern Christian churches read scriptural texts that begin with the proclamation: "Thus says the Lord."
The priest, in this instance, fulfills the prophetic function of the cult.
In the Western world, Israelite prophecy is regarded as unique, for not only did it oppose institutionalized religion but it is understood as
having propagated an ethical religion emphasizing individual freedom,
a religion not dependent on mechanical ritual and legalism.
[Note: instrumental music was defined as the "work" added to singing. The musician begins early and devotes their life to the mechanics of the instrument. It is the most works-intensive effort used as a means to reach the prophetic state]
The condemnation of "prophesying" in Ezekiel was specificially directed to the women who, imitating the men, "stole words one from another" at their "forums" and then sold the silly stuff for a price.
"Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel who are now prophesying. Say to those who prophesy out of their own imagination: 'Hear the word of the LORD! Ezek 13:2
This is what the Sovereign LORD says: Woe to the foolish prophets who follow their own spirit (self-composed songs or incantations with instruments) and have seen nothing! Ezek 13:3
My hand will be against the prophets who see false visions and utter lying divinations. They will not belong to the council of my people or be listed in the records of the house of Israel, nor will they enter the land of Israel. Then you will know that I am the Sovereign LORD. Ezek 13:9
Prophet is defined by the next verse:
To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them. Is.8:20
But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him. Jn.11:10
Nothing can be properly called prophesying unless one has seen or heard it from the Lord, or is repeating the Word "as it has been delivered to you." Singing human compositions with instruments meets the tests of secular or even pagan prophesyomg. And "spirits" do steal through.
Not even Timothy had any right to compose his own songs (never sang as far as we know) or sermons. He could be a "prophet" only by obeying the command of Paul:
Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine. 1 Tim 4:13
Didaskalia (g1319) did-as-kal-ee'-ah; from 1320; instruction (the function or the information): - doctrine, learning, teaching.
The word exhortation used by Paul is:
Paraklesis (g3874) par-ak'-lay-sis; from 3870; imploration, hortation, solace: - comfort, consolation, exhortation, intreaty.
FOLLOW after charity, and desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy. 1 Cor 14:1
Note that there is no spiritual gift called "singing" or "playing a musical instrument" which Paul called "lifeless."
Warning against Pagan Prophesying:
For he that speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh not unto men, but unto God: for no man understandeth him; howbeit in the (his) spirit he speaketh mysteries. 1 Cor 14:2
In an approved sense, TONGUES in Corinth were the minor dialect of the travelers and Paul insisted that they speak the local LANGUAGE. There were five recognized languages an 70 minor dialects called tongues.
Therefore, Paul defined Christian prophesying:
But he that prophesieth (teaches) speaketh (preaches) unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort. 1 Co.14:3
In the "singing" passages Paul defines the resources as "Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs." This is then defined to the Ephesians as "Spirit" (Christ's Words, John 6:63) and "the Word of Christ" in Colossians.
The external method making it "prophesying" was to speak.
The internal effect was "singing and melody" in the heart and directed to God and not the admiring spectators.
The goal of Charles Dailey and Northwest College of the Bible is to "expand" the meaning of the word "prophet" to allow you to translate Paul in this way:
But he that prophesieth singeth and playeth upon an instrument unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort. 1 Co.14:3
That is not what Paul said: prophesying in Corinth like speaking in tongues was regulated for supernaturally inspired prophets or apostles: none existed in Corinth because history is clear that they never corrected the problems:
Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge. 1 Corinthians 14:29
If any thing be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace. 1 Corinthians 14: 30
For ye may all prophesy one by one, that all may learn, and all may be comforted. 1 Corinthians 14: 31
And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets. 1 Corinthians 14: 32
Why? For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints 1 Corinthians 14: 33 .
Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law. 1 Corinthians 14: 34
Why would one repudiate the words which were promised to Paul directly from the Spirit Who identified Himself as "Jesus of Nazareth" and grasp Miriam from her grave to give authority for women "prophesiers" in the church?
If you remember, when Miriam saw her skills as a prophetess -- meaning musician -- as proof that she was to speak FOR God, He silenced her with leprosy.
Speaking "mysteries" in one's own spirit was a distinctly Greek pagan term:
The "piping" of the "childish" clergy in Jerusalem was to enact the mysteries of Dionysus or Bacchus. The effect that as they piped you would sing and dance. This was the feminine or effeminate role they tried to force upon the Incarnate God of the Universe:
Strabo in Geography identified the mysteries: And on this account Plato, and even before his time the Pythagoreians, called philosophy music; and they say that the universe is constituted in accordance with harmony,
assuming that every form of music is the work of the gods. And in this sense, also, the Muses are goddesses, and Apollo is leader of the Muses, and poetry as a whole is laudatory of the gods.
And by the same course of reasoning they also attribute to music the upbuilding of morals, believing that everything which tends to correct the mind is close to the gods.
Now most of the Greeks assigned to Dionysus, Apollo, Hecate, the Muses, and above all to Demeter, everything of an orgiastic or Bacchic or choral nature, as well as the mystic element in initiations; and they give the name "Iacchus" not only to Dionysus but also to the leader-in-chief of the mysteries, who is the genius of Demeter.
And branch-bearing, choral dancing, and initiations are common elements in the worship of these gods.
As for the Muses and Apollo (Apollydon in Revelation 9), the Muses preside over the choruses, whereas Apollo presides both over these and the rites of divination.
But all educated men, and especially the musicians, are ministers of the Muses; and both these and those who have to do with divination (prophesying) are ministers of Apollo;
Apollo had his oracle just up the way from Corinth: "As the god of youth, manly beauty, music, and song, he represents the Greek mind at its best. He was the god of prophecy, with his oracle at Delphi."
Now Iamblichus (De Mysteries, III.ix) goes into the matter of the so-called Corybantic and Bacchic 'frenzies' produced by musical instruments in the Mysteries of Ceres and Bacchus; and in his Life of Pythagoras (xxv) he, further, tells us that:
'The whole Pythagoric school went through a course of musical training, both in harmony and touch, whereby, by means of appropriate chants, they beneficially converted the dispositions of the soul to contrary emotions.
"Aristotle tells us that it is the task of the initiate to suffer and to let himself be brought to a certain frame of mind.
He is not to seek to acquire knowledge and increased understanding.
The significance of ecstasy in the mysteries strikingly characterized by this statement.
The precise aim of orgies in the mysteries was to induce such a heightening of consciousness in a man that he would be receptive to the god who came to be united with him.
Such a person was then an enthusiast. Music was the most important element used to induce this condition. .. Aristotle explains that among the modes the Phrygian has the same power as the flute among instruments, for both are orgiastic and both heighten consciousness. This peculiar capability, which brought on religious ecstasy.. For that reason everything written in the Phrygian mode was. (Quasten, p 36-37)
"But perhaps nothing was more characteristic of the mystery religions than what they called ecstasy. Believers in the mystery religions sought to cultivate a magical, sensuous communion with the divine. They would do almost anything to get themselves into a semiconscious, hallucinatory, hypnotic, or orgiastic spell in which they believed they were sensually in contact with deity.
Some used wine to assist in the euphoric experience, as Paul implied in Ephesians 5:18. Whether from literal intoxication or emotional exhilaration, when worshipers fell into a state of euphoria, it was as if they had been drugged. They assumed they were in contact with God. (MacArthur, John, Charismatic Chaos, p. 164. Zondervan)
Here a "musical" writer repudiates the "prophesying" in churches such as Corinth, Ephesus and Colossae.
However, Paul did not sing but spake the true mysteries which no worship team could reveal:
Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect (mental and moral character): yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought: 1 Corinthians 2:6
But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: 1 Corinthians 2:7
Which none of the princes (principilities) of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. 1 Corinthians 2:8
Paul then defines God's Spirit by comparing it to the mind or spirit of a man. Unless Paul has been led astray by the Spirit, his comparison proves that
our spirit is to us what God's Spirit is to His total nature.
Our spirit is not a triplet brother; God's Spirit is not a third people of the Godhead:
For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 1 Corinthians 2:11
God's Spirit is that quality of God which makes Him know and be aware; our spirit is that quality which makes us know things of the human realm. Because our spirit is a quality of our being and not another person, God's Spirit is operative as the Mind of Christ.
The Holy Spirit as a "person" does not move into the literal body to make understanding the Word of Christ possible. The Spirit is that power which God put into all humans (saved or not) to make us able to listen to His Spirit which He gives through teaching. By hearing those words "we might know" what He has given to us:
Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. 1 Corinthians 2:12
Which things also we speak, not in the words which mans wisdom teacheth, but (words) which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 1 Corinthians 2:13
Because of the danger of demon worship in 1 Corinthians 10:20, the uncovered "prophesying" in 11:5, the women speaking in tongues in chapter 14, Paul's insistance that "the truth did not originate with them," his charge that the Corinthians were carnal, and because of our understanding of pagan "prophesying," we can understand that they were involved in pagan rituals where wine, women and song was sold as a way to get a revelation from the gods through purely legalistic body religion.
They all spoke in tongues but in Chapter 12 Paul insists: "but they don't all have the gift, do they?"
However, Paul insists that some people live only as natural brutes which cannot understand that given only to the spirit in mankind:
But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them,
because they are spiritually (figuratively) discerned. 1 Corinthians 2:14
When John received spiritual truth "he was in the spirit on the Lord's day." John could not have understood his vision unless he had been "worshipping in spirit" which means to "worship in the mind." Because John was not one of those to whom God spoke face-to-face like Moses, he understood God's will in his mind in the form of visions or mind-pictures.
Paul puts the final conclusion to his insistance that "Holy Spirit" was not a person who invaded their body while they were drunk or engaged in sex or charismatic (musical) "worship." Contrary to being able to "instruct" God or "speak to the gods" in a charismatic fit, only Paul had the Spirit which he defined as the Mind of Christ:
For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ. 1 Corinthians 2:16
This is not only positive teaching; it is negative teaching. It declares to the charismatic hold-overs in Corinth that God does not reveal His Word through singing, instrumental music, "getting drunk on wine" or any of the methods used outside of the church in Corinth.
Paul always separates the "WE" who are spiritual from the "YOU" who are carnal. Paul revealed the mysteries directly from Lord Jesus Christ Who appeared to Him as Spirit. The "you" in Corinth engaged in the 'mysteries' would just be seen as mad or insane -- a desirable end result of the musical ecstasy of Greek paganism.
It would have been kind to the musical people if Paul had used the word "singeth" rather than "speaketh." Singing as prophesying was primarily a woman's activity condemned by any understanding of Paul's Greek world.
To be a prophet in the modern sense one must still speak unto men. That is still the command of Paul in the "singing" passages: "Speak to one another, teach, preach" and the singing is left in the heart.
To be a prophet in the congregational "singing" sense, one must repeat "the Word of Christ" or "Spirit" and not sing out of their own spirit. (1 Cor. 14:2) He will just be "speaking into the air" (1 Cor. 14:9)
The gift which which was given to Timothy was "by prophecy" from Paul and the elders was instruction. They "prophesied" to Timothy by teaching them what Paul had by direct speaking from Jesus.
Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; continue in them: for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee. 1Ti.4:16
John Chrysostom defined what takes place in the "singing" passages to make it "prophesying."
"Let the word of Christ dwell in you"; that is, the teaching, the doctrines, the exhortation, wherein He says, that the present life is nothing, nor yet its good things.
If we know this, we shall yield to no hardships whatever. (Matt. vi. 25, &c) "Let it dwell in you," he saith, "richly," not simply dwell, but with great abundance. Hearken ye, as many as are worldly, and have the charge of wife and children;
how to you too he commits especially the reading of the Scriptures and that not to be done lightly, nor in any sort of way, but with much earnestness."
"But that this may be the case, the next immediate ordinance of the christian religion, namely, the reading, I mean the musing upon, or studying the Holy Scriptures; taking them up in their connexion, and meditating upon the subjects they propose to our consideration, with a fixed contemplation of the various and important objects which they present.
"This dutiful and religious use of the bible, (that most precious, sacred record of the wonderful works of God,
the only authentic source of all religious information,) is inseparably connected with, and indispensably necessary to, the blissful and all-important exercises of prayer and praise.
"Without this, those exercises must dwindle away to a trite form--must degenerate into a lifeless formality.
"It is from this dutiful and religious use of the divine word, that we derive the proper materials for those holy exercises. [Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs are all the inspired text]
Conclusion: Moses was a prophet because he repeated what God told him. He did not improvize like David. He spoke from God. Aaron was the same kind of prophet because he spoke exactly what Moses said but with more courage. We are false prophets if we speak or prophesy when we have not heard from God.
We still prophesy only by repeating what has been revealed to us. If we as the evangelist or "herald" of Lord Jesus Christ, open the message and tamper with it to add our own, "it might be so that" then we are a disloyal, treacherous "Ambassador" and, in the old times, would be worthy of death.
Next: Are Instruments to Praise God or aid singing modern sentimental poetry authorized by the long stretch that Miriam was a prophetess or inspired in the poetic sense and went out dancing and "making melody upon a tambourine?"
Now, you have the background to examine the next argument that prophet means "singer with instruments." And further that the "words" notwithstanding, this is authority for modern sowing of discord through the introduction of mechanical music.
Next we will examine another kind of prophet that will expand our Biblical definition. While Aaron has been called a prophet of Moses, Miriam is called a prophetess, a female prophet, in Exodus 15:20:
Then Miriam the prophetess, Aaron's sister, took a tambourine in her hand, and all the women followed her, with tambourines and dancing. Miriam sang to them: "Sing to the LORD, for he is highly exalted. The horse and its rider he has hurled into the sea." (Exodus 15 NIV)
Miriam's instruction to perhaps thousands of women that followed her was to sing and they all had tambourines.
- The word sing here must have meant to sing accompanied by the tambourines.
- She did not tell them to sing and play.
- Her definition of sing was not vocal only.
Miriam does not define the meaning of Hebrew words.
We know of no exception to the rule: when the instrument is included it is defined. For instance:
- Make melody upon a harp.
- Sing with a lyre.
The "song of the prostitute" king of Tyre as the agent of Lucifer was:
"Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Is.23:16
Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. Am.5:23
Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made; well: but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is that God that shall deliver you out of my hands? Da.3:15
Miriam did not "sing and make melody upon a Tambourine." Therefore, where God has not spoken we have no right to add a "perhaps."
Therefore, there is no basis for inserting the idea into the Scripture that Miriam meant "sing and make melody upon a cymbal." Before digging deeper we might quote the passage:
And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. Exodus 15:20
And Miriam answered them,
"Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. Exodus 15:21
There is no remote hint that Miriam who alone did the singing or commanded the singing was playing while two thousand cymbals were being clanged against one another.
In Numbers 10 it was lawful to "blow the trumpets and make a joyful noise" when going into battle or setting out on a march. It was even acceptable when calling the congregation into assembly. However, after the group was assembled for instruction it was unlawful to blow the trumpets or make a joyful noise (Numbers 10:7).
After the "church bell" had rung and the congregation assembled then everyone grew silent because that is the only way to hear the instructions.
Watch any old "Biblical" movie and you will see singing, dancing and playing tambourines and harps at the same time only in the scenes from Sodom and Gommorah. When you see David you will see David chant (never singing in the movies) a line, then pause, stroke across the strings of his harp and then quote another line. Some scholars believe that "Selah" is a term to denote a pause to think about the line of the poem.
If you want to try it, get a thousand women dancing, singing and beating on "sounding gongs and tinkling cymbals" and determine whether Charles Dailey preaches the form of "worship" which would be authorized by his premise that Miriam is the authority for modern choirs and instruments.
Miriam's instrument was not a "musical" instrument:
Toph (h8593) tofe; from 8608 contr.; a tambourine: - tabret, timbrel.
From the toph comes tambourine and Tophet which was once "the king's music grove" but became a symbol of hell itself.
This was not something for "congregational singing with instrumenta accompaniment." Furthermore, later in the temple it was not allowed. Miriam as a virtual princess of Egypt would have been a prophetess of Hathor. Her "instrument" would have been the sistrum (below). The later idolatry at Mount Sinai was a retreat back to Apis or Hathor worship as the symbol of Osiris.
After Israel's musical idolatry God assigned the Levites to keep the people away from the presence of God symbolized by the Tabernacle. The trumpet might be used for creating panic in the enemy during war, to call the people together or to to signal the marches. However, when the "congregation" has been assembled it was unlawful (Numbers 10:7) to blow the alarm which included "trumpets and loud rejoicing." Once, you have the church's attention with the "church bell" you don't play it during the sermon. Then why should you play the bell when the "one another" are speaking or "preaching" with the already-revealed text?
While there was no previous command to use either singing or instruments in the worship to God, Miriam's practice was the secular practices of the Hebrew people learned in Egypt. It is important, therefore, to notice that the instrument of Miriam --
"was a typical woman's instrument... Although it occurs in the Psalter and in religious hymns (Exod. 15; Jer. 31:4), it was not permitted in the temple. Its functions in the bible was restricted to secular or religious frolicking, cultic dances, or processions (e.g., II Sam. 6:5; I Chr. 13:8; Ps. 68:25-26). Its absence in the temple ritual was possibly due to its strong female symbolism, which always accompanied the tambourine, and which made its use so popular at all fertility rites." (The Int. Std. Bible Dict., p. 474).
"This membranophone, translated in the AV as 'timbrel' and 'tabret,' was not permitted in the Temple, although it was mentioned in the Psalter and in religious hymns." Harrison, Into to OT, p. 988).
The model Miriam used was probably the sistrum.
While miriam is not commended she is not here reprimanded. However, when the Israelites "rose up to play" we know that Aaron claimed that the golden calf just arose out of the molten gold. He further said:
And he received them at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. Exodus 32:4
And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and said, To morrow is a feast to the Lord. Exodus 32:5
And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play. Exodus 32:6
He claimed that the worship was for Jehovah but the ritual was the worship of the Golden Calf. Later, Miriam with Aaron somehow get the idea that they are prophets able to speak for God. However, Miriam got leprosy for her trouble. Aaron and his tribe of Levites got the job of keeping the people who were not "strangers" out of God's symbolic presence. This same "play" is connected in Judges 16:25 with the same "play" which David performed while "carrying" God to Jerusalem with sacrifices, dances and instrumental music. This was presumptions prophesying but Miriam and Aaron were not prophets.
The Britannica Online Members: Summoning, mediating, and expelling devices
In the form of magic or sacred words, singing, and music, sound plays or has played an important role in the worship of most religions. The same is true of light and of aromatic substances, such as oils, perfumes, and incense.
The importance of these elements has brought about the creation or adoption of specific objects with functions that often serve converging purposes in worship.
- In most cases they are used to draw the attention of the deity,
- to establish a connection with it,
- and to exorcise forces that are evil or harmful to the god and to men.
Because of the need to attract the deity's attention, the sound-producing instruments are usually percussive or shrill, rather than melodic, and drums, gongs, cymbals, bells, conchs, and sistrums (timbrels, or rattles) are the most common forms.
European antiquity knew many idiophones. Dancers' clappers, held pairwise in the hands of maenads (women participants in Dionysian rites) and other female dancers, often stressed the rhythm of accompanying auloi (the ancient Greek reed pipes). The time-beating foot clappers of chorus leaders, attached to the right foot like a sandal, were known in Greece as kroupezai, or kroupala, and adopted by Rome as the scabella.
Other idiophones included bells, cymbals, the unidentified echeion,
and an instrument simply called "the bronze" (chalkos), probably a metal percussion disk.
When the cult of Isis spread to Greece and Rome, her sistrum followed, always in the hands of a priest or--rarely--priestess. (See ritual.)
The sistrum, used in pre-Hellenistic Egypt in the worship of the goddesses Isis and Hathor and in Rome and Phoenicia, as well as among the Hebrews, is composed of a handle and frame with transverse metal rods and mobile disks.
Producing a sharp ringing sound,
it was regarded as particularly sacred and was carried to the temple by women of high rank.
We don't have enough information to blame Miriam, the "play" for the restoration of musical worship of Apis at Mount Sinai as the "because of transgression" which brought the Law of Moses down on the heads of Israel. Later, Miriam would presume to be a revealing prophetess as she may have considered herself in the Egyptian courts.
And they said, Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us? And the Lord heard it. Numbers 12:2
My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all mine house. Numbers 12:7
With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the Lord shall he behold: wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against my servant Moses? Numbers 12:8
And the anger of the Lord was kindled against them; and he departed. Numbers 12:9
And the cloud departed from off the tabernacle; and, behold, Miriam became leprous, white as snow: and Aaron looked upon Miriam, and, behold, she was leprous. Numbers 12:10
No. Miriam was not a revealing prophet and anyone who claims their songs are inspired in the true sense will get spiritual leprosy because God will hear it.
What really happened is in two phases:
Miriam led the wome out (to escape) and they all went forth dancing and beating on something like a tin pan or sistrum (right).
Next, Miriam answered. That is she began to respond or speak or to give an account. (The Hebrew anah h6030).
And Miriam answered them, "Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea." Exodus 15:21KJV
This may mean that Miriam repeated the song spoken by Moses but we have only the one line recorded. If so, she would have silenced the cymbals when the women had been called out.
Miriam did not sing because she was telling the women what to go tell everyone what had happened because the word "sing" means, "through the idea of strolling minstrelsy." In Romans 15 when Paul preached to the Gentiles it was in fact Christ Singing to the Gentiles.
Shiyr (h7891) sheer; or (the orig. form) 7788 (1 Sam. 18:6), shoor; a prim. root [rather ident. with 7788 through the idea of strolling minstrelsy]; to sing: - behold [by mistake for 7788], sing (-er, - ing man, -ing woman).
The word "prophesy" does not include instruments unless specified. This word "sing" does not include instruments. When instruments are meant they are clearly defined:
And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine,
that the women came out of all cities of Israel,
singing and dancing, to meet king Saul,
with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick. 1 Samuel 18:6
This was not "congregational singing with instrumental music."
There is no hint that the dancing and clanging on pieces of metal continued while Miriam was "answering" the command of Moses and giving the imperative to "go sing" and even telling them what to say: "Pharaoh is defeated, God has won the victory." This was not congregational worship. If we have a war then it may be appropriate to be a Paul Revere and go through the town, clanging a brass bell and shouting: "The British are coming." After all, evangelists are "heralds" and not imitations of Miriam and the women musicians. A herald who does not deliver the message "as it has been delivered" would have been put to death in the civil realm. Ambassadors do not compose their own poetic version of the president's message!
If Moses is taking up the flow of the narrative that was interrupted by the great inspired song of victory beginning in Exodus 15:1, then he is saying to us in verses 19 and 20 that his sister Miriam was a prophetess and wrote the song.
No. The order is reversed: Moses spake (preached) the message and Miriam answered or repeated it. The Scripture is very clear. If Moses had wanted to credit it to Miriam he would have. God specificially denies later on that Miriam speaks for Him.
Moses has not been interrupted because the men spake the message so that it could be remembered and carried out to the perhaps 3 million people. "Singing" or chanting was a common way to memorize a message and then go, like an evangelist, into all the camp to teach the message. This, to the Israelites, was a gospel.
THEN sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord,
and spake, saying,
I will sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. Exodus 15:1
Moses went out and spake the song. Moses would not try to get the people to understand the Words by playing an instrument. The word "spake" does not include the idea of singing:
Amar (h559) aw-mar'; a prim. root; to say, declare, demand, publish, report, require, say, speak..
This is quite identical to the "preaching" command in Ephesians 5 and Colossians 3.
Speaking (preaching) to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; Eph 5:19
In the Greek world which influenced Hebrew Music "singing" was always a secular activity while speaking ot chanting was a religious activity. Why? Because as Moses and Paul make clear, the purpose was not to "worship" but to instruct: "Teach and Admonish" not "worship or praise."
We learn here that Miriam was a prophetess whether she wrote the song or not, that she led a very large group in singing using timbrels or a tambourine. Our job description of a prophet or prophetess needs to expand to include this case. God's spokesperson may be a forthteller like Aaron was for Moses or may be an inspired musical person, using their vocal and instrumental skills to praise God before others.
"It should be noted, however, that women like Miriam (Exod. 15:20), Deborah (Judges 4:4) and Hulda (2 Ki. 22:14) were not credited with the seer's insight into the future, but were called 'prophetesses' because of the poetical inspiration of their speech." (Int. Std. Bible Ency., Prophetess, p. 2467).
This was "poetic" inspiration and not the power to speak from God. This is proven later on with a very explicit example.
If Miriam led the women in singing with instrumental music it was strictly among the women as they went out on their own.
But we have noted from the text that Miriam did not lead the women in "singing using timbrels or a tambourine."
They went out dancing with "clanging brass and tinkling cymbals." This was to "sound an alarm" and not to worship.
Then Miriam did the "speaking" or "answering." She, like Moses, spoke.
Her command was to "sing" or go out as a minstrel, travel about and repeat the story.
At best this was the common women's rejoicing after military victory. Probably it was like a modern "radio" system of spreading the news.
If Miriam composed her own version then she was superior to Moses, Jesus and Paul. Just by pretending to have that power Miriam was struck with leprosy.
Miriam was not condemned for repeating what had already been revealed by Moses. Later, when she led Aaron astray and claimed to be inspired or speak for God as a prophet, God judged both. Aaron and Miriam violated the fundamental principle which not even Jesus violated.
"In the second place, it was Miriam and the women who used instruments of music on the occasion: 'And Miriam, the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went after her with timbrels and with dances." (Girardeau, p. 33).
This would be a terrible blight on Miriam if we do not understand that she was telling the women to "go tell it on the mountain." Women can still do that. But when the church bell has rung and the people are listening don't keep on ringing the bell while you speak.
We have collected a large ammount of material as background to Miriam as a prophetess meaning that "she was the wife of a prophet" or "she was a poetess."
She did not reveal God's will and got leprosy just for claiming the authority.
Later, music got the Israelites cursed with the Law because they "rose up to play." That is, they repeated the worship of Apis they had practiced in Egypt.
Play: "The Hebrew verb means to dance to music, vocal and instrumental. See Judges 19:2, 1 Chron. 13:8)" (Cook). "This was playing before the ark, as it slowly made progress; that is, there were evolutions and marching figures and religious dances" (Professor Beecher, quoted in Peloubet's Selects Notes, 1903, p. 270).
The History of Heredotus, Chapter Three reads:
About the time when Cambyses arrived at Memphis, Apis appeared to the Egyptians. Now Apis is the god whom the Greeks call Epaphus. As soon as he appeared, straightway all the Egyptians arrayed themselves in their gayest garments, and fell to feasting and jollity: which when Cambyses saw, making sure that these rejoicings were on account of his own ill success, he called before him the officers who had charge of Memphis, and demanded of them-
"Why, when he was in Memphis before, the Egyptians had done nothing of this kind, but waited until now, when he had returned with the loss of so many of his troops?" The officers made answer,
"That one of their gods had appeared to them, a god who at long intervals of time had been accustomed to show himself in Egypt-
and that always on his appearance the whole of Egypt feasted and kept jubilee."
Based upon the meaning of the word "play" and other examples, their mocking always included musical instruments. In their minds they could honor another god with music only by mocking or insulting the True God Who did not respond to their immediate wants. The musical mocking which caused Israel to fail as they worshiped Apis who was merged with Osiris and is explained in ancient literature. This clearly involved musical instruments.
One model of the Egyptian "play" --The frescoes of Herculaneum illustrate a religious play in the cult of Isis. In front of the temple portal stands a priest who holds the sacred urn in his covered hands. At his right is a figure, probably a priestess. With her right hand she shakes a sistrum, or rattle.. The sacrifice is accompanied by a flutest and to the right and left of the steps to the temple the worshipers of Isis are seen. Some rattle the sistra and others raise their right hands.
A black man is leading the action with the staff in his right hand..
In another fresco a black man is dancing in front of the temple and there is a smaller woman striking the cymbles.
Another black priest of Isis shakes a sistrum and a woman is playing the tambourine.
A circle is made of the worshipers. The dancing black man probably represents Osiris. "Whatever the case may be, this scene concerns the mysteries of Isis, in which music played an important role. (Quasten, Johannes, Music and Worship in Pagan and Christian Antiquity, p. 41)
And Smith's Bible Dictionary notes of true instrumental music and singing:
"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it;
but the employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous,
is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Music, p. 589).
Smith notes that Miriam leading the women was not a religious worship.
"And the people celebrated this feast with burnt-offerings and thank-offerings, with eating and drinking, i.e. with sacrificial meals and sports, or with loud rejoicing, shouting, antiphonal songs, and dances, in the same manner in which the Egyptians celebrated their feast of Apis (Herod. 2, 60, and 3, 27)." (Keil and Delitzsch, Vol. II, p. 222).
"The religious ecstasy induced by music expressed itself either in an outburst of emotions, thus giving rise to religious catharsis, or in a transfer to the state of prophecy. In this way music became an important factor in divination. In the mysteries of the Magna Mater this relationship between music and divination is particularyl clear.
Through the din of tambourines, cymbals and flutes
the ecstatic worshiper of the goddess prophesied the future to those present.
"From time immorial music had been especially valued in the service of prophecy. Pliny the Elder gives us a report of the cult of Apis:
"In Egypt an ox is honored in place of the god. He is called Apis and he lives in isolation. If he ever goes among the people he stalks along while the lictors make way for him and throngs of boys accompany him, singing songs in his honor. He appears to understand what is happening and seems to wish to be adored. The throngs [of boys] sudddenly become inspired and prophesy the future. (Pliny, Natural History)
Consequently Apollo (Apollyon or Abbadon) was god of prophets and musicians and Pan was god of medicine, music and divination.
"Here singing served as a means of inducing ecstatic prophecy (speaking in tongues).
Thus the essential relationship between music and prophecy can be clearly seen.
This relationship also explains why the expression for "making music" and "prophesying" was often identical in the ancient tongues. origen contra celsum 8.67.
The Hebrew word Naba signifies not only "to prophesy" but also "to make music." (Quasten, Johannes, Music and Worship in Pagan and Christian Antiquity, p. 39)
The Eclipse of the Patriarchal Period -- Musicians Keeping the Worshiper Out of God's Presence
Abraham was a "Patriarch" who until Mount Sinai and the curse brought down by musical "play" fathered the "first born sons" or "most favored sons." He was the one through whom God spoke. There apparently was no revelation to replace this system until the sin at Mount Sinai.
After the musical rejection of The Book of The Covenant at Sinai the Levites were "hired" and redeemed to replace the first-born son and to keep the people, now called "strangers," out of God's symbolic presence.
Not until the sacrifice of Christ can believers "come boldly before the throne of grace."
There was no music in the most Holy Place but only silence.
There was room only for God and the believer who is now virtual high priest.
There is no room in Christianity for mediating Levitical Musicians.
Robert Jamieson notes that the "people" were excluded from the Tabernacle as they were later from the temple:
Numbers 2:47-54. But the Levites . . .were not numbered among them--They were obliged to keep a register of their own. They were consecrated to the priestly office,
which in all countries has been exempted customarily, and in Israel by the express authority of God, from military service.
The custody of the things devoted to the divine service was assigned to them so exclusively, that
"no stranger"--that is, no person, not even an Israelite of any other tribe, was allowed, under penalty of death, to approach these [Nu 16:40].
Hence they encamped round the tabernacle in order that there should be no manifestation of the divine displeasure among the people.
Thus the numbering of the people was subservient to the separation of the Levites from those Israelites who were fit for military service,
and to the practical introduction of the law respecting the first-born,
for whom the tribe of Levi became a substitute [Ex 13:2 Nu 3:12].
Numbers 3:5-10. Bring the tribe of Levi near--The Hebrew word "bring near" is a sacrificial term, denoting the presentation of an offering to God; and the use of the word, therefore, in connection with the Levites,
signifies that they were devoted as an offering to the sanctuary, no longer to be employed in any common offices.
They were subordinate to the priests, who alone enjoyed the privilege of entering the holy place; [this means that they cannot accompany us into the Most Holy Place as we offer the sacrifice of our lips]
but they were employed in discharging many of the humbler duties which belonged to the sanctuary, as well as in various offices of great utility and importance to the religion and morals of the people. Commentary by ROBERT JAMIESON
Everyone not of the tribe of Levi (priests or Levites and others) was a stranger and no longer members of God's Covenant family:
To be a memorial unto the children of Israel, that no stranger, which is not of the seed of Aaron, come near to offer incense before the Lord; that he be not as Korah, and as his company: as the Lord said to him by the hand of Moses. Numbers 16:40
This verse narrows those who might "come boldly before the throne" of God down to the descendants of Aaron. This means that when the later Levites went beyond servants and took on virtual priestly duties in the musical (really loud sound) service, they violated the unalterable Law of Moses. For this Ezekiel's "Idealized Temple" accuses them of leading Israel astray and demotes them back to servants.
Josepheus also notes that this usurpation of authority by the Levites helped bring Israel to destruction. Furthermore, he warned that the Levites attempt to do it again by promising "honor" to the civil authorities would destroy Israel and Jerusalem again.
Numbers 18: 2-7. thy brethren also of the tribe of Levi--The departments of the sacred office, to be filled respectively by the priests and Levites, are here assigned to each.
To the priests was committed the charge of the sanctuary and the altar,
while the Levites were to take care of everything else about the tabernacle. The Levites were to attend the priests as servants--
bestowed on them as "gifts" to aid in the service of the tabernacle--
while the high and dignified office of the priesthood was a "service of gift."
"A stranger," that is, one, neither a priest nor a Levite, who should intrude into any departments of the sacred office, should incur the penalty of death. ROBERT JAMIESON
Conclusion: No Gentile and no person not of the tribe of Aaron could be involved in the ritual sacrifices which "were added because of transgression." Indeed, this tribe "carried the burden" of sacrificing for the nation and no believer given "rest" by Lord Jesus should lust to restore the burden of a law imposed because of musical idolatry.
Unless one is a Kohan able to trace their blood line back to Aaron of the tribe of Levi nothing in the Law of Moses gives an American Gentile the authority to keep the "people" as strangers away from "coming boldly before the throne of God."
A similar case is Deborah in Judges 4:4 where we learn that she had the dual roles of a prophetess and a judge in Israel. Her inspiration is clearly seen in the inspired song that she sang with Barak that occupies chapter five of Judges. Deborah, like Miriam before her, was inspired to write songs of praise to God. We will note that in Judges 5:3, she directs her song to the neighboring nations with these words:
Hear this, you kings! Listen, you rulers! I will sing to the LORD I will sing; I will make music to the LORD the God of Israel. (Judges 5:3 NIV)
The word translated music is the Hebrew word zamar. She is inspired to make music to Jehovah. This is the first occurrence of zamar in the Scriptures.
The version "Jesus read" reads:
Hear, ye kings, and hearken, rulers; I will sing to the Lord, it is I, I will sing a psalm to the Lord the God of Israel. Judges 5:3LXX
Psalmos means a statement set to meter.
Psalmos (g5568) psal-mos'; from 5567; a set piece of music, i.e. a sacred ode (accompanied with the voice, harp or other instrument; a "psalm"); collect. the book of the Psalms: - psalm. Comp. 5603 (an ode).
Proponents of musical rituals insist that a "psalmos" necessarily includes a mechanical instrument. However, look again at the definition from Strong's even though scholarship denies that it included instruments at the time in Koine:
- A sacred (inspired) ode
- Accompanied by the
- or other Instrument
- Paul specified the human voice an heart and therefore excluded mechanical devices.
The Britannica notes that:
"Music, like the word, also may have symbolic meaning. The basic elements out of which musical symbolism is built are sounds, tones, melodies, harmonies,
and the various musical instruments,
among which is the human voice
The word "zamar" may or may not include instruments. Apparently, many translators use the word "sing" rather than "play an instrument" because no instrument is named. Furthermore, the speaking externally is to the kings but the "singing" is to the Lord:
THEN sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day, saying (declaring), Judges 5:1
Praise ye the Lord for the avenging of Israel, when the people willingly offered themselves. Judges 5:2
Hear, O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes;
I, even I, will sing unto the Lord; I will sing praise to the Lord God of Israel. Judges 5:3KJV
The Holy Spirit is extremely bright and when an praising with an instrument is intended it is defined. However, as far as I can determine the church Fathers understanding that the Psalms are poetic take the instruments to be poetic or allegorical. Furthermore, some of the literal instruments could not be taken into the temple. Psalm 71 defines the literal meaning of the "Psaltery" as "thy truth."
- I will also praise thee with the psaltery,
- even thy truth, O my God:
- unto thee will I sing with the harp,
- O thou Holy One of Israel. Ps.71:22
Notice that Deborah's song continues to be poetic:
Lord, when thou wentest out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens dropped, the clouds also dropped water. Judges 5:4
The mountains melted from before the Lord, even that Sinai from before the Lord God of Israel. Judges 5:5
In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, the highways were unoccupied, and the travellers walked through byways. Judges 5:6
The inhabitants of the villages ceased, they ceased in Israel, until that I Deborah arose, that I arose a mother in Israel. Judges 5:7
A similar word was used earlier:
And his brothers name was Jubal (trumpet, jubilee): he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. Genesis 4:21
Taphas (h8610) taw-fas'; a prim. root; to manipulate, i. e. seize; chiefly to capture, wield; spec. to overlay; fig. to use unwarrantably: - catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, * surely, surprise, take.
The word is related to "the king's music grove" which became symbolic of hell itself:
Topheth (h8611) to'-feth; from the base of 8608; a smiting, i. e. (fig.) contempt: - tabret.
This was a warrior's song which was a boasting song. Here, the NIV supports the "musical" position without authority:
the voice of the singers [e] at the watering places. They recite the righteous acts of the LORD, the righteous acts of his warriors [f] in Israel. "Then the people of the LORD went down to the city gates. Judges 5:11NIV
- e11 Or 'archers'; the meaning of the Hebrew for this word is uncertain.
- f11 Or 'villagers'
The reciting was not "in church" but at the oasis probably by the warriors:
They that are delivered from the noise of archers in the places of drawing water, there shall they rehearse the righteous acts of the Lord, even the righteous acts toward the inhabitants of his villages in Israel: then shall the people of the Lord go down to the gates. Judges 5:11KJV
Awake, awake, Deborah: awake, awake, utter (speak) a song: arise, Barak, and lead thy captivity captive, thou son of Abinoam. Judges 5:12
Recite or rehearse is the Hebrew:
Tanah (h8567) taw-naw'; a prim. root [rather ident. with 8566 through the idea of attributing honor]; to ascribe (praise), i. e. celebrate, commemorate: - lament, rehearse.
The men are pleading with Deborah to lead them into military battle because they rejected the Word of God. This is not remotely connected with worshiping God in the Christian sense.
This is consistent that the prophesying Levites under the "King and the Commanders of the army." They had been military musicians and their "playing" was to signal or telegraph the movements of the army. Deborah did not lead congregational singing with instrumental accompaniment. The Dead Sea Scrolls War Rules defines how the Levitical "music" was instruments of signalling as Paul warned about in First Corinthians, Chapter 14.
Conclusion: The story of Abraham within its historical context has God removing him from a civil-state (later reproduced in Jerusalem) which used music to dominate the people and drive them (like the overseers at the Temple in Jerusalem) into slavery. We know exactly what the nature of this worship was and music was one of the MEs or powers given by the supreme "god" to Ishtar along with sexual perversion. We also know because it will be the dominate pattern in the end-times according to Revelation 18.
The story of Miriam is the common story of women who danced and clanged brass or other metal to get attention. Miriam "answered" the speaking of Moses and did not "sing." The direct command of Miriam was for the women to "sing" or go out repeating the story. This would be sing-song repetition or chanting and not like our singing with instruments which destroys the "instructional" role.
She was a "Prophetess" only to the extent that she repeated the "thus saith the Lord" revealed only to Moses.
Deborah was a military leader who chided the "princes" for not taking the lead. There is no hint of instruments in her song. However, when it was all over:
AND the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord: and the Lord delivered them into the hand of Midian seven years. Judges 6:1
To use Deborah as authority for instrumental music in worship is to confess to the universal understanding: people are not made more spiritual by any form of music unless it is "speaking to teach and admonish" using "the Word of Christ."
If one wants to join the army band and lead the troups then there is no problem. If one aspires to be a Deborah and lead the army then our society makes it possible for women to be general officers. However, none of this has to do with Israelite worship of the "people's congregation" of "strangers" who never worshiped congregational with instrumenta accompaniment. Nor does it apply to the synagogue which had no praise service. Nor does it have to do with any of the Biblical or historical non-catholic churches.
A modern writer agrees:
"At a time when there is a rising protest against monologous and therefore sometimes monotonous 'one man ministeries' in the churches, and when it is complained increasingly that the preacher is one of the few remaining public figures whose formal remarks allow no public interrogation or discussion (even Presidents are subjected now to the discipline of public interview), it is perhaps in order for the churches to look here in Corinthiasn to their earliest structure (including interrogation and challenge)... in place of the often dull and unprofitable responsive readings before it
and of some of the singing which seems to be often, at the conscious or mental level at least,
low level glosolalia with instrumental accompaniment." (Fredreck Dale Bruner, A Theology of the Holy Spirit, p. 300)
Modern praise teams singing their own compositions and the use of mechanical instruments is "prophesying" in the condemned sense of pagan speaking in tongues.
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