Danny Corbitt and Matt Dabbs Psallo

7.01.13 Gender Inclusive and Egalitarian  Churches of Christ: Gender-focused churches are not related to the Apostolic teaching nor to the historic Church of Christ. To say that Scripture from Genesis to Revelation and the danger of Mother Goddess worship has always and has now NEUTERED many churches of Christ so that their performance preaching and music calls forth a lot of ridicule.  They have to say that all of the Scriptures lie and simply did not understand OUR CULTURE.  At the same time they twist the Scriptures to say that what Paul outlawed did not prevent what THEY want to impose. This normally happens after a senior preacher has usurped all authority, intimidated the elders, fired the vocational ministers and HIRED female ministers.  Christ in Isaiah 3 defined this time perfectly where the women and BOYS or the effeminate (or worse) rule over you. Men have already violated the direct command to PREACH the Word by READING the Word for Comfort and Doctrine.

1Timothy 2:12 But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.

, means silent and not just VOCAL while being ORDERLY.  Men have NO AUTHORITY to transmit to women to TEACH in the self-referenced or authentia authority form.keep silence, used by Hom. only in imper. siga, hush! be still! I 2. metaph. of things, “sigōn d' olethros kai mega phōnount' . . amathuneiA.Eu.935 (anap.); “surigges ou sigōsinId.Supp.181; “

The Prophetic Type for the BURDEN or ALARM the enemies of  Messiah would bring
Psalms 25:2 O my God, I trust in thee: let me not be ashamed, let not mine enemies triumph over me.
Psalms 41:11 By this I know that thou favourest me, because mine enemy doth not triumph over me.

gaudebit    carmine (with delectari iambis),
carmen a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumental   “carmine vocali clarus citharāque
Apollinem) concordant carmina nervis,citharae liquidum carmen,” “lyrae carmen,” “canere miserabile carmen
I.  the production of melodious sound, a musical utterance or expression, either with voice or instrument; hence, song, singing, playing, music (while carmen is prop. the contents or substance of the song,
B. An incantation, charm, magic song, etc.: cantusque artesque magorum. Ov. M. 7, 195;

, āvi, ātum, 1,
I.v. intens. a. [delicio].
I. To allure from the right path, to entice away, to seduce (only ante-class.): me Apollo ipse delectat, ductat DelphicusII to delight, sc. by attracting, alluring; to please, charm, amuseiambis (with gaudere carmine)
cum Musis delectari,me magis de Dionysio delectat
Mousa  A.Olumpiades M., Dios aigiokhoio thugateres
II. mousa, as Appellat., music, song, “m. stugeraA.Eu.308 (anap.); “euphamosId.Supp.695 (lyr.); “kanakhan . . theias antiluron mousas” “Aiakō moisan pherein[Burden]
The Mark of Apollo (Abaddon, Apolllyon) at Mount Sinai
lī^quĭdus ,
2. Esp. of sounds.

The command SILENCES:  phōn-eō , (phōnē) Anaxarch.1: abs., cry aloud, as in joy, S.Tr.202; of a singer, “aoidos . . aiola phōneōnTheoc.16.44:—Pass., ta phōnēthenta sounds or words uttered, Pl.Sph. 262c, Ti.72a, cf. Longin.39.4.
of a musical instrument, sound, E.Or.146 (lyr.); of sounds, hēdu phōnein sound sweetly, Plu.2.1021b; but brontē ph. it has a voice, is significant, X.Ap.12.

The command SILENCES:   surigx , iggos, , A.shepherd's pipe, Panspipe, “aulōn suriggōn t' enopēIl.10.13; “nomēes terpomenoi surigxi18.526; “suriggōn enopēh.Merc.512; “hupo ligurōn suriggōn hiesan audēnHes.Sc.278; “ou molpan suriggos ekhōnS.Ph.213 (lyr.); kalaminē s. Ar.Fr.719; “kat' agrous tois nomeusi surigx an tis eiēPl.R.399d.
Both Eve and Miriam are the examples FROM THE LAW
Theophilus of Autolycus II. XXVIII
And Adam having been cast out of Paradise, in this condition knew Eve his wife, whom God had formed into a wife for him out of his rib. And this He did, not as if He were unable to make his wife separately, but God foreknew that man would call upon a number of gods. And having this prescience, and knowing that through the serpent error would introduce a number of gods which had no existence,... This Eve, on account of her having been in the beginning deceived by the serpent, and become the author of sin, the wicked demon, who also is called Satan, who then spoke to her through the serpent, and who works even to this day in those men that are possessed by him, invokes as Eve.58 And he is called "demon" and "dragon," on account of his [apodedrake/nai] revolting from God. For at first he was an angel. And concerning his history there is a great deal to be said; wherefore I at present omit the relation of it, for I have also given an account of him in another place.

58 Referring to the bacchanalian orgies in which " Eva " was shouted, and which the Fathers professed to believe was an unintentional invocation of Eve, the authoress of all sin.

The word "abomination" is also key to understanding the context. In Hebrew, the word "to 'evah," (abomination) is almost invariably linked to idolatry. In the passages from which both verses are taken, God tells Moses to tell the people not to follow the idolatrous practices of the people around them, people who sacrificed their children to Molech, or who masturbated into the fire to offer their semen to Molech, for example. Chapter 20 starts off with the same warning.

"To 'evah" also means "something which is ritually unclean,"

4.09.13 See PSALLO as the MARK of everything that is destructive and divisive. It is never used by itself to ever say anything about Instrumental Music.

See Matt Dabbs, Kingdom Living for "Ripening Issues in the Church of Christ -- Instrumental Music.

Danny Corbitt Refuting Everett Ferguson Psallo, Psalmos, Psalmus, Psalma

Danny Corbitt Justin Martyr Instrumental Music

Lynn Anderson The Beginning of Musical Idolatry

John T. Willis 2. "Sing" is vocal; "make melody" is instrumental. Psalms 33:2-3; 144:9; 149:1, 3 make this crystal clear. Amos 5:23 further verifies this reality.  People forget that God turned Israel over to worship the starry host because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. The Levites were under the KING and the COMMANDERS of the army: they made war and not worship. We will examine these passages in context.

They are mortally ignorant that Moses was commanded how to subdivide the tribes down to groups of families as small as ten. The leaders were to READ and REHEARSE the written word or as delivered from Moses.

Hab 2:18 What profiteth the graven image that the maker thereof hath graven it; the molten image,
        and a teacher of lies,
        that the maker of his work trusteth therein, to make dumb idols?

Hab 2: 19 Woe unto him that saith to the wood,
        Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach!
        Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver,
        and there is no breath at all in the midst of it.

Hab 2: 20 But the LORD is in his holy temple let all the earth keep silence before him

The command is to SPEAK the ODES

-lexis , eōs, h(, (legō B) A. speech, OPPOSITE. ōdē, Pl.Lg.816d; l. ē praxis speech or action, Id.R.396c; ho tropos tēs l. ib.400d; ta lexei dēloumena orders given by word of mouth,

-ōdē , , contr. for aoidē,
en tais ōdais kai melesinR.399c, cf. 398c; OPPOSITE. lexis,

Paul said:                Speak
"that which is written for our learning" or the Word of Christ.
But, as Antithesis:
Ode and Psallo in the heart or SILENTLY.

Paul said: 1Corinthians 14:6 Now, brethren, if I come unto you speaking with tongues,
        what shall I profit you, except I shall speak to you either by revelation, or by knowledge,
        or by prophesying, or by doctrine?
But, as Antithesis:1Corinthians 14:28 But if there be no interpreter,
        let him keep silence in the church; and let him speak to himself, and to God.

Paul Commanded:
Men and Women are to be SILENT
1Timothy 2:2 For kings, and for all that are in authority;
        that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.
1Timothy 2:11 Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection.

So that:

1Timothy 2:4 Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.
1Timothy 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

Women who teach has the same meaning as Men who teach or preach. The pattern was established for the Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness and was exampled by Jesus and commanded by Paul and practiced by the historic Church of Christ.
Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time hath
        in every city them that PREACH him,
        being READ in the synagogues every sabbath [rest] day.

Neather male nor female have ANYTHING to teach: The elders are to teach that WHICH HAS BEEN TAUGHT.
Fables are myths from MUO [to shut the mouth: music forces the lambs to be silent before the slaughter]
Muthos   2. fiction (OPPOSITE. logos, historic truth) embroidered lies Poikilos 2. of Art, p. humnos a song of changeful strain or full of diverse art, Pi.O.6.87; “poikilon kitharizōnId.N.4.14; “dedaidalmenoi pseudesi poikilois muthoiId.O.1.29; of style, “lexis poiētikōtera kai p.Isoc.15.47 (Comp.); “skhēmatismoiD.H.Is.3.
Plat. Rep. 3.396a and in other ways sinning against themselves and others in word and deed after the fashion of such men. And I take it they must not form the habit of likening themselves to madmen either in words nor yet in deeds. For while knowledge they must have both of mad and bad men and women, they must do and imitate nothing of this kind.” “Most true,” he said. “What of this?” I said, “—are they to imitate smiths and other craftsmen or the rowers of triremes and those who call the time to them or other things

Plat. Rep. 3.396b
How could they,” he said, “since it will be forbidden them even to pay any attention to such things?” “Well, then, neighing horses and lowing bulls, and the noise of rivers and the roar of the sea and the thunder and everything of that kind—will they imitate these?
        “Nay, they have been forbidden,” he said, “to be mad or liken themselves to madmen.”
         “If, then, I understand your meaning,” said I, “there is a form of diction and narrative in which
For this rejection of violent realism Cf. Laws 669 C-D. Plato describes exactly what Verhaeren's admirers approve: “often in his rhythm can be heard the beat of hammers, the hard, edged, regular whizzing of wheels, the whirring of looms, the hissing of locomotives; often the wild, restless tumult of the streets, the humming and rumbling of dense masses of people.”

. See on mimeisthai 395 D. hippous -- brontas. The reference is probably to stage machinery and musical effects etc. in dramatic poetry generally, as well as in the later and degenerate form of the dithyramb (see on 394 C). Cf. (with Nettleship Lect. and Rem. II p. 105) Laws 669 C ff. and Ar. Plut. 290 ff. The bronteion and keraunoskopeion for producing thunder and lightning were familiar enough (Müller Gr. Bühnenalt. p. 157 note 2). It is clear, as Nettleship remarks, that “Plato felt strongly that Greek literature and music were declining” in his days: see Laws 659 A ff., 700 A ff., 797 A ff

Because they CHOOSE to be ignorant they thought that silence gave them permission to rise up against God and PLAY. That was vocal and instrumental rejoicing.

For that offense, the Levites jumped at the right to execute 3,000 of their brethren.  God slapped them with The book of The law and sentenced to to captivity and death BEYOND BABYLON.

The Spirit OF Christ ordained the Qahal, synagogue, Ekklesia or Church of Christ (the Rock) in the wilderness. This was for reading only an excluded vocal or instrumental rejoicing or what we jokingly call preaching.

See the Synagogue which they YOUTH ministers were deliberately kept ignorant of.

John Calvin as the roots of the Churches of Christ also defined the Synagogue

John Calvin called for a Restoration of the Church of Christ

Matt gave  proof texts and I answered and he said I did not answer: here is one

You object that psallo never means to make melody, yet it is so translated in Eph 5:19 & Col 3:16. In Psalm 27:6; 57:7; 108:1 & 147:7, the LXX has psallo for zamar. In each of these, the ESV translates zamar as <make melody, while the KJV translates it as sing praise or as give praise. Also in Psalm 98:5-6, the Psalmist uses zamar (psallo in the LXX) to say “sing praises to the Lord with the lyre, with the lyre and the sound of melody” (ESV) – KJV here has “the voice of a psalm” at the end of the verse. The next verse brings in trumpets and horns to “make a joyful noise before the King, the Lord!”

According to the Britannica and other sources, "Melody as tunefulness belongs to the 19th century." Then the melody is sung while the other 3 groups sing 3 different sets of words to 3 different tunes at 3 different times. Certainly seems like a Strong Delusion when the command is to SPEAK: you only sing to a GODDESS and never to a patriarchal god.

Psallo means to PLUCK but not really play unless you are PLUCKING a stringed instrument (only) with your fingers (only). How can that be transmorgafied into BLOWING a flute or PICKING a guitar. Furthermore, church is A School of Christ and you don't NEED a command to sit down and shut up when Jesus speaks when the elders PREACH the word (only) by READING the Word for Comfort and Doctrine.

Words never MEAN anything in the resources: they show how a word is used in context. All STRIKING an instrument words warn about VIOLENCE and judgment.
H2167 zâmar zaw-mar' A primitive root (perhaps identical
        with H2168 through the idea of striking with the fingers);
        properly to touch the strings or parts of a musical instrument,
        that is, play upon it; to make music,
        accompanied by the voice; hence to celebrate in song and music:—
        give praise, sing forth praises, psalms.
H2168 zâmar zaw-mar' A primitive root (compare H2167 , H5568 , H6785 ); to trim (a vine):—prune.
This defines HOW the word is used in the literature: it never means touch the STRINGS (only) with your FINGERS (only) unless the text defines WHAT is to be struck.

Therefore, the writer translates it as SING.  You must ALWAYS name an instrument if you want to go beyond the word being translated as SING only.

Psalms 98:5 [1] Sing [2167] unto the LORD with the [2] harp; with the harp, and he [3] voice of a psalm.
Psalms 98:6 With trumpets and sound of cornet make a joyful noise before the LORD, the King.
Psalms 98:7 Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein.
Psalms 98:8 Let the floods clap their hands: let the hills be joyful together

The Zamar words are derived from "Pruning your vines" and there is nothing spiritual when the warriors "praised" god threatening to robe the enemy, rape the enemy and the rapture the enemy. From Egypt onward this "making self vile" was to prove your superiority by sodomizing your enemy. The old Dionysus cult in Jerusalem PIPED hoping that Jews was their expected "messiah" and if so he would BOW to Baal and submit to unnatural lust and lament (sing) and dance while the musicians hid the pains.

Melody has never in recorded history meant harmony. God made certain that there is nothing metrical when "melody" might consist of one note:  do-do-do-do.  With David it might be do-do-re-do. Harmony in Greek means two voices sounding together as in unison.  A few psalms (only) had to be radically recomposed and set to a simple melody to be sung in unison (only) by permission of John Calvin.

Psallo has never and can never mean "melody" in a musical sense. Melos or meter means to dismember to cut something like the Word of God into little gobbets such as SOP.

You will notice that singing psalms is quite often a prelude to coming judgment:

Psalms 98:5 [1] Sing [psallite] unto the LORD with the [2] harp; with the harp, and the voice of a [3] psalm.
Psalms 98:6 With
[1] trumpets and sound [2] of cornet make a joyful [3] noise
        before the LORD, the King.
Psalms 98:7 Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein.
Psalms 98:8 Let the floods clap their hands: let the hills be joyful together
Psalms 98:9 Before the LORD; for he cometh to judge the earth:
        with righteousness shall he judge the world, and the people with equity.

[5] psallite Domino in cithara in cithara et voce psalmi

None of these instruments nor the Levites who played them for the NOT-commanded sacrificial system could ever be in any holy place.  The Levites prophesying with harps means soothsaying with harps and the command from God was that they execute any godly person who came near or inside any "holy" place. The Levites were under the King and Commanders of the Army: they made war and not worship.

This certainly has nothing to do with the ekklesia or Synagogue or Church of Christ which excluded vocal or instrumental rejoicing including any loud speaking. You will notice that psallo does NOT mean to play a harp and sing: you need three words or complex words which the Spirit of Christ would have known if He intended to command something He clearly outlawed for the School of the Word of Christ in the Prophets and Apostles with Christ being the source of both.

The Levites made SOUNDS

Melody in Ephesians 5 is Grace in Colossians 3: both are qualities of speech: Paul commanded SPEAK and you cannot SPEAK and SING externally at the same time: that is why Paul said IN YOUR HEART and TO GOD who only looks at our spirit (John 4)

Matt Dabbs: Your objection does not appear to hold up in the light of the actual use of the word psallo, so I still fail to see what your objective and point is.

We have shown that if you want to STRIKE A lyre psallo means STRIKE-ONLY and lyre tells what to strike. Again: this did mean MUSIC and therefore the Psallo word ABSOLUTELY PROHIBITES anything but a string of a bow or harp or hair.

I might also add that in three of these passages in the Psalms (27:6; 57:7; 108:1), the LXX has “sing and make melody” using ado and psallo, the exact words Paul uses in Eph. 5:19 & Col 3:16 where he instructs us to “sing and make melody.” Do you suspect he may have drawn his language from the Psalms, since he does appear to use the LXX frequently in quoting the Old Testament?

I said that Psallo is never translated as "melody" in the Greek literature. Melody in a MUSICAL sense is the Greek Melos.  Melody did not exist in a "metrical" or tuneful sense Paul uses "melody" in Ephesians 5 and 'Grace" in Colossians 3:16: both of these are qualities of SPEAKING and the command IS to SPEAK the Word.

No, Paul was teaching the Antithesis of the SKIA or shadow which means a totally erroneous system: A Covenant with Death.  Amos defines the marzeah which was a feast with and for deadancestors. Look at the BUTs in Ephesians 5. SPEAK by definition is the OPPOSITE of poetry or music. 

the LXX has “sing and make melody” using ado and psallo,

Keeping it short  for the first passage: the word is neither praise or melody.

The text says "the sacrifice of joy; I will sing, even sing psalms to the Lord. LXX" Only as a footnote: "Or, and play on a psaltery."  However both psaltery and psalm are derived from the same meaning and there is nothing in the text to indicate "psallo as play and psallo as psaltery."

Psalms 27:6 And now shall mine head be lifted up above mine enemies round about me:
herefore will I offer in his tabernacle sacrifices of joy;
        I will sing, yea,  I will sing praises unto the LORD. 

David was not a Levite and he would be executed if he went into the literal tabernacle from which he was exiled. The only exception is going into a holy place and was excused only because he was starving: This exception proves the rule that if a neo- Levite or "praise singer" went into the Holy Place as a  type of the church he was to be EXECUTED.

Zamar can be used in text to mean pluck or play but NOT unless the instrument is named. The Translators did not see in instrumentn in this passage.

Psalm 26.6 vulgate in petra exaltavit me et nunc exaltavit caput meum super inimicos meos circuivi et immolavi in tabernaculo eius hostiam vociferationis cantabo et psalmum dicam Domino

vōcĭfĕrātĭo , ōnis, f. vociferor,
I. a loud calling, clamor, outcry, vociferation, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 60, § 156; id. Clu. 10, 30; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 12; Auct. Her. 3, 12, 22; Petr. 14; Quint. 2, 10, 8; Suet. Claud. 36 al.

Isaiah 42:2 He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street.

, Less freq. of instrumental music, and only with abl. of the instrument (cf. cano):
Of an actor: “cantante eo (Nerone)tibiis,Nep. Epam. 2, 1; id. ib. praef. § 1; Vulg. Luc. 7, 32: “lituo, tubă,Gell. 20, 2, 2: “calamo,Sen. Ben. 4, 6, 5: ad manum histrioni, in comedy, to sing and play while the actor accompanies the song with gestures or dancing, Liv. 7, 2, 10; cf. Val. Max. 2, 4, 4.—Pass. impers.: “in caelo cantatur et psallitur,

Psalmus , i, m., = psalmos, i. q. psalma,
I.  a psalm (eccl. Lat.; cf.: “carmen, hymnus),Tert. adv. Prax. 11; Lact. 4, 8, 14; 4, 12, 7; Vulg. Isa. 38, 20.—Esp., the Psalms of David, Vulg. Luc. 20, 42; id. Act. 13, 33 et saep.
When Jesus and the Apostles 'HYMNED' just one time at the end of the Passover-feast of unleavened bread they SPOKE the hymn. Nothing in the commanded text is metrical and no one sang in a tuneful sense.
dīco dicio, to say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor, verba facio, dicto, dictito, oro, inquam, aio, fabulor, concionor, pronuntio, praedico, recito, declamo, affirmo, assevero, contendo; also, nomino, voco, alloquor, designo, nuncupo; also, decerno, jubeo, statuo

The NIV translates it  sing  and Make Music which is a bit casual since any one who went into the Tabernacle to sing with or without instruments was to be executed. No Levite could come NEAR any holy thing or place.  Further, there was never any music associated with the Tabernacle.

Here is what we do when Jesus gives us REST from the laded burden (songs) and burden laders.

5115. navah, naw-vaw´; a primitive root; to rest (as at home); causatively (through the implied idea of beauty (compare 5116)), to celebrate (with praises):—keept at home, prepare an habitation.

5116. naveh, naw-veh´; or (feminine) navah, naw-vaw´; from 5115; (adjectively) at home; hence (by implication of satisfaction) lovely; also (noun) a home, of God (temple), men (residence), flocks (pasture), or wild animals (den):—comely, dwelling (place), fold, habitation, pleasant place, sheepcote, stable, tarried

5117 is the REST Word which never meant worship.  In the KJV two important melody passages are

David NEVER sang and played the harp in or close to any holy place.

7.04.11 Do you suppose that it's true: Paul warned about reading BLACK text on BROWN paper if you have not turned to the lord: looks perfectly obvious to me.

The Progressive Church of Christ is built on the Civil-Military-Clergy Complex when God turned Israel over to worship the starry host.  I know of no preacher of any ilk who does not believe that God commanded the Sacrificial System because he wanted or need to be fed, clothed, housed and sexually stimulated.  For instance John Mark Hicks .

Others claim you to be insane if you deny that God was mistaken, changed His Mind and decided to come up with a new PATTERN for worship.  It is not possible to read the whole story line and fail to grasp what all of the historic church fathers taught:

Coffman's Commentary Speaks for the total Bible view that Israel's rejection of God as King, Judge and Priest set the stage for their later repudiation of Jesus Christ in order to keep the evil Temple-System like all other nations. Remember that the clergy was still seeking a king "like the nations" and had not a hint of looking for a Spiritual King, Prince and Mediator:

The great Cambridge scholar, Henry McKeating, has the following comment on this passage from Hosea:

"Hosea is not only antagonistic to the northern kings but to the monarchy as such. The monarchy is powerless to save the nation. Israel was wrong to ask for a king. Her punishment was that she got what she asked." 7: Henry McKeating, Amos, Hosea, and Micah (Cambridge: University Press, 1971), p. 148.

Coffman: "We are aware that it is popular among many able commentators today to make apologies for Israel's monarchy and to apply what the Scriptures plainly say about it to some specific monarch, Saul, for example, as did Dummelow, or to the kings of Northern Israel as did Hailey;

but it is the conviction of this writer that
Israel was
totally and completely wrong in asking a king and that this rejection of God (that is what the text calls it) contained embryonically all of the later sorrows of the Chosen People.

Throughout the whole history of Israel, there were very few monarchs who even tried to serve the Lord. Solomon was to be blamed for the division of the kingdom under his son, because the people simply rejected the excesses of Solomon; and yet, even after God took the monarchy away from them, the nation wanted nothing in heaven or on earth as much as they wanted the restoration of that scandalous Solomonic empire.

It was this, more than anything else, that motivated their rejection of God Himself,

finally and irrevocably,
in their rejection of God's Son, Jesus Christ the Holy One.

Go down the list of Israel's kings, David, the very best of all of them, was an adulterer and a murderer; and he also corrupted the worship of God by two sinful things:

(1) his initiating the events that led to the building of the temple (the den of thieves and robbers in Jesus' times); and

(2) his introduction of instruments of music into the worship of God. We do not have the space here to outline all of the misdeeds of Israel's shameful monarchy,

but it is clear enough that God's disapproval of the monarchy was no late thing, applicable only to the phantom kings of Ephraim's final years, but it rested upon the monarchy from the very beginning of it as outlined in this chapter.

If God had ever approved of it, He would never have taken it away from them!

Nevertheless, God accommodated to the sinful conduct of His people and in many specific instances blessed the kings of Israel,

2Timothy 4:2 Preach the word; be instant in season,
        out of season; reprove, rebuke,
        exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.
Logos, verbal noun of lego
        Opposite kata pathos
        Opposite music, poetry or rhetoric
        Opposite human reasoning
        Opposite Epagoge bringint in to one's aid, introduction
                Alurement, enticement, incantation, spell

Opposite Pathos  A. that which happens to a person or thing, incident, accident,
where this incident took place, unfortunate accident,
2. what one has experienced, good or bad, experience
II. of the soul, emotion, passion (“legō de pathē . . holōs hois hepetai hēdonē ē lupēArist.EN1105b21), “sophiē psukhēn pathōn aphaireitai
2Timothy 4:3 For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine;
        but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers,
        having itching ears; [eager for combat, pleasure, to be wanton]

Sound is opposite to peri-sta^sis crowds standing round the house,
3. outward pomp and circumstance, tou biou p. Plb.3.98.2, cf. 31.26.3 ; truphē kai p. Antig.Car. ap. Ath.12.547f; huparkhōn en megalē p  “paison, truphēson, zēson: apothanein se dei
tru^phaō A. live softly, luxuriously, fare sumptuously
Paison, truphêson, zêson

Paison paizô  4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16. 5. play amorously, “pros allēlousX.Smp.9.2; “meta tinosLXX Ge.26.8; of mares, Arist.HA572a30.

ZOE is Lucifer or Eve the daughter of the Sun. She also is called the "beast, the mother of gods and men and the FEMALE instructing principle.

zaō I. to live, Hom., etc.; elegkhiste [cowardly] zōontōn vilest of living men, Od.; zōein kai horan phaos ēelioio Il.; rheia zōontes living at ease, of the gods,
hēlios  II. as pr. n., Helios, the sun-god, Od.8.271, etc.; ton . Men.Sam. 108; hupo Dia Gēn Hēlion, in manumission-formula, POxy.48.6, 49.8 (i A.D.), IG9(1).412(Aetolia), IPE2.54.10(iii A.D.); [“Hēlios doulous eleutherous poieiArtem.2.36; identified with Apollo,
2. Hēliou astēr, of the planet Saturn, v.l. in Pl.Epin.987c, cf. D.S.2.30,
2. part. truphōn as Adj., effeminate, luxurious,
hoi truphōntesspoiled pets, Id.Men.76b; en tais ekklēsiais [church] t. kai kolakeuesthai,

See 2 Peter 2 proof of instrumental music as the corruption.

2 Peter 2:13 And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness, as they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time. Spots they are and blemishes, sporting themselves with their own deceivings while they feast with you;

Musicians and actors are always called parasites.

Entrupo (g1792) en-troo-fah'-o; from 1722 and 5171; to revel in: - sporting selves.

Epithum-êtês , oi, ho,
A. one who longs for or desires, ergôn Hdt.7.6 ; [dogmatôn] sophias, Pl.R.475b, etc.; phusei polemou e.  1 Ep.Cor.10.6
2. . abs., lover, follower, X.Mem.1.2.60.
b. . one who lusts, LXX Nu.11.34.
1Corinthians 10:6 Now these things were our examples, [pattern]
        to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.
1Corinthians 10:7 Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them;
        as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.

Acts 7:41 And they made a calf in those days,
        and offered sacrifice unto the idol,
        and rejoiced in the works of their own hands.

Euphrainō , Ep. euphr-, fut. Att.155.12, Pi.I.7(6).3
Pind. I. 6 Just as we mix the second bowl of wine when the men's symposium is flourishing, here is the second song of the Muses for Lampon's children and their athletic victories: first in Nemea, Zeus, in your honor they received the choicest of garlands,
SOPHIA A.cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, Hephaestus , in music and singing, in poetry

Sophistês , ou, ho, master of one's craft, adept, expert, of diviners, Hdt.2.49; of poets, meletan sophistais prosbalon Pi.I.5(4).28 , cf. Cratin.2; of musicians, sophistês . . parapaiôn chelun A.Fr.314 , cf. Eup.447, Pl.Com. 140; sophistêi Thrêiki (sc. Thamyris) E.Rh.924, cf. Ath.14.632c: with mo

2. sophist (in bad sense), quibbler, cheat, goeta one who howls out enchantments, a sorcerer, enchanter. Goes

Goês , êtos, ho,

Epôid-os , on, epaidô b. Subst., enchanter, e. kai goês E.Hipp. 1038 (but goês e. Ba.234 ): c. gen., a charm for or against, 2. Pass., sung to music, phônai Plu.2.622d ; fit for singing, poiêtikên e. parechein M.6.16 . 1. epôidos , , Sch.metr. Pi.O.4 ( ho , Gal.UP17.3, dub. in D.H.Comp.19), epode, part of a lyric ode sung after the strophe and antistrophe, ib.26, Gal. l.c., Sch.metr. Pi.l.c., etc. 2. epôidos , ho , verse or passage returning at intervals, in Alcaics and Sapphics, D.H.Comp.19 ; chorus, burden, refrain, Ph. 1.312 : metaph., ho koinos hapasês adoleschias e. the 'old story',

2Timothy 4:4 And they shall turn away their ears from the truth,
        and shall be turned unto fables.
FABLES TO FOOL: Fābŭla , ae, f. fari,
B.  Of particular kinds of poetry.
1.  Most freq., a dramatic poem, drama, play (syn.: “ludus, cantus, actio, etc.): in full, fabula scaenica,Amm. 28, 1, 4; “or, theatralis,id. 14, 6, 20: “fabula ad actum scenarum composita,”fabulam, quae versatur in tragoediis atque carminibus non a veritate modo
FABLES TO FOOL:  Cantus , ūs, m. id., I. the production of melodious sound, a musical utterance or expression, either with voice or instrument; hence, song, singing, playing,
1. With the voice, a singing, song; in full, cantus vocum, Cic. Rosc. Am. 46, 134: “fit etiam saepe vocum gravitate et cantibus ut pellantur animi, etc.,
2. With instruments, a playing, music: “citharae,horribili stridebat tibia cantu,Cat. 64, 264: “querulae tibiae,  “lyrae, Plin. 34, 8, 19, § 72: “tibicine
FABLES TO FOOL:   Scaenĭcus (scen- ), a, um, adj., = skēnikos, I. of or belonging to the stage, scenic, dramatic, theatrical (class.).
stage-plays, theatrical representations, “fabula,a drama, Amm. 28, 1, 4: organa,Suet. Ner. 44: “coronae,id. ib. 53: “habitus,id. ib. 38: gestus,Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 220: “modulatio,Quint. 11, 3, 57:
1. scaē-nĭcus , i, m., a player, actor, Cic. Off. 1, 31, 114: “orator plurimum aberit a scaenico 2. scaenĭca , ae, f., a female player, an actress,
Orgănum , i, n., = organon,Of musical instruments, a pipe, Quint. 11, 3, 20; 9, 4, 10; Juv. 6, 3, 80; Vulg. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 et saep. an organ, water-organ: “organa hydraulica,Suet. Ner. 41: aquatica, Mythogr. Lat. 3, 12.—Of a church-organ, Cass. Expos. in Psa. 150; Aug. Enarr. in Psa. 150, n. 7.—  B. Transf.: organum oris, the tongue of a man, Prud. steph
2Timothy 4:5 But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions,
        do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry.

Humn-eō , Ep. humneiō Hes.Op.2; Ep.3pl. II. Tell over and over again, harp upon, repeat, recite,; humnousi ; ton nomon humnein recite the form of the law, Id.Lg.871a:
The pagan Hymn derives from the Hymen: it was sung at "marrying and giving in marriage." That is why Paul commanded the word SPEAK and defined the hymns of the Book of Psalms.
Besides, Jesus didn't "sang" a hymn in the modern church sense.

Updated 5.01.11

John T. Willis 22. "Sing" is vocal; "make melody" is instrumental. Psalms 33:2-3; 144:9; 149:1, 3 make this crystal clear. Amos 5:23 further verifies this reality.  People forget that God turned Israel over to worship the starry host because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. The Levites were under the KING and the COMMANDERS of the army: they made war and not worship. We will examine these passages in context.

Church is Ekklesia or Synagogue: both for instruction only: both exclusive of any performing arts: you don't do music when God's Word is taught.  I submit that you cannot be a Christian if you do not understand the meaning of "teach them what I have commanded to be taught."


The terminal sin was for a Levite to go into the Holy Place to burn incense. The Holy Place was a type of the body or Church of Christ: anyone who enters into this fulfilment would be worthy of death. The day of Atonement was imposed along with the scapegoat: this was to appease Azazel or Satan who taught the youth how to take away the Word of God using choirs and instruments

Danny Corbitt
Danny Corbitt, like all of the later-day experts, masks himself as having convictions on both sides of the issue. However he has moved from a Christian Church to a Church of Christ in his youth. He never taught the a cappella view because he had no convictions.  As a Campus minister he had worshipped with instrumental music from 1986 to 2000. He was surprised at how many other ministers lacked conviction: he should not be surprised since the once-Christian colleges boast about NOT teaching it.  Therefore, he was not neutral when he collected all of the old, stale arguments derived from the Jacob-cursed and God-Abandoned Levites. They were SOOTHSAYERS with instruments. They stood guard and warned any "neo scholar" that if they came inside the gates during the horrors of the NOT-commanded sacrificial system they were to be executed.

This is consistent with the NACC having a PRO-instrumental preacher of the Church of Christ debate a PRO-instrumental Christian Church preacher. You can guess which side won.

Charles Spurgeon could not find a word to define the lowness of a person who would eat up the living of a people and secretly UNDERMINE themm.

If they can find an instrument passage they jump to the conclusion that what God abandoned the Jews to do was now THEIR authority to become abandoned to Babylonianism.

Danny Corbitt, A number of things have been said on this thread recently about psallo that surprised me, so I wanted to check them out. Rather than responding from numerous lexicons, I am focusing my comments on an article by Gerhard Delling in the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (1972). I’ve chosen him in part because he favors a vocal understanding of psallo in Ephesians 5:19, so he is by no means hostile to those who promote a cappella singing. [Note that he uses the Jewish numbering of the psalms, so that the chapters are off by 1 between Psalms 10 and 147, and the verses are often off by 1 if the psalm has a title. I have transferred to our numbering.]

It has been argued here recently that psallo only meant to play if the instrument was specified by name. Delling disagrees. Of psallo in the Greek Septuagint, Delling writes, “often the obvious sense is ‘to play,’ especially when an instrument is mentioned” (“umnos” article, p 493).

There is no recorded history of PSALLO being translated as PLAY in a musical sense.

Psallo never means to Play an Instrument.  If you PLUCK a harp sting, Pluck does not MEAN = pluck a harp string.  Pluck most often meant to pluck a bow string: a word with violent roots.

Psallo just means to pull a string with your fingers and let it go. If you pull a bowstring it twangs to send forth a singing arrow: if you pull the hairs of a young boy he plays otherwise.  Psallo is USED primarily as a warfare or perverted religious sense.

There is a dozen or more words meaning to PLAY and an INSTRUMENT.  They are all COMPOUND words and none of them are used in the Bible.  Each instrument has its own word:

The Babylon Mother of Harlots (Revelation 17) wants you as "lusted after fruits" (same as in amos and all religious musicians) to be used as rhetoricians, singers and instrument players: John and all history calls the sorcerers and Jesus branding the Scribes and Pharisees called them hypocrites in Ezekiel 33.

DON'T LET ELDERS TURNED WOLVES and doctors of thelaw DRAG YOU OFF INTO THE BUSHES WITH LIES. Psallo never meand "play-a-harp."  The Holy Spirit knew a dozen words to tell us to play a harp but did not. That is because all instrument playing was marked as witchcraft or sorcery of evil men and women trying to pick your pockets. Psallo is never used of "musical melody" in the literature: melody is a series of single tones: melody is not harmony and is not related to it. To use Psallo as musical melody AND as used by individuals in all of the proof text, one would be FORCED to pluck single note and sing TO that sound.

Harmony in the Greek would permit two people to "sound together." Therfore, while Psallo never means musical melody, if the discorders were honest they would permit ONLY unison singing. Paul makes this clear in the direct command for what he calls synagogue: "use one mind and one mouth to speak that which is written for our learning." No church in history engaged in congregational singing with instrumental accompaniment until after the reformation: still, NONE of the Bible can be sung tunefully because God delivers His message through His Spirit (breath) so that Jesus reproduced the breath "WITHOUT METER."









Kat-auleō ,A. charm by flute-playing, tinos Pl.Lg.790e, cf. R.411a; tina Alciphr.2.1: metaph., se . . -ēsō phobō I will flute to you on a ghastly flute, E.HF871 (troch.):—Pass., of persons, methuōn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute, Pl.R.561c; k. pros khelōnidos psophon to be played to on the flute with lyre accompaniment, 
Unapproved Example:
Xen. Sym. 3 After this the boy, attuning his lyre to the flute, played and sang, and won the applause of all; and brought from Charmides the remark,
        “It seems to me, gentlemen, that, as Socrates said of the wine,
        so this blending of the young people's beauty and of the notes of the music
        lulls one's griefs to sleep and awakens the goddess of Love.” [2]

Unapproved Example:
Plutarch QUESTION V.
And at first indeed he
played a very fine tune; but afterwards, having tickled and sounded the humor of the whole company,

and found that most were inclined to pleasure and would suffer him to play what effeminate and lascivious tunes he pleased,

throwing aside all modesty, he showed that music was more intoxicating than wine to those that wantonly and unskilfully use it.

For they were not content to sit still and applaud and clap, but many at last leaped from their seats, danced lasciviously, and made such gentle steps as became such effeminate and mollifying tunes.

The Spirit OF Christ in Isaiah 3 warned that MUSIC is the mark of women and the perverted are ruling over you.

Paul understood that we understand the WILL OF THE LORD before we SPEAK the text to teach and admonish
Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is.
Eph. 5:18 And be not drunk  [methuōn] with wine, wherein is excess;
        but be filled with the Spirit; (The Word of Christ Col 3:16; John 6:63)
Eph. 5:19 Speaking to yourselves
                    \ in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
                             \ singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;
Eph. 5:20 Giving thanks [praying] always for all things unto God and the Father
         in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;
You have been MARKED for avoidance and you DO NOT have the Will of the Lord Who hates music in the holy places and people who sow discord.

We do not worship the Spirit or Mind OF Chris: Those who PERFORM are marked as soothsayers (Miriam and the Levites) or Sorcerers (the singers and instrumen players in Revelation 18.
Kat-auleō 2. make a place sound with flute-playing, Thphr.Fr.87:— Pass., resound with flute-playing, “nēsos katēuleitoPlu.Ant.56.
II. in Pass., [ton monokhordon kanona parekhein tais aisthēsesi . . katauloumenonsubdued by a flute accompaniment,   to be piped down, ridiculed,gelōmenoi kai -oumenoi”  
III. c. acc. rei, play on the flute, “ta mētrōa  , to have played to one as an accompaniment on the flute, -“oumenoi pros tōn hepomenōn ta mētrōa melē

Danny Corbitt and a few others APPROVE of "making the Lambs dumb before the slaughter" and imposing instruments is a way to MOUNT AND SUBDUE those who will never fall into apostasy.

Hymns are prayers: you cannot be worshiping God if you are getting enraptured over the boy and girl singers always a mark of gender confusion by the leaders.

Epi-psallō ,
A. play the lyre, S.Fr.60, Poll.4.58(Pass.); “melesi kai rhuthmois” 
                SING,tous humnousLXX 2 Ma.1.30:—30 - Then the priests sang the hymns.
Psallo means to pluck and make a sound: it does not include either melody or rhythm.

Melos is one of several words for Musical Melody: Psallo is never in any Greek or Latin literature used for musical melody. Paul put the twanging IN the heart and not UPON a harp.

melos , eos, to, A. limb, in early writers always in pl., Il.7.131, Pi.N. 1.47, etc. (kata melos is corrupt for kata meros in h.Merc.419); meleōn entosthe
3. melody of an instrument, “phormigx d' au phtheggoith' hieron m. ēde kai aulosThgn.761; “aulōn pamphōnon m.Pi.P.12.19;
en melei poieein to write in lyric strain,
It is really blasphemy to CLAIM that the Spirit OF Christ in Paul was so ignorant that He did not write:
Sing to one another with "that which is written for our learning"
Singing and Epipsallo IN the heart
To the audience.
There is no lyric poetry in the Bible: no meter: you could not singing if your life depended on it.  The word SPEAK is the opposite of meter: poetry or music.

Katapsallō , The Mark of the Crooked Race Jesus and Paul warned us to save ourselves from.
A. play stringed instruments to, [“sumposion kataulein kai k.” Pass., have music played to one, enjoy music, ib.785e; of places, resound with music,Id.Ant.56.
2. Pass., to be buried to the sound of music, Procop.Pers.2.23.
3. metaph., katapsalletai . . ho dēmiourgos is drummed out, Porph.

Those who lie, cheat and steal the church houses of widows and honest workers say or imply GET OVER or GET OUT.  Music intends to DRUM OUT the owners claiming we can MAKE UP the loss.
Hab. 2:19 Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach! Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it.
Hab. 2:20 But the LORD is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him.
People confess that they refused to teach the youth but took them to gatherings to hear lots of instrumental bands: Rick Atchley after about 12 years: "We taught out youth to leave our movement.
Cheat with music of souls,Kataduo
eis buthon k. Plu.2.943d: c. dat., sink into, “tais homoiopatheiaisMetrod.Fr.38: freq. with a notion of secrecy, insinuate oneself, steal into,kataduetai eis to entos tēs psukhēs ho te rhuthmos kai harmoniaPl.R.401d; anarkhia eis tas idias oikias k. ib. 562e; k. psuxis heōs pleistou
harmonia , , (harmozō) IV. in Music, stringing,ha. toxou (bow) kai lurasHeraclit.51, cf. Pl.Smp.187a: hence, method of stringing, musical scale,
5. intonation or pitch of the voice, Arist.Rh. 1403b31.
6. metaph. of persons and things, harmony, concord, Pl.R.431e, etc.

sumphōn-eō , A. sound together, be in harmony or unison (cf. sumphōnia
3. slink away and lie hid, “kataduesthai hupo tēs aiskhunēsX.Cyr.6.1.35, cf. D.21.199 (so abs., to be overcome with shame, “epi agnoiaZos.5.40); “katadedukōs en oikiaPl.R.579b; “eis aporon ho sophistēs topon katadedukenId.Sph.239c, etc.
4. get into, put on, “katedu kluta teukheaIl.6.504, cf. Od.12.228; “kateduseto teukhea kalaIl.7.103; “heimataMosch.4.102.


Plēssō , plague
3. strike or stamp as one does a coin, Kuprios kharaktēr . . en gunaikeiois tupois . .peplēktaiA.Supp.283.
4. of musical sounds, “houtōsi plēgenta houtōs ephthegxato ta phōnēentaPlot.3.3.5.
2. to be smitten emotionally, “himerō peplēgmenoiA.Ag.544; also plēgentes dōroisi touched by bribes, Hdt.8.5; “ex erōtosHermesian. 7.42; “tēn kardian plēgeis hupo logōnPl.Smp.218a, etc.
3. Act. of wines, when smelt or drunk, overpower,tēn kephalēn

WORDS DERIVE FROM VIOLENCE and are used by violent men taking the kingdom with violence

Psallo by itself just means to PULL with your fingers and NEVER with a plectrum.

Psallō ,
A. psa^lōLXX Jd.5.3, 1 Ep.Cor.14.15: aor. “epsēlaPl.Ly. 209b, etc., and in LXXepsa_laPs.9.12, al.:—pluck, pull, twitch, ps. etheiran pluck the hair, A.Pers.1062:

Judges 5:1 Then sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day, saying,
Judges 5:3 Hear, O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes;
        I, even I, will sing unto the LORD;

1Corinthians 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit,
        and I will pray with the understanding also:
I will sing with the spirit,
        and I will sing with the understanding also.

Psalms 9:11 Sing praises TO the LORD, which dwelleth in Zion:
        declare [speak] among the people his doings.

Plat. Lysis 209b And, I suppose, when you take your lyre, neither your father nor your mother prevents you from tightening or slackening what string you please, or from using your finger [psēla] or your plectrum at will: or do they prevent you?

You cannot USE a plectrum to psallo: you MUST use only your fingers and you must psela a STRING: you cannot force this to speak of musical bands.

Aesch. Pers. 1060 Xerxes [1060] And with your fingers tear the robe which drapes you.

Chorus Anguish, anguish!
Pluck out your locks, and lament our host.
kai psall' etheiran kai katoiktisai straton.
With clenched nails, with clenched nails, with loud wailing.

  Second, you may want to IMPOSE an act of Worship called plucking out hair including pubic hairs of the emasculated priests of the Mother Goddess.

, pull, twitch,
ps. etheiran pluck the hair,

Aesch. Pers. 1062
Xerxes [1060] And with your fingers tear the robe which drapes you.
Chorus Anguish, anguish!
Xerxes Pluck out your locks, and lament our host.
Xerxēs    kai psall' etheiran kai katoiktisai straton.


  Seventh, psallo is used of plucking a string with your fingers but NOT with the plectrum. Therefore, you violate the authority used to sow discord and silence the Words of Christ. Psallo has no musical content and you cannot use it to justify wind or percussion instruments.  Playing musical instruments in a worship sense is also enchantment or sorcery.

mostly of the strings of musical instruments, play a stringed instrument with the fingers, and not with the plectron, “psēlai kai krouein plēktrō
Krouo 2. strike one against another, strike together, k. kheiras clap the hands,
would have knocked their heads together,
4. metaph. from tapping an earthen vessel, to try whether it rings sound
5. strike a stringed instrument with a plectron, [but NOT unless the plectron is named]
pa^tassō II. with acc. of the thing set in motion, strike, smite, of a deadly blow
b. smite, slaughter, c. afflict, visit, pataxai se Kurios,  pothos kardian
You must name Psallo, smite or strike and name the guitar pick.
Plutarch, Lives [4] Such objects are to be found in virtuous deeds; these implant in those who search them out a great and zealous eagerness which leads to imitation. In other cases, admiration of the deed is not immediately accompanied by an impulse to do it. Nay, many times, on the contrary, while we delight in the work, we despise the workman
        as, for instance, in the case of perfumes and dyes;
        we take a
delight in them but dyers and perfumers we regard as illiberal and vulgar folk

[5] Therefore it was a fine saying of Antisthenes, when he heard that Ismenias was an excellent piper: But he's a worthless man," said he, "otherwise he wouldn't be so good a piper."
And so Philip [Philip of Macedon, to Alexander.] once said to his son, who, as the wine went round, plucked the strings charmingly and skilfully, "Art not ashamed to pluck the strings so well?" It is enough, surely, if a king have leisure to hear others pluck the strings, and he pays great deference to the Muses if he be but a spectator of such contests

Ninth, when psallo is used meaning to sing TO a harp that meant of strike a string and match the voice to that note.  However, psallo is NEVER defined as singing to a harp. The lexicon means that psallo is used in connection with the harp.

later, sing TO harp, LXX Ps.7.18, 9.12, al.;

There is no recorded history of anyone singing TO a harp unless it is stated and PLAY and HARP named.

The INTERNAL result is that we sing and make the melody IN the heart and directed TO God.
Kardia 2. inclination, desire, purpose, as the seat of feeling and passion, as rage or anger, “oidanetai kradiē KholōIl.9.646;

Notice the semicolon

kardiaEp.Eph.5.19; pneumati Is IN THE PLACE of the heart
Paul said 
Speak one to another
                    \_ With
                             Psalms, hymns and spiritual songs (all "that which is written")
Singing AND psalloing
                 \_In the heart and to God
This would be a common expression to readers:
The man who was dying blessed me; I made the widow's heart sing. Jb.29:13

So my heart laments for Moab like a flute;
        it laments like a flute for the men of Kir Hareseth.
        The wealth they acquired is gone. Je.48:36
My heart laments for Moab like a harp,
        my inmost being for Kir Hareseth. Is.16:11
And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.Lu.1:47
        Therefore did my heart rejoice,
        and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall rest in hope: Ac.2:26

In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight. Lu.10:21

Plautus, Curculio CAPPADOX My spleen is killing me, my reins are in torment, my lungs are being torn asunder, my liver is being tortured, my heart-strings are giving way, all my intestines are in pain.
Hecuba Alas! a dreadful trial is near, it seems, [230] full of mourning, rich in tears. Yes, I too escaped death where death had been my due, and Zeus did not destroy me but is still preserving my life, that I may witness in my misery fresh sorrows surpassing all before. But if the bond may ask the free of things that do not GRIEVE them or WRENCH their heart-strings, you ought to speak in answer to my questions and I ought to hear what you have to say

GREGORY OF NYSSA (died c394)

8 . Now since man is a rational animal,
instrument of his body must be made suitable for the use of reason;
as you may see musicians producing
their music according to the form of their instruments,

and not piping with harps nor harping upon flutes,

so it must needs be that the organization of these instruments of ours should be adapted for reason, that when struck by the vocal organs it might be able to sound properly for the use of words.

2. And as some skilled musician, who may have been deprived by some affection of his own voice, and yet wish to make his skill known,

might make melody with voices of others,
publish his art by the aid of flutes or of the lyre,

so also the human mind being a discoverer of all sorts of conceptions, seeing that it is unable, by the mere soul, to reveal to those who hear by bodily senses the motions of its understanding, touches, like some skilful composer, these animated instruments, and makes known its hidden thoughts by means of the sound produced upon them.


psalmus , i, m., = psalmos, i. q. psalma, I. a psalm (eccl. Lat.; cf.: “carmen, hymnus),Tert. adv. Prax. 11; Lact. 4, 8, 14; 4, 12, 7; Vulg. Isa. 38, 20.—Esp., the Psalms of David, Vulg. Luc. 20, 42; id. Act. 13, 33 et saep

Again, it was because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai that God "turned them over to worship the starry host" (Acts 7 etal).
They carrried along the STAR of their god. The Jewish Encyclopedia notes that the temple (not commanded) was for STAR worship or Sabazianism. 

The Levi tribe--cursed by Jacob--operated the Civil-Military-Clergy complex which was now a Goyim patterned after Babylon to which they would be delivered, facilitated by the kings.

The godly people attended Qahal, synagogue or Church in the wilderness where "vocal or instrumental rejoicing" was outlawed.

"The church is a School (only) of the Word (only) and you can't speak of instruments and understand that.

Danny Corbitt:  He says “especially when,” not “only when.” He gives a sample list of occurrences where an instrument is named, then adds Psalms 27:6; 57:7; 101:1; 105:2; and 108:1, “where singing and playing go together.”

Danny Corbitt “where singing and playing go together.”"

No Instruments OR playing. Eating and hamburger go together: Eating does not MEAN hamburger.

Psa 27:6 And now shall mine head be lifted up ABOVE mine ENEMIES round about me:
       therefore will I offer in his tabernacle sacrifices of joy;
       I will sing, yea, I will sing praises unto the Lord.

There is no instrument included in Psalm 27:6. There is no word for play or pluck

Sing: H7891 shı̂yr speaks of the "strolling minstrels." You remember that Jesus ejected the musical ministrels using a term like dung.

Sing Praises: H2167 zâmar zaw-mar'  A primitive root (perhaps identical with H2168 through the idea of striking with the fingers) properly to touch the strings or parts of a musical instrument, that is, play upon it; to make music, accompanied by the voice; hence to celebrate in song and music:—give praise, sing forth praises, psalms.

Scripture uses the possible meaning as to SING and does not speak of praiseing with an instrument because it does not NAME one.

Definitions never MEAN something: the ways the word CAN be used are listed.

Zemar (h2170) zem-awr'; from a root corresp. to 2167; instrumental music: - musick.

That at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up: Da.3:5

Therefore at that time, when all the people heard the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and all kinds of musick, all the people, the nations, and the languages, fell down and worshipped the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up. Da.3:7

Danny Corbitt “where singing and playing go together.”": PSALM 57:7
Psalm 57:6 They have prepared a net for my steps;
        my soul is bowed down: they have digged a pit before me,
        into the midst whereof they are fallen themselves. Selah.
Psalm 57:7 My heart is fixed, O God, my heart is fixed: I will sing and give praise.
Psalm 57:8 Awake up, my glory; awake, psaltery and harp: I myself will awake early.

No! David is trying to AWAKEN both his psaltery and harp.  ALL of Israel had been turned over to worship the starry host (Acts 7 etal). Therefore, the "gods" of the Jews were those they had worshipped in Egypt and at Mount Sinai. Both Amos and Acts 7 names some of the "gods" including Molech to which they burned INFANTS before the 2 Chronicles 29 Hezekiah's plague stopping exorcism and after the purging.

In many of the ancient documents from Babylon and other nations, the gods were believed to be inside of musical instruments which were made into the form of a bull (harp). The sounds of the strings was sold to be the voice of the god inside of the idols which even had "speaking tubes" so the manipulator could "discover" the needs of the worshipper and have the idol speak the answer to them (This was before radio).

My heart is steadfast, O God, my heart is steadfast; I will sing and make music. Psalm 57:7
        Awake, my soul! Awake, harp and lyre! I will awaken the dawn. Psalm 57:8
David wanted to AWAKEN his lyre so that he could AWAKEN the dawn.  Fits with the kings being abandoned to worship the starry host (re the Star of David) OR "poems tend to be poetic."  Nonetheless, the uneducated fall sucker for poetic speech (says Jesus of speaking parables):
We even have a mention at a later date of a similar custom in connection with the cult in Jerusalem, where certain Levites, called me'oreim, 'arousers," sang every morning this verse from Ps 44: 'Awake, Lord, awake! Do not abandon us for ever." The Talmud tells us that Johy Hyrcanus suppressed the practice because it recalled too readily a pagan custom.

The Cult in Jerusalem had been ABANDONED to worship the starry host: why are people so willingly to sow discord trying to turn the simple School of Christ into Worship Services for the HOSTS rather than the Creator of the hosts?

The Levites had been an Egyptian cult devoted to the burning of infants to Moloch: that's who they worshipped in the Wilderness and in Jerusalem.

Why not: God had turned them over to worship the starry host and the NOT commanded temple was built by Hiram, the 'masonic' architect paid in humans and whole cities by Solomon.

A similar practice is attested in connection with the cult of Herakles-Melkart. According to Menander, as he is quoted by Josephus, the king Hiram, who was a contemporary of Solomon, rebuilt the temples of Tyre and, 'he was the first to celebrate the awakening of Heracles in the month of Peritius." (de Vaux, p. 247)

In an inscription from Cyprus, in one from Rhodes and in several from around the district of Carthage, there are references to important personages who bear the title Mqm"lm which we can translate as 'arouser of the god." (de Vaux, p. 247).

And in all paganism to which Israel had been abandoned:

HOPLON Euripides-Ion

O thou, that wakest on thy seven-string'd lyre
Sweet notes, that from the rustic lifeless horn
Enchant the ear with heavenly melody,
Son of Latona, thee before this light
Will I reprove. Thou camest to me, with gold
Thy locks all glittering, as the vermeil flowers
And now my son and thine, ill-fated babe,
Is rent by ravenous vultures; thou, meanwhile,
Art to thy lyre attuning strains of joy


-Xenophon, Socrates, Symposium 2
Habakkuk knew that the superstitious really believed that the musical sounds were the "voice of demons" living inside of the instrument: that is why the Catholics BAPTIZED bells, books, candles and pipe organs.
When the tables had been removed and the guests had poured a libation and sung a hymn, there entered a man from Syracuse, to give them an evening's merriment. He had with him a fine flute-girl, a dancing-girl—one of those skilled in acrobatic tricks,—and a very handsome boy, who was expert at playing the cither and at dancing; the Syracusan made money by exhibiting their performances as a spectacle

[2] They now played for the assemblage, the flute-girl on the flute, the boy on the cither; and it was agreed that both furnished capital amusement. Thereupon Socrates remarked: “On my word, Callias, you are giving us a perfect dinner; for not only have you set before us a feast that is above criticism, but you are also offering us very delightful sights and sounds.”
Xen. Sym. 3 After this the boy, attuning his lyre to the flute, played and sang,
        and won the applause of all; and brought from Charmides the remark,
        “It seems to me, gentlemen, that, as Socrates said of the wine,
        so this blending of the young people's beauty and of the notes of the music
        lulls one's griefs to sleep and awakens the goddess of Love.” [2]

Hab 2:18 What profiteth the graven image that the maker thereof hath graven it; the molten image,
        and a teacher of lies,
        that the maker of his work trusteth therein, to make dumb idols?

Hab 2: 19 Woe unto him that saith to the wood,
        Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach!
        Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver,
        and there is no breath at all in the midst of it.

Hab 2: 20 But the LORD is in his holy Templ let all the earth keep silence before him.
        let all the 

Danny Corbitt “where singing and playing go together.”": Psalm 101; 105
     No Instruments OR playing.

Psa. 101:0 A Psalm of David. (added later)
Psa. 101:1 I will sing of mercy and judgment: unto thee, O LORD, will I sing

Psa. 105:1 O give thanks unto the LORD;
        call upon his name:
        make known his deeds among the people.
Psa. 105:2 Sing unto him, sing psalms unto him:
        talk ye of all his wondrous works.

Danny Corbitt “where singing and playing go together.”": Psalm 108
      No Instruments OR playing.
Psa. 108:0 A Song or Psalm of David.
Psa. 108:1 O God, my heart is fixed; I will sing and give praise, even with my glory.
Psa. 108:2 Awake, psaltery and harp: I myself will awake early.
Psa. 108:3 I will praise thee,
        O LORD, among the people:
        and I will sing praises unto thee among the nations.

If you google "Delling Hymn" and click on "Jewish worship in Philo of Alexandria, Jutta Leonhart" you will find that the Jews never "sang" in our sense of the Word. None of the Bible is metrical and it cannot be sung.  When Jesus SPOKE the WORDS of God it was the "Spirit without METER" as the term often means.

Jesus would not even pray for those of the World: they have rejected the clear words of God and have turned their assemblies into musical performancee

No civillian ever attended animal slaughter at the temple: the SOUNDS intended to warn them to be outside of the gates.


To Gaius (92) Do not, therefore, inscribe your name by the side of that of the twin sons of Jupiter, those most affectionate of deities, you who have been the murderer and destruction of your brethren, nor claim a share in the honours of Hercules or Bacchus, who have benefited human life. You have been the undoer and destroyer of those good effects which they produced.

XIII. (93) But the madness and frenzy to which he gave way were so preposterous, and so utterly insane, that he went even beyond the demigods, and mounted up to and invaded the veneration and worship paid to those who are looked upon as greater than they, as the supreme deities of the world, Mercury, and Apollo, and Mars.

(94) And first of all he dressed himself up with the caduceus, and sandals, and mantle of Mercury, exhibiting a regularity in his disorder, a consistency in his confusion, and a ratiocination in his insanity.

(95) Afterwards, when he thought fit to do so, he laid aside these ornaments, and metamorphosed and transformed himself into Apollo, crowning his head with garlands, in the form of rays, and holding a bow and arrows in his left hand, and holding forth graces in his right, as if it became him to proffer blessings to all men from his ready store, and to display the best arrangement possible on his right hand,

but to contract the punishments which he had it in his power to inflict, and to allot to them a more confined space on his left.
(96) And immediately there were established choruses, who had been carefully trained, singing paeans to him, the same who had, a little while before, called him Bacchus, and Evius, and Lyaeus, and sang Bacchic hymns in his honour when he assumed the disguise of Bacchus.
PSALLO is often PAIRED with another word: Psallo means ONLY "to pluck with the fingers and NEVER with a plectrum." Therefore PSALLO can never be used to impose musical instruments which are not a form of the Warrior's Bow. You cannot beat on a drum or blow on a flute or plunk on a piano.

The Jacob-Cursed and God-Abandoned Levites had been turned over to worship the starry host: both Amos and Stephen in Acts 7 NAMES the gods.  They were under the King and Commanders of the Army and would execute Danny Corbitt if he remained inside the gate during the NOT-commanded sacrificial system.

Danny Corbitt  (You will see that psallo is paired with another word for sing in those verses.) Then he adds also 18:49; 57:9, and 108:3, where it appears that praising and playing go together. (BTW, 18:49 is quoted by Paul as a prophecy fulfilled by Christ in Romans 15:9, but I digress.) Then he adds, “Elsewhere the idea of praise by song as well as stringed instrument is suggested,” citing 9:11; 30:4; 66:4; 7:17; 9:2; 61:8; 66:4; 68:4; 65:1; 92:1; 135:3; 47:6; 57:9l 108:3; and 138:1.

Psa. 7:0 Shiggaion of David, which he sang unto the LORD, concerning the words of Cush the Benjamite.
Psa. 7:1 O Lord my God, in thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me:

This is a classical example of a parallelism: 

Psa. 7:17 I will praise the LORD according to his righteousness:
                 and will sing praise to the name of the LORD most high.

[18] confitebor Domino secundum iustitiam eius et psallam nomini Domini altissimi

Confĭtĕor , fessus, 2 (arch. fateor, to acknowledge, confess, fateor, to acknowledge, confess, o reveal, manifest, make known, show.

Psalmus , i, m., = psalmos, i. q. psalma, I. a psalm (eccl. Lat.; cf.: “carmen, hymnus),Tert. adv. Prax. 11; Lact. 4, 8, 14; 4, 12, 7; Vulg. Isa. 38, 20.—Especially the Psalms of David, Vulg. Luc. 20, 42; id. Act. 13, 33 et saep

He confessed the righteousness of god and Psalloed or praised the NAME of the Lord.

IF the writer INTENDS an instrument to be used HE MAKES IT CLEAR. But we have shown the folly of missing the Parallel statements. Again, the psaltery here is the TRUTH of God.

Psa. 71:22 I will also praise thee
        with the psaltery, even thy truth,
        O my God: unto thee will I sing with the harp,
        O thou Holy One of Israel.
Psa. 81:2 Take a psalm,
        and bring hither the timbrel, the pleasant harp with the psaltery.
Psa. 81:3 Blow up the trumpet in the new moon,
        in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day.

Hos. 2:11 I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast days, her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts.

22] nam et ego confitebor tibi in vasis psalmi veritatem tuam Deus psallam tibi in cithara Sanctus Israhel

This is a command to the Levites as the only ones authorized to make instrumental noises for the festivals. This is not a command to your local "music minister" unless he/she/it is a very old Levitge.

Delitzsch The summons in v. 2 is addressed to the whole congregation, inasmuch as haariy`uw is not intended of the clanging of the trumpets, but as in Ezra 3:11, and frequently. The summons in v. 3 is addressed to the Levites, the appointed singers and musicians in connection with the divine services (hard bondage), 2 Chron 5:12, and frequently. The summons in v. 4 is addressed to the priests, to whom was committed not only the blowing of the two (later on a hundred and twenty, vid., 2 Chron 5:12) silver trumpets, but who appear also in Josh 6:4 and elsewhere (cf. Ps 47:6 with 2 Chron 20:28) as the blowers of the shophar. The Talmud observes that since the destruction of the Temple the names of instruments showpaaraa' and chatsowtsar|taa' are wont to be confounded one for the other (B.

Sabbath 36a, Succa 34a), and, itself confounding them, infers from Num 10:10 the duty and significance of the blowing of the shophar (B. Erachin 3b)

The LXX also renders both by sa'lpigx ; but the Biblical language mentions showpaar and chatsots|raah , a horn (more especially a ram's horn) and a (metal) trumpet, side by side in Ps 98:6; Chron 15:28, and is therefore conscious of a difference between them. The Tôra says nothing of the employment of the shophar in connection with divine service, except that the commencement of every fiftieth year, which on this very account is called hayobeel sh|nat , annus buccinae, is to be made known by the horn signal throughout all the land

Most People were excluded from these festivals.

Danny Corbitt In these passages, Delling believes psallo has evolved to allow both singing and playing together. He therefore adds, “Hence one must take into account a shift in the meaning in the LXX in other passages in which the idea of playing is not evident.”

Psallo means different things in different contexts: it never meant Singing AND Playing together.  If one SINGS and then PLAYS and names an INSTRUMENT.  Psallo is just the play or pluck part.

Paul commands us to SPEAK "that which is written with one mind and one mouth." Speak is specificially the opposite of poetry or music. The purpose was to TEACH and ADMONISH one another: you cannot teach with a musical instrument.

Picking can be used in connection with a guitar: picking does not MEAN a guitar.


Psallo , i, 3, v. n., = psallō. I. In gen., to play upon a stringed instrument; esp., to play upon the cithara, to sing to the cithara: “psallere saltare elegantius,Sall. C. 25, 2 (but in Cic. Cat. 2, 10, 23 the correct read. is saltare et cantare; “v. Halm ad h. l.): qui canerent voce et qui psallerent,Gell. 19, 9, 3; cf.: “cantare et psallere jucunde,Suet. Tit. 3; Aur. Vict. Epit. 14: “docta psallere Chia,Hor. C. 4, 13, 7;  “in caelo cantatur et psallitur,

Psallo , i, 3, v. n., = psallō. I. In gen., to play upon a stringed instrument; esp., to play upon the cithara, to sing TO the cithara: “psallere saltare elegantius,

Saltātĭo , ōnis, f. id., I.a dancing; concr., a dance, Quint. 1, 11, 18 sq.; 2, 18, 1; Scipio Afric. ap. Macr. S. 2, 10: “multarum deliciarum comes est extrema saltatio,

Mŏdus 2. The measure of tones, measure, rhythm, melody, harmony, time; in poetry, measure, metre, mode: “vocum,Cic. Div. 2, 3, 9: musici, Quint. 1, 10, 14: lyrici,Ov. H. 15, 6: “fidibus Latinis Thebanos aptare modos,Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 12: Bacchico exsultas (i. e. exsultans) modo, Enn. ap. Charis [grace]. p. 214 P. (Trag. v. 152 Vahl.): “flebilibus modis concinere,Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 106: saltare [dance] ad tibicinis modos, to the music or sound of the flute, Liv. 7, 2: “nectere canoris Eloquium vocale modis,Juv. 7, 19.—Fig.: verae

Dēlĭcĭae [delicio; that which allures, flatters the senses], delight, pleasure, charm, allurement; deliciousness, luxuriousness, voluptuousness, curiosities of art; sport, frolics, etc. (freq. and class.; for syn. cf.: voluptas, libido, to sport as lovers,
Salto (to dance (in the widest signif. of the word, including pantomime and gesticulation; mostly with a contemptuous accessory “pantomimus Mnester tragoediam
saltatur Venus, saltatur et Magna Mater,” [The Mother Goddess]
ē-lēgo , āvi, 1, v. a.,
I.  to convey away (from the family) by bequest, to bequeath away, Petr. 43, 5; Gai. Inst. 2, 215.
Meaning to Recrucify Christ to yourself.

Sal. Cat. 25 In the number of those ladies was Sempronia, a woman who had committed many crimes with the spirit of a man. In birth and beauty, in her husband and her children, she was extremely fortunate; she was skilled in Greek and Roman literature;
         she could sing, play, and dance, with greater elegance than became a woman of virtue,
        and possessed many other accomplishments that tend to excite the passions.
But nothing was ever less valued by her than honor or chastity. Whether she was more prodigal of her money or her reputation, it would have been difficult to decide. Her desires were so ardent that she oftener made advances to the other sex than waited for solicitation. She had frequently, before this period, forfeited her word, forsworn debts, been privy to murder, and hurried into the utmost excesses by her extravagance and poverty.
        But her abilities were by no means despicable; she could compose verses,
        jest, and join in conversation either modest, tender, or licentious.
        In a word, she was distinguished by much refinement of wit, and much grace of expression.

Suet. Tit. 3 Nor was he unacquainted with music, but could both sing and play upon the harp sweetly and scientifically.

5.4.2 Behind the anthropological predilections against the victim's perspective, there is a very practical, quasi-historical reason: namely, the victim is shunned and often killed. In the ancient world, the role of music during ritual sacrifice was often to drown out any cries from the victim. (45) It is crucial that the victim not be heard. The practical mechanics of making victims means that it is unusual for the victim's perspective to survive. In the world of ancient ritual it was probably impossible.

45. The Greek verb myo means to close the mouth or shut the eyes. There is debate about whether myo plays a crucial role in the etymology of other significant words such as myth, mystery, and even music. These etymologies make sense within the Girardian hypotheses.
          Myth means to close ourselves to the victim and tell the tale according to the perpetrator's perspective;
          mystery cults are based on the silence of the victims; music derives from drowning out
          the voice of the victim

5.5 In general, then, the survival of the victim's perspective is highly unusual as a historical phenomenon -- until more recent history, that is, when the victim's perspective has finally established a beachhead in Western culture, namely, the cultures most often in closest contact with the Gospel (more on this below). (And it must be emphasized that the close contact is in the category of being an accident of history and not by any meritorious claims for Western culture. In short, the perspective of the victim has established a place in Western culture not because of any inherent merit in Western culture but because of the historical accident of being in close proximity to the Gospel over a long period of time.)

Sall. C. 25, 2 (but in Cic. Cat. 2, 10, 23 the correct read. is saltare et cantare;

Sal. Cat. 25 In the number of those ladies was Sempronia, a woman who had committed many crimes with the spirit of a man. In birth and beauty, in her husband and her children, she was extremely fortunate; she was skilled in Greek and Roman literature; she could sing, play, and dance, with greater elegance than became a woman of virtue, and possessed many other accomplishments that tend to excite the passions... Her desires were so ardent that she oftener made advances to the other sex than waited for solicitation.

v. Halm ad h. l.): qui canerent voce et qui psallerent,Gell. 19, 9, 3;

Gel. 703. When there was an end of eating and drinking, and the time came for conversation, Julianus asked that the singers and lyre-players be produced, the most skilful of both sexes, whom he knew that the young man had at hand. And when the boys and girls were brought in, they sang in a most charming way several odes of Anacreon and Sappho, as well as some erotic elegies of more recent poets that were sweet and graceful. But we were especially pleased with some delightful verses of Anacreon, written in his old age,  which I noted down, in order that sometimes the toil and worry of this task of mine might find relief in the sweetness of poetical compositions:

cf.: “cantare et psallere jucunde,Suet. Tit. 3; Aur. Vict. Epit. 14:

Suet. Tit. 3 and such was the facility he possessed in both, that he would harangue and versify extempore. Nor was he unacquainted with music, but could both sing and play upon the harp sweetly and scientifically I have likewise been informed by many persons, that he was remarkably quick in writing short-hand, would in merriment and jest engage with his secretaries in the imitation of any hand-writing he saw, and often say, " that he was admirably qualified for forgery."

docta psallere Chia,Hor. C. 4, 13, 7; id. Ep. 2, 1, 33. —Of singing to the cithara: Calliope princeps sapienti psallerat ore, Caesius Bassus ap. Prisc. p. 897 P.;

Hor. Od. 4.13
The gods have heard, the gods have heard my prayer;
Yes, Lyce! you are growing old, and still
You struggle to look fair;
You drink, and dance, and trill
lūdĭus ,

Your songs to youthful Love, in accents weak
With wine, and age, and passion. Youthful Love!
He dwells in Chia's cheek,
And hears her harp-strings move.

Who reign'd in Cinara's stead, a fair, fair face,
Queen of sweet arts? but Fate to Cinara gave
A life of little space;
And now she cheats the grave

Of Lyce, spared to raven's length of days,
That youth may see, with laughter and disgust,
A fire-brand, once ablaze,
Now smouldering in grey dust.
✓  Aur. Vict. Caes. 5; Prud. steph. 10, 837.—Impers.: “in caelo cantatur et psallitur,Arn. 3, 21.—

II. In partic., in Ecclesiastical Latin, to sing the Psalms of David, ; Vulg. 1 Cor. 14, 15
1Corinthians 14:15 What is it then?
        I will pray with the spirit,  [Not just my breath]
        and I will pray with the understanding also:
        I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also.

Oro Speak with To pray, beg, beseech, entreat one
a breathing or gentle blowing of air, a breath,
2.  he breath of a god, inspiration: Spirit, soul, mind.
2. Spiritus, personified, a spirit

mensfeelings, sentiments, The conscience:
B. the intellectual faculties, the mind, understanding, intellect, reason, judgment, discernment, consideration, reflection,

1 Cor 14.15] quid ergo est orabo spiritu orabo et mente psallam spiritu psallam et mente


Chanting and playing to caelum (coelum ; cf. Aelius the sky, heaven, the heavens, the vault of heaven

2. Personified: Caelus (Caelum, Hyg. Fab. praef.), son of Aether and Dies, Cic. N. D. 3, 17, 44; father of Saturn, Enn. ap. Non. p. 197, 9; Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 63; of Vulcan, id. ib. 3, 21, 55; of Mercury and the first Venus, id. ib. 3, 23, 59, Serv ad Verg. A. 1, 297 al.
3. In the lang. of augury: “de caelo servare,to observe the signs of heaven, Cic. Att. 4, 3, 3; so, “de caelo fieri, of celestial signs,to appear, occur, id. Div. 1, 42, 93.—

Under "Star Worship" the Jewish Encyclopedia states:

"Star Worship" is perhaps the oldest form of idolatry practiced by the ancients. The observation of the stars in the East very early led the people to regard the planets and the fixed stars as gods. The religion of the ancient Egyptians is known to have consisted preeminently of Sun-worship. Moses sternly warned the Israelites against worshipping the Sun, Moon, stars, and all the hosts of heaven (Deuteronomy 4:19; 17:3). The Israelites fell into this kind of idolatry and as early as the time of Amos they had the images of Siccuth and Chium, 'the stars of their god' (Amos 5:26); the latter name is generally supposed to denote the planet Saturn. That the Kingdom of Israel fell earlier than that of Judah is stated (II Kings 17:16) to have been due, among other causes, to its worshipping the host of heaven.

But the Kingdom of Judah in its later period seems to have outdone the Northern Kingdom [Israel] in star-worship." Of Manasseh it is related that he built altars to all the hosts of heaven in the two courts of the house of YHWY, and it seems it was the practice of even Kings before him to appoint priests who offered sacrifices to the Sun, the Moon, the planets, and all the hosts of heaven. Altars for star-worship were built on the roofs of the houses, and horses and chariots were dedicated to the worship of the Sun. (II Kings 21:5; 23:4-5, 11-12) Star-worship continued in Judah until the 18th year of Josiah's reign (621 B.C.) when the King took measures to abolish all kinds of idolatry. But although star-worship was then abolished as a public cult, it was practiced privately by individuals who worshipped the heavenly bodies, and poured out libations to them on the roofs of their houses (Zephaniah 1:5; Jeremiah 8:2; 19:13)  Jeremiah, who prophesied in the sixth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (591 B.C.) describes the worship of the Sun as practiced in the court of the Temple (Ezekiel 8:16) and that even after the destruction of the Temple the women insisted on continuing to worship the Queen of Heaven.

"The ancient Hebrews, being nomads like the Arabs, favored the Moon, while the Babylonians, who were an agricultural nation, preferred the Sun. But, as appears from Ezekiel 20:7-8 the Moon-worship of the Israelites, even while they were still in Egypt was combined with Sun-worship."

How could those promoting paganism have missed Acts 7:

Acts 7:42 Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the host of heaven; as it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye house of Israel, have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices by the space of forty years in the wilderness?

Danny Corbitt  He is saying that in yet other (unnamed) passages, psallo appears to mean sing with no implication of playing. Granted, he also recognizes that psallo continued to be used for playing an instrument for generations after the Apostles (p 491).

No: Psallo never meant PLAYING IN INSTRUMENT at any time in recorded history. Psallo or "Pluck with the fingers but never with the fingers was derived from the bow.  If you pluck a LYRE STRING you make a ringing sound but this is not music.  If I clang on metal it is not music.
Psallo was used IN CONNECTION with a harp or other stringed instrument like the Bow. However, Psallo never means to play to ACCOMPANY singing. We have pointed out that there are specific words the Holy Spirit could have used.

Furthermore, as a sample, I see the same conjugation of psallo (for “I will sing praise”) where Delling says that an instrument is named (71:22); where an instrument is implied because of the use together with “sing” (27:6); where no instrument is named but the sense is to play (18:49); and where the sense is both singing and playing together (7:17). In summary, Delling argues that psallo often meant to play an instrument even if no instrument was mentioned by name.

The Psalmist is not speaking of singing and playing in a religious sense: David was not authorized to Play as a warrior Levite. Furthermore, this is a figurative poem and poems tend to be poetic. A single individual cannot obey this as a command for the church: even if they could, each person would have to have their LITERAL harp: in a spiritual sense we all have "a harp from God" as an instrument of rational speech. Always pay attention to the parallelism:

Psalms 71:20 Thou, which hast shewed me great and sore troubles,
        shalt quicken me again, and shalt bring me up again from the depths of the earth.
Psalms 71:21 Thou shalt increase my greatness, and comfort me on every side.

Psalms 71:22 I will also praise thee with the psaltery,
Parallel to:(which is) even thy truth,

You cannot sing with a physical harp:

O my God: unto thee will I sing with the harp, O thou Holy One of Israel.
Parallel to: My lips shall greatly rejoice when I sing unto THEE;
        and my soul, which thou hast redeemed. Psalms 71:23

Why is it so difficult to distinguish between singint unto God and singing unto an admiring and paying audiende.

Psalms 71:24 My tongue also shall talk
        of THY righteousness all the day long:
        for they are confounded, for they are brought unto shame, that seek my hurt.
The tongue is the ORGANON given by God.
Mĕdĭtor to think or reflect upon, to muse over, consider, meditate upon; neutr., to think, reflect, muse, consider, meditate; to design, purpose, intend,
B. Thought upon, meditated, weighed, considered, studied:

Isaiah 33.18  Your heart shall muse on the terror: Where is he who counted, where is he who weighed [the tribute]? where is he who counted the towers?
Genesis 24.63 Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the evening. He lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, there were camels coming.

Danny Corbitt It has been argued here that David did not sing and play at the same time. In contrast, Delling argues, for example, that 57:7-9 (see above) involves both singing and playing, and this is a “psalm of David.”

Singing TO a harp meant to pluck a string and then match the voice to that sound: singing is not a natural endownment but the bow string and then the harp always set the tune.  No assembly ever met with a Harp Band to lead you into worship which meant to fall on your face if you grasp that He is God and we are Not.

In the Movie interpretation, a David would recite or speak a stanza and then strum the harp: Selah is thought to be a reminder to REMEMBER what had just been spoken or cantillated.

So, if you don't want to be a hypocrite you would take your harp off and play to yourself.

It has been argued here that the instrument to be played in Eph 5:19 is only the human heart. Delling rather says that the sense is “‘the engagement of the heart”, not a ‘silent song’.” (p 498, footnote 96). He cites several samples from the Septuagint with the same sense (9:1; 86:12; 111:1, and 138:1). Psalm 9:1 reads, “I will praise you O Lord with all my heart.”

The Command is to SPEAK one to another with "that which is written for our learning." Speak is the opposite of poetry or music.  The assembly is to TEACH and edify meaning EDUCATE.


The Bible is filled with the antithesis between the performing clergy of all religions using music as the primary tool to fool the foolish by literally changing the thinking power of the mind so that it accepts that which is false if it is presented by the "Muses" or the "Graces."

II. Antithetical Parallelism--The thought of the first line is expressed by an antithesis in the second;
or is counterbalanced by a contrast in the second. This parallelism is very common in the Book of Proverbs:

(a) The tongue of the wise adorneth knowledge,
BUT} The mouth of the fool blurteth out folly.

Prov., xv, 2.
(b) Soundness of heart is the life of the flesh,
{BUT} Envy is the rot of the bones.
--Proverbs 14:30.

The thoughts of the righteous are right,
the counsels of the wicked are deceitful. Proverbs 12:5 (NKJV)

Proverbs 15:14 The heart of him that hath understanding seeketh knowledge:
        {BUT} the mouth of fools feedeth on foolishness.

Ephesians 5:7 Be not ye therefore partakers with them.
Ephesians 5:8 For ye were sometimes darkness,
        BUT now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light:
Ephesians 5:9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;
     [The WORD is the only TRUTH]
Ephesians 5:10 Proving what is acceptable unto the Lord.
Ephesians 5:11 And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness,
         BUT rather reprove them.
Ephesians 5:12 For it is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret.
Ephesians 5:13 BUT all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: for whatsoever doth make manifest is light.
Ephesians 5:14 Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.
Ephesians 5:15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,
Ephesians 5:16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.
Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise,
         BUT understanding what the WILL of the Lord is. [The Word]
Ephesians 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess;
        BUT be filled with the Spirit; [The word of Christ John 6:63]
Ephesians 5:19
        How?    Speaking
to yourselves
        What?   in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,
        Where? singing and making melody IN your heart to the Lord;
Ephesians 5:20 Giving thanks always for all things
        unto God and the Father
        in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;

Matthew 11:25 At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise [sophos] and prudent [sunetos] , and hast revealed them unto babes.   [sunetos] “dusxunetou xuneton melosId.Ph.1506   I have many swift arrows in the quiver under my arm, [85] arrows that speak to the initiated. But the masses need interpreters.
melos kata melē limb by limb, dismember
Ephesians 5:17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, aphrōn  A. senseless, of statues, Colossians 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom;
BUT understanding what the WILL of the Lord is. John 6:63a It is the spirit that quickeneth;
the flesh [sarx] profiteth nothing: 
Ephesians 5:18 And be not saturated with wine,  wherein is excess;
      [Excess is  asōtia, prodigality, profligacy, Ep.Eph. 5.18 revel
    Plat. Rep. 560e  and purged of all these the soul of the youth that they have thus possessed and occupied, and whom they are initiating with these magnificent and costly rites,  they proceed to lead home from exile insolence and anarchy and prodigality and shamelessness, resplendent in a great attendant choir and crowned with garlands, and in celebration of their praises they euphemistically denominate insolence ‘good breeding,’ licence ‘liberty,’ prodigality ‘magnificence,’
sarx , the flesh, as the seat of the affections and lusts,  hēdonē, natural order Opposite to to supernatural.
     1Corinthians 1:26 For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise [sophos] men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called:
    1Corinthians 1:27 But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty;

The only "music" word: --khoros choir, band of dancers and singers, sumphōnia kai khoroiEv.Luc.15.25.
kat-auleô A. charm by flute-playing, methuōn kai katauloumenos  drinking wine to the strains of the flute to be piped down, ridiculed sophos  mantis  poets and musicians, Pi.O.1.9, P.1.42, 3.113; en kithara s. en oiōnois, kithara, lawyers or professors
but be filled with the Spirit
[Word of Christ in Col 3:16]
John 6:63b the  WORDS that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.
Ephesians 5:19
How?            Speaking

Where?        to yourselves
Resource?  psalms,hymns, spiritual songs,
      [Rom 15 one mind and one mouth.]

How?           teaching
and admonishing
Where?       one another
Resource? psalms, hymns, spiritual songs,
[Rom 15 that which is written for our learning]
Effect?  singing and making melody
Where? IN your heart 
Effect?    singing with grace
  IN your hearts
Audience?  to the Lord; Audience?  to the Lord.
Ephesians 5:20 Giving thanks always for all things
        unto God and the Father
        in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ;
Colossians 3:17 And whatsoever ye do in word or deed,
  do all in the name of the Lord Jesus,
  giving thanks to God and the Father by him.
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
Jesus SPOKE one hymn (as far as we know) and then WENT OUT.  This was a yearly event and "saying the Hallel daily is blasphemous."

One should never claim authority beyond Jesus' promise to be the Head of the Church until He comes again in physical form

Psalms 9:1  I will praise thee, O LORD, with my whole heart; I
         will shew (narate) forth all thy marvellous works.

David praised the works of God and not the works of the "worship team." To praise or glorify God you must use the record of HIS WORKS or "that which is written for our learning" Rom. 15. David praised WITH his heart.

Narro , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. for gnarigo (gnarigavit, Fest. p. 95) from gnarus; Sanscr. gnā, know; Gr. gignōskō; cf.: nosco (gnosco), ignoro, to be the subject of talk, it is said of me, thee, etc
I. to tell, relate, narrate, report, recount, set forth (syn.: memoro, nuntio, trado).
narrare, to inform one's self, learn:
II. Transf., in gen., to say, speak, tell: Hence, narro tibi, I tell you, I assure you, in fact, seriously, a form of asseveration: “


Mīrābĭlis (I. sup. mirabilissimus, Col. 6, 36, 3 MSS.), e, adj. miror, to be wondered at, wonderful, marvellous, extraordinary, admirable, strange
II. Esp. (eccl. Lat.).
A. Glorious: “mirabilis Deus in sanctis suis,Vulg. Psa. 67, 36: “mirabilis in altis Dominus,id. ib. 92, 6.—
B. Miraculous: “mirabilia opera Altissimi solius,Vulg. Eccli. 11, 4: “facta,id. Jer. 5, 30 et saep.—Hence,
A. Subst.: mīrābĭle , is, n., a miracle, wondrous deed (eccl. Lat.): “et faciet Dominus mirabile,Vulg. Exod. 9, 4.—Mostly plur.: “cras faciet Dominus inter vos mirabilia,Vulg. Jos. 3, 5: “videntes mirabilia quae fecit,id. Matt. 21, 15 

Gignōskō , Dor. (Epich.9, Pi.O.6.97), Aeol., Ion., and after Arist. ginōskō , but gignōskō in early Att. Inscrr., as IG12.127.19 (kata-), etc.: fut. dupl. acc., perceive or know another to be . also ho g. one who knows, a prudent perso
Isoc. 15 192 These, then, are my views as to the relative importance of native ability and practice. I cannot, however, make a like claim for education; its powers are not equal nor comparable to theirs. For if one should take lessons in all the principles of oratory and master them with the greatest thoroughness,
        he might, perhaps, become a more pleasing speaker than most,
        but let him stand up before the crowd and lack one thing only,
        namely, assurance, and he would not be able to utter a word.

Delling says that the sense is not silent and internal, but something audible with the engagement of the heart.

Speak means speak: it is opposite of ODE of poetry or music. The message is to speak that which is written for our learning. The ODE and PSALLO are in the heart or SILENT because they both are destructive of learning.

Just a poem: there is no pattern for congregational singing in the synagogue which excluded any rejoicing because we don't make noises when God speaks to us.

Psalms 57:7 My heart is fixed, O God, my heart is fixed: I will sing and give praise.
Psalms 57:8 Awake up, my glory; awake, psaltery and harp: I myself will awake early.
Psalms 57:9 I will praise thee, O Lord, among the people:
        I will sing unto thee among the nations.

Christ rejects this when the congregation assembles;

Hab. 2:19 Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach!
        Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it.
Hab. 2:20 But the LORD is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him.

Habakkuk 2[19] vae qui dicit ligno expergiscere surge lapidi tacenti numquid ipse docere poterit ecce iste coopertus est auro et argento et omnis spiritus non est in visceribus eius
tăcĕo , cŭi, cĭtum, 2, v. n. and
I.  a. [etym. dub.; perh. root tak-, tvak-, to be or make quiet, content; Sanscr. tucyati, to satisfy; v. Fick, Vergl. Wört. s. v. § 73; 362].
plectra dolore tacent; “muta dolore lyra est,id. H. 15, 198:
căno , cĕcĭni, cantum (ancient
I. imp. cante = canite, Carm. Sal. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, § 37 Müll.; fut. perf. canerit = cecinerit, Lib. Augur. ap. Fest. s. v. rumentum, p. 270 ib.; perf. canui = cecini, acc. to Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 384, predominant in concino, occino, etc.—Examples of sup. cantum and part. cantus, canturus, a, um, appear not to be in use; the trace of an earlier use is found in Paul. ex Fest. p. 46 Müll.: canta pro cantata ponebant; “once canituri,Vulg. Apoc. 8, 13), 3, v. n. and a. [cf. kanassō, kanakhē, konabos; Germ. Hahn; Engl. chanticleer; kuknos, ciconice; Sanscr. kōkas = duck; Engl. cock], orig. v. n., to produce melodious sounds, whether of men or animals; later, with a designation of the subject-matter of the melody, as v. a., to make something the subject of one's singing or playing, to sing of, to celebrate, or make known in song, etc.
Habakkuk 2.[20] Dominus autem in templo sancto suo sileat a facie eius omnis terra

sĭlĕo , ŭi (II. [select] Transf., to be still or quiet (opp. to being in action), to remain inactive, to rest, cease (in class. prose, for the most part only of things; cf. “quiesco): et cycnea mele Phoebeaque Carmina consimili ratione oppressa silerent,Lucr. 2, 506: “silent diutius Musae Varronis quam solebant,Cic. Ac. 1, 1, 2

The Pythagoreans were also called Silentes for the five years during which they were to listen to the instructions of Pythagoras: “coetus silentum,Ov. M. 15, 66; “hence, silentes anni, these five years of the Pythagoreans,

Worshippers, such as known from statues as previously mentioned, may have been in attendance, and the ceremony could have included singing or accompaniment by music.

Statues of the gods, or of new gods being inaugurated into the city, were made and installed, as text 6:2 tells us, noting a "year in which Isme-Dagan installed the copper statue of Ninurta for the Esumesa in its high dais" (Postgate:118). Here we see a possible use of the stone block, already noted in the figure worship of the Assyrian Tukulti Ninurta. Again, such dedications would have been accompanied by sacrifices, ritual and possibly prayer.

The statue "underwent mouth and eye-opening rituals in order to make it animate" (Pollock:187). It is known that the statues were made of wood, covered in precious metals, and inlaid with precious stones and lapiz-lazuli.

Awake up, my glory; awake, psaltery and harp: I myself will awake early. Ps.57:

Paul uses two terms: SPEAK connects to LOGOS or the Word of Christ which IS Spirit (John 6:63). The word speak is the OPPOSITE of poetry or music.

IN THE SPIRIT: The worship IN THE SPIRIT (a place) is opposed to IN THE FLESH (Philippians 3).  Melody is often used "to make the heart strings sing." The effort is to GOD and Jesus said that God is only worshipped in the SPIRIT as a place in contrast to Gerezim and Zion.

Danny Corbitt We may also compare 108:1 where David “engages his soul” in a passage where Delling says psallo implies a musical instrument. Delling says that David is audibly playing an instrument in Psalm 108:1 (not plucking the strings of his soul). (Note that Psalm 108:1 and Ephesians 5:19 both say “sing and make music,” one with the soul, the other with the heart.)

David was never a worship leader: he might get executed if he tried to perform the tasks of the cursed tribe of Levi. 

Psa. 108:0 A Song or Psalm of David.
Psa. 108:1 O God, my heart is fixed;
        I will sing and give praise, even with my glory.
Psa. 108:2 Awake, psaltery and harp:
        I myself will awake early.
Psa. 108:3 I will praise thee, O LORD, among the people:
        and I will sing praises unto thee among the nations.
This is a parallelism: if David did this literally he would be doing what the pagans did who thought that the gods (demons) lived inside of their musical instruments. 

It has been argued here that psallo could only be used of plucking the strings of a stringed instrument with one’s fingers. The point of the argument is not clear to me, because I don’t see anyone welcoming praise only by finger-plucking a stringed instrument, and the argument doesn’t seem to dissuade anyone from seeing the stringless heart as a valid instrument for psallo.

Danny Corbitt may have never seen a Christ-ordained Ekklesia or Synagogue. If you BLOW with your mouth you VIOLATE the Psallo word and are self condemned.

Commanding and exampling SPEAKING in the assembly which is the opposite of poetry or music did not persuade the Scribes and Pharisees speaking, singing and playing for profit: Jesus calls the Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites.  It is true: Jesus never said "thou shalt not be a hypocrite."

Anyway, it is true that the word psallo derived from plucking a stringed instrument, but the evolving usage does not appear to necessarily demand strings. Delling cites where psallo was used for playing a flute or oboe (p. 490), and the Septuagint has psallo for playing a tambourine and a harp (Psalm 149:3, where psallo is translated “make music”).

In the first instance, Psallo meant PLUCKING: it was first used in connection with making a bow string twang as it sends forth singing arrows into the literal heart. Psallo is used in the Greek text meaning "to shoot forth a hymn."

Psa. 149:1 Praise ye the LORD. Sing unto the LORD a new song,
        and his praise in the congregation of saints.
Psa. 149:2 Let Israel rejoice in him that made him:
        let the children of Zion be joyful in their King.
Psa. 149:3 Let them praise his name in the dance:
        let them sing praises unto him with the timbrel and harp.
There are three words sing, praises and timbrel and harp: the timbrel and harp would not praise but accompany. Besides, I would not want to use this chapter because it seems to want to get God into his bed which is consistent with all people performing Sabazianism or worship of the starry host.

Praise was something the King, commanders and the army did to try to spook the enemy: praise means the following and you might not want to do any of this in the School of Christ:

Perhaps the comments before mine are correct and Delling is mistaken on all of these points. It just seems to me that arguments like these are disputable, even by scholars who favor vocal praise. We must be careful not to break fellowship over arguments that are not clearly supported.

Then why does Danny work really hard trying to justify those who BREAK fellowship by imposing instruments into a peaceable church: that is the meaning of a heretic or sectarian.  Danny thinks it is ok to break fellowship by imposing something that the Bible repudiates over and over.

Too bad Danny was not there to tell the Disciples not to break fellowship by imposing instruments. Churches of Christ were never in fellowship with the Disciples and the Christian Church was not fully sectarianed out of the Disciples until 1971.  So, if Danny, ACU, etal will stop trying to cram instruments down the throats of churches of Christ then we will not be hated by God for playing instruments in the temple and deliberately sowing discord.

Musical Worship Index
E-mail Kenneth Sublett

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