M. C. Kurfees by Tom Burgess

M. C. Kurfees and G. C. Brewer, the Bible and all literary resources refute Tom Burgess identification of Anti-instrumentalists ignorance of the ability to read lexicons.

All musical terms and names of instruments in the Bible point to Satan as the origin in a "worship" sense. He/she knew that man--whom she hated--was given an emotional hemisphere of the brain. If one hears a "saber toothed tiger" growl the rational brain SHUTS DOWN and the emotional side instantly prepares us to FIGHT or FLIGHT. We simply do not do "doubtful disputations."

The body creates chemicals such as endorphins which produce great anxiety. Satan knew that the identical impulses can be created by music which contains the same complex frequencies of a dangerous animal. By stimulating mankind with music she can prduce the bungee-jumping sensation. First, it is mortal fear but the drug high gives us a LIFT which she claims is a "spiritual" feeling which God and His rational Word does not manufacture.

ALL of the related words carry this destructive meaning to keep your eyes off Jesus and on the theatrical performing preacher, singers or musicians.

The ONLY references Burgess uses to associate Psallo which is a warfare word with MUSIC also point to older males PLUCKING the harp strings to groom a young boy used as the "ministers of the goddess" where sodomy was said to bind the flesh and spirit together. That is what all musicians claim knowing with Paul that "fools love to be fooled."

Paul in Romans 14 defines activities within our private world about which the church MUST NOT do "disputations" or dialogs or "sermonizing" because the ekklesia, synagogue or school of the Bible is directly commanded in Romans 15. The task of the "school of the Bible" is to teach disciples and not create spiritual anxiety which Jesus died to remove.

All of Paul's references to assemblies speak of TEACHING the Word and none of them engaged in "singing." That is why truth lovers hear Paul say TEACH or PREACH.

A. Ralph Johnson in Instrumental Music, Sacred or Sinful.

1. Tom Burgess in Documents on Instrumental Music reviewed. Psallo and Instrumental Music: Proofs do not prove anything but the "music-homosexuality" connection.

See more on Strabo's definition of the worship of Apollo or Abaddon or Apollyon: his MUSES are the locusts or musical performers in the book of revelation.

2. Tom Burgess More Review of Plutarch: if Psallo authorizes "church music" it authorizes a homosexual gathering.

3. Tom Burgess on Moralia confirms the "Music-Heresy-Perversion" connection which has no historical exception. 10/20/04

4. Tom Burgess on John Chrysostom: are the anti-instrumentalists ignorant rurals? 10/21/04 What about Paul and Martin Luther and John Calvin and Zwingli and--everyone who believed the Bible as authority.

5. Tom Burgess on Kurfees versus Thayer and Grimm: Quotes from: G. C. Brewer, A Medley on the Music Question, Gospel Advocate, Nashville 1948. Burgess uses the same Krewson arguments. LATEST 11/06/05

Charles Daily Northwest College of the Bible Part One ..... Part One A .....Part Two .... THRESKIA or CHARISMATIC

Walking by Faith is Not Walking by Sound: Music neither Teaches nor Admonishes: Music Universally Sows Discord.
See Pamphlet
Tom Burgess on page 25 notes:

Tom Burgess: Before I present the evidence contained in Greek lexicons, I would like to quote a statement from M. C. Kurfees. It is found in Chapter II "Psallo as defined by the lexicons. "

"A careful survey of the field of evidence furnished by lexicographers of every grade has led the author to the decided conviction that there is not a solitary fact in all history touching the meaning of psallo which, considered in the light of its proper connection and bearing, can be legitimately used to sustain the practice of instrumental music in the worship of God under Christ. "4

4 Kurfees, M. C., Instrumental Music in the Worship, 1950. p. 7. Used by permission.

Burgess Page 26

Tom Burgess: I say with all sincerity and lack of malice that such a statement could only be made by a careful sifting of evidence furnished by lexicographers of every grade. Let the evidence speak for itself.


Tom Burgess: We will first consider the much discussed lexicon of Grimm & Wilke, which has been translated, revised and enlarged by Joseph Henry Thayer. Thayer was professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation of the Divinity School of Harvard University. He is best known as the Secretary of the New Testament Company of translators for the American Standard Edition of the Revised Bible, 1901.

Example 9

Before we go too far, it is important to note that not ALL that Thayer or anyone else lists for
PSALLO is THE definition. Rather, since Thayer has no ancient lexicon to refer to he follows Grimm (Latin) and lists how the word is USED in the New Testament and other Greek literature.

For instance, the "mother" of the word is not spiritual worship with music but of warfare or wearing or rubbing a thing into a fine powder: to titurate. In our review of Burgess on PSALLO we list many of the equivalent words.

Jesus prepared SOP for Judas by grinding up bread, dipping it into the wine of the regular Passover which originated in Babylon and gave it to Judas. The devil then CAME INTO Judas and he became the devil's INSTRUMENT. The sop has the base meaning of Psallo.

Tom Burgess: A great deal of controversy has been raised over Grimm's phrase: "to sing to the music of the harp; in the New Testament to sing a hymn, to celebrate the praises of God in song.... " To those who oppose instrumental accompaniment, this phrase is undeniable evidence that Thayer says musical accompaniment was excluded in the New Testarnent.

I know of no one who quoted Grimm's LATIN material at the time of the great writers and debaters. They all knew about Grimm and probably others. However, Kurfees quotes Thayer who knew what no one could know to the contrary: unless you were shooting literall arrows, or plucking harps which most often meant shooting LOVE ARROWS, you were left with SHOOTING OUT HYMNS. See our review of A Ralph Johnson and more SHOOTING of songs or love arrows--unless you want to SHOOT the preacher with a dull flint.

Toxeuô to shoot with the bow, to shoot from a bow: metaph., to discharge, send forth, humnous

toxon (“-ou, -ō, -on; -ōn, -ois” (“i”), “-oisin”.) s.,
1.bow: pl., arrowsargureō toxō polemizōn PhoibosO. 9.32khruseois toxoisin hup' ArtemidosP. 3.10en polemō toxois apo psukhan lipōnP. 3.101dmathen de keraunō toxoisi t' ApollōnosP. 8.18elpomai mega eipōn skopou anta tukhein hōt' apo toxou hieisN. 6.28 and so met. of the arrows of song, “epekhe nun skopō toxon, age thumeO. 2.89hekatabolōn Moisan apo toxōnO. 9.5 of wine, “aexontai phrenas ampelinois toxois damentes” fr. 124. 11.
--Mouseios , on, Aeol. Moisaios , a, on, (Mousa)
A.of or belonging to the Muses, “hedraE.Ba.410 (lyr.); Moisaion harma the car of Poesy, Pi.I.8 (7).67; lithos M. a monument of song, Id.N.8.47.
II. musical, “keladosAP9.372.

--Mousa , ēs, , Aeol. Moisa . Mōsa Alcm. 1, etc.; Lacon. Mōha (for Mōsa) Ar.Lys.1298, cf. An. Ox.1.277:—Muse,
A.Olumpiades M., Dios aigiokhoio thugateresIl.2.491, cf. Hes.Th.25, etc.; nine in number, first in Od.24.60; named in Hes.Th.75 sqq.
II. mousa, as Appellat., music, song, “m. stugeraA.Eu.308 (anap.); “euphamosId.Supp.695 (lyr.); “kanakhan [clanging, gnashing of teeth]. . theias antiluron mousasS.Tr.643 (lyr.); “Aiakō moisan pherein [LADED BURDEN] Pi.N.3.28; tis hēde mousa; what strain is this ? E.Ion757; “aluros m.Id.Ph.1028 (lyr.); “dia mousas ēxaId.Alc.962 (lyr.): in Prose, “adein adokimon m.Pl.Lg. 829d: in pl., mousai Sphiggos, of the Sphinx's riddle, E.Ph.50; esp. liberal arts, accomplishments, “tas mousas aphanizōnAr.Nu.972; “apaideuton tōn peri tas numphikas m.Pl.Lg.775b: also in sg., “tēs alēthinēs m. ēmelēkenaiId.R.548b; koinōnein mousēs ib.411c.
2. hautē Sōkratous m. that was Socrates's way, Gal.UP1.9
Plato. Laws [775b] half that amount for the second, and so on in proportion, according as the valuation grows less. He that obeys the law should be praised by all; but he that disobeys the Law-wardens shall punish as a man of poor taste and ill-trained in the “nomes”1 of the nuptial Muses. Drinking to excess is a practice that is nowhere seemly2—save only at the feasts of the God, the Giver of wine,—nor yet safe; and certainly it is not so for those who take marriage seriously; for at such a time above all it behoves both bride and bridegroom to be sober, seeing that the change

1 Cp. Plat. Laws 700b, Plat. Laws 722d.

2 Cp. Plat. Laws 674a.

koinōn-eō   7. communicate, join, eruthra thalassa k. pros tēn exō . . Arist.Mete.354a2.

8. form a community, Id.Pol.1280a26, etc.
II. of sexual intercourse, k. gunaiki, andri, Pl.Lg.784e, Luc.DDeor.1.2, 10.2

--apo  implying departure from life, to live apart from a man or husband
3 of the mind, a. thumou away from, i. e. alien from, my heart, Il.1.562; “a. doxēs10.324; partitive, lakhōn a. lēidos aisan part taken from the booty, a share of it,

toxeuma arrow met. of song polla men artiepês [glib[ glôssa moi toxeumat' echei peri keinôn keladesai I. 5.47

kela^d-eō  2. [select] of persons, shout aloud, atar keladēsan Akhaioi, in applause, Il.23.869; “eme dei k.Pratin. Lyr. 1.3, cf. B.l.c.; “keladeonti amphi Kinuran phamai
ki^nura [u^, , = Hebr.
A.kinnor, a stringed instrument played with the hand, LXX 1 Ki.16.23; with a plectron, J.AJ7.12.3.
1 Samuel 16.23 It happened, when the [evil] spirit from God was on Saul, that David took the harp, and played with his hand: so Saul was refreshed, and was well, and the evil spirit departed from him.

Spiritus in Latin has the same literal meaning of wind or breath [ The breath of a god, inspiration, A haughty spirit, haughtiness, pride, arrogance] but because God had abandoned Israel to worship the starry host (and gave them kings in His anger) the word is widely used in the sense of

spīrĭtus spiritum Phoebus mihi, Phoebus [Abaddon, Apollyon] artem Carminis [music, enchantment] dedit, poetic spirit or inspiration, Hor. C. 4, 6, 29; cf an evil spirit

Hor. Od. 4.6
Sweet tuner of the Grecian lyre,
Whose locks are laved in Xanthus' dews,
Blooming Agyieus! help, inspire
My Daunian Muse!

'Tis Phoebus, Phoebus gifts [spiritum] my tongue
With minstrel art and minstrel fires:
Come, noble youths and maidens sprung
From noble sires,
carmen a tune, song; poem, verse; an oracular response, a prophecy; a form of incantation (cf.: cano, cantus, and canto). “per me (sc. Apollinem) concordant carmina nervislyrae carmen,harundineum,
citharae liquidum carme  With allusion to playing on the cithara barbaricum,

pŏēta , a contriver, trickster, Cic. de Or. 2, 46, 194: “oratores et poëtae,id. ib. 3, 10, 39: “versificator quam poëta melior,Quint. 10, 1, 89:

per-cŭtĭo o strike through and through, to thrust or pierce through (syn.: percello, transfigo). o strike through and through, to thrust or pierce through (syn.: percello, transfigo). b. [select] To strike, play a musical instrument (poet.): “lyram,Ov. Am. 3, 12, 40; Val. Fl. 5, 100.—1. [select] To smite, strike, visit with calamity of any kind (class.): “percussus calamitate mălus spirit meaning EXORCISM
Pind. I. 5 In heroic times, too, fine warriors gained fame, and they are celebrated with lyres and flutes in full-voiced harmonies for time beyond reckoning. Heroes who are honored by the grace of Zeus provide a theme for skilled poets: .....

My swift tongue has many arrows, to shout the praises of these heroes. And now the city of Aias, Salamis, could testify that she was saved by her sailors in Ares' confrontation in the destructive storm sent by Zeus, [50] when slaughter poured like hail on countless men. Nevertheless, quench this boast in silence. Zeus dispenses both good and bad, Zeus the master of all. But such honors as these also welcome the joy of triumph, covered with the delicious honey of song. Let a man strive and contend

Clement: All honour to that king of the Scythians, whoever Anacharsis was, who shot with an arrow one of his subjects who imitated among the Scythians the mystery of the Mother of the gods, as practised by the inhabitants of Cyzicus,
         beating a drum and sounding a cymbal strung from his neck like a priest of Cybele,
         condemning him as having become effeminate among the Greeks,
         and a teacher of the disease of effeminacy to the rest of the Cythians.

Pi. I.2.3 Pindar, OdesIsthmian Odes

The men of old, Thrasybulus, who mounted the chariot of the Muses with their golden headbands,
         joining the glorious lyre,
         lightly shot forth their honey-voiced songs for young men,

if one was handsome and had the sweetest ripeness that brings to mind Aphrodite on her lovely throne.

One might suppose that this is the ancient "law of silence." Because Thayer notes the uses of Psallo outside of the N.T. and then says:


Kurfees may have logically claimed that Thayer EXCLUDED instruments. If not INCLUDED then logically EXCLUDED. Because Thayer cannot find PSALLO used to include
BOTH singing AND playing he makes a good decision. The fact that a HARP is used while SINGING does not mean that SINGING a Psalm INCLUDES a harp. One might smoke hashish as they usually did in the perverted musical rituals WHILE harping with their harps but HARPING does not include hashish. The prevailing literature notes that they often sodomized one another when made frantic by the flute-girls or male musicians: catamites. However, making melody does not INCLUDE sodomy or shooting people with real arrows or--as prophetic of Apollo's (Abaddon, Apollyon) end-time religion-- shooting love arrows.

So says M. C. Kurfees. Here, I have copied directly from Kurfees, page 47--48

2. The Glreek lexicon of Thayer which, by the unanimous testimony of modern scholarship, now occupies the very highest place in the field of New Testament lexicography, although specially devoted to New Testament Glreek, often gives the classical meaning of words. Accordingly, in harmony with the classical lexicons, as we have already seen, he says the word meant to pluck or pull, as the hair; to twang the bowstring; to touch the chords of a musical instrument, and hence to play instrumental music;

but, in citing authorities in confirmation of these meanings, it is a significant fact that he is compelled, with the other lexicographers, to go back to the same periods of the language prior to New Testament times to which they appealed for the same purpose, and he cites some of the same authorities cited by Liddell and Scott;

Kurfees is not to be pitied because no one can find any exception other than when singing WITH instruments belonged to the pagan religions. The Jews did not sing with instrumental accompaniment. The twang of a note was identical to the tone sung and gave extension to the spoken word. This might be as few as three notes to which you can chant but cannot truly sing.

And, those references always speak of music in connection with pagan religions where music and wine meant that they were drunk or 'piped down with wine' and were in the mood for sexual and homosexual "worship" which they believed bound the flesh and spirit together.

M. C. Kurfees: but when this prince of New Testament lexicographers comes to the New Testament period, he omits all of these meanings, and limits it to touching the cords of the human heart, saying that it means ``IN THE NEW TESTAMENT TO SING A HYMN, CELEBRATE THE PRAISES OF GOD IN SONG.

Burgess etal have excluded plucking hair because Grimm etal say that the generic word for PLUCKING applied to [but did not mean] plucking a harp string made of hair. However, psallo CANNOT be used to play a guitar with a pick or blow a flute [meaning to pollute or prostitute]. Why don't the musical discorders go back to using psallo to that meaning which EXCLUDED everying but plucking a string with the FINGERS--not with the plectrum?

By including blowing a flute--which Athene threw away because it seemed unseemly and obscene--Tom and his warrior band are left with violating the specific meaning of psallo to pluck ONLY with the fingers.

They are seen as obscene or war-like unless they use Thayer's remaining definiton meaning "in the N.T. to sing" only.

M. C. Kurfees: Then, as if to put an end to the controversy, the great lexicon of Sophocles, devoted exclusively to the Roman and Byzantine periods, and thus covering the entire period of New Testament and patristic literature, says he found not a single example of the word having any other meaning.

Because this writer has all of the important writings available on the computer in Greek [Including the Greek O.T.], Latin or English, I have not found a single exception to the Sophocles Rule.

Not even in the Biblical literature--available to all with eyes and ears-- will the ANTIS find a Hebrew word SAID to include a musical instrument used to define both SINGING and PLAYING. Of the king of Tyre as a type of Lucifer, Isaiah defines both Israel and Judah or Jerusalem [Sodom].

And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king:
         after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot. Isaiah 23:15

The "song of the prostitute" is:

Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Isaiah 23:16

M. C. Kurfees: We may now regard it as an established fact vouched for by the very highest lexical authority that in the course of centuries the term psallo [p. 49] underwent several complete changes in meaning, although, as we have already seen, its one radical idea, "to touch," runs through all its varied uses and applications; and that at the opening of the New Testament period, its ancient meanings, to pluck or pull the hair, to twang the howstring, and to touch the chords of a musical instrument, were as completely gone from the word as "to be happy" is now one from the word "silly," or "priate citizen" from the word "idiot."

Another notes (3) There is considerable evidence that psallo had no instrumental connotation even in other common Greek literature of the New Testament period. This is seen in the work of a Greek scholar named E.A. Sophocles, a native Grecian, and a professor of Greek language at Harvard University for 38 years. Sophocles was the author of A Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods (from B.C. 146 to A.D. 1100). He examined 594 Greek authors (255 secular, 339 ecclesiastical) in the development of his lexicon. After this extensive survey, he defined psallo as meaning "to chant, sing religious hymns." He defined psalmos to simply mean "a psalm." Hence, he found no association of these terms with musical instruments in the common Greek of the considered period.

You can still pluck a harp string and make it 'sing' but the word pluck does not mean sing and make music.

Kurfees may be wrong but I have checked more resources than Thayer (probably) and Burgess is under the burden of finding PSALLO used of singing ACCOMPANIED BY AN INSTRUMENT.

Burges picks up again on page 27 and takes exception to the Kurfees text in bold:

Tom Burgess: It is hard to believe that such a statement could be made after "a careful survey of the evidence. " Even casual observation shows that there are at least three major points which are false in that conclusion

A. This phrase, often ascribed to Thayer is not Thayer's at all but Grimm's. (We will demonstrate this later.)

B. Thayer himself, makes such an interpretation of that phrase wholly untenable and obviously contradictory to his clearly defined definition which we find in his discussion of the synonyms, psalmos, hymnos, and ode.

C. Grimm does not limit his New Testament definition to the touching of the chords of the human heart. Not only does he not limit it to that, HE DOES NOT EVEN MENTION IT under his definition of psallo! Please examine example 9.

Let us examine these points more closely, one at a time.

A. For over fifty years brethren have been quoting Grimm and calling him Thayer! lf you will notice under Grimm's discussion of the psalmos, Thayer concluded it by saying, "[Syn, see hymnos, fin]" 6[fin, means at, or near the end. T. B] Example 10 reproduces this discussion of synonyms under hymnos.

Example 10

The word psallo is found used in connection with a stringed instrument "twanged with the fingers bur NEVER with the PLECTRUM." It is also used in connection with singing. However, no one will ever say that Psallo means "congregational singing with instrumental accompaniment."

That is because PSALLO means to "pull with the fingers and suddenly let go" because in the external sense it is an arrow shooting word associated with Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon who is the "father of twanging bowstrings to send singing arrows into literal hearts, thieves and liars."

You must say (1) sing. Then, (2) you must say PLUCK or PLAY. Then, (3) you MUST say what you are PLUCKING. In the literature from which people lift the word it MIGHT mean plucking the hair of a young, emasculated male.

This is not profound: any poetic or metrical literature can be read, recited, sung, sung with an instrument, sung while drunk or sung in the pagan rituals where singing AND playing was used to help fleece the customers. The word PSALM does not appear in the Old Testament. The word simply means praises. However, the Greek translators used PSALM named after the PSALTERY. But, it is easy to show that the PSALTERY had a bad reputation.

However, Paul commanded that we speak "that which is written" in order to glorify God with one MOUTH and one MIND. It would be several centuries before human composed songs "of the o.t. Psalms were introduced into the churches and used to teach heresy.


-Psallo , i, 3, v. n., = psallô.
         I. In general, to play upon a stringed instrument; esp.,

to play upon the cithara,
to sing
to the cithara:
psallere saltare elegantius, Sall. C. 25, 2 (but in Cic. Cat. 2, 10, 23 the correct read. is
saltare et cantare;

II. In particular, in ecclesiastical Latin, to SING the Psalms of David, Hier. Ep. 107, 10; Aug. in Psa. 46; 65; Vulg. 1 Cor. 14, 15

In the literature there IS NO instance where the word means 'play the cithara." The literature says PSALLO and tne LYRE or CITHERA. If you want to say sing WITH a harp the word is PsalmODIA.

-1 Cor 14: [7]Vulgate Even things without life, giving a voice, whether pipe or harp, if they didn't give a distinction in the sounds, how would it be known what is piped or harped? [8] For if the trumpet gave an uncertain sound, who would prepare himself for war?

[9] So also you, unless you uttered by the tongue words easy to understand, how would it be known what is spoken? For you would be speaking into the air. [10] There are, it may be, so many kinds of sounds in the world, and none of them is without meaning.

[11] If then I don't know the meaning of the sound, I would be to him who speaks a foreigner, and he who speaks would be a foreigner to me. [12] So also you, since you are zealous for spiritual gifts, seek that you may abound to the building up of the assembly.

[13] Therefore let him who speaks in another language pray that he may interpret. [14] For if I pray in another language, my spirit prays, but my understanding is unfruitful.

Paul equated using musical instruments to speaking in tongues or another language!

[15] What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also. I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also.

Lifeless instruments are carnal weapons:
-Euripides Ion

Creusa-881 O you, who cause a voice to sing -[melpo] from your seven-stringed lyre, a voice that lets lovely-sounding hymns peal forth in the rustic lifeless horn,
o tas heptaphthongou melpon
kitharas enopan, hat' agraulois
kerasin en apsuchois achei
mousan humnous euachetous,
See heredotus1.html
-Hepta-phthongos , on, A. seven-toned, kithara E.Ion881 (lyr.); sumphonia Nicom.Exc.6 .
-Horn is: -Keras I. the horn of an animal, in Hom. mostly of oxen, as a symbol of strength
III. anything made of horn, 1. bow, 2. of musical instruments, horn for blowing, also, the Phrygian flute, because it was tipped with horn
8. of the pecheis of the lyre, chrusodeton k. S.Fr.244 (lyr.) (rather than the bridge, because made of horn, Ael.Dion.Fr.133, Poll.4.62).

Apsuchos (g895) ap'-soo-khos; from 1 (as a neg. particle) and 5590; lifeless, i.e. inanimate (mechanical): - without life.
blituri , to, twang of a harp-string: hence of a meaningless sound,

-Apsuch-os, on, lifeless, inanimate, pothoi Archil.84 ; mnemei' apsuch' empsuchon Simon.106.4 , cf. E.Fr.655, Tr. 623; lotos a. empnoun [breath] aniei -Mousan Sopat.10 ; ha -otata ton oston with least life or sensation, Pl.Ti.74e, cf. Arist.de An.413a21, etc.; a. theoi, of statues, Timae.127.
2. a. bora non-animal food, E.Hipp. 952.
II. spiritless, faint-hearted, kake A.Th.192 ; aner Trag.Adesp.337: apsuchoterai hai theleiai [elephantes] Arist.HA610a21; of style, lifeless, D.H.Dem.20. Adv. -chos Poll.2.227 .
III. materialistic, logos Porph.Gaur.14.4 (Comp.).

Alas! and now my son and yours, oh cruel one, is gone, torn apart, a feast for birds; [905] but you are singing to the lyre, chanting hymns.

Oh! son of Leto, I invoke you, who send forth your holy voice from your golden seat,
su de -kithara  klazeis
paianas melpōn
. .

-Melpon celebrate with song and dance

Spurgeon: What a degradation to supplant the intelligent song of the whole congregation by the theatrical prettiness of a quartet, bellows, and pipes. We might as well pray by machinery as praise by it. (Charles)

-orga^n-ikos , ē, on,
metaph., ho o. eis plēthē logos speech which is brought to bear on the mob, Plu.Cat.Mi.4 ; of musicians, practical, Opposite logikoi
logi^k-os , ē, on, (logos) A.of or for speaking or speech, merē l. the organs of speech, Plu.Cor.38: logikē, , speech, Opposite mousikē, D.H. Comp. 11; “l. phantasiaexpressed in speech,
-ki_neō , aor. ekinēsa, Ep. set in motion, age kinēsas, of Hermes  leading the souls, Od.24.5;
2. remove a thing from its place, “andriantaHdt.1.183; “gēs horiaPl.Lg. 842e; k. ti tōn akinētōn meddle with things sacred, Hdt.6.134, cf. S. Ant.1061, Th.4.98; k. ta khrēmata es allo ti apply them to an alien purpose,
change, innovate, “nomaiaHdt.3.80; “tous patrious nomous Arist. Pol.1268b28; “tōn keimenōn nomōnZaleuc. ap. Stob.4.2.19:—Pass., “nomima kinoumena Pl.Lg.797b;
II. disturb, of a wasps' nest, tous d' ei per tis . . kinēsē aekōnIl.16.264; arouse, “k. tina ex hupnouE.Ba.690; urge on, “phobos k. tinaA.Ch.289; phugada prodromon kinēsasa having driven him in headlong flight, S.Ant.109 (lyr.); k. epirrothois kakoisin attack, assail,
6. in Law, politikōs k. kata tinos employ civil action against, Cod.Just.
2. of persons, to be moved, stirred, ho kekinēmenos one who is agitated, excited, Pl.Phdr.245b, cf. Vett.Val.45.25, al.; “k. pathētikōs” meaning 2. sensuous, impassioned, pathetic, “epopoiia” [divination by poetryId.Po. 1459b9; “lexisId.Rh.1408a10;
3. of dancing, “k. sōmatiPl.Lg.656a.
5. to be disturbed or in rebellion, D.C.39.54, 42.15, al.

-Organon 1 [*ergô]
3. musical instrument, Simon.31, f.l. in A.Fr.57.1 ; ho men di' organōn ekēlei anthrōpous, of Marsyas, Pl.Smp.215c ; aneu organōn psilois logois ibid., cf. Plt.268b ; “o. polukhordaId.R.399c, al.; “met' ōdēs kai tinōn organōnPhld.Mus.p.98K.; of the pipe, Melanipp.2, Telest.1.2.
II. a work, product Ergon for doing Hard Work.

Paul limited women and demanded that mature males lift holy PAULS and "without wrath." When women went public the urge for ORGY or WRATH was inherent if we believe Paul.

Orgi-a , iôn, ta, secret rites, secret worship, practised by the initiated, used of the worship of Demeter at Eleusis, of Cybele,

Euripides Bacchae, of Cybele (Mother of Gods)
"On, on, ye Bacchanals, pride of Tmolus (a gold-producing mountain in Lydia, near Sardis:)
with its rills of gold to the sound of the
booming drum, chanting in joyous strains the praises of your joyous god with Phrygian accents lifted high, what time the holy lute with sweet complaining note invites you to your hallowed sport,

Melpô [melos]
I. to sing of, celebrate with song and dance, Il., Eur.; m. tina kata chelun Eur.
2. intr. to sing, Aesch., Eur.;-- c. acc. cogn., m. thanasimon goon 
II. also as Dep. melpomai to sing to the lyre or harp, Od.; to dance and sing, as a chorus, meta melpomenêisin en chorôi Il.; melpesthai Arêi to dance a war-dance in honour of Ares, i. e. to fight, id=Il.

Aristotle Politics 1341b and all the instruments that require manual skill. And indeed there is a reasonable foundation for the story that was told by the ancients about the flute. The tale goes that Athena found a flute and threw it away. Now it is not a bad point in the story that the goddess did this out of annoyance because of the ugly distortion of her features; but as a matter of fact it is more likely that it was because education in flute-playing has no effect on the intelligence, whereas we attribute science and art to Athena

And since we reject professional education in the
instruments and in performance  (and we count performance in competitions as professional,  for the performer does not take part in it  for his own improvement, but for his hearers'  pleasure, and that a vulgar pleasure, owing  to which we do not consider performing to be proper for free men, but somewhat menial; and indeed performers do become vulgar, since the object at which they aim is a low one, as vulgarity in the audience usually influences the music, so that it imparts to the artists  who practise it with a view to suit the audience a special kind of personality

If Burgess and Krewson are correct and one CANNOT psallo without a stringed instrument then Paul missed a grand chance to say I will sing with a harp! Or, I will pray with a harp.

Paul and the Holy Spirit were not so dumb as to think that you can worship IN the new PLACE of the human spirit and grasp it all with your UNDERSTANDING while listening to a male-female Musical Worship Team! It simply is an insult to Christ the Spirit.

Tom Burgess: 2. Thayer, who was a more competent judge than we, put a very high estimate on Lightfoot. In his preface, p. 6, he speaks of some improvements he had made in Grimm's work. He tells of availing himself of some of the best English and American commentaries (Lightfoot, Ellicott, etc. ).

Burgess has said that Thayer followed Grimm's Latin. However, all dictionaries and lexicons FOLLOW someone else and MAKES IMPROVEMENTS or what would be the point. The fact is that

C. Another "straw" thati s grasped is one that I have previously mentioned. It is claimed that Thayer limits the New Testament definition to "touching the chords of the heart. " Kurfees gets this idea from Example 9. Please examine Example 9. First of all, remember, this is Grimm talking and not Thayer.

Thayer can use whatever resources he chooses. However, after he has made improvements it belongs exclusively to THAYER. It is Thayer's view because he published it under his name. I will do no good to use a Latin lexicon to destroy Thayer to keep him from saying exactly what Kurfees said that he said and that we have copied above.

Secondly, please observe that he does not limit the New Testament definition to "touching the chords of the human heart. " And most significantly, GRIMM DOES NOT EVEN MENTION IT AS A POSSIBILITY MUCH LESS LIMITING IT TO THAT!

But, here is what Thayer said:


Kurfess and others note that BOTH the twanging of literal arrows and singing SONGS accompanied by TWANGING
ceased to be used before the time of Paul. However, that was in the Koine language of the common people like Peter the Great Fisherman.

If Thayer and all of the literary resources are wrong then Burgess is permitted to interpret psallo using ANY of the two prior definitions. If he interprets it to mean "sing and sing with a harp" they why cannot others interpret it to mean twanging and other words related to destruction and sexual pollution?

The pagans under Apollo, Abaddon or Apollyon choose to hold literal contests between blowing and twanging. The loser got skinned alive. Another favorite of pagan religions was to SHOOT love arrows. Burgess has that option. BOTH definitions defined WORSHIP WARS and homosexual symposia for the male "worshipers" while the females held their separate "birth control" homosexual religious practices.

That leaves SPEAKING songs with the ODEING and MELODY both in the heart. Philo makes this very clear for the worship of a Spirit God. Psallo never ceased to be a good ATTIC word used by the rich and powerful. Thayer notes that psallo still included a harp and quoted Lucian of Samosata. However, Lucian knew only Attic Greek and wrote for the ruling classes. He specificially connects harping, fluting and other instruments to the pagan ORACLES where the prophet would prophesy (musically) for a price usually knowing that his "speaking in tongues" was lying.

Thayer did add and correct and it is a good thing because we assuredly have better resources year by year.

Tom Burgess p. 29: In trying to avoid the force of Lightfoot's definition some have said that even Thayer and Lightfoot had in mind an accompaniment by the heart, thus ruling out a mechanical instrument. This assumption is based upon Ephesians 5:19 (Example 2) where we have ". . . singing (adontes) and making melody (psallontes) with your heart.... " There are several points to notice which make this idea of the heart being the musical instrument a mistaken conclusion.

1. "With your heart" is a modifier. It obviously modifies both singing and making melody. Therefore if making melody is inward - - 'in the heart: -- then our singing should be, too. 9 Krewson, Percy E., Facts About Instrumental Music, 1945, p. 15.

Good observation: all of the NOT musical passages have both an internal and external component:

SPEAKING in the literature is defined as oppositie to poetry or music.  In Romans 15 it is with ONE MIND and ONE MOUTH and the resource is "that which is written." The purpose is to edify or educate, glorify (praise God), comfort with scripture and keep the unity of the "ekklesia" or synagogue.

SingING and makING are coordinated and both in the PLACE of the heart or spirit. Jesus said that the human spirit is the ONLY place God seeks our worship.

Furthermore, we know for a fact that no one sowed discord until the year 373 which was then to sing self-compositions in violation of direct commands.

You CANNOT sing WITH your heart but you CAN sing IN your heart. Paul said that the converted Jews worshipped God IN the spirit or in the heart.

ALL of the literature supports Pauls use of MELODY in the PLACE of the human heart.

1S.1:13 Now Hannah, she spake in her heart; only her lips moved,
but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken.

The man who was dying blessed me; I made the widow's heart sing. Jb.29:13

that my heart may sing to you and not be silent. O LORD my God, I will give you thanks forever Ps.30:12

I will praise you, O LORD, with all my heart; before the "gods" I will sing your praise. Ps.138:1

Philo noted:

"The true, highest melody, however, is that which is sung without any voice. It resounds in the interior of man, is vibrating in his heart and in all his limbs. Isaac Loeb Peretz (1912).

"The true, highest melody, however, is that which is sung without any voice. It resounds in the interior of man, is vibrating in his heart and in all his limbs

Plautus, Curculio CAPPADOX My spleen is killing me, my reins are in torment, my lungs are being torn asunder, my liver is being tortured, my heart-strings are giving way, all my intestines are in pain.

Hecuba Alas! a dreadful trial is near, it seems, [230] full of mourning, rich in tears. Yes, I too escaped death where death had been my due, and Zeus did not destroy me but is still preserving my life, that I may witness in my misery fresh sorrows surpassing all before. But if the bond may ask the free of things that do not GRIEVE them or WRENCH their heart-strings, you ought to speak in answer to my questions and I ought to hear what you have to say.

GREGORY OF NYSSA (died c394)

8 . Now since man is a rational animal,
instrument of his body must be made suitable for the use of reason;
as you may see musicians producing
their music according to the form of their instruments,

and not piping with harps nor harping upon flutes,

so it must needs be that the organization of these instruments of ours should be adapted for reason,that when struck by the vocal organs it might be able to sound properly for the use of words.

1 1 . Chrysostom. A.D. 386. He was the most famous of all the Greek Fathers. In literature he is styled "The Glorious Preacher." He was noted for his scholarship and piety and eloquence.

Exposition in Ps. 41. "It is possible, even without the voice to psallein-the mind echoing (accompanying) within. For we play the lyre not to men, but to God, who is able to hear (our) hearts, and enter into the secrets of our minds."

That was what Jesus commanded as the ONLY place God would even SEEK true worship IN the human spirit devoted to THE truth whic IS spirit and life (John 6:63).

Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision. Phil 3:2

Dogs were catamites or male homosexuals. They were emasculated or had a sex change in order to be a MINISTER of Cyble or other goddess. This was a name for the CYNICS who sang and howled to attract customers.

Therefore, if you OPEN the process for rhetorical or musical PERFORMERS you have violated the example of Paul and the necessary inference for those with eyes and ears.

For we are the circumcision, which worship God
........ in the spirit, and rejoice
........ in Christ Jesus,
        .....and have no confidence in the flesh. Phil 3:3

"See how they sang! 'That chant to the sound of the viol, and invent to themselves instruments of music, like David.' Musical sounds gratified their AURICULAR SENSIBILITIES, and they chanted to the 'viol.' Here is the LUST OF THE EAR What a description this of a people that lived and wrought entirely for the SENSES! They were practical MATERIALISTS (and idolaters). They had NO SPIRITUAL VISION, sensibilities, or experience. Their imperishable souls were submerged in the deep flowing sea of mere ANIMAL PLEASURE There is, indeed, a reference to intellectual effort, for it is said, 'they invented to themselves instruments of music.' Carnal INDULGENCIES has ever been and is now as much, if not more than ever, the great employer of man's inventive faculties." (Pulpit Commentary, The Book of Amos, p. 131).

Krewson said that you CANNOT PSALLO without instruments. Therefore, Burgess violates the law if he sings WITHOUT an instrument. And, of course, since the command was to SPEAK one to another, if ONE has an instrument then ALL must have an instrument. We do have THE HARPS OF GOD: He gave us a mouth as an organ and ears to hear and eyes to read His WORDS.

Paul solved all of our problem by saying LEAVE IT IN THE HEART: Rest, means stop the preaching, stop the singing, stop the playing. Hang the "harp" up on the Orpheus or Dionysus willow and REST.

The resources Burgess quotes will always get around to the fact that when the homosexual symposia wanted to think and discuss something important they sent the flute-girl (i.e. prostitute) away. This would prevent drinking wine as Paul commands in Ephesians. The Greek resouces often phrased it "don't get fluted or piped down with wine."

That is very profound. Paul told them to SPEAK the Biblical text one to another. Both the singing and melody are IN THE HEART which is where God looks for our worship. You cannot SPEAK and SING at the same time. This explains why Paul told Timothy ot give attendance to the public READING of the Word and not to either singing it or PREACHING it.

In the sense of assemblying or gathering Paul used various forms of the word SYNAGOGUE. We know that the synagogue had no instruments because it was a SCHOOL OF THE BIBLE and because Numbers 10:7 was the authority which was NEVER violated by the people's congregation which had little connection to the temple as the "like the nation's" king's shrine along with the "king's music grove" where they burned babies and which, from "tamborine' came to stand for hell itself.

No synagogue had a praise service. So, if both the singing AND melody were IN THE HEART so that it did not violate the command of God then it MATTERS NOT A WHIT what external melody meant.

Paul always tells the assembly to SPEAK that which is written. Otherwise, the dogs and circumcision would slick-in to become professional "god handlers."

Quotes from: G. C. Brewer, A Medley on the Music Question, Gospel Advocate, Nashville 1948

"But Krewson wants to appear smart again, and he translates the Greek. He then not only throws off seriously on Kurfees, he makes a complete donkey of Ellicott. He makes the parenthetical sentence which he translates give the lie to the independent sentence in which the parenthesis is found. Here is the sentence with the Greek words spelled out with English letters:

"The term psallein (properly, to dia dactulon epi psallein ton chordon tes lgras, Etym. M) is here probably used without reference to any instrument (comp. James 5: 13), but as denoting the singing of praise."

Now leave both parenthetical expressions out and you have his complete, independent sentence. Here it is:

"The term psallein is here probably used without any reference to any instrument, but as denoting the singing of praise."

So here he tells us that psallo in these New Testament passages (1 Cor. 14: 15 and James 5: 13) has no reference to any instrument, but that it denotes the singing of praise! That is plain enough and strong enough.

Tom Burgess follows Krewson and digs into the parenthesis or brackets:

G. C. Brewer: "But Krewson, the translator and the great' 'etymologer',' makes him contradict this

by telling us in Greek that the proper, strict, fit, right, and correct meaning is "to strike the strings of a lyre with the fingers."

But he says in [96] English that in these New Testament passages it has no reference to any instrument!

Thus he makes the great scholar make an untrue statement in English and then wink at the knowing ones (like Krewson, of course) and behind his hand mutter a contradiction in Greek! That is the kind of man that Percy, the "etymologer," makes out of Bishop Ellicott!

The truth, of course, is that Ellicott gave the etymological meaning of psallein in the parenthesis, which we did of some other words in another division of this chapter.

Any person who cannot see the miserable misrepresentation of both Kurfees and Ellicott here will hardly be able to follow this discussion.

E. Krewson conjures with Lightfoot. Under division C of these striciures on Krewson we saw that he shouts himself hoarse over what Bishop Lightfoot says about psalmos. This quotation from Lightfoot forms the front line of his whole battle array. It is his refuge and his strength, his ever-present help in time of trouble!

Having seen Krewson's blunderings and his unconscionable misuse of other men's statements, the reader will already be wary in reference to this Lightfoot passage. However, we must look into this matter.

Here is how Satan, Lucifer or the unlawful PASTOR uses music to DISABLE you so that you are NOT a threat to the ALPHA MALE:

After one victory at Agbatana in Syria, Cyrus was told how to subdue the enemy captives:

Hdt.1.155 Heredotus: Cyrus told how to take the FIGHT out of the enemy: [4] But pardon the Lydians, and give them this command so that they not revolt or pose a danger to you:
        . send and forbid them to possess weapons of war,
        .and order them to wear tunics under their cloaks
         and knee-boots on their feet,
         and to teach their sons lyre-playing [kitharizein]
         and song [psallein] and dance
        .and shop-keeping [huckstering].
         And quickly, O king,
         you shall see them become women instead of men,
         so that you need not fear them, that they might revolt."

proeipe d' autoisi kitharizein te kai psallein kai kapêleuein paideuein tous paidas. kai tacheôs spheas ô basileu gunaikas ant' andrôn opseai gegonotas, hôste ouden deinoi toi esontai mê aposteôsi." 

Again, Tom Burgess:

A. This phrase, often ascribed to Thayer is not Thayer's at all but Grimm's. (We will demonstrate this later.)

B. Thayer himself, makes such an interpretation of that phrase wholly untenable and obviously contradictory to his clearly defined definition which we find in his discussion of the synonyms, psalmos, hymnos, and ode.

The LEADING idea speaks to the word's ROOTS. The leading idea of GAY is to be happy but we no longer say that the "musical worship team" is being GAY. "Shooting love arrows" would not be confused with "Shooting out hymns." Therefore, the ROOTS do not define Thayer's FINAL CONCLUSION that in the N.T. the word is SINGING. By not including instruments right after speaking of instruments, Thayer and everyone not worried about the sexual and homosexual implications EXCLUDES instruments.

For Brewer's comments we repeat the synonymns.


But the leading idea of PSALLO is to PLUCK. No more, no less. If you were standing before the enemy with ten thousand bows, your PLUCKING or TWANGING would be making them into a ZITHER. By bending the bow you could "play" different notes.

If the homosexual Symposium requested the lyre player to PLUCK a tune you would not expect to be shot with a REAL arrow.

If you decided to SHOOT OUT HYMNS you would not request to be hurt real bad with instrumental twanging which produced a lingering startle reflex seen in infants.

Burgess makes PSAllO demand playing an instrument.

Thayer or Grim makes psalms, hymns and spiritual odes mean the same thing. Indeed, these were all different types of the Biblical poetic material.

Therefore, we are supposed to believe that ANY of the singing resources MUST be accompanied with instruments because the LEADING idea is "musical."

As clearly as it can be said and is well known by the dictionaries on the word SONG, a psalm, hymn or spiritual song neither includes nor excludes playing an instrument. However, it is a fact in the Bible and the Greek literature that none of these words are used to INCLUDE an instrument unless that instrument is named by another word.

Lucian would say that you cannot sing or RECITE lyric poetry without a lyre. Simple. You canno play fiddle music on a piano unless you turn it into piano music.

However, PSALMOS is simply metrical poetry: you can read it, chant it, sing it, singing it by PLUCKING something. But you CANNOT psallo with a pick (plectrum) or by blowing a pipe or by clanking a piano.

Furthermore, in both song and psalmos, the FIRST instrument of choice is given as the "harp of God" or the human voice. That is a literary FACT unless the literature NAMES the instrument to be used.

Thayer and others define the words in ordinary text: if they add PSALLO in brackets YOU do not have the authority to find ANOTHER definition and INSERT it into Thayer's final conclusion about the meaning of Psallo. And that is just what Burgess and Jonas do:

G. C. Brewer: "As shown above, Thayer gives us this language from Lightfoot in a small-print note on synonyms. This note is found under the definition of hymnos on page 637. Hymnos, psalmos, and ode are synonyms; they all mean the same thing--a song. That much is agreed upon by all scholars. But is there no shade of difference? If not, why did Paul use all three of the words in the same passage? That is the question that perplexes the scholars. Many of them say there is no difference. Thayer points out that ode is a generic term, and the other two are specific. He then quotes Lightfoot as follows:

"While the leading idea of psalmos is a musical accompaniment, and that of hymnos praise to God, ode is the general word for a song, whether accompanied or unaccompanied, whether of praise or on any other subject. Thus it was quite possible for the same song to be at once psalmos, hymnos, and ode."

[Again, the Bible and literary resources know of NO INCLUSION of an instrument unless the instrument is named: the first instrument of choice in both psalm and song is the human voice]

That is the Lightfoot quotation in full. Anyone can see that he is endeavoring to show a "possible" way for these words to be the same thing at the same time. He says the 'leading idea" of psalmos is a musical accom [97] paniment. Cannot even an uncritical reader see that this is another case of reverting to the root meaning, the etymological meaning? The leading idea, the strict etymological sense, is this or that. How often we have seen that in reference to other words!

The words psallo and psalmos did at one time imply a stringed instrument. The word "psalm" originated in that connection--a song sung to the accompaniment of a plucking performance. This we have seen, and this we all admit. Lightfoot's repetition of a fact so well known is in no way out of the ordinary.

[Again, we note that PLUCK means PLUCK: it can be used for PLUCKING harp string but ONLY WITH THE FINGERS AND NOT WITH THE FINGERS. It can also be used to PLUCK out feathers and the "leading" idea of GRINDING can be used of SOP.]

The leading scholars, as shown herein, tell us that psalmos lost the instrument in its New Testament use.

But Krewson [and Burgess etal] takes Lightfoot's "possible" suggestion and his reference to the leading or etymological meaning and turns this into a statutory law,

and dares the world to turn either to the right hand or the left. He says on page 16: "According to Lightfoot, the psalms must be accompanied., (Italics supplied.)

Now let a congregation try to follow Lightfoot's plan as emphasized by Krewson:

First, they must have some sort of musical instruments (properly, stringed instruments) and some members who can play them; otherwise they could not sing the psalms and that part of the divine command must be disobeyed.

Now, with the instruments to accompany, they obey the first word of the trio. That completed, they now silence the instruments, eliminate all prayer songs, and begin praising God with the voices only.

Now that is over, and they are ready to obey the third word, ode. Well, how is that done? Oh, that one is not particular! Any song will do; and if we do not have any musiciens, we can o-day (to Krewsonize and to turn a noun into a verb) without them. If they are available, and if their price is not prohibitive, we can o-day with them. Thus Krewsonizing, we psalmos, hymnos, and o-day at in the same service. But if we do not have any musicians and are not able to hire some half dozen or more, we cannot obey the command to sing psalms. They must be accompanied, according to Krewson's perversion of Lightfoot.

Thus we have that argument reduced to an absurdity!
And with this we will take our leave of quibbling Krewson.
         "The Lord reward him according to his works."

Humnos (g5215) hoom'-nos; appar. from a simpler (obsol.) form of hudeo , (to celebrate; prob. akin to 103; comp. ); a "hymn" or religious ode (one of the Psalms): - hymn

See Thayer's Synonyms above

Hymn is G5214 according to Thayer

1) to sing the praise of, sing hymns to
2) to sing a hymn, to sing
a) singing of paschal hymns these were Psalms 113 - 118 and 136, which the Jews called the "great Hallel"

Edersheim Music AT the Temple.

The hallel hymns were not SUNG but "hymned." That is, they were
chanted. The form is defined as "as a schoolboy reads the hallel. Paul said SPEAK and READ. When you leave the Word as SAY and begin to pontificate and musicate you have slipped off into the ancient "threskia" form of sexual and homosexual rituals where sodomy "bound the body and spirit together."

"Hallel, in Jewish ritual, selection from the Psalms, chanted as part of the liturgy during certain festivals. The more frequently used selection includes Psalms 113-118 and is known as the Egyptian Hallel, presumably because Psalm 114 begins, "When Israel went out of Egypt"

It is sung in synagogues on the first two days of Passover, on Shabuoth, on Sukkot, on each morning of the eight days of Hanukkah, and at the close of the Seder.

"The Hallel through the generations, on specific occasions: Pesachim 117a "Hallel requires a full stomach and a satisfied spirit: Taanis 25b-26a

The reading is beloved to the people, and so they listen closely: Megillah 21b [Paul told Timothy to GIVE ATTENDANCE to the public READING of the Word: you DEGRADE the Word when you cut and paste it into songs and sermons and it loses its power]

"The Hallel as an Institution of the Prophets, to use to pray for salvation from danger: Pesachim 117a [2x] Saying the Hallel daily is blasphemous: Shabbos 118b

"An artificial, effeminate music which should relax the soul, frittering the melody, and displacing the power and majesty of divine harmony by tricks of art, and giddy, thoughtless, heartless, souless versifying would be meet company." (Barnes, Albert, Amos, p. 303).

"Jingling, banging, and rattling accompanied heathen cults, and the frenzying shawms of a dozen ecstatic cries intoxicated the masses. Amid this euphoric farewell feast of a dying civilization, the voices of nonconformists were emerging from places of Jewish and early Christian worship; Philo of Alexandria had already emphasized the ethical qualities of music, spurning the 'effeminate' art of his Gentile surroundings.

Similarly, early synagogue song intentionally foregoes artistic perfection, renounces the playing of instruments,

and attaches itself entirely to 'the word'--the TEXT of the Bible" (Encyclopaedia Judaica, 1971 ed., s.v. "Music")

"The Pharisees asserted that God could and should be worshiped even away from the Temple and outside Jerusalem. To the Pharisees, worship consisted not in bloody sacrifices-- [the only rationale for loud instruments]

the practice of the Temple priests--
but in
prayer and in the study of God's law.

Hence the Pharisees fostered the synagogue as an institution of religious worship, outside and separate from the Temple. The synagogue may thus be considered a Pharisaic institution since the Pharisees developed it, raised it to high eminence, and gave it a central place in Jewish religious life. (Britannica Members)

See Chanting the Psalms

See the Synagogue: Believers don't try to force fit "music" into the School of the Bible and of Christ.

Thayer defines the ODE so you can O-day: g103


No one suggests that the ODE was sung with instrumental music. Because Grimm says that psalms, hymns and spiritual songs were the
same, and because Burgess concludes that the psalm MUST be accompanied with an instrument, he concludes that ODING must be accompanied.

However, the point is that all are forms of the BIBLICAL PSALMS and the direct command was to speak "that which is written" to TEACH and ADMONISH. Logic 101aaa knows that you cannot TEACH the Biblical text with a lifeless instrument.

In connection with Spiritual songs, the word Spiritual is rational or connected to the mind. Paul in 1 Corinthians chapter 2 proves that the Holy Spirit is the Mind of Christ. Therefore, Spiritual songs are "the Word of Christ" or "that which is written" by Christ the Spirit (1 Pet. 1:11).

Spiritual is 4152 according to Thayer. Please remember that Jesus said that the only worship God accepts is in the new PLACE of the human spirit. And Paul said that we should SPEAK externally and PSALLO in the heart or human spirit where we meet God without any musical mediators, thank you very much!


That means that if the TEAM just makes up the songs they CANNOT be psalms or spiritual songs! That is Paul's DIRECT COMMAND: "Glorify God with ONE MOUTH and ONE MIND using 'that which is written." SPEAK the Biblical poetic material and leave the melody in the heart. Or speak the WORD of Christ which IS Spirit and Life (John 6:63)

Songs g5603 are also odes: inspired and RECITED by Moses and Aaron so the leaders could memorize the song and return to their tribes and pass it on to the children and the children's children.



Music cannot be "cleansed" from its
mark of homosexuality and the effeminate break down or Plato's gender-bleed when speaking or singing or playing actors (Sectarian Hypocrites) cease the SAY or SPEAK demanded by Paul and generic knowledge and begin to pontificate or musicate. In the Bacchae story we will see that the women engaged in "uncovered prophesying" as Paul warned about in 1 Cor. 11:5 the MOTHER murdered her own SON.
Background to Thayer: Euripides: Bacchae: 135. Our quotation begins a bit earlier to show that ALL of the examples anyone can dredge up associate music and the twanging to real warfare between the women and a homosexual priesthood. There is no example Burgess can find which does not separate the singing from the instrument playing.

Anon shall the whole land be dancing, when Bromius leads his revellers to the hills, to the hills away! where wait him groups of maidens from loom and shuttle roused in frantic haste by Dionysus. O hidden cave of the Curetes! O hallowed haunts in Crete, that saw Zeus born,

where Corybantes with crested helms devised for me in their grotto the rounded timbrel of ox-hide (lifeless instrument),

mingling Bacchic minstrelsy with the shrill sweet accents of the Phrygian flute, a gift bestowed by them on mother Rhea, to add its crash of music to the Bacchantes' shouts of joy;

See note on Crash of music below.

but frantic satyrs (homosexual priests) won it from the mother-goddess for their own, and added it to their dances in festivals, which gladden the heart of Dionysus, each third recurrent year.

Oh! happy that votary, when from the hurrying revel-rout he sinks to earth, in his holy robe of fawnskin, chasing the goat to drink its blood, a banquet sweet of flesh uncooked, as he hastes to Phrygia's or to Libya's hills; while in the van the Bromian god exults with cries of Evoe (Eve, Zoe and now Mary).

With milk and wine and streams of luscious honey flows the earth, and Syrian incense smokes.

Methodist feminist and lesbian pastors have added the worship of SOPHIA and use honey in their "communion."

While the Bacchante holding in his hand a blazing torch of pine uplifted on his wand waves it, as he speeds along, rousing wandering votaries, and as he waves it cries aloud with wanton tresses tossing in the breeze; and thus to crown the revelry, he raises loud his voice, "On, on, ye Bacchanals, pride of Tmolus (a gold-producing mountain in Lydia, near Sardis:)

with its rills of gold to the sound of the booming drum,
chanting in joyous strains the praises of your joyous god with Phrygian accents lifted high,

what time the holy lute with sweet complaining note invites you to your hallowed sport, according well with feet that hurry wildly to the hills; like a colt that gambols at its mother's side in the pasture, with gladsome heart each Bacchante bounds along."

When Jesus compared the Jews to MARKETPLACE CHILDREN he was speaking of this 'hallowed sport' which they hoped Jesus would do when they piped or fluted:

paig-ma , atos, to,

A. play, sport, lôtos hotan . . paigmata bremêi whene'er the pipe sounds its sportive strains, E.Ba.161(lyr.); Ludia p. luras Lyr.Alex.Adesp.37.15 .

II. 'child's play', to toiouto p. tôn logôn Polystr.p.28 W.

psia , hê,

A. = chara, geloiasma, paignia, Hsch: hence psi^azô , Dor. psiaddô , play, sport, toi dê par' Eurôtan psiaddonti Ar.Lys.1302 (lyr.); psiaddein: paizein, Hsch. (Prob. shortd. forms of hepsia, hepsiaomai, qq. v.)

paizô ,

2. esp. dance, paisate Od.8.251
of the chorus
4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., Pan ho kalamophthonga paizôn Ar.Ra.230 ; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16.

5. play amorously, pros allêlous X.Smp.9.2 ; meta tinos LXX Ge.26.8 ; of mares, Arist.HA572a30.

We liked his speech, and placed ourselves in hidden ambush among the leafy thickets; they at the appointed time began to wave the thyrsus for their Bacchic rites, calling on Iacchus (Iacchus or Bacchus, honored by all, deviser of our festal song and dance - (worship facilitator), the Bromian god, the son of Zeus, in united chorus, and the whole mount and the wild creatures re-echoed their cry; all nature stirred as they rushed on.

Now Agave chanced to come springing near me, so up I leapt from out my ambush where I lay concealed, meaning to seize her.

But she cried out, "What ho! my nimble hounds here are men upon our track; but follow me, ay, follow, with the thyrsus in your hand for weapon."

Thereat we fled, to escape being torn in pieces by the Bacchantes; but they, with hands that bore no weapon of steel, attacked our cattle as they browsed. Then wouldst thou have seen Agave mastering some sleek lowing calf, while others rent the heifers limb from limb. Before thy eyes there would have been hurling of ribs and hoofs this way and that; and strips of flesh, all blood-bedabbled, dripped as they hung from the pine-branches.

Wild bulls, that glared but now with rage along their horns, found themselves tripped up, dragged down to earth by countless maidens' hands.

The flesh upon their limbs was stripped therefrom quicker than thou couldst have closed thy royal eye-lids.

The Bulls attacking Jesus: See the Laughing and Mocking

Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round. Psalm 22:12
         They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a ravening and a roaring lion. Psalm 22:13
                  I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint:
                  my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels. Psalm 22:14

> Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round. Psalm 22:12

The "Satyric dance," * or dance of the Satyrs in Greece, seems to have been the counterpart of this Red Indian solemnity; for the satyrs were horned divinities, and consequently those who imitated their dance must have had their heads set off in imitation of theirs.

* BRYANT. The Satyrs were the companions of Bacchus, and "danced along with him" (Aelian Hist.) When it is considered who Bacchus was, and that his distinguishing epithet was "Bull-horned," the horns of the "Satyrs" will appear in their true light. For a particular mystic reason the Satyr's horn was common. Hislop

Tauro-phthongos , on, bellowing like a bull, t. mimoi sounds that imitate the bellowing of bulls, A.Fr.57.8 (anap.)

I. an
imitator, mimic: an actor, mime, Dem., Plut.
II. a mime, a kind of
prose drama, such as Sophron wrote, Arist.

Mimaulos , ho, mimic actor, accompanied on the flute, Ath.10.452f.

Similar to:

I. a tall umbelliferous plant, Lat. ferula, with a hollow, pithy stalk, in which Prometheus
conveyed fire from heaven to earth, Hes. The stalks furnished the Bacchanalian wands (thursoi ), Eur., (cf. narthêko-phoros); they were also used for canes by schoolmasters, Xen.

II. a casket for unguents, Luc.

When Jesus becomes our ONLY Tutor through the Word no CLERGY BROTHER can possible teach us unless he "teaches that which has been taught." Lamad means the 'Oriental Incentive.'

"It is possible that some spiritual immaturity today may arise from other causes. It may be produced by a failure to provide an adequate program of Bible instruction for the whole church. It may be the result of indifference and lack of a real desire to know the rich things of the Word. Too often people have assumed that all the Bible should be as simple as kindergarten lessons. It that were true, it is doubtful if there would ever be such a thing as a full grown Christian. The usual Sunday morning scolding which the church receives for not doing this will only make the situation worse. (Applebury, p. 51)

Similar Latin

Canatim , adv. [canis] , in the manner of a dog, like a dog, kunêdon,


I. a dog or bitch, Hom., etc.; most commonly of hounds, id=Hom., etc.; the Laconian breed was famous, Soph.;-- nê or ma ton kuna was the favourite oath of Socrates, Plat.: cf. trapezeus.
II. as a word of reproach, to denote
shamelessness or audacity in women, rashness, recklessness in men, Hom. 2. at Athens a nickname of the Cynics, Arist., Anth.

II. the Trag. apply the term to the ministers of the gods; the eagle is Dios ptênos kuôn Aesch.; the griffins Zênos akrageis kunes id=Aesch.; the Bacchantes Lussês k. Eur., etc.

IV. a sea-dog, mentioned as a fish in Od.
V. the
dog-star, i. e. the dog of Orion, placed among the stars with its master, Il.

[akrageis kunes = barkless dogs]

For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet. Ps.22:16

His watchmen are blind: they are all ignorant, they are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark; sleeping, lying down, loving to slumber. Is.56:10

Keleb (h3611) keh'leb; from an unused root mean. to yelp, or else to attack; a dog; hence (by euphemism) a male prostitute: - dog.

Yea, they are greedy dogs which can never have enough, and they are shepherds that cannot understand: they all look to their own way, every one for his gain, from his quarter. Isa 56:11

Come ye, say they, I will fetch wine, and we will fill ourselves with strong drink; and to morrow shall be as this day, and much more abundant. Isaiah 56: 12

But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer and the whore. Isaiah 57:3

Against whom do ye sport (effeminate play as at Mount Sinai and by David moving the ark) yourselves? against whom make ye a wide mouth, and draw out the tongue? are ye not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood, Isaiah 57:4

Sport: Anag (g6028) aw-nag'; a prim. root; to be soft or pliable, i. e. (fig.) effeminate or luxurious: - delicate (-ness), (have) delight (self), sport self.

Sachaq (h7832) saw-khak'; a prim. root; to laugh (in pleasure or detraction); by impl. to play: - deride, have in derision, laugh, make merry, mock (-er), play, rejoice, (laugh to) scorn, be in (make) sport.

The Jewish clergy are identified as children of the Devil who "spoke of himself" and as "seed of the vipers."

Remember that the PRO-music people appeal to Thayer who explains why music was NOT used in the New Testament because it was elementary that it spoke directly to the homosexual mocking of God and His Word.

See Gilgamesh and The Bull of Heaven

Then off they sped, like birds that skim the air, to the plains beneath the hills, which bear a fruitful harvest for Thebes beside the waters of Asopus; to Hysiae and Erythrae, hamlets 'neath Cithaeron's peak, with fell intent, swooping on everything and scattering all pellmell; and they would snatch children from their homes; but all that they placed upon their shoulders, abode there firmly without being tied, and fell not to the dusky earth, not even brass or iron; and on their hair they carried fire and it burnt them not; but the country-folk rushed to arms, furious at being pillaged by Bacchanals;

whereon ensued, O king, this wondrous spectacle. For though the ironshod dart would draw no blood from them, they with the thyrsus, which they hurled, caused many a wound and put their foes to utter rout, women chasing men, by some god's intervention. Then they returned to the place whence they had started, even to the springs the god had made to spout for them; and there washed off the blood,

while serpents with their tongues were licking clean each gout from their cheeks.

Wherefore, my lord and master, receive this deity, whoe'er he be, within the city; for, great as he is in all else, I have likewise heard men say, 'twas he that gave the vine to man, sorrow's antidote. Take wine away and Cypris flies, and every other human joy is dead.


Though I fear to speak my mind with freedom in the presence of my king, still must I utter this; Dionysus yields to no deity in might.


784 Already, look you! the presumption of these Bacchantes is upon us, swift as fire, a sad disgrace in the eyes of all Hellas. No time for hesitation now! away to the Electra gate! order a muster of all my men-at-arms, of those that mount fleet steeds [homosexual partners], of all who brandish light bucklers,

of archers too that make the bowstring twang; for I will march against the Bacchanals.
By Heaven this passes all, if we are to be thus
treated by women.

The Crash of music from above


1. any inarticulate sound, a sound, noise, Hom., Eur., etc.; of musical instruments, ps. lôtou, kitharas Eur.

Psophos , ho, noise (prop. of one thing striking against another, Arist.de An.420a21; or of insects, which produce a sound, but not by the larynx, [the akris, tettix or locusts as Apollyon's musical performers] also [the CRASH] of musical instruments, lôtou, kitharas, E.Ba.687, Cyc.443; of a trumpet, Paus.2.21.3.

E.Ba.687, See more of the story

MESSENGER (lying?)

I was just driving the herds of kine to a ridge of the hill as I fed them, as the sun shot forth his rays and made the earth grow warm; when lo!
I see
three revel-bands of women;
         Autonoe was chief of one,
         thy mother Agave of the second,
         while Ino's was the third.

There they lay asleep, all tired out; some were resting on branches of the pine, others had laid their heads in careless ease on oak-leaves piled upon the ground,

observing all modesty; not, as thou sayest,
seeking to gratify their lusts alone amid the woods, by wine and soft flute-music maddened.

Anon in their midst thy mother uprose and cried aloud to wake them from their sleep, when she heard the lowing of my horned kine. And up they started to their feet, brushing from their eyes sleep's quickening dew, a wondrous sight of grace and modesty, young and old and maidens yet unwed.

First o'er their shoulders they let stream their hair; then all did gird their fawn-skins up, who hitherto had left the fastenings loose, girdling the dappled hides with snakes that licked their cheeks.

> Background to Thayer: Heredotus 1:155

Heredotus 1:CLV Our verson of Heredotus 1

When Cyrus, on his way to Agbatana, received these tidings, he returned to Croesus and said, "Where will all this end, Croesus, thinkest thou?

It seemeth that these Lydians will not cease to cause trouble both to themselves and others.I doubt me if it were not best to sell them all for slaves. Methinks what I have now done is as if a man were to 'kill the father and then spare the child.'

Thou, who wert something more than a father to thy people, I have seized and carried off, and to that people I have entrusted their city. Can I then feel surprise at their rebellion?" Thus did Cyrus open to Croesus his thoughts; whereat the latter, full of alarm lest Cyrus should lay Sardis in ruins, replied as follows: "Oh! my king, thy words are reasonable; but do not, I beseech thee, give full vent to thy anger, nor doom to destruction an ancient city, guiltless alike of the past and of the present trouble. I caused the one, and in my own person now pay the forfeit. Pactyas has caused the other, he to whom thou gavest Sardis in charge; let him bear the punishment.

Grant, then, forgiveness to the Lydians, and to make sure of their never rebelling against thee, or alarming thee more,

send and forbid them to keep any weapons of war, command them to wear tunics under their cloaks, and to put buskins upon their legs,

and make them bring up their sons to
         cithern-playing (Kitharizein),
         singing (psallein),
         and shop-keeping (Hucksterism).

So wilt thou soon see them become women instead of men,
         and there will be no more fear of their revolting from thee."

kitharôidêsis singing to the cithara

citharista , a player on the cithara.... he was so skilfully represented that he seemed to be playing the music inwardly, though it was unheard

citharizo to play on or strike the cithara

parasitor, to play the parasite, to sponge: parasitarier, parasitando pascere ventres suosKkitharizein

kitharizô , play the cithara, phormingi . . himeroen kitharize Il.18.570 , Hes.Sc.202; lurêi d' eraton kitharizôn to kitharizomenon music composed for the cithara,

Psallein is Psallo pres inf act attic epic contr

If Psallein INCLUDED the instrument then why did Heredotus name it separately as is the universal practice?

And as Lucian is MISused by Thayer, you cannot play kithar music without a cithara. But, you can psallo or sing without a cithara.

A guitar player or any PLAYER was a synonym for a parasite. Plato in Republic Book III

"If a man, then, it seems, [398a] who was capable by his cunning of assuming (pantomimic art) every kind of shape and imitating all things should arrive in our city, bringing with himself
         the poems which he wished to exhibit,
                 we should fall down and worship him
as a holy and wondrous and delightful creature,
but (we) should say to him that there is
no man of that kind among us in our city,

nor is it lawful for such a man to arise among us,
and we should send him away to another city,
pouring myrrh down over his head and crowning him with fillets of wool (taring and feathering him)

but we ourselves, for our souls' good, should continue to employ the more austere and less delightful poet and tale-teller,

who would imitate the diction of the good man and would tell his tale
in the patterns which we prescribed in the beginning,
when we set out to educate our soldiers."

This is because actors, speakers and musicians were PARASITES.

Kurfees - Thayer - Grimm
Tom Burgess: Page 35

Tom Burgess: D. I would like to consider one more problem. One of the favorite arguments is that lexicographers such as Grimm admit that the word psallo earlier meant to pluck or pull, then it meant to sing to the accompaniment of the plucked instrument, and then in the New Testament it meant to sing songs of praise to God.

This magic phrase,"in the New Testament, is taken to indicate a change of meaning according to noninstrument interpretation of the lexicons.

They were still PLUCKING bow strings in battle, by the musical prostitutes in all pagan temples (brothels), plucking the hair out of emasculated males so they could become catamites or prostitutes, plucking chalk lines, plucking chicking. But, they simply did not let the word PSALLO carry its WARFARE meaning into peacable society or its harp-twanging into STRAIGHT society.

T. Maccius Plautus Aulularia Scene 9

Enter Anthrax from house of Megadorus

Anth. (to servants inside) Dromo, scale the fish. As for you, Machaerio, you bone the conger and lamprey as fast as you know how. I'm going over next door to ask Congrio for the loan of the bread-pan. And you there! if you know what's good for you, you won't hand me back that rooster till it's plucked cleaner than a ballet dancer.

Scene 3

Re-enter Euclio from house with object under his cloak

Eucl (aside) By heaven, wherever I go this goes (peering under cloak) too: I won't leave it there to run such risks, never. (to Congrio and others) Very well, come now, in with you, cooks, music girls, every one! (to Congrio) Go on, take your understrappers inside if you like, the whole hireling herd of 'em. Cook away, work away, scurry around to your hearts' content now.

But, we have made it clear that scholars note that--even if singing was at times defined by Psallo because of the PLUCKING or "singing" bowstring and "whizzing" arrows--to use the word PSALLO has always been uncertain unless you say whether you are PLUCKING a bow string to panic the enemy with Warrior Praise MY GOD IS STRONGER THAN YOUR GOD taunt songs, or whether you are are a homosexual "flute boy" PLUCKING out your body hair.

SING might mean by Julie Andrews or making John Gotti SING at police headquarters. Or, the birds which chirp in the trees or anything you might improvize. Based on the 100% association of any form of MUSIC in a "religious sense" being by the flute-girls or male catamites; and the fact that you don't want to SHOOT UP the preaching brother in the pulpit, common intellect 101aaa would tell you not to allow the "uncovered prophesiers" of 1 Cor. 11:5 DO IT to you in the assembly.

Many of the "musical" terms point to the akris or tettix or the LOCUSTS of the book of Revelation who were known as "musical performers."

Tom Burgess: Brother Larry Jonas made this observation: "The answer to this is a bit embarrassing to non-instrument brethren and I hope none who have used this reasoning to me will think I am attacking their intelligence; for I know they are only repeating what has been told them in good faith. Grimm has a standard procedure for indicating a difference of meaning of a Greek word. He begins each different definition of the same word with a new number such as 1, 2, 3, and 4. If there is within one of these different definitions some shade of difference, he further divides the one definition down into shades of its meaning by the use of letters such as a, b, c, and d.

Grimm does not use the phrase in the New Testament to indicate a change from the basic meaning;
....... he uses numbers to indicate this change.

He does not use in the New Testament to indicate a different shade of meaning;
........he uses a letter for this

Under psallo he has just two letters, a and b. A stands for the shade of meaning "to pluck or pull. " B stands in front of all the forms of instrumental [p.35-36] accompaniment

I hope that Larry is not embarassed by learning that the word psallo has NOT connection to making music: it simply means to "pluck with the fingers and never with a plectrum."  Only as a metaphor did people speak of "shooting out hymns." No where in any known literature does pluck or its equivalent mean to play a harp: you must include (1) play or pluck and then (2) define WHAT is to be plucked.

Tom Burgess confesses the CHANGE but quibbles how the CHANGES are numbered or lettered.

I don't believe that Tom can get away with trying to get Thayer to say that his later version was INFERIOR to Grimm. Thayer EXCLUDES instruments in Psallo in the N. T. just as he would LOGICALLY exclude twanging bowstrings to send a singing arrow into a literal heart. By defining the church as an assembly or synagogue it would show Paul's ignorance to think that he needed to exclude either performance singing or playing instruments.

Tom Burgess says: B stands in front of all the forms of instrumental accompaniment

But Thayer says: b. to cause to vibrate by touching, to twang:

But the Leading Idea of vibrate by touching or twanging DOES NOT mean instrumental accompaniment.

The LEADING idea of all music and musical sowers of discord is that they are secret agents trying with all of their little hearts to silence the Words of God and to cruely wound those who will not BOW TO BAAL while the children pipe. The wailing and clanging also carries the idea of TO VIBRATE but that DOES NOT authorize worship with instruments. On the contrary, this is a WEAPON OF WAR word and you INTEND with the bowstring or the harp or the voice to make the enemy TREMBLE to prove that you are superior. However, it proves that you are imitating Satan

Elelizô, move in coils or spires, of a serpent, tên d' elelixamenos pterugos laben Il.2.316 ; ep' autou (sc. telamônos) elelikto drakôn speiras opheôn [Satan-Serpent in Revelation=Ophis] elelizomenê [make to tremble or quake,

II. in Il. of an army, cause it to turn and face the enemy, rally it, .

III. cause to vibrate, megan d' elelixen Olumpon, of Zeus, phorminga [harp] e. make its strings quiver, Pi.O.9.13; asteropan [lightening] elelixais, quake, tremble, quiver, of a brandished spea

Psallo means: to send a shaft twanging from the bow, a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark, to resound with a sharp, vibrating sound, to speak in a strongly nasal tone of voice.

I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting. Isaiah 50:6

For, lo, the wicked bend their bow, they make ready their arrow upon the string, that they may privily shoot at the upright in heart. Psalm 11:2

Hide me from the secret counsel of the wicked; from the insurrection of the workers of iniquity: Psa 64:2
whet their tongue like a sword, and bend their bows
         to shoot their arrows,
         even bitter words: Psa 64:3

Yarah (h3384) yaw-raw'; or (2 Chr. 26:15) to lay or throw (espec. an arrow, i. e. to shoot); fig. to point out (as if by aiming the finger), to teach: archer, cast, direct, inform, instruct, lay, shew, shoot, teach

That they may shoot in secret at the perfect: suddenly do they shoot at him, and fear not. Psa 64:4
         They encourage themselves in an evil matter: they commune of laying snares privily;
         they say, Who shall see them? Psa 64:5

But, WE see and we are going to tell the world exactly WHO make up the TOP SECRET band of people who THINK that no one can see!

They search out iniquities; they accomplish a diligent search: both the inward thought of every one of them, and the heart, is deep. Psa 64:6 T
         But God shall shoot at them with an arrow; suddenly shall they be wounded. Psa 64:7
         So they shall make their own tongue
                  to fall upon themselves: all that see them shall flee away. Psa 64:8

And all men shall fear, and shall declare the work of God;
         for they shall wisely consider of his doing. Psa 64:9

Fragment 10, Aristotle, de mundo 5, 396b20

Things taken together are wholes and not wholes, something is being brought together and brought apart, which is in tune and out of tune; out of all things there comes a unity, and out of a unity all things.

The BOW is called STRIFE, but its WORK is DEATH

Fragment 209, Hippolytus Ref Ix, 9, I

They do not apprehend how being at variance it agrees with itself: there is a palintonos (counter-stretched) harmony, as in the bow and the lyre.

Plato in Cratylus notes of changes in the Attic even in 360 B.C.

Soc. Then in reference to his ablutions and absolutions, as being the physician who orders them, he may be rightly called Apolouon (purifier);

or in respect of his powers of divination, and his truth and sincerity,
which is the same as truth, he may be most fitly called
Aplos, from aplous (sincere), as in the Thessalian dialect, for all the Thessalians call him Aplos;
         also he is Ballon (always shooting), because he is a master archer who never misses;

And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. Re.9:11

Apolluon (g623) ap-ol-loo'-ohn; act. part. of 622; a destroyer (i.e. Satan): - Apollyon.
Apollumi (g622) ap-ol'-loo-mee; from 575 and the base of 3639; to destroy fully (reflex. to perish, or lose), lit. or fig.: - destroy, die, lose, mar, perish.

Her. What do you think of doxa (opinion), and that class of words?
Soc. Doxa is either derived from dioxis (pursuit), and expresses

the march of the soul in the pursuit of knowledge,
or from the
shooting of a bow (toxon); the latter is more likely, and is confirmed by oiesis (thinking), which is only oisis (moving), and implies the movement of the soul to the essential nature of each thing-

just as boule (counsel) has to do with shooting (bole);
boulesthai (to wish) combines the notion of aiming and deliberating-
         all these words seem to follow doxa, and all involve the idea of shooting,

just as aboulia, absence of counsel, on the other hand, is a mishap, or missing, or mistaking of the mark, or aim, or proposal, or object.

And, I don't know of anyone who uses Grimm's lexicon to make the point. The up to date version is Thayers. Because Thayer built on Grimm and earlier scholars, he is not bound and DID NOT follow Grimm's numbering system. Rather, Thayer used colons and semicolons. All of those items separated by semicolon are of equal weight.

Page 36

Tom Burgess: [p.35] B stands in front of all the forms of instrumental [p.36] accompaniment accompaniment. It is under this b shade that the use in the New Testament is found. These words indicate that the New Testament use agrees with b.

Again, b. speaks to cause to vibrate by touching, to twang. Thayer does not use MUSICAL INSTRUMENT in b. We noted that Thayer defines the human heart or spirit which is God- created for THAT VERY PURPOSE as that INSTRUMENT. When the heart "sings" it does no shoot arrows or play the harp.

Tom Burgess: "Each lexicon has its own system to indicate a change of meaning. W. E. Vine uses numbers to indicate each different Greek word translated the same way in our English Bible. Within each of these numbers that have different meanings he uses a letter to precede each change so no reader should mistake when a change in meaning is intended.

But, Vine says the same thing that Thayer and Kurfees said:

Vine: Psallo primarily "to twitch, twang," then, "to play a stringed instrument with the fingers,"

O.T. "and hence, in the Sept., "to sing with a harp, sing psalms,"

N.T. denotes, in the NT, "to sing a hymn, sing praise;" in Eph 5:19, "making melody" (for the preceding word ado, see SING). Elsewhere it is rendered "sing," Rom 15:9; 1 Cor 14:15; in James 5:13, RV, "let him sing praise" (AV, "let him sing psalms").

But it is a fact that Psallo never means sing TO a harp or sing psalms. Pluck just means pluck or play. The Bible and ALL literary evidence shows that you must PLUCK and define WHAT is to be plucked. If you pluck a harp string that DOES NOT MELODY MAKE. You have to define a tune or rhythm.

If it could possibly include INSTRUMENTS he would have listed it as a possibility.

As far as I can determine no one before the Christian churches in 1878 ever used PSALLO as authority for playing instruments as an act of worship.

Tom Burgess: Yet, in spite of this care of the Lexicons, non-instrument brethren have discarded the number and letter system of the authors,

and have imposed their own indication of change of meaning, the phrase in the New Testament.
This little observationon how a lexicon shows a change of meaning will remove much of the innocent misuse of authorities now being done by non-instrument brothers. "

Burgess notes that it was THAYER who made the changes. But, Thayer followed Grimm and Grimm did not say "in the N.T." Non-instrument brothers quote Thayer ignorant that Thayer did not say what Grim said. Therefore, non-instrument brothers are ignorant and to be pittied.

But, Thayer, having MADE IMPROVEMENTS, does say in the N.T. Thayer said that because it would be SILLY to say otherwise because NO ONE has ever discovered psallo being used to DEMAND or INCLUDE singing accompanied by a hand-plucked instrument.

The goal of the argument is to claim that Thayer pointed to lightfoot or Grimm for BETTER information. That is, Thayer gave his BETTER definition which EXCLUDES instruments in the New Testament but THEN --we are led to believe--refers to Grimm and Lightfoot and earlier writers to REFUTE his conclusion. We have listed Thayer's definition from Kurfees page 13. Notice the colon and semicolons. The semicolons mark off things of equal weight or DOCUMENTED meanings. Kurfees quotes what we have shown in Thayer's book:

XV. THAYER [psallo],
         a. to pluck off, pull out the hair.
         b. to cause to vibrate by touching, to twang:

specifically to touch or strike the chord, to twang the strings of a musical instrument so that they gently vibrate; and absolutely to play on a stringed instrument, to play the harp, etc.;

[Old Testament] Septuagint for niggen and much oftener for zimmer; to sing to the music of the harp;

[New Testament] in the New Testament to sing a hymn, to celebrate the praises of God in song, Jas. 5: 13; in honor of God, Eph. 5: 19; Rom. 15:9

See the polluting idea of Zamar and Nagan

Cyprian writes:

It is not lawful, I say, for faithful Christians to be present; it is not lawful, I say, at all, even for those whom for the delight of their ears Greece sends everywhere to all who are instructed in her vain arts. One imitates the hoarse warlike clangours of the trumpet; another with his breath blowing into a pipe regulates its mournful sounds; another with dances,

and with the musical voice of a man, strives with his breath, which by an effort he had drawn from his bowels into the upper parts of his body, to play upon the stops of pipes; now letting forth the sound, and now closing it up inside, and forcing it into the air by certain openings of the stops;

now breaking the sound in measure, he endeavours to speak with his fingers, ungrateful to the Artificer who gave him a tongue. Why should I speak of comic and useless efforts? Why of those great tragic vocal ravings?

Why of strings set vibrating with noise? These things, even if they were not dedicated to idols, ought not to be approached and gazed upon by faithful Christians; because, even if they were not criminal, they are characterized by a worthlessness which is extreme, and which is little suited to believers.

10. Let the faithful Christian, I say, devote himself to the sacred Scriptures, and there he shall find worthy exhibitions for his faith.

Burgess and Jonas apparently want you to believe that "in the NT to sing a hymn must connect to b. to vibrate or twang; and this MUST mean [because he had no information from Grimm] to play an instrument:

Tom Burgess: It is under this b shade that the use in the New Testamentis found. These words indicate that the New Testament use agrees with b.

Therefore, what Thayer MEANT to say was that:
in the New Testament to sing a hymn to the music of the harp!

But b says: vibrate by touching, to twang. He EXCLUDES the demand for a musical instrument because the base meaning is NOT musical but simply PLUCKING. You can pluck a harp string or an old hen's feathers.

But, Thayer then says that b in the N.T. means:

"to sing to the music of the harp" is separated by a semicolon from "in the N.T. to sing a hymn." No one ever translated this to mean what Burgess wants it to say: "To sing to the music of the harp in the N.T."

If "b." meant "in the N.T. to sing a hymn to the music of a harp" then Thayer is redundant.

Ephesians 5:19 uses the word ODE which excludes the harp. Why would Thayer say "ode" without an instrument "to the music of a harp" and then demand that you pick up your (individual) harps and PSALMOS?"

The synonym argument has psalms, hymns and spiritual songs including the harp according to Burgess. Therefore, the PSALM must make singing demand an instrument.

But, if Burgess had it correct then he would find ONE TRANSLATION which includes a mechanical instrument as opposed to the 'harp of God' by which we offer the sacrifice of the fruit of our lips.

He SHOULD find one example in ANY literature which does not implicate music [a mind altering activity] which does not MARK or PRODUCE homosexual feelings.

Melody, like grace, is a quality of a poem or a speech: it does not mean to play an instrument unless one is defined. In fact, MELODY in speech made it less believable because it was ACTING which made one a member of the SECTARIAN hypocrite band.

Thayer is not BOUND to Grimm because as a literate student of the Bible knows that ALL of the occurrences of PSALLO in the literature DID NOT INCLUDE twanging the HARP but twanging IN the heart. If you wanted to SING and PLAY you always used a SINGING word and then ADDED a playing INSTRUMENT.

Thayer, gives us an example of TWANGING the heart or soul:

I will sing God's praises indeed with my whole soul stirred and borne away by the Holy Spirit,

but I will also follow reason as my guide, so that what I sing may be understood alike by myself and by the listeners,'1 Cor. 14: 15.

Paul excluded RAISING UP or creating PLEASURE in Romans 15 where we speak with ONE MIND and ONE MOUTH "that which is written." Nevertheless, the demand that MY singing be UNDERSTOOD fits the SPEAKING OR TEACHING direct command because you CANNOT understand with a "music team" blasting away.

We should look again at the Latin PSALLO. Burgess on page 35 says B stands in front of all the forms of instrumental [p.36] accompaniment accompaniment. It is under this b shade that the use in the New Testament is found. These words indicate that the New Testament use agrees with b. Others have separated out "in the N.T." to prove that in Koine it simply meant to SING without getting connected back to mean "in the N.T. SING with an instrument."

We have noted that the Latin Psallo the GENERAL meaning of to play an instrument. However, the PARTICULAR meaning even in the Old Testament meant to SING the Psalms:

Psallo , i, 3, v. n., = psallô.

I. In general, to play upon a stringed instrument; esp.,
         to play upon the cithara,
         to sing to the cithara:
         psallere saltare elegantius, Sall. C. 25, 2 (but in Cic. Cat. 2, 10, 23 the correct read. is saltare et cantare;

II. In particular, in ecclesiastical Latin, to sing the Psalms of David, Hier. Ep. 107, 10; Aug. in Psa. 46; 65; Vulg. 1 Cor. 14, 15

We are absolutely certain of this because there are no instances of psallo or zamar being used to mean "sing while playing an instrument." SINGING is always singing but "melody" must be assigned to the NAME of an instrument. In both the Greek PSALMOS and the English SONG, the human voice is the "first instrument of choice."

In an ecclesiastical sense the word never means to SING accompanied by a musical instrument. Sing is still sing and melody is still melody and EVERYONE names the instrument if one is intended.

We know that none of the languages which still understood Attic Greek, Koine or Latin thought that Paul was commanding SING with MELODY on the HARP. TEACH is still teach in any of the languages and none of them are facilitated with instrumental music.

If you don't grasp that distinction you are in a heap of trouble. The word PLAY at Mount Sinai, by Samson and when David was removing th Ark of the Covenant, meant to PLAY a musical instrument. It also meant to PLAY the prostitute or to PLAY in a sexual or homosexual way. In the Greek the same is true.

Paizô means to "play like a child or sport," dance, 4. play on a musical instrument, 5. play amorously, play with, make sport of. That was the musical mocking of Jesus by the Levitical Warrior musicians. The Greek word "music" almost demanded to "dance and sing."

PAIZO is similar in definition to PSALLO above. The word is very often used with Sôkratês and we know what kind of psallo and play he approved of at least in principle.

It IS possible for all to SPEAK THE SAME THING but only if they "teach that which has been taught" and in a way which makes TEACHING and MEMORIZING the Biblical text the ONLY meaning of the assembly as synagogue. Any form of rhetorical preaching, music or other visible ceremonies is THRESKIA worship introduced by Orpheus and the LESBOS SINGERS to insult Homer by ceasing to recite his poetry and begin SINGING it and PLAYING INSTRUMENTS which always fueled or PIPED DOWN the symposium or women's 'worship assemblies' to result in the final act of worship: reaching a sexual climax with the gods.

People have rejected the idea of MUSICAL ENTERTAINMENT in religion for these 2,000 years. So, it is not a reaction by Southern, rednecks who cannot read. Catholic resources still reject instruments as other than a concession to wide-spread ignorance. They still know that Paul said SPEAK and therefore identify their leaders as being trained to SPEAK rather than SING. Maybe this will rescue them form the afflictions of all "ceremonial priesthoods."

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