Bob Williams Origins of Christian Worship

Bob Williams, like most preachers, believe and teach that Animal Sacrifices with Instrumental Music was God's pattern for worship under the Law of Moses. They missed the Musical Idolatry at Mount Sinai after which God sentenced them to captivity and death back in their places of origin.  God turned them over to worship the starry host says Stephen in Acts 7 and most recorded history. Why not ask: "Why am I defending as a pattern the slaughter of thousands of innocent animals made dumb before the slaughter by the Levites performing exorcism and not "Choral singing and making melody with instrumental accompaniment.

Christ in Spirit ordained the Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ in the Wilderness:
        It was INCLUSIVE of Rest, Reading and Rehearsing the Word of God: what disciples do.
        It was EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing or elevated forms of speaking: disciples don't do that.
       That is what the synagogue practiced, what Jesus exampled and what He commanded with "ekklesia" which in Greek defines the church in the wilderness.  The historic church and the Campbells called church A School of Christ. Worship is reading musing the Word of God: just what Christ and Paul commanded and everyone practiced before singing was imposed as an ACT in the year 373: this split the east from the west churches.

The meaning of worship in the body was to prostrate yourself on the ground or bow to God;
The meaning of worship in the Church of Christ is giving attendance to the reading of the Word and discussing it.
That is called worship IN the heart or spirit.  Singing and melody EXTERNALLY is defined as the antithesis of SPEAKING that which is written for our learning with ONE mind and ONE mouth. That is because the "singing" word just means making sounds: frogs croak, doors squeak, cocks crow: it could NOT have had any melody in a tuneul sense.

Psallo is never used in the Greek literature translated as melody: the word would have been the Greek Melos.
Psallo is never used meaning to play or pluck a harp: each instrument had a compound word when playing a harp was intended: Anti-psallo to pluck a harp still has no modern metrical meaning

That is why Paul set up a series of antithetical parallel statements to make sure that we understood--based on human possibility and minimal understanding--that you cannot SPEAK and SING at the same time.
See Matthew 28 CENI versus LYING WONDERS.
See Christ in Isaiah 66 defining the Lying Wonders God would afflict those who reject the Word.
Strong Delusions result in Lying Wonders: any kind of performance in God's Presence

Bob Williams: Introduction 

God abandoned them to Kings "in His anger" and washed His hands. Please Read one of the first Prophets who speaks for Christ Who warned about the lying pen of the Scribes in their writings about the virtue of the temple.

First Samuel Chapter Eight and the prophets prove that the Jews cad a covenant with death and worshipped the starry host.

Col 2:15 And having spoiled principalities and powers,
he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.
Colossians 3:10 And have put on the new man,
        which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him:
Colossians 3:11 Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision,
        Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free: but Christ is all, and in all.
Col. 2:16 Let no man therefore judge you meat,
........or in drink,
........or in respect of an holyday,
........or of the new moon,
........or of the sabbath days:
Col. 2:17 Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.
A shadow is NOT God's old, failed plan of salvation: the Law including the Sabbaths were imposed BECAUSE of transgression to PREVENT people from going to pagan worship services on the Sabbath considered an evil day. The Jewish ABANDONMENT TO WORSHIP THE STARRY HOST was something Christ came to destroy and not use as a legalistic patternism.
A Shadow is something truly Evil:
G4639 skia skee'-ah Apparently a primary word; “shade” or a shadow (literally or figuratively 
........[darkness of error or an adumbration]):--shadow.

2. reflection, image (in a bowl of oil), Sch.Il.17.755.
3. shade of one dead, phantom, Od.10.495,  A.Th.992,
........of worthless things, that phantom at Delphi, . mere shadows of .
4. evil spirit, Hippiatr.130, PMasp.188.5
........also, of one worn to a shadow, A.Eu.302;

Obeying the doctrines of Lucifer - Satan

Speaking of the religious ritual condemned by Amos and others we note that:

Psa. 89:3 I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant,
Psa. 89:4 Thy seed will I establish for ever, and build up thy throne to all generations. Selah.
Is. 28:15 Because ye have said, 
........We have made a covenant with death, [Marzeah in Amos re wine, women and music]
........and with hell are we at agreement;
........when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, shall not come unto us:
................for we have made lies our refuge,
................and under falsehood have we hid ourselves:
Is. 28:16 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD,
........Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone,
........a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation:
........he that believeth shall not make haste.

SHALL NOT MAKE HASTE  H2363, koosh; a primitive root; to hurry; figuratively, to be eager with excitement or enjoyment:—(make) haste(-n), ready.
Speudo I. trans., set going, urge on, hasten,, make anxious, Pi.P.3.62, Arete b. later, of the gods, chiefly in pl., glorious deeds, wonders, miracle
Pind. P. 3 or with their limbs wounded by gray bronze or by a far-hurled stone, [50] or with their bodies wasting away from summer's fire or winter's cold, he released and delivered all of them from their different pains, tending some of them with gentle incantations, others with soothing potions, or by wrapping remedies all around their limbs, and others he set right with surgery. But even skill is enthralled by the love of gain

[60] knowing what lies before our feet, and what kind of destiny we have. Do not crave immortal life, my soul, but use to the full the resources of what is possible. But if wise Cheiron were still living in his cave, and if our honey-voiced odes [65] had cast a spell on his spirit, I would have persuaded him to send even now a healer to cure noble men of their feverish diseases, someone called a son of Apollo or of his father Zeus

Exodus 15.[15]
Then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed. Trembling takes hold of the mighty men of Moab. All the inhabitants of Canaan are melted away.
1 Samuel 28.21 The woman came to Saul, and saw that he was sore troubled, and said to him, Behold, your handmaid has listened to your voice, and I have put my life in my hand, and have listened to your words which you spoke to me.

The god of the NEW STYLE HERETICS.  Apollo is Abaddon or Apollyon and his musical worship team are the Locustes or dirty adulterers (including selling learning at retail)

To the Pythian Apollo:
182-206 - Leto"s (mother of Apollo) - all-glorious son goes to rocky Pytho [Serpent, Pythian spirit]
playing upon his hollow lyre, clad in divine, perfumed garments; and at the touch of the golden key his lyre sings sweet.
       Thence, swift as thought, he speeds from earth to Olympus, to the house of Zeus,
       to join the gathering of the other gods:

then straightway the undying gods think only of the lyre and song,
and all the Muses together, voice sweetly answering voice,
hymn the unending gifts the gods enjoy and the sufferings of men, all that they endure at the hands of the deathless gods, and how they live witless and helpless and cannot find healing for death or defence against old age.
Catullus: Haste you together, she-priests, to Cybele's [Mother Goddess] dense woods, together haste, you vagrant herd of the dame Dindymene, you who inclining towards strange places as exiles, following in my footsteps, led by me, comrades, you who have faced the ravening sea and truculent main, and have castrated your bodies in your utmost hate of Venus, make glad our mistress speedily with your minds' mad wanderings.

Ephesians: we SPEAK the Word of God: we do not MAKE MUSIC with carnal weapons.

Eph 6:12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

We do NOT wrestle against flesh and blood:

[12] diabolou: hoti ouk estin hêmin palê pros haima kai sarka, alla pros tas archas, pros tas exousias, pros tous kosmokratoras touskotous toutou, pros ta pneumatika tês ponêrias en tois epouraniois

Pale (g3823) pal'-ay; from pallo, (to vibrate; another form for 906); wrestling: - / wrestle

G906 ballō bal'-lo A primary verb; to throw (in various applications, more or less violent or intense):arise, cast (out), X dung, lay, lie, pour, put (up), send, strike, throw (down), thrust. Compare G4496 .

Pallô, poise, sway a missile before it is thrown, sway, brandish, she drove it furiously, tripped on the shield-rim, quiver, leap, esp. in fear, II. Pass., swing, dash oneself, Pi.N.5.21; vibrate, of strings, Pl.Phd.94c (psalloito ap. Stob.); skirtêtikon kai pallomenon to neon (etym. of Pallas) Corn.ND20, cf. Pl.Cra. 407a. III. intr., leap, bound, E.El.435, Ar.Lys.1304 (lyr.); [p. 1294] quiver, quake, phrena deimati pallôn S.OT153 (lyr.); dash along, of horses, E.El.477 (lyr.).
Pi.N.5.21   Pindar, Nemean 5.

Bob Williams: Early Jewish Worship

Bob and most preachers jump to the Tabernacle with the tribe of Levi in charge. There was no musical instruments even outside of the Tabernacle of God. That one in Jerusalem was David's TENT which God gave him by grace, BUT, Solomon built Him a house He will not live in.

Earlier, God gave them The Book of the Covenant of Grace which was like the Abrahamic Covenant with no priests or Levites.

Genesis 49:5 Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.
Genesis 49:6 O my soul, come not thou into their secret;
        unto their assembly, mine honour,
        be not thou united: for in their anger they slew a man,
        and in their selfwill they digged down a wall.
Genesis 49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel:
         I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.

Leapfrogging the Law of Moses or anything that came before Christ:

Genesis 49:8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise:
        thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies;
        thy father’s children shall bow down before thee.
Genesis 49:9 Judah is a lion’s whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up:
        he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?
Genesis 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet,
        until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.
Genesis 49:11 Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine;
         he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes:
Genesis 49:12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.

The Israelites refused to hear The Book of The Covenant which enforced the original ten commandments, they were blinded and would not be able to read or her until Messiah came.  They immediately fell into musical idolatry and Stephen said that god turned them over to worship the starry host. The Jewish Encyclopedia understands that whatever they called their "gods" they worshipped those named by Amos and Stephen in Acts 7.

Stephen said that God permitted David a tent at an old Jebusite High place rather than let Him be destroyed.
However, Solomon built God a house, but God does not live in houses built by human hands or is he worshipped by human hands.

In Exodus 32 they fell into musical idolatry and God gave them The Book of the Law, sentenced them to captivity and death in Babylon, and gave them the LEVITES to bear the burden of the Tabernacle and bear the burden of their OWN SIN.

The Levites were an old Infant Burning clergy in Egypt and they continued that in between short revivals. Molech was worshipped at Jerusalem and Tophet or hell is named after the Tabret or Tambourine.

After the period of the Judges, the elders "fired" God and demanded a king like the nations so they could worship like the nations: if God abandoned them to worship the starry host just WHICH GODS did they worship as an early patternism for Christianity. Christians go to Bible School which is the only meaning of worship or giving heed to what Jesus commanded to be taught. Jesus repudiated the entire Civil-Military-Clergy system as robbers and parasites. God had not commanded sacrifices or burnt offerings (Isaiah 1; Jeremiah 7)


Isaiah 66:3 He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb,
        as if he cut off a dog’s neck;
        he that offereth an oblation, as if he offered swine’s blood;
        he that burneth incense, as if he blessed an idol.
        Yea, they have chosen their own ways,
        and their soul delighteth in their abominations.
I.  To allure from the right path, to entice away, to seduce (only ante-class.): me Apollo ipse delectat, ductat Delphicucarminibus,Hor. Od. 4, 1, 23; cf. “iambis (with gaudere carmine),id. Ep. 2, 2, 59 et passim: “interea cum Musis nos delectabimus aequo animo,
Mūsa , ae, f., = Mousa, I. a muse, one of the goddesses of poetry, music, and the other liberal arts. The ancients reckoned nine of them, viz.: Clio, the muse of history; Melpomene, of tragedy; Thalia, of comedy; Euterpe, of the flute; Terpsichore, of dancing; Calliope, of epic poetry; Erato, of lyric poetry; Urania, of astronomy; Polyhymnia, of the mimic art, Aus. Idyl
me magis de Dionysio delectat,Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 13 fi
quam delectabat eum defectiones solis et lunae multo ante nobis praedicere,
That's what Christ said through Isaiah:

Isa 1:11 To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto me? saith the Lord:
        I am full of the burnt offerings of rams,
        and the fat of fed beasts;
and I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he goats.

Nolo I would not, I could wish not:, I am sorry for it, without my consent, against my will,
quod nolim, which Heaven forbid:

h2654 Chaphets

nōluī, —, nōlle , to wish . . . not, will . . . not, not to wish, to be unwilling
Mŭlĭĕro , āvi, 1, v. a. id., I. to make womanish, render effeminate (ante-class.):
Nolo nollet carmine quemquam Describo
And may heaven forbid it .

Miriam and the Levites prophesied with instruments: they are called soothsayers: God Forbids describing His Words with music as if He could not speak for Himself.

Verg. A. 3.445
When wafted to that shore,
repair to Cumae's hill, and to the Lake
Avernus with its whispering grove divine.
There shalt thou see a frenzied prophetess,
who from beneath the hollow scarped crag
sings oracles, or characters on leaves
mysterious names. Whate'er the virgin writes,
on leaves inscribing the portentous song,
she sets in order, and conceals them well
in her deep cave, where they abide unchanged
in due array

1Samuel 24:12 The LORD judge between me and thee, and the LORD avenge me of thee:
        but mine hand shall not be upon thee.
3John 13 I had many things to write, but I will not with ink and pen write unto thee:
Joshua 24:10 But I Joshua 24:10 But I would not hearken unto Balaam; therefore he blessed you still: so I delivered you out of his hand.  unto Balaam; therefore he blessed you still: so I delivered you out of his hand.
Judges 2:3 Wherefore I also said, I will not drive them out from before you; but they shall be as thorns in your sides, and their gods shall be a snare unto you.

Isa 1:12 When ye come to appear before me,
        who hath required this at your hand, to tread my courts?

Isa 1:13 Bring no more vain oblations;
        Incense is an abomination unto me;
        the new moons and sabbaths,
        the calling of assemblies, I cannot away with;
        it is iniquity, even the solemn meeting.

 Solomon brought on a civil war selling cities and enslaving the Israelites: the temple was built by Hiram of Tyre and the one in Jerusalem was about the same as in Tyre. The Temple at Tyre still exists but no one has ever found a shred of evidence that the glorious reign of Solomon or the Temple ever existed.  Christ in the prophets warns about the lying pen of the Scribes in their glorification of the Temple

Bob Williams:  Worship in the Temple

"Before the establishment of the kingdom under Saul, it was the women who, as in every young civilization, played a major part in the performance of music. Such figures as Miriam, Deborah, Jephthah's daughter, and the women hailing the young hero David have become almost archetypes of female musicians.

"Characteristic of all these cases is the familiar picture of a female chorus, dancing and singing, accompanied by frenzied drum-beating.

This is the scene known to the entire Near East, and not
"even the
severe rule of Islam could wholly suppress this age-old practice." (Int Dict of the Bible, Music, p. 457).

See our review of Al Maxey's use of Miriam as authority for a female musical worship minister. Of course, the text makes it clear that as a prophetess Miriam was called a soothsayer in Egypt.

Bob Williams: "After its construction by Solomon, the temple in Jerusalem became the prominent focus of Jewish worship. It appears that the emphasis of worship in the temple was primarily on sacrificial offerings and praise to God through music.

It became the center of the worship of the starry host TO WHOM God had condemned them because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.

When the Levites mad a great NOISE a dreat darkness or heaviness filled the temple and it became impossible to serve in it. This was the sign that God had cut them off from His symbolic presence, the Mercy Seat and His Word once in the Ark. Even Solomon soon caught on because the people prayed OUTSIDE of the gates and God heard from Heaven: guess He was NOT in the temple afterall.

1Kings 8:30 And hearken thou to the supplication of thy servant, and of thy people Israel,
        when they shall pray toward this place:
        and hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place: and when thou hearest, forgive.

NO LEVITE singer or musician could come NEAR or IN any holy thing or place. NO ONE WORSHIPPED INSIDE OF THE TEMPLE. The Levites served in the inner court up to their ears in blood, dung and burning flesh. Only the High Priest could enter INSIDE of the Holy Place once a year. After Solomon's dedication of the not-commanded temple God agreed that people could pray TOWARD the Temple: the Levites and priests were abandoned to the worship of the starry host. They made noise and not melodious music. While they could Profane the Sabbath in the Temple on the Sabbath because God had ABANDONED THEM the godly people were quarantined to their own area but could Rest, Read and Reherse the Word.

The temple was not A HOUSE OF WORSHIP: it was a house for their Gods. Solomon built God a HOUSE but God does not LIVE in houses made by human hands.

God had not commanded sacrifices or offerings: The Levites bore the burden of the Synagogue and bore the burden of their own sins. They ministered to the PRIESTS: they did not minister to God: God does not get hungry.

Num 18:2 And thy brethren also of the tribe of Levi, the tribe of thy father, bring thou with thee, that they may be joined unto thee, and minister unto thee: but thou and thy sons with thee shall minister BEFORE the tabernacle of witness. [never IN]

H8334 sharath shaw-rath' A primitive root; to attend as a menial or worshipper; figuratively to contribute to:--minister (unto), (do) serve (-ant, -ice, -itor), wait on. 

Num 18:3 And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the tabernacle:
        only they shall
not come nigh the vessels of the sanctuary and the altar,
        that neither they, nor ye also, di

The sacrificial system was NEVER the spiritual worship but part of the WRATH DISPELLING curse imposed because of Musical idolatry.  Because they were abandoned to that of all national sanctuaries, their performance was exorcism: to ward off the god's wrath.  If you did not feed him and entertain and sexually favor him on time he was liable to hurt you real bad.

Num 18:5 And ye shall keep the charge of the sanctuary, and the charge of the altar:
        that there be no wrath any more upon the children of Israel.

Custodia I.  a watching, watch, guard, care, protection
1.  Usu. in plur. and in milit. lang., persons who serve as guards, a guard, watch, sentinel:
II. With the access. idea of hindering free motion, a watching, guarding, custody, restraint, confinement.
If you, a non-cursed tribe of Levi went into any  holy place you would be executed by God's wrath: Remember Nadab and Abihu?

Contrary to being a spiritual worship service, the sacrificial system had been imposed and if it were not performed it would bring down God's wrath as punishment due for NOT performing what they had been abandoned to.

Num 18:7 Therefore thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priest’s office for every thing of the altar,
        and within the veil; and ye shall serve: I have given your priest’s office unto you as a service of gift:
        and the stranger that cometh nigh shall be put to death.
If a modern singer or player tried to enter into a holy place a Levite would slaughter you like an innocent lamb.

The synagogue which was the Church of Christ in the wilderness continued for ALL of the godly people not connected to the Civil-Military-Clergy team abandoned to worship the starry host.  From the wilderness onward the godly people attended the synagogue which was inclusive of REST, reading and rehearsing the Word. It was EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing. The Synagogue was the REALITY of God instructing His People and the Church continued that process.

Because the NATIONAL sacrificial system was a goyim, Gentile or Babylonish Civillian system, the Temple is pictured as a Ziggurat or Tower of Babel.

None of the instrumental noise was ever called music:  the Levites were under the king and commanders of the army. They performed national sacrifices for all of the nobility but worship meant to fall on your face. Bob thinks that the instruments and choirs was somewhat similarto the melodious four-part harmony common in man churches today.

Melody as tunefulness belongs to the 19th century: simple harmony was discovered after the composers and monks began to fiddle around with organs: that was about the year 150. NONE of the Bible is metrical and you cannot sing with a tuneful melody: it was cantillation or rhymic prose.

Bob Williams: He quotes several passages to prove that both vocal and instrumental music was used in worship to God. That is utterly false: animal slaughter is never called worship but a symptom of people God abandoned to blood and flesh lust: it was a way to steal from the poor.

First: 2 Samuel 6:5. Because of sin which deserved execution God favored David and gave him an old, Pagan or Jebusitehigh place as an alternative to the Tabernacle to which he could never return. Because they had been abandoned to Sabazianism which is the meaning of the Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon) and Dionysus worship, there was nothing that happened there which was not done to PREVENT GOD'S WRATH from falling on them. They  were quarantined behind closed gates and Hezekiah's reform was because they took sacrifices outside of quarantine.

"Despite the differences between the Mosaic and the Egyptian cults, it can hardly be denied that Egyptian influence on Jewish musical practices were quite significant. They would stand to reason because of the high quality of egyptian cultic music.

The tambourine or timbrel, a hoop of bells over which a white skin was stretched, came from Egypt. Miriam used this instrument to accompany the singing and dancing on the shores of the Red Sea (Ex. 15).

The trumpet blown for decampment, at the gathering of the people and on different cultic occasions, especially during sacrifices (2 Chron. 30:21; 35:15; Num 10:2), was the signaling instrument of the Egyptian army.

The sistrum, according to 2 Sam 6:5, was used by the Israelites and bore the name mena'aneim. It was the same as the Egyptian kemkem which was employed in the cult of Isis.

The solemnity celebrated on the occasion of the transferring of the Ark to Sion, as well as the dances of the daughters of Israel at the annual feast of the Lord of Shiloh (Judg 21:21), were similar in thier musical embellishments to Egyptian customs in the liturgy and at parades. As Herodotus reports,

women sang the praises of Osiris while likenesses of the gods were born about and, during the festival of Diana at Bubastis,

choirs of men and women sang and danced to the beating of drums and the playing of flutes." (Quasten, Johannes, Music and Worship in Pagan and Christian Antiquity, p. 65)


God had abandoned the nation in First Samuel 8.

And the Lord said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them. 1 Samuel 8:7
1 Sam 10:19 And ye have this day rejected your God, who himself saved you out of all your adversities and your tribulations; and ye have said unto him, Nay, but set a king over us. Now therefore present yourselves before the Lord by your tribes, and by your thousands.

According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt even unto this day,

wherewith they have forsaken me,
and served other gods,

so do they also unto thee.
1 Samuel 8:8
Now therefore hearken unto their voice: howbeit yet protest solemnly unto them, and shew them the manner of the king that shall reign over them. 1 Samuel 8:9

And he said, This will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons, and appoint them for himself, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen; and some shall run before his chariots. 1 Samuel 8:11

And he will appoint him captains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and will set them to ear his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and instruments [Musical] of his chariots. 1 Samuel 8:12

David's Naked Dance Ark Movement.

The Ark of the Covenant was the Totem of Israel at Shiloh: even though God had abandoned David to a Jebusite high place rather than execute him, David decided to bring the whole nation under His reign.   REMEMBERING that God had abandoned the nation to worship the starry host.

BACKGROUND: God had virtually abandoned Israel and TURNED THEM OVER TO WORSHIP THE STARRY HOSTS (Acts 7) because of the PLAY or musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.  You should understand the Pagan Idolatry or The Golden Calf in Egypt Part One.  The Golden Calf Part Two.  The Actual Musical Idolatry at Mount Sinai which caused God to "turn them over to worship the starry host Part One.   And the Prophets showing the fatal consequence of musical idolatry and the loss of Grace Part Two.

6.644 Translated from Od. 8. 264, peplēgon de khoron theion posin, where however it would seem from a preceding line, v. 260, that khoron is the place of dancing, not the dance, though the other construction, khoron as a cogn. acc., would be sufficiently idiomatic. The sense of clapping the hands, though the most usual sense of ‘plaudo,’ does not seem to be the primary one, at least if we may argue from its derivation “plaustrum” (comp. “claudo,” “claustrum”), which may either be, as Scaliger ap. Forc. thinks, “a plaudendo terram,” or perhaps ‘a thing hammered,’ as krotein is used of applause, of hammering, and of the rattle of a car (okhea kroteontes Il. 15. 453), okhea krotēta Soph. El. 714 being taken by some ‘hammered,’ by others ‘made to rattle.’ Krotos podōn is used of dancing Eur. Heracl. 583, Tro. 746, like ‘pedibus plaudunt’ here, and the parallel may be completed by comparing krotēta melē Soph. Thamyris fr. 221, music struck out by the plēktron, with the similar action expressed by plaudere in the Ciris v. 179, “Non Libyco molles plauduntur pectine telae.” ‘Carmina dicuntG. 1. 350, where it is mentioned in connexion with dancing.
Thus "Bacchus was directly called upon," he says. The Sabazian worship was Sabbatic; the names Evius, or Hevius, and Luaios are identical with Hivite and Levite.

The French name Louis is the Hebrew Levi; Iacchus again is Iao or Jehovah; and Baal or Adon, like Bacchus, was a phallic god.

"Who shall ascend into the hill (the HIGH place) of the Lord?" asks the holy king David, "who shall stand in the place of his Kadushu [[Heb char]]"? (Psalms xxiv. 3). Kadesh may mean in one sense to devote, hallow, sanctify, and even to initiate or to set apart;

        but it also means the ministers of lascivious rites (the Venus-worship) and the true interpretation of the word Kadesh is bluntly rendered in Deuteronomy xxiii. 17; Hosea iv. 14; and Genesis xxxviii., from verses 15 to 22. The "holy" Kadeshuth of the Bible were identical as to the duties of their office with the Nautch-girls of the later Hindu pagodas.

The Hebrew Kadeshim or galli lived "by the house of the Lord, where the women wove hangings for the grove," or bust of Venus-Astarte, says verse the seventh in the twenty-third chapter of 2 Kings.

The dance performed by David round the ark was the "circle-dance" said to have been prescribed by the Amazons for the Mysteries. Such was the dance of the daughters of Shiloh (Judges xxi. 21, 23 et passim), and the leaping of the prophets of Baal (I Kings xviii. 26). It was simply a characteristic of the Sabean worship, for it denoted the motion of the planets round the sun.

That the dance was a Bacchic frenzy is apparent. Sistra were used on the occasion, and the taunt of Michael and the king's reply are very expressive. "The king of Israel uncovered himself before his maid-servants as one of the vain (or debauched) fellows shamelessly uncovereth himself." And he retorts: "I will play (act wantonly) before [[Heb char]], and I will be yet more vile than this, and I will be base in my own sight."

When we remember that David had sojourned among the Tyrians and Philistines, where their rites were common; and that indeed he had conquered that land away from the house of Saul, by the aid of mercenaries from their country, the countenancing and even, perhaps, the introduction of such a Pagan-like worship by the weak "psalmist" seems very natural. David knew nothing of Moses, it seems, and if he introduced the Jehovah-worship it was not in its monotheistic character, but simply as that of one of the many gods of the neighboring nations -- a tutelary deity to whom he had given the preference, and chosen among "all other gods."


2 Sam 6:14 And David danced before the Lord with all his might;
............ and David was girded with a linen ephod.

2 Samuel 6. [14]  David danced before Yahweh with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod. [15]  So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of Yahweh with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet.

-2 Samuel 6.[14] et David saltabat totis viribus anteDominum porro David erat accinctus ephod lineo [15] etDavid et omnis domus Israhel ducebant arcam testamentiDomini in iubilo et in clangore bucinae

Sal·ta·to·ry ( adj.
1. Of, relating to, or adapted for leaping or dancing.
2. Proceeding by leaps rather than by smooth, gradual transitions.

-Saltō āvī, ātus, āre, freq. salio, to dance : in convivio saltare nudus coeperat: nemo enim fere saltat sobrius, nisi, etc.: scire saltare, O.: Fac saltet, O.: ad tibicinis modos, L.—Fig., to speak jerkingly, speak in short clauses : saltat incīdens particulas.—With acc: aliquam mimo saltante puellam, dancing a girl's part , O.: Cyclopa, H.: saltata poëmata, recited with rhythmical movements

-Tertullian: certainly you will not regard with approval those efforts after an artificial body which aim at surpassing the Creator's work;

-sălax , ācis, adj. salio; cf. sagax, from sagio.
I. Fond of leaping, esp. of male animals, lustful, lecherous, salacious: “galli,Varr. R. R. 3, 9, 5: “aries,Ov. F. 4, 771: “salaciora animalia, Lact. Opif. Dei, 14: salacissimi mares,Col. 7, 9, 1; 8, 2, 9: “cauda,Hor. S. 1, 2, 45.—Vulgarly applied to Priapus: “deus,Auct. Priap. 14, 1; 34, 1; and sarcastically: salacissimus Juppiter, Sen. ap. Lact. 1, 16, 10.—
II. Poet. transf., that provokes lust, provocative: “erucae,Ov. R. Am. 799: “bulbi,Mart. 3, 75, 3: “herba, i.e. eruca,Ov. A. A. 2, 422; Mart. 10, 48, 10. Impers. pass.: “cantatur ac saltatur per omnes gentes,Quint. 2, 17,

Bob Williams: Next, Bob uses 1 Chronicles 16 as proof for the cursed Monarchy as proof text for vocal and instrumenta music under the Law which became the source of Christian worship

Acts 7:46 Who found favour before God,
desired to find a tabernacle for the God of Jacob.
Acts 7:47 But
Solomon built him an house.

BUT, God does not live in houses built by human hands NOR is He worshipped by the works of human hands: raising, pointing, clapping, picking and grinning.

There was no instrumental noise in God's original Tabernacle into which the Levites could not Go. God allowed David to built an altar but he confiscated the Ark of the Covenant

1 Chron 16:2 And when David had made an end of offering the burnt offerings and the peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the Lord.

But, Christ inspiring the Prophets (only) denied what preachers are actively promoting:
Trust ye not in lying words, saying,
        The temple of the Lord
, The temple of the Lord,
        The temple of the Lord, are these. Jeremiah 7:4

For if ye throughly amend your ways and your doings;
        if ye thoroughly
execute judgment between a man and his neighbour; Jeremiah 7:5 

If ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow,
shed not innocent blood in this place,
        neither walk after other gods to your hurt: Jeremiah 7:6

Behold, ye trust in lying words, that cannot profit. Jeremiah 7:8

Will ye steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely,
burn incense unto Baal,
walk after other gods whom ye know not; Jeremiah 7:9

And come and stand before me in this HOUSE, which is called by my name, and say,
        We are delivered to do all these abominations? Jeremiah 7:10

> For I spake NOT unto your fathers, nor commanded them
        in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt,
       concerning burnt offerings or sacrifices: Jeremiah 7:22
> But this thing commanded I them, saying,
       Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people:
       and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded you,
       that it may be well unto you. Jeremiah 7:23

> But they HEARKENED NOT, nor inclined their ear,
       but walked in the counsels and in the imagination of their evil heart,
and went backward, and not forward. Jeremiah 7:24

Saul and David believed that their "god" lived inside of the Ark of the Covenant and when David danced naked before the Ark he claimed that he was "making himself vile before God.

1 Chron 16:4 And he appointed certain of the Levites to minister before the ark of the Lord,
        and to record, and to thank and praise the Lord God of Israel:
1 Chron 16:5 Asaph the chief, and next to him Zechariah, Jeiel, and Shemiramoth, and Jehiel,
        and Mattithiah, and Eliab, and Benaiah, and Obed-Edom:
        and Jeiel with psalteries and with harps; but Asaph made a sound with cymbals;
1 Chron 16:6 Benaiah also and Jahaziel the priests with trumpets continually before the ark of the covenant of God
-Exodus 15:[20] sumpsit ergo Maria prophetis soror Aaron tympanum in manu egressaeque sunt omnes mulieres post eam cum tympanis et choris

God will afflict Miriam with leprosy when she claims to speak for God.  The first meaning of prophet in the PAGAN sense meant a charismatic, musical performer.  All dramatic performance is INTERPRETATION which is, according to Paul, just speaking in tongues.

-Prophe-ta  I. a foreteller, SOOTHSAYER prophet... oraculorumque interpretes, sacerdotes Aegyptiorum, quos prophetas vocant, [Priestess of Egpt prophetess call out] Aegyptius, propheta primarius

Aegyptius, propheta primarius 1.  Aegyptius,
2.  Prophetai
3.  Primarius I. one of the first, of the first rank, chief, principal, excellent, remarkable,
primarius parasitus,
Every aspect of the musical Levites speak of "performing the roles of women" even though they had to be nominally male to serve under the King and Commanders of the Army.

None of these instruments went into or close to any holy place or thing: they played in the slaughter pit and it was always called exorcism.
Tympanotriba , ae, m., = tumpanotribês,
I. a taborer, a timbrel-player, a term of reproach for a soft, effeminate person (alluding to the priests of Cybele), Plaut. Truc. 2, 7, 49; cf. tympanum.

T. Maccius Plautus, Truculentus, or The Churl
STRATOPHANES (to PHRONESIUM.) What say you? Why have you dared to say that you love another man?
PHRONESIUM I chose to.
STRATOPHANES Say you so, indeed? I'll first make trial of that. Do you, for the sake of such a shabby present, vegetables, and comestibles, and vinegar-water, bestow your love upon an effeminate, frizzle-pated, dark-haunt frequenting, drum-drubbing debauchee, a fellow not worth a nutshell

6 Is he deranged: "Hariolus." Literally, "a soothsayer," or "diviner." In their prophetic frenzy, these persons often had the appearance of being mad, and were so considered.
7 Drum-drubbing debauchee: "Typanotriba." Literally, "drum," or "tambourine beater." He alludes to the eunuch-priests of Cybele, who used to beat tambourines in her procession-probably in allusion to debauchees, emasculated by riot and dissipation

Părăsītus , i, m., = parasitos, lit. one who eats with another; hence, I. In gen., a guest (pure Lat. conviva): parasiti Jovis, the gods, Hence, parasitus Phoebi, a PLAYER. actor, II. In partic., in a bad sense, one who, by flattery and buffoonery, manages to live at another's expense, a sponger, toad-eater, parasite
    -Comically, of a whip: ne ulmos parasitos faciat, that he will make his elm-twigs stick to me like parasites, i. e. give me a sound flogging, he tutelar deity of parasites was Hercules,
Plaut. Curc. 2, 3, 79.

Paul warned about the emasculated priests in Galatians 5.
All singing and instrumental terms point to en
ment of sorcery (Revelation 18:23) who will be cast alive into the Lake of fire:

Epôidê , Ion. and poet. epaoidê , hê,

A. song sung to or over: hence, enchantment, spell Od.19.457 Pi.P.4.217 ou pros iatrou sophou thrênein epôidas pros tomônti pêmati S.Aj. 582 ; of the Magi, Hdt.1.132,

Od.19.457 Homer, Odyssey [455] Then the dear sons of Autolycus busied themselves with the carcase, and the wound of noble, god-like Odysseus they bound up skilfully, and checked the black blood with a charm,

Pindar, Odes 4:[216] Aphrodite [ZOE] of Cyprus brought the maddening bird to men for the first time,
        and she taught the son of Aeson
skill in prayerful incantations,
        so that he could
rob Medea of reverence for her parents,
and a longing for Greece would lash her, her mind on fire, with the whip of Persuasion. [220] And she quickly revealed the means of performing the labors set by her father; and she mixed drugs with olive oil as a remedy for hard pains, and gave it to him to anoint himself. They agreed to be united with each other in sweet wedlock

ou pros iatrou sophou thrênein epôidas pros tomônti pêmati S.Aj. 582 ;

Praise was something the Levites did to create panic with the enemy: the thread was well understood: we will RAPE you and ROB you and RAPTURE you. This word is the root meaning of Lucifer.

Bob Williams: 1 Chronicles 25:1 says, "Moreover, David and the commanders of the army set apart for the service some of the sons of Asaph and of Heman and of Jeduthun, who were to prophesy with lyres, harps and cymbals…"

The King and commanders of the army do not lead the worship: they make WAR. The temple was the king's shrine and never a house of worship. If a Levite went into the holy place to sing or play an instrument he would be executed. Bad patternism for the school of Jesus Christ. Both Miriam and the Levites PROPHESIED just as they had in Egypt because God turned them back to their heart's desire.

"There is incontrovertible archaeological evidence for the antiquity of the musical guilds themselves. The Phoenicians (Canaanites) outshone their contemporaries in music, and the Israelites were early influenced by them.

Musical guilds of the Hebrews may be traced back in some instances,to old Canaanite families whose designations, such as Hemen the Ezrahite (I Chron. 2:6),became a part of later Hebrew family names." (Unger, Merril, Archaeology and the Old Testament, Zondervan, P. 216-7)

Moreover, we must take into consideration the facts that the compass of the tenor extends even into the soprano, that the singers were of different ages down to twenty years of age, and that Oriental, and more particularly even Jewish, song is fond of falsetto singing. We therefore adopt Perret- Gentil's rendering, chant avec voix de femmes, and still more readily Armand de Mestral's, en soprano

5959.   almah, al-maw´; feminine of 5958; a lass (as veiled or private):--damsel, maid, virgin.

Worship in the Second Temple


Catholic Encyclopedia.

Worship in the Synagoge

Bob Williams: The destruction of the temple and the Babylonian exile led to the development of a new aspect of Jewish worship. The lack of a temple in which to worship and sacrifice resulted in the creation of the synagogue (a word which, somewhat like our word "church", is used to refer both to the congregation and to the building in which they met). The people of Israel would gather around their elders to listen to the word of God, to receive instruction, and to worship. This form was retained and matured after the return from the exile, and it became a normal part of Jewish religious life.


The Latin defines the synagogue or church in the wilderness as an ACADEMIA . Jews believe that the Qahal existed as long as God had a will to teach: especially The Covenant made with Abraham.

Numbers 10:[7]  But when the assembly is to be gathered together,
        you shall blow,
        but you shall not sound an alarm.

Numbers 10.[7]  [7] quando autem congregandus est populus simplex tubarum clangor erit et non conciseululabunt

Academia congregation. Collect into a flock,  where plato taught, scholars are called Academici, and his doctrine Philosophia Philosophia Academica,
in distinction from Stoica, Cynica, etc., Cic. de Or. 1, 21, 98; id. Or. 3, 12; id. Fin. 5, 1, 1 al.

For Moses of old time hath in every city them that
..........preach him,
..........being read the synagogues every sabbath day. Acts 15:21

No: they did not sing, preach or pass the collection plate for the Law of Giving.

Blowing a horn would be like a church bell: the signal was simple and not musical in any sense.  However, the giddy people in the small tribal groups would be--like Miriam and the women--prone to break out in the "praise" singing, clapping and "making noise on istruments of delusion." Christ made a law.

Simplex I. In gen., simple, plain, uncompounded, unmixed,

Tuba Apart from military purposes, it was used on various occasions, as at religious festivals, games, funerals,  
b. Sonorous, elevated epic poetry,
c. A lofty style of speaking,  [Christ calls preachers, singers and instrument players, hypocrites.]
II. Trop.: tuba belli civilis, i. e. exciter, author, instigato

Cicero F 6. The passport has not been issued at once, owing to the amazing rascality of certain persons, who would have been bitterly annoyed at a pardon being granted to you, whom that party call the "bugle of the civil war"--and a good many observations to the same effect are made by them, as though they were not positively glad of that war having occurred.
The praise singing of the Levites under the King and commanders of the army was the halal which meant to make yourself vile as a homosexual rape threat against the enemy. That MARK always existed among those wanting to get paid for poetry or music.
Clango    [kindred with crocio, glocio; cf. clamo and klazô] , to clang, to sound, resound horrida clangunt signa tubaeluctificum clangente tubā,  clangunt aquilae, Auct. Carm. Phil. 28.

Ululo Ulŭlo  I. Neutr., to howl, yell, shriek, utter a mournful cry.B. Transf., of places, to ring, resound, re-echo with howling: “penitusque cavae plangoribus aedes Femineis ululant,Verg. A. 2, 488: “resonae ripae,Sil. 6, 285: “Dindyma sanguineis Gallis,

Modern Jewish Scholars are known to read BACK the modern synagogue: we have no doubt since Christ commanded it inclusively and exclusively in the wildernes

"Every seven years, that is in the year of release, during the feast of Tabernacles, 
the Law was to be read before all the people according to the command found in Deut., xxxi, 10.

But this enactment was probably soon found to be impracticable;
        and thus the Jewish authorities arranged to read on every sabbath,
        commencing with the sabbath after the feast of Tabernacles in one year of release
        and ending with the feast of Tabernacles in the next year of release,
        a portion of the Law so calculated that the whole Pentateuch would be read through in seven years.

This would in some way the commandment be fulfilled. Some time later,
        the Jews of Palestine lengthened the sections for each sabbath
        in such a manner that he entire Law could be read in three years (Talm. Babyl. Megillah, 29b).
When God Speaks, you listen (only). When God leaves His message in writing, you Read or Speak it "as it has been spoken." You have absolutely nothing to add.
Miqra (h4744) mik-raw'; from 7121; something called out, i. e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal: - assembly, calling, convocation, reading.

So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading. Ne.8:8

And the Lord will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be a defence. Is.4:5

How to Build a Synagogue Service:

Ten adult males are required to be present for a bublic service to proceed. The service consists of five parts:

    Reading the Shema [trinitians need not apply] Synagogue, Prayers, Reading from the Torah (The Law of Moses) Reading from the Prophets Benediction.
No sacrifices were carried out here; rather, reading the Scriptures replaced this as the central event of Jewish Worship. There was, therefore, no praise service. No sacrifices were carried out here; rather, reading the Scriptures replaced this as the central event of Jewish Worship. There was, therefore, no praise service.
Prayer was often reading the blessings of the Scriptures.

And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up:
..........and, as his custom was,
..........he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day,
..........and stood up for to read. Luke 4:16

Jesus didn't go into the synagogue to SING or even chant Psalms: the Church is built upon the foundation of the prophets and apostles.  Psalms are to TEACH one another.

Jesus attended synagogue, Jesus "synagogued" with His disciples after the resurrections, Paul synagogued (assemble, gather, come together) and history continues with not a jot or tittle about singing: cantillation is rhymic prose since God did not reveal anything to adults in meter.

And after the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them,
..........saying, Ye and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on. Acts 13:15

Paraklesis (g3874) par-ak'-lay-sis; from 3870; imploration, hortation, solace: - comfort, consolation, exhortation, intreaty.

NO singing, preaching, collection plates.  People lust for music and the Jews as a Pattern because they know Him not, nor yet the voices of the prophets which are NOT read every week.

"Men and brethren, children of the stock of Abraham,
        and whosoever among you feareth God,
        to you is the word of this salvation sent. Acts 13:26
For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their RULERS
..........because they knew him not,
..........nor yet the voices of the prophets
..........which are read every sabbath day,
..........they have fulfilled them in condemning him  Acts 13:27

NO singing, preaching, collection plates: No lying that a spirit told you that God commanded THEM to repeat the Levite's exorcism music.

For Moses of old time hath in every city them that
..........preach him,
..........being read the synagogues every sabbath day. Acts 15:21

Never any hint of "a praise service in the synagogue." Simple people know not to be exhibitionist when Christ speaks to us through the Prophets and Apostles. 
Singing was not an issue in Rome where many Jews lived and were converted. However, the pagans sects in Romans 14 were forbidden their doubtful disputations or private opinions: They do not TEACH Christ.

Rom 15 4 For whatsoever things
..........were written aforetime
..........were written for our learning,
..........that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.

Rom 15 5 Now the God of patience and consolation
..........grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:

Rom 15 6 That ye may
..........with one mind and mouth glorify God,
..........even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

2Corinthians 3:12 Seeing then that we have such hope, we use great plainness of speech:
2Corinthians 3:13 And not as Moses, which put a vail over his face,
        that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished:
2Corinthians 3:14 But their minds were blinded:
        for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the old testament;
        which vail is done away in Christ.
2Corinthians 3:15 But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart.
2Corinthians 3:16 Nevertheless when it shall turn to the Lord, the vail shall be taken away.
2Corinthians 3:17 Now the Lord is that Spirit: and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
2Corinthians 3:18 But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord,
        are changed into the same image from glory to glory,
        even as by the Spirit of the Lord.

1 Tim 4:13 Till I come,
give attendance [the only worship word] reading, exhortation, doctrine.

No singing and Psalloing any place other than when it is defined as something IN the heart or Spirit as ONLY place God seeks our worship as we are IN TRUTH--Thy Word is truth.  Both melody and grace are qualities of SPEECH since metrical melody was not ever used because it added commentary to the Word of God.

The great historian J. Robert Teringo wrote: "The fixed order of service began, after the customary greeting, with a prayer while the people remained standing facing the sacred Torah scroll. The reading of the law of Moses was next. The Torah scroll was taken from the chest and placed before a reader who read in the ancient Hebrew tongue and immediately translated it into Aramaic the language of those days. A commentary was always added to this reading. Next, a portion was read from the books of the prophets and, again, immediately translated verse by verse. After a closing prayer, the service was concluded..."

Reading was NEVER translated: it was read brom the Scroll so that others might "judge' whether it was letter perfect.
The "preaching" was translating so that people could understand in the changed dialects.
No one was permitted to sermonize or allegorize: Paul outlaws that as private interpretation.

The Read--er was the Pray--er: look at recorded prayers: they quote Scripture.

Vocal or instrumental rejoicing including elevated forms of speech were strictly outlawed by Christ in the wildernes

"After each verse an Aramaic rendering was given by an interpreter, who in Palestine was bound NOT to use a written translation and not to allegorize" (The New Shaff-Herzog, Ency., p. 215).

"Although the sermon was not an essential part of the synagogue service, the translation and explanation of the Scripture lesson was a step in the direction of a preaching service. There is evidence that an exposition of the lesson formed a part of the Sabbath afternoon service.

In earliest times the sermon seems to have been connected with the reading from the Prophets. Anyone able to instruct might be asked to preach (Acts 13:15).

The preacher spoke from a sitting position on an elevated place (Luke 4:20). (Pfeiffer, Charles F., Between the Testaments, Baker Book House, p. 63)

A Rabbi told me that the Shofar was blown at key times in the synagogue service.

Bob Williams:  The Demise of Instrumental Music

Bob Williams: A significant difference is seen between the dramatic worship exhibited in the temple (both the first and the second) and the restrained and subdued gatherings in the synagogues. While the focus in the temple seem to be mainly upon exuberant worship and praise through sacrifice  and music (both vocal and instrumental


 What God is Worshipped by the Jews?


"When all the company requested and earnestly begged it of him; first of all (says he), the time and manner of the greatest and most holy solemnity of the Jews is exactly agreeable to the holy rites of Bacchus; for that which they call the Fast they celebrate in the midst of the vintage, furnishing their tables with all sorts of fruits while they sit under tabernacles made of vines and ivy; and the day which immediately goes before this they call the day of Tabernacles. Within a few days after they celebrate another feast, not darkly but openly, dedicated to Bacchus, for they have a feast amongst them called Kradephoria, from carrying palm-trees, and Thyrsophoria, when they enter into the temple carrying thyrsi. What they do within I know not; but it is very probable that they perform the rites of Bacchus. First they have little trumpets, such as the Grecians used to have at their Bacchanalia to call upon their gods withal.
        Others go before them playing upon harps, which they call Levites,
`       whether so named from Lusius or Evius,— either word agrees with Bacchus.
And I suppose that their Sabbaths have some relation to Bacchus; for even now many call the Bacchi by the name of Sabbi, and they make use of that word at the celebration of Bacchus’s orgies.

Some perhaps may surmise that these are mere conjectures. But there are other arguments which will clearly evince the truth of what I assert. The first may be drawn from their High-priest, who on holidays enters their temple with his mitre on, arrayed in a skin of a hind embroidered with gold, wearing buskins, and a coat hanging down to his ankles;
        besides, he has a great many little bells depending from his garment which make a noise as he walks.
        So in the nocturnal ceremonies of Bacchus (as the fashion is amongst us),
        they make use of music, and call the god’s nurses.
        High up on the wall of their temple is a representation of the thyrsus and timbrels,
        which surely suits no other god than Bacchus.


Now look at what the preachers are trying to intice you into:
2Chronicles 29:27 And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar. And when the burnt offering began, the song of the LORD began also with the trumpets, and with the instruments ordained by David king of Israel
Who ordained the musical instruments?
2 Chronicles 29.27 et iussit Ezechias ut offerrent holocaustum super altare cumque offerrentur holocausta coeperunt laudes canere Domino et clangere tubis atque in diversis organis quae David rex Israhel reppererat concrepare
Clango , no “horrida clangunt signa tubae,” : “luctificum clangente tubā,Val. Fl. 3, 349:
Con-crĕpo I. Neutr., to rattle, creak, grate, sound, resound, clash, make a noise, Of the din or clashing of weapons (i. e. of the swords against the shields) when struck together “and of the striking together of the brazen cymbals of the attendants of Bacchus,Prop. 3 (4), 18, 6.

Bacchus or Dionysus is the god of the New Wineskins: they tried to "initiate" Jesus by piping trying to get him to lament (ouch) and dance after being initiated into the always-gay brotherhood of clergy.

Bacchus , as intoxicating and inspiring, he is god of poets, esp. of the highly inspired, Ov. Am. 3, 1, 23; Hor. C. 2, 19, 1; Juv. 7, 64; “who wore crowns of ivy, which was consecrated to him,Ov. Tr. 5, 3, 15: Bacchica verba (poëtae), id ib. 1, 7, 2.—He was worshipped esp. in Thrace and Macedonia, and particularly upon Mount Edon, Hor. C. 2, 7, 27; “hence, the Bacchæ are called matres Edonides,Ov. M. 11, 69;

The Temple was built by Hiram like the one to Herakles at Tyre. The pillars of Hercules was imitated by Jochin and Boaz along with many other idols.

The Temple was never for public worship: the nobility worshipped by falling on their face when the people made loud crashing noise to terrify them and God calls it NOISE.  The Levites did not chant in the cantillation sense of the synagogue. In the Temple and Hezekiah's Plague-stopping exorcism the the word is:

Căno , cĕcĭni, cantum (ancient A. Of men: “si absurde canat tibia canentum sound of frogs, crowing of a cock, the music of the spheres
A. Act.: “bellicum (lit. and trop.) canere, v. bellicus: classicum, v. classicus: signa canere jubet,to give the signal for battle, o practice magic, to charm “anser Gallos adesse canebat,
Sĭbylla I. a female soothsayer, a prophetess, Sibyl, In Roman mythology, the most celebrated is the Sibyl at Cumae, in the service of Apollo (Abaddon, Apollyon)
Gallus , A. Galli , ōrum, m., the priests of Cybele, so called because of their raving, And satirically (on account of their emasculated condition),
2. (Acc. to II. A., of or belonging to the priests of Cybele; hence, transf.) Of or belonging to the priests of Isis, Gallic: “turma,the troop of the priests of Isis, Ov. Am. 2, 13, 18.

Under the Golden Calf the Israelites worshipped Isis, Osiris and Hathor. When they were turned back to the worship of the starry host, they resumed that for of worship. The "prophesying" of the Levites is called SOOTHSAYING.
Canto I. Neutr., to produce melodious sounds (by the voice or an instrument), to sound, sing, play (class. in prose and poetry; rare in Cic.) 2. Of the singing pronunciation of an orator, to declaim in a singing tone, to sing, drawl: si cantas, male cantas, si legis, cantas
C. Hence, because the oracles were of old uttered in verse, of any mysterious, prophetic, or warning utterance, to predict, warn, point out, indicate, make known, say
     III. In the lang. of religion, as v. n. or a., to use enchantments, charms, incantations, to enchant, to charm, Cato, R. R. 160, 1; Varr. R. R. 1, 2, 27: “frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis,Verg. E. 8, 71: “cantata Luna,exorcised by magic, Prop. 4 (5), 5, 13: “falx,Ov. H. 6, 84: “herbae,id. M. 7, 98: “ignis,Sil. 1, 430: “tum quoque cantato densetur carmine caelum,an incantation, Ov. M. 14, 369.—
    B. To call forth, produce by charms:et chelydris cantare soporem,Sil. 8, 498: “cantata umbra,Luc. 6, 767.
Sopor 2. Pregn., the sleep of death, death: “in soporem conlocastis nudos,Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 148; 1, 1, 150: “aeternus,Lucr. 3, 466: “perpetuus,Hor. C. 1, 24, 5.—
C. Poppy-juice, opium: “e nigro papavere sopor gignitur scapo inciso,Plin. 20, 18, 76, § 198.—

As a signal to start the fire:
Ignis , is (abl. usu. igni; poet: to light the fires raving, inspiration, carmen , I. a tune, song; poem, verse; an oracular response, a prophecy; a form of incantation (cf.: cano, cantus, and canto).

This was the incense in the worship of the starry host.

Bob Williams: it seems that the main focus in the synagogues was not so much upon public worship, but rather upon instruction in the Law. The worship of the synagogues was apparently limited to recitation of prayer, chanting of the Psalms, and Bible reading and instruction.

I know of no history or Bible that says they chanted Psalms.  The read the Law and the Prophets .  See Jewish Liturgical "music"

That's what Christ commanded for the Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ in the wilderness: that never changed. The people who attendd synagogue before captivity did not attend animal slaughers. They continued with the synagogue and even when more organized and widespred at the time of Jesus "there was no praise service in the synagogue." If you under ekklesia or synagogue you could neve hallucinate making noise while Christ the Spirit is our Teacher when the elders teach that which has been taught.

Ritual music was at first only cantillation, i.e., recitative chanting, of the prose books of the Bible
Later the prayers and biblical poetry were chanted, presumably in a modal system similar to the ragas of Hindu music or the maqamat of Arab music, i.e., melodies with improvisations.

Bob Williams: Why the change? Why were the various instruments of music commonly seen before suddenly put aside? Why was the singing (which, while no one knows for sure exactly how it sounded, was perhaps more expressive in temple worship) suddenly confined to plain and simple chanting? Scholars have cited several contributing factors:

No one sang IN the temple and no one sang: cantillations falls into the category of SPEAK: Jesus SPOKE, Paul Spoke, Paul commanded SPEAKING which is the opposite of poetry or music which was left for the poets or myth makers who "set their lies to melodies to deceive the simple."

1. Exposure to the Babylonian culture may have had some influence on the development of music in Jewish worship (although, as already seen, worship in the second temple remained, at least for a while, similar to what it had been before). Borrowing from other cultures was not uncommon; examples of such are the borrowing of Assyrian script and the Babylonian calendar while they were in exile. The godly people continued to NOT use any kind of elevated, rhetorical or musical noise in the synagogue: Christ commanded it and there is no evidence in the Bible that any one violated that in the synagogue. Instrumental noise was confined IN Canaan, IN Jerusalem, BEhind closed gates with the godly civillians OUTSIDE the camp or gate.  2 Chronicles 29 as the PATTERNISM for adding instruments was in fact a plague-stopping exorcism because the noise and slaughter had been taken from behind closed doors. In the beginning, the Levites were to keep or guard anyone not of the tribe of Levi from coming near or inside of any holy thing to prevent God's wrath.

Bob Williams: 3. Perhaps the main reason that the use of instruments in worship ceased in the synagogues was that the Rabbis decided to forbid such.

There were no instruments in God's original synagogue which was never a house of worship but a witness that God moved with His people. There was never any form of "praise service in the synagogue": synagogue is a school of the word. Disciples attend synagogue: Disciples do not hear and learn the Word of God with people making vocal or instrumental noise.

5. The music of the synagogues was further influenced by the legalistic and puritanical ethic of the rabbis in regards to their concern over promiscuity. They taught, "A woman's voice is indecency" (Ber. 24a, as given by; and, "Men singing and women answering is promiscuity; women singing and men answering is fire set to chaff" (Sotah 48a, as given by These excessive fears of promiscuity led to the separation of men and women, and ultimately to only men singing in the synagogue in worship.

No one sang in the God-ordained and Christ-endorsed synagogue. The synagogue of "scholars" is based on gradual changes in the Jewish world when they had lost their king and kingdom and been repudiated by Christ. Christ in the prophets warned about the Lying Pen of the Scribes when speaking of the temple rituals and said GOD DID NOT COMMAND IT (Jer 7)

Jesus identified the Scribes and Pharisees as hypocrites: In Ezekiel 33 Christ names preachers, singers and instrument players who have no intention of teaching or obeying God's Word as it has been written.  Here is the MARK of the Scribes and Pharisees: preachers and writers: singers and players of instruments.  How can you read the prophets and ask why God silenced all of the temple horrors.

The Prominence of Chanting

Bob Williams: Thus ended (at least for quite some time) the format of melodious and harmonious singing in worship. In its place, chanting (which had sometimes been in use in the temple) came to be the only acceptable style of music in the synagogue. Ken Collins gives this definition of chant:

NO ONE CHANTED IN OR NEAR ANY HOLY PLACE OR THING: the Levites made vocal and instrumental noise during the Burnt Offerings and slaughter which Christ says GOD HAD NOT COMMANDED: Not in the vilest pagan temples did a singer, instrument player (Juggler, prostitute) go INSIDE of the Cella which was GOD'S PRIVATE ROOM.

To some people, the word 'chant' refers to mindless repetitions of the same words and phrases. But 'chant' is actually a technical term for a specific musical form-a simple melody in which you sing a number of words or syllables on the same note. Or you might say that a 'song' is words set to music, but a 'chant' is music set to words. The most well-known chant is the musical setting of the Lord's Prayer, which is more elaborate than most chants. Chants were invented to encourage congregational singing, since they require less musical skill than songs. The advantage of chanting is that most any text can be chanted to any tune without modifying either the tune or the text, and that makes it an ideal way to put scripture to music.

Cantillation is READING the word with certain ACCENT marks never to be changed which put the EMPHASIS on the key WORDS being read. That is called cantillation which is not pagan chanting. If you changed the instructions for READING it would be proof that you were adding your own commentary.

"Modern exegetes do not agree in this matter. For a time many would admit no metre at all in the Psalms. Davison (Hast., "Dict. of the Bible", s. v.) writes: "
        though metre is NOT discernible in the Psalms,
       it does not follow that rhythm is excluded".

This rhythm, however, "defies analysis and systematization". Driver ("Introd. to Lit. of O. T.", New York, 1892, 339) admits in Hebrew poetry
      "no metre in the strict sense of the term".
     Exegetes who find metre in the Psalms are of four schools,
     according as they explain Hebrew metre
            by quantity
            by the number of syllables
             by accent, or by both quantity and accent. (from The Catholic Encyclopedia)

ONLY THE PSALMS WERE CHANTED: There are 57 mizmors or true psalms and no instrument is mentioned in 50 of them.

Up to the Edict of Milan (AD 313), the psalms were interspersed with lessons.

In the 16th century, Protestant churches encouraged congregational psalm singing by adopting metrical versions in the vernacular. An important early translation was Clèment Marot's, the basis of the Calvinist psalter. A repertory of tunes came into being; these were set in a simple chordal style in collections which included Loys Bourgeois's complete psalter (1563), widely recognized as a standard version. Some later settings were more contrapuntal; Le Jeune and others dropped the tunes and composed what amounted to free motets.

Early Christian Worship

Bob Williams: It should not be surprising that the forms and format of early Christian worship were greatly influenced by those found in the Jewish synagogues. After all, the first Christians were Jews, just as Jesus had been a Jew. The apostles were Jews, and the initial missionary thrust of the church was to those who were Jews. It was obviously natural for the early Jewish Christians to continue to follow Jewish traditions. They continued to gather in the temple and the synagogues during the regular times of worship. It appears that many continued to observe the Sabbath, the annual Jewish feasts, and the hours of daily prayer. They saw no reason to leave their traditional places and forms of worship since they were still worshiping the same God.

Not really unless Stephen and the Jewish Encyclopedia and most recorded history were lying when they said that GOD TURNED THEM OVER TO WORSHIP THE STARRY HOST.

The Christians assembled in the outer court or in Solomon's temple. There was a door into the Inner Court: they didn't worship there but the priests called "heretics" lifted up the lambs to cut their throats while the noise makers called Parasite performed the true meaning of music: it is intended to make the lambs dumb before the slaughter. It is still intended to make the "audience" dumb before the outlawed sermonizing and pocket-picket ceremony.  In the literate world it was called Sacred Violence and was the realm of the effeminate SOPHISTS who were always opposed to the masculine Readers of the LOGOS.

Amanda Eubanks, has requested that we remove her observations about the blurring of sexual roles during dramatic performances. However, ancient literature from Babylonian tablets and beyond agree with Johannes Quasten. In Music and Worship in Pagan and Christian Antiquity, beginning on page 41 He uses many of the church Fathers and Classical resources we also rely upon:

"Philodemus considered it paradoxical that music should be regarded as veneration of the gods while musicians were paid for performing this so-called veneration. Again, Philodemus held as self deceptive the view that music mediated religious ecstasy. He saw the entire condition induced by the noise of cymbals and tambourines as a disturbance of the spirit.

He found it significant that, on the whole, only women and effeminate men fell into this folly.

Accordingly, nothing of value could be attributed to music; it was no more than a slave of the sensation of pleasure, which satisfied much in the same way that food and drink did.

Similar opinions may be found in the writings of Philo. On one occasion he spoke of the Jewish "Feast of Fasting," used by the Greeks for the Day of Atonement:

"Now, many a man from the false religions, which are not ashamed of criticising what is noble, will ask: how can there be a feast without carousing and overeating, without the pleasant company of hosts and guests, without quantities of unmixed wine, without richly set tables and highly stacked provisions of everything that pertains to a banquet, without pageantry and jokes,

bantering and merry-making to the accompaniment of flutes and citharas, the sound of drums and cymbals and other effeminate and frivolous music of every king,

enkindling unbridled lusts with the help of the sense of hearing. For in and through the same [pleasures] those persons openly seek their joy, for what true joy is their they do not know.

Women's singing was a vital part of all pagan worship. In very early times women became priestly singers of the gods in the temple.

"Women and girls from the different ranks of society were proud to enter the service of the gods as singers and musicians. The understanding of this service was universal: these singers constituted the 'harem of the gods'." (End of Quasten)

Music in Early Christian Worship

Bob Williams: Two verses of Scripture, while commonly used in reference to singing, actually reflect the Jewish and early Christian practice of chanting in worship. Ephesians 5:19 says that Christians are to be "speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to the Lord." Colossians 3:16 "Let the word of Christ richly dwell within you, with all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with thankfulness in your hearts to God."

See Ephesians 5 where the Antithesis is between SPEAKING one to another and singing and psallo are IN THE HEART. There is no hint of a command to SING ONE TO ANOTHER.

II. Antithetical Parallelism--The thought of the first line is expressed by an antithesis in the second;
or is counterbalanced by a contrast in the second. This parallelism is very common in the Book of Proverbs:

(a) The tongue of the wise adorneth knowledge,
{but} The mouth of the fool blurteth out folly.

Prov., xv, 2.
(b) Soundness of heart is the life of the flesh,
{but} Envy is the rot of the bones.
--Proverbs 14:30.

The thoughts of the righteous are right,
But the counsels of the wicked are deceitful. Proverbs 12:5 (NKJV)

Proverbs 15:14 The heart of him that hath understanding seeketh knowledge:
        but the mouth of fools feedeth on foolishness.

Proverbs 15.2  lingua sapientium ornat scientiam os fatuorum ebullit stultitiam
Lingua  A. Since the tongue is an organ of speech, a tongue, utterance, speech, language:
2. The tongue or language of a people: “lingua Latina, Graeca,Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10: “Graeca et Latina lingua, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 6: “(Massilia) tam procul a Graecorum regionibus, disciplinis linguāque divisa,
Discī^plīna  instruction, tuition, teaching in the widest sense of the word (for syn.
cf.: ars, litterae, doctrina, scientia, cognitio  all that is taught in the way of instruction, philosophical doctrines, philosophical system
Opposite: 6. The tongue or reed of a flute, Plin. 10, 29, 43, § 84.—
Orno , “aliquem laudibus, hederā poëtam,Verg. E. 7, 25.
hĕdĕra (ĕdĕra ), ae, f., I. ivy, Hedera helix, Linn.; sacred to Bacchus, and hence wound around the thyrsus; “also made into garlands with which poets were crowned,

Poeta maker, producer

fallācĭa , ae (abl. also fallacie, App. M. 5, p. 171), f. fallax, I. deceit, trick, artifice, stratagem, craft, intrigue (class.; in Cic. only plur.; syn.: fraus, dolus, astus, astutia, calliditas). ex fraude, Of magical art
Proverbs 15.2  lingua sapientium ornat scientiam os fatuorum ebullit stultitiam

Scĭentĭa , ae, f. (plur. only Vitr. 1, 1, 18; 3, praef. 1) [sciens], I. a knowing or being skilled in any thing,
knowledge, science, skill, expertness, = cognitio, eruditio  id. Phil. 2, 23, 57;  speaking of eye witness, Cic. Fin. 5.9
          A Rational Conclusion ratio, thinking, an account

Fatuus another name for prophesying, Insipid, tasteless, foolishly, absurdly: for amusement
         “plerumque studio loquendi fatue modo accedendum, buccones,
Mŏdŏ   “ad ornandam modo, non augendam orationemquis est omnium, qui modo cum Musis habeat aliquod commercium, qui?
        Mūsa , ae, f., =  Mousa, Clio, the muse of history; Melpomene, of tragedy; Thalia, of comedy;
        Euterpe, of the flute; Terpsichore, of dancing; Calliope, of epic poetry; Erato, of lyric poetry;
        Urania, of astronomy; Polyhymnia, of the mimic art,
Mŏdus , 2. The measure of tones, measure, rhythm, melody, harmony, time; in poetry, measure, metre, mode:
Căno , cĕcĭni, cantum (ancient  canta pro cantata ponebant; “once canituri,Vulg. Apoc. 8, 13), B. Of animals (usu. of birds, but also of frogs), Esp., of the crowing of a cock: “galli victi silere solent, canere victores,to crow C. Transf., of the instruments by which, or (poet.) of the places in which, the sounds are produced, to sound, resound: “canentes tibiae
Buccones,garrŭlus , a, um, adj. garrio, chattering, prattling, babbling, prating, talkative, garrulous. cicada, [mark of the LOCUSTS]
E-bullĭo    B. Trop., to come forth bubbling, to appear boisterously: artĭfex , fĭcis,
Artĭfex  master in the liberal arts artifices scaenici, Of an orator or writer: “Graeci dicendi artifices et doctores,
B. A maker, originator, author, contriver: “ut aiunt in Graecis artificibus eos auloedos [fluteesse, qui citharoedi  [harp, guitar]

Bob Williams: The word "singing" is from the Greek word ado (Strong #103), which, according to Thayer's Lexicon, actually means, "to sing, chant; to the praise of any one". Therefore, it is likely that both these verses are consistent with the practice of chanting commonly found in the synagogues. Notice also the phrase, "speaking to one another", perhaps further indicating the practice of antiphonal chanting common in synagogue and early Christian worship

Paul put the singing and psallo IN THE HEART: that is the only place God seeks our worship (John 4:21)

There is nothing musical in the ode: We don't do that when using one mind and one mouth to teach that which is written for our learning.

Aoid-ē  4. theme of song, person sung to. 5. = eppsdē, spell, incantation,okhēes ōkeiais . . anathrōskontes aoidais
Odē , , contr. for aoidē, 2. = epōdos, magic song, spell, Lon
aeidō , hence of all kinds of vocal sounds, crow as cocks, Pl.Smp..223c; hoot as owls, Arat.1000; croak as frogs, Arist. Mir.835b3, Thphr.Sign.3.5, etc.; hoi tettiges khamothen asontai Stes. ap.Arist.Rh.1412a23:—of other sounds, twang, of the bow-string, Od.21.411; whistle, of the wind through a tree, Mosch.Fr.1.8; ring, of a stone when struck, Theoc.7.26:—prov., prin nenikēkenai adein 'to crow too soon',



Wherefore be ye not unwise, but understanding what the will of the Lord is. Eph 5:17

And be not drunk with wine,

ĭn-ēbrĭo Saturate, full of talk

kat-auleō , A. charm by flute-playing, methuōn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelōmenoi kai -oumenoimētrōa melēMetroos the worship of Cybele, b. Mētrōa, Mother goddess: music played in her honour, Mele Melos 3. melody of an instrument, “phormigx d' [mark of Apollo]  au phtheggoith' hieron m. ēde kai aulos

wherein is excess;  (Greek: vanity)

The results of being drunk on wine

luxŭrĭa Of style: “in qua (oratione), ut

luxŭrĭo , wanton, revel, sport, skip, bound, frisk: Deliciis that which allures, flatters the senses], delight, pleasure, charm, allurement; deliciousness, luxuriousness, voluptuousness, curiosities of art; , to make sport paizō dance  4. play on a musical instrument, h.Ap.206: c. acc., “Pan ho kalamophthogga paizōnAr.Ra.230; dance and sing, Pi. O.1.16saltātĭo, David's naked dance.

Paul always defines away all of the hypocritic arts.

BUT, be filled with the Spirit; Eph 5:18

John 6:63b the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.

Colossians 3:1 If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God.

Colossians 3:5  Mortify therefore your members

Members means: Meloswithin my bodily frame, members of a body
B. esp. musical member, phrase: hence, song, strain esp. of lyric poetry, lyric poetry, choral songs, opp. Epic
lyric poetry, the choral songs,

Melos is OPPOSITE to the dialogue, he music to which a song is set, the tune,
3. melody of an instrument, “phormigx d' au phtheggoith' hieron m. ēde kai aulos” The mark of Abaddon. melody in sacred spaces. the flute.

All of the following are marks of pagan musical worship:

which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covetousness, which is idolatry

Romans 6:13 Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. [Carnal weapons or lifeless instruments shields were clanging brass]

Phĭlŏsŏphĭadoctores săpĭentĭa sermons, interpret, sects Cic.Off.2.2.5 Wisdom, = sophia

Sophia , A. cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, in music and singing, poetry, divination

interprĕtor , ātus (in tmesi interpres, to explain, expound, interpret, give expression to, translate; to understand, conclude, infer. A. To decide, determine
12, 29: “haec ex Graeco carmine interpretata recitavit,Liv. 23, 11, 4; 45, 29, 3.
Carmen, I. In gen., a tune, song, air, lay, strain, note, sound, both vocal and instrumentalbarbaricum,id. M. 11, 163.—With allusion to playing on the cithara

Rom 8[13] For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.

pathos emotion, to create passion, drama MY experiences Sophia cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, in music and singing, tekhnē kai s, poetry, in divination pleonexia assumption, one's own advantage. Financial gain pleonektein:i s an expression for every effort of self-aggrandizement, and was often used as a political watchword

Colossians 3:10 And have put on the new man,
    which is renewed in knowledge
    after the image of him that created him:

Colossians 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom;

Speaking to yourselves
in psalms and hymns
      and spiritual songs, [Scripture]
teaching and admonishing one another
      in psalms and hymns
      and spiritual songs, [Scripture]

singing and making melody
in your heart to the Lord;
singing with grace
      in your hearts
to the Lord.

always giving thanks
     to God the Father for everything,
     in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all
    In the name of the Lord Jesus,
    giving thanks to God and the Father by him.


Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
        All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, AND
        teach all nations,
        baptizing them in the name [singular] of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
        Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:
                and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.Matthew 28:20
Christ in Spirit defined the future REST day both inclusively and exclusively:

In Isaiah 50 Christ warned about the future musical mocking of Messiah. He will be smitten and plucked.
Jesus called the Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites: in Ezekiel 33 he named preachers, singers and instrument players.
In Isaiah 55 Christ commanded us NOT to spend our money on the Free Water of the Word. He makes the absolute identity betwee His Word and Spirit.

In Isaiah 58 He commanded us not to seek our own pleasure or SPEAK OUR OWN WORDS. Paul commanded the same thing in Romans 14-15.


Bob Williams:It appears that the manner of worship seen in the early church
        was originally just a continuation of what the Jews had been doing for the previous 500 years
        (adding only the agape feast and Lord's Supper on the first day of the week).

That's true: the Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ in the wilderness never changed: not even when after the Return synagogues were established by the hundreds: there was NEVER anything like Musical in the synagogue

Acts 13:15 And after the reading of the law and the prophets the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them,
        saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on.

No one is ever recorded either chanting the Psalms or singing the Priests. The Psalms were to be spoken "with one mind and one mouth" which was "that which is written for our learning." Disciples don't go to the School of Christ to SING and MAKE melody.
Then never read from what Christ called the "lying pen of the Scribes" who kept a record of the not-commanded kings.

Bob Williams:This was followed by further gradual changes and variations, but the basic fundamental aspects of historical worship (music, prayer, instruction, Lord's Supper) remained constant. Perhaps this is close to what Jesus had in mind when He stated that worship would not remain confined to specific places, but should always be done in spirit and in truth (John 4:21-24).

It was not POSSIBLE to sing in a tuneful sense until after John Calvin. The Catholics had a Precentor or Cantor who chanted the Psalms and there was never any congregational singing.  The Catholics never used the organ to accompany congregational singing: in fact the organs imposed by rich patrons were used for processionals, intermissions and recessionals but never as part of the Mass

If you can read any of the epistles with understanding you will hear Paul outlawing all of the performers: speakers, singers, instrument players as cunning craftsmen SO that the role of the Ekklesia could be performed.

See Ephesians 4

Most churches have no remote intention of obeying the direct command to use as resource "that which is written for our learning" or "Scripture" in Romans 15

The method was to "use one MIND and one MOUTH to teach and comfort one another." By definition known to Jubal and Nimrod  people know that they can use music and tap into the very nature of a person given to protect them from Saber Toothed Tigers in order to pick their pockets. There is never any musical content in any assembly of Godly people until it was facilitated by John Calvin who agreed to Psalms (only) rewritten and distorted to be sung in UNISON (only).  If history is perfectly agreed then people giving aid and comfort to music--even instruments if they were left out by the Pharisees--is correct, then you cannot be an Assembly of Christ and turn what the Campbells properly identified as A School of Christ into an institute to which the "many" in Paul's terms, flock for money.

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