A World History of the Stone-Campbell Movement

A deep psychological and spiritual wound will not let the instrumental sectarians rest until they have burned up their time and resources trying to seduce people to join them or have their property. This does not speak for the people but is the weeping sore of theologians 

Financed by Disciples of Christ: not Christian Church or Churches of Christ

 "History," some one has said, "is philosophy teaching by example."

"Stone-Campbell" is never the truth: There was no commonality between Barton W. Stone and Alexander Campbell. Both would be highly insulted by joining them in death by a hyphen.  Churches in history honored Christ by giving ownership to Christ by the term "Church of Christ." In all of the Bible, churches in different location are always "in Christ."

Historical Record of Churches of Christ

The Bible, Historic Scholars and Founders of Denominations were Apostolic: the Word is the only authority.
A sectarian in all recorded history is always someone who ADDS or IMPOSES something not Scriptural and not required to function as a Qahal, Synagogue or School of the Word. No godly person would idenfify one as a Sectarian just because they refused to BEGIN doing something they had never done in recorded history.

Attempting to repudiate Churches of Christ for "fracturing off" the Disciples-Christian Churches, the use of the term Stone - Campbell Movement is a lie.  The "founders" of the Stone-Campbell Sectarians reject everything the Churches of Christ defend. Therefore, the World History as a creature of the Disciples of Christ intends to stop history in the 19th century and contract recorded history for 2000 years.
See the Stone Campbell "unity" movement debunked as POOR HISTORY.
See Leroy Garrett on Baptism: Saved by Faith Only

Irenaeus Holy Spirit and Apostolic Preaching: 3. Now, that we may not suffer ought of this kind, we must needs hold the rule of the faith without deviation, and do the commandments of God, believing in God and fearing Him as Lord and loving Him as Father. Now this doing is produced |72 by faith: for Isaiah says: If ye believe not, neither shall ye understand. [10. Isa. vii. 9 ]
            And faith is produced by the truth; for faith rests on things that truly are.
For in things that are, as they are, we believe; and believing in things that are, as they ever are, we keep firm our confidence in them.

Since then faith is the perpetuation of our salvation, we must needs bestow much pains on the maintenance thereof, in order that we may have a true comprehension of the things that are. Now faith occasions this for us; even as the Elders, the disciples of the Apostles, have handed down to us.

First of all it bids us bear in mind that we have received baptism for the remission of sins, in the name of God the Father, and in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who was incarnate and died and rose again, and in the Holy Spirit of God. And that this baptism is the seal of eternal life, and is the new birth and is over all things that are made, and all things are put under Him |73 and all the things that are put under Him are made His own; for God is not ruler and Lord over the things of another, but over His own; and all things are God's; and therefore God is Almighty, and all things are of God. unto God, that we should no longer be the sons of mortal men, but of the eternal and perpetual God; and that what is everlasting and continuing is made God;

John Mark Hicks for Churches of Christ follows the Stone-Campbell Fallacy
Patterns Legalism and Grace Alexander Campbell John Mark Hicks
The Holy Spirit: The Presence of the Coming Age John Mark Hicks
Trinity as “Necessary” Fact in Alexander Campbell’s “Christian System of Facts"
Alexander Campbell repudiated any conversation about a "trinity." Jesus identified Himself in his post glorified state as the "another Comforter." John says that the Comforter's name is "Jesus Christ the Righteous."

Irenaeus Holy Spirit and Apostolic Preaching: 3
The expression "the prophetic Spirit," occurs frequently both in the First Apology and in the Dialogue with Trypho the Jew. Sometimes Justin says "the holy prophetic Spirit," and once "the divine holy prophetic Spirit." Now "the prophetic Spirit,"
        means the Spirit of the prophets.

So Athenagoras, who follows Justin, interpreting and sometimes correcting him, says that it is the Spirit "which works in those who make prophetic utterances," and he adds that it is "an effluence of God," as the ray is of the sun.' 

The prophets in question are the Jewish prophets and Justin's insistence on "the prophetic Spirit" is understood when we remember the attempt that was then being made to distinguish the God of the Old Testament ("the just God") from the God of the New Testament (" the Good God "). 

This was to cut off Christianity from the past, and to destroy its historical background and its function as the fulfillment of the age-long purpose of God. There was, however, a further reason for emphasizing "the prophetic Spirit," a reason of even greater importance from the standpoint of Christian evidence. 

The correspondence between the Gospel facts and the prophetic utterances proved two things: namely, 
        that the claim of Jesus to be the Christ was valid, 
        and that the Spirit of the prophets was of God.

"Him, and the Son who came from Him and taught us these things, and the host of the other good angels that attend Him and are made like unto Him,
        and the prophetic Spirit, we worship and adore, Honoring them with reason and with truth


The Word of God, all Church Fathers and founders of denominations reject as pagan the bringing musical or theatrical performances into the assembly. No one in recorded history ever sang tunefully until after the Reformation: the Catholic church did not engage in Congregational singing with organ accompaniment.

Both Stone and Campbell repudiated the use of the organ or other instruments in the assembly: those who  imposed instrumental performance ceased to be in the historical stream of either Stone or Campbell.

What became the Disciples of Christ--Christian Churches and what became The Churches of Christ were NEVER joined as either a Stoneite or Campbellite.  This 82 year old never heard of Alexander Campbell until about aged 24.

The Real Stone-Campbell Dialogue on Union
Objections Christian Messenger

We discover, or think we discover, a squinting at some sort of precedency or priority in the claims of the writer of the above article, which are perhaps only in appearance, and not in reality;         but if in appearance only, he will prevent us or any reader from concluding unfavorably
        by explaining himself more in detail than he has done....
For our part, we might be honored much by a union formal and public, with a society so large and so respectable as the Christian denomination;
        but if our union with them, though so advantageous to us,
        would merge "the ancient gospel and ancient order of things"
        in the long vexed question of simple anti-trinitarianism, anti-creedism, or anti-sectarianism,
        I should be ashamed of myself in the presence of him whose "well done, good and faithful servant,"
        is worth the universe to me.
                We all could have had honorable alliances with honorable sectaries,
                many years since, had this been our object.

It is important that Campbell accepted anyone for fellowship in the new sense that non-members could stand during prayers, sing psalms and partake of the Lord's Supper.  This was contrary to the closed comunion of the Baptists and Presbyterians.  Campbell accepted people for baptism on their confession of faith: the Baptists had to satisfy themselves that the person wasn't faking it.  It is logial that Campbell would not "fellowship" in the common sense meaning that he would attend, endorse, affirm and merge assemblies with people who in effect called the Spirit OF Christ, Jesus, Peter, Paul and most of church historians liars.

If Stone affirmed that a person had remission of sins WITHOUT baptism then he was obviously a false teacher and only sowers of discord would denounce Campbell.

J. F. Burnett 1921 Did Stone Join the Disciples of Christ? 

From the Garden of Eden to the Babylon Mother of Harlots in Revelation 17-18, the pagan THESIS was of the WORLD or KOSMOS (for whom Jesus did not pray) or the WISE (SOPHISTS as rhetoricians, singers, instrument players) and the ANTITHESIS of The Spirit OF Christ the ROCK who provided the Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ in the Wilderness for the GODLY tribes.

God abandoned the Jacob-Cursed Levi tribe to the worship of the starry host BECAUSE of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.  There is no command, example or remote inference that any godly people ever engaged incongregational singing with instrumental accompanied: the Levites performed as soothsayers and their noise warned that any godly person who came near any holy thing or into any holy place would be executed.  They were quarantined behind closed gates to perform animal slaughter which God did not command.

If God wanted to tell us to "play an instrument" He was certainly wise enough to say so with compound words.
Anti-psallô, A.play a stringed instrument in accompaniment of song, a. elegois phorminga  {harp of Apollo, Abaddon, Apollyon's instrument]

Epi-psallō, A. play the lyre, S.Fr.60, Poll.4.58(Pass.); “melesi kai rhuthmois” 
                    SING,tous humnousLXX 2 Ma.1.30: Then the priests sang the hymns.
Even if you define a melody that would NOT include a rhythm.
Melos  rooted in cutting limb from limb like all musical terms.
limb, in early writers always in pl.is corrupt for kata meros
2. metaphor., “esmen . . allēlōn melēEp.Rom.12.5, cf. 1 Ep.Cor.6.15.
,  A. share, portion, 2. with Preps., ana meros in turn, successively,
        III. the part one takes in a thing
B. Especially musical member, phrase: hence, song, strain, first in h.Hom.19.16
        lyric poetry, choral songs, Opposite Epic or Dramatic verse

Perhaps the Holy Spirit was not educated enough NOT to use psallo which is never translated to mean musical melody and was not aware that He could have used MELOS which means musical melody or a series of single notes.
HH 19 To Pan:1 Muse, tell me about Pan, the dear son of Hermes, with his goat's feet and two horns —a lover of merry noise. Through wooded glades he wanders with dancing nymphs who foot it on some sheer cliff's edge, [5] calling upon Pan, the shepherd-god, long-haired, unkempt.... Often he courses through the glistening high mountains, and often on the shouldered hills he speeds along slaying wild beasts, this keen-eyed god. Only at evening, [15] as he returns from the chase,
        he sounds his note,
        playing sweet and low on his pipes of reed:
        not even she could excel him in melody
        that bird who in flower-laden spring pouring forth her lament utters honey-voiced song amid the leaves....
Then all the immortals were glad in heart and Bacchic Dionysus in especial; and they called the boy Pan because he delighted all their hearts.
2. music to which a song is set, tune, Arist.Po.1450a14;
        Melos is Opposite. rhuthmos, metron, Pl.Grg. 502c;
                Melos is Opposite metron , II. metre, Ar.Nu.638, 641, etc.;
Aristoph. Cl. 638 Soc.
In the first place, to be clever at an entertainment, understanding what rhythm is for the war-dance, and what, again, according to the dactyle.
Again "meter" is the opposite of melos or melody and rhythm.
                   Opposite melos (music) and rhuthmos (time), Pl.Grg.502c
         Melos is Opposite. rhuthmos, rhēma, Id.Lg.656c;
                 Melos is Opposite rhēma  (erō) A. that which is said or spoken, word, saying,
                                    Ero I. I will say or speak, II. I will tell, proclaim, 2. to be specified, agreed, promised
                                                II.2. to be specified, agreed, promised
sullegō  II. of persons, collect, get together, “stasiōtasHdt.1.59; “egkhōriousE.IT303; “khoronAntipho 6.11; “ekklēsian
—Pass., come together, assemble, “rhēmata kai logous
mustered, Gathered

1Corinthians 14:23 If therefore the whole church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, and there come in those that are unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mad?

1 Cor 14: 23 Ean oun sunelthē ekklēsia holē epi to auto kai pantes lalōsin glōssais, eiselthōsin de idiōtai ē apistoi, ouk erousin hoti mainesthe;
Sunerkhomai II. come together, assemble, meetsunelthe pros Theōna

La^l-eō ,Mark of the Locusts
II.  chatter, Opposite. articulate speech, as of locusts, chirp, Theoc.5.34; mesēmbrias lalein tettix (sc. eimi), a very grasshopper to chirp at midday, 
III.  of musical sounds, “aulō [flute] laleōTheoc.20.29; of trees, v.supr.1.2; “di'aulou [flute] ē salpiggos l.”[trumpet] Arist. Aud.801a29; of Echomagadin lalein sound the magadis,  [double flute]
                        3. subject of speech, matter, Hebraism cf. rhētos
rhēt-os on stated terms, on certain conditions, according to covenant
IV. to rh. the precise, literal contents of a document,
                                 the letter
of the law,

expressly, distinctly, Plb.3.23.5,
                                      rhētos literal, Opposite. allegorical, Ph.1.69, al.
Opposite Allēgor-eō , (agoreuō2. abs., speak figuratively or metaphorically,
4. allēgor-ētēs , ou, ho, allegorical expounder,
agoreuō agora  1. to speak in the assembly, harangue, speak
of the kērux in the Ecclesia, tis agoreuein bouletai; who wishes to address the people?
MARK OF THE WORLD for whom Jesus nor we should even pray.
2 Co.1:12 For our rejoicing is this,
        the testimony of our conscience,
        that in simplicity and godly sincerity,
        not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God,
        we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to youward.
2 Cor 1:12garkaukhēsishēmōnhautēestin, tomarturiontēssuneidēseōshēmōn, hotienhagiotētikaieilikriniatoutheou, kaioukensophiasarkikēall'enkharititheou, anestraphēmenenkosmō, perissoterōsdeproshumas:
SophiaA.cleverness or skill in handicraft and art, of the Telchines [Simon father of Judas] , Pi.O.7.53; entekhnos s., of Hephaestus and Athena; in music and singing, tekhnē kai s. h.Merc.483, cf. 511; in poetry, Sol.13.52, Pi.O.1.117, Ar.Ra.882, X.An.1.2.8,  in divination, S.OT 502 (lyr.); “dusthanatōn hupo sophias eis gēras aphiketoPl.R.406b; s. dēmēgorikē, dikanikē, ib.365d; peri Homērou s. Id.Ion 542a; “ou sophia alla phusei poieinId.Ap.22b; “sēmainontes tēn s . . ., hoti aretē tekhnēs estinArist.EN1141a12: rare in pl., Pi.O.9.107, Ar.Ra.676 (IG12.522 (vase, v B.C.).


2Cor. 2:17 For we are not as many, which corrupt the word of God:
        but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ.

17 ou gar esmen hōs hoi polloi kapēleuontes ton logon tou theou, all' hōs ex eilikrinias, all' hōs ek theou katenanti theou en Khristō laloumen.

kapēl-euō ,
A. to be a retail-dealer, drive a petty trade, Hdt.1.155, 2.35, Isoc.2.1, Nymphod.21, IG11(2).161 A16 (Delos, iii B. C.), BGU1024 vii 23 (iv A. D.); di' apsukhou boras sitois kapēleu' drive a trade, chaffer with your vegetable food, E.Hipp.953.
II. c. acc., sell by retail, “ton herpinHippon.51.

2. metaph., k. ta prēgmata, of Darius, Hdt.3.89; k. ta mathēmata sell learning by retail, hawk it about, Pl. Prt.313d; “k. ton logon tou theou2 Ep.Cor.2.17; so eoiken ou kapēleusein makhēn will not peddle in war, i. e. fight half-heartedly, A.Th. 545; “k. Khariti tēn amoibēnEpicur.Sent.Vat.39; k. tēn politeian traffic in grants of citizenship, D.C.60.17; k. tēs hōras anthos or tēn hōran, of prostitutes, Ph.2.394,576; eirēnēn pros Rhōmaious Khrusiou k. Hdn.6.7.9; tukhē kapēleuousa . . ton bion playing tricks with life, corrupting it, AP9.180 (Pall.).

Another way to CORRUPT the Written Logos of the Living Logos:


Discovering Our Roots: Richard T. Hughes and C. Leonard Allen
See: John Mark Hicks Our Triune God-The Wonder of the Story
John Mark Hicks Trinity as "Necessary" Fact in Alexander Campbell

John Mark Hicks "recovery" of the gospel from Alexander Campbell

A Gathered People: Revisioning the Assembly as Transforming Encounter

John Mark Hicks Stone Campbell Unity by the Holy Spirit 


The Organ And Society Sect

No. V.Order of Worship. But to proceed: Another society meets for worship, and they sing all day; another shouts all day; another runs as in a race all day; another lies prostrate on the ground all day; another reads all day; another hears one man speak all day; another sits silent all day; another waves palm branches all day;
        another cries in the forenoon and listens to the organ in the afternoon;
        and it is all equally right, lawful, orderly, and acceptable;
        for there is no divinely authorized order of Christian worship.

We are then, on the principles of reason, constrained to abandon this side of the dilemma,  and give up the hypothesis that there is no divinely authorized order of Christian worship

2Th. 2:9 Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders,
2Th. 2:10 And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness
        in them that perish;
        because they received not the love of the truth,
        that they might be saved.
2Th. 2:11 And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion,
        that they should believe a lie:

What is the MARK of that time?

ŏpĕrātĭo , ōnis, f. operor,
I. a working, work, labor, operation (not in Cic. or Cæs.).
I. In gen.: insidiantur aquantibus (apibus) ranae, quae maxima earum est operatio, cum sobolem faciunt, Plin. 11, 18, 19, § 61; 11, 24, 28, § 80; Vitr. 2, 9.—
II. In partic.
        A.  A religious performance, service, or solemnity, a bringing of offerings: operationes denicales,
         offerings, Fest. s. v. privatae feriae,
mendācĭum a fable, fiction (Opposite. historic truth): “poëtarum,Curt. 3, 1, 4.—
All Poets and Song writers were known to be liars:
pŏēta , maker, producer oratores et poëtae, pictoribus atque poëtis, minimoque poëtā, poëtā,
poëtam in scenā

scaenĭcus , theatrical (class.).
I. [select] Lit.: “poëtae,dramatic poets, Varr. L. L. 9, § 17 Müll.: “artifices,players, actors,
fabula,a drama, Amm. 28, 1, 4: organa, [musical instruments]” gestus,” “modulatio,Quint. 11, 3, 57:
2Th. 2:12 That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

Lying wonders Teras in colloqual language

Thaumazo (g2296) thou-mad'-zo; from 2295; to wonder; by impl. to admire: - admire, have in admiration, marvel, wonder.
Teratourg-eô, A. WORK wonders, pseudôsti Sch.Pi.I.7(6).13.

    Pindar Isthmian 7 Odes: [1] In which of the local glories of the past, divinely blessed Thebe, did you most delight your spirit? Was it when you raised to eminence the one seated beside Demeter of the clashing bronze cymbals, flowing-haired [5] Dionysus? Or when you received, as a snow-shower of gold in the middle of the night, the greatest of the gods[20] then begin the victory [Nike: TRIUMPH OVER] procession with a sweet-singing hymn for Strepsiades; for he is the victor in the pancratium at the Isthmus, both awesome in his strength and handsome to look at; and he treats excellence as no worse a possession than beauty. [23] He is made radiant by the violet-haired Muses, and he has given a share in his flowering garland to his uncle and namesake
The-ama , Ion. theêma , atos, to, ( [theaomai] )
A. sight, spectacle, Semon.7.67, A.Pr.306, E.Supp.783, Ar.Av.1716, etc.; ei tis orchoit' eu, theam' ên Pl.Com.130 ; Opposite mathêma, Th.2.39; freq. of a sight which gives pleasure, theamata kai akroamata hêdista parecheis X.Smp.2.2 , cf. 7.5; orchêseis kai theamata Phld.Mus.p.26 K.; emplêsthête tou kalou th. Pl. R.440a; but also th. dustheaton A.Pr.69 , cf. S.Aj.992; hepta th. the seven wonders of the world, Str.14.2.5, Plu.2.983e: sg., of a marvellously engraved ring, Gal.UP17.1.


John Calvin on continuing Revelation

1.The fanatics wrongly appeal to the Holy Spirit Those who, rejecting Scripture, imagine that they have some peculiar way of penetrating to God, are to be deemed not so much under the influence of error as madness. For certain giddy men have lately appeared, who, while they make a great display of the superiority of the Spirit,

reject all reading of the Scriptures themselves, and deride the simplicity of those who only delight in what they call the dead and deadly letter.

But I wish they would tell me what spirit it is whose inspiration raises them to such a sublime height that they dare despise the doctrine of Scripture as mean and childish.   

The Stone-Campbell movement appeals to Cane Ridge as America's Pentecost: elsewhere they call it witchcraft.

A World History of the Stone-Campbell Movement
Scott D. Seay, Managing Editor Chalice Press (Wine Cup?)
Fourteen historians are collaborating to produce the new history of the Stone-Campbell Movement." Doug Foster, Newell Williams, and Paul Blowers; Lawrence Burnley, Loretta Long Hunnicutt, and Carmelo Alvarez; Scott Seay, Tim Lee, John Mark Hicks, Edward Robinson, Stan Granberg, Mark Toulouse, David Thompson, and Glenn Zuber. 

"The Stone-Campbell Movement" is history no older than Leroy Garrett: it is the obverse side of Daniel Sommer.  Restoration movements happened all over the world long before either man.  At the time of the fraternal agreement on the Bible as Sole authority, there was not a single additional fundamental of Stone that Campbell accepted. It was and is used as psychological violence to try to paint churches of Christ as sectarian sowers of discord when they refused to affirm, attend and support churches having stolen the church houses of widows as Scribes and Pharisees whom Jesus marked as Hypocrites and Christ named as slick preachers, singers and instrument players (Ezekiel 33)

No one should ever be led into accepting human teachers for their foundation.
Leroy Garretts false teaching against baptism defended by the so-called Stone-Campbell Movement.

Leroy Garrett's giddy history of the Restoration Movement.
Churches named Church of Christ have existed from the Church in the Wilderness ordained by Christ the ROCK and have have known that "vocal or instrumental rejoicing including rhetoric or elevated speaking" was outlawed when the whole assembly was GATHERED or synagogued for Instructions from God only.  That never changed as the Church was quarantined from the Jacob-Cursed and God-burdened sacrificial system when the evil group fell into musical idolatry at Mount Sinai. God separated the groups and the demand for a king was the final straw: God gave them kings in His anger and took them away in His anger. They got their demand and the Bible and history knows that their religion was Sabazianism.
FIRST, THE CHURCH OF CHRIST HAD IT'S ORIGIN IN THE WILDERNESS: it Received its power when God made Jesus of Nazareth to be both Lord and Christ to shut down the "wholly erroneous or SKIA covenant with death" and empowered the only spiritual Covenant God in Christ made with Abraham--a Gentile.

Christ, the Rock ordained the Church in the Wilderness: Stephen calls it the ekklesia so we might suggest that it was the Church of Christ.  The role of the Church of Christ has nothing to do with any Restoration Movement.  The Bible exclusion is proven by the fact that no one dared to introduce singing as an ACT until Constantine began paying pagans.

HISTORY: the inclusive and exclusive pattern is to teach the word of God. There can be no unity with people who use machines to confuse the rational or spiritual (Logos) mind of the Disciples.

HISTORY: The Command to teach The Book of The COVENANT (Abrahamic).  While real scholars believe that the synagogue always existed where God had His own opinion to teach, the first pattern was given by Jethro BEFORE the people fell into musical idolatry of the Egyptian trinity which was beyond redemption.
Ex. 18:19 Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee:
        Be thou for the people to Godward,
        that thou mayest bring the causes unto God:
Ex. 18:20 And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, [The Book of The Covenant of Grace]
        and shalt shew them the way wherein they must walk,
        and the work that they must do.
A. Objectively, sacredness, sanctity (in this sense rare, and only in sing.): sanctitas regum, et caerimonia deorum. Caes. ap. Suet. Caes. 6: legationis. Cic. Rosc. Am. 39, 113; Tac. A. 4, 64 fin.: 3, 61: loci. id. ib. 14, 22 fin.
B.  Subjectively, a holy dread, awe, reverence, veneration of the Deity 
Ostendo , A, In gen., to show, disclose, exhibit, manifest: ille dies cum gloriā maximā sese nobis ostendat,
ransf.: “vocem,to make heard, Phaedr. 1, 13, 9.—
1. To show, express, indicate by speech or signs; to give to understand, to declare, say, tell, make known, etc. (syn.: indico, declaro, significo).—With acc.: “illud ostendit,Cic. Att. 1, 1, 4.—With obj.- or rel.-clause: “ostendit se cum rege colloqui velle,Nep. Con. 3, 2: conversation with a praecepter  or teacher. Verbum  a. Orally, by word of mouth. D. In eccl. Lat. as a translation of logos  which is opposite of poetry or music.
When these sacred assemblies were called they were to blow a horn as a signal.  However, they were not to alarm or try to triumph over the people with "vocal or instrumental rejoicing or elevated forms of speech."  Disciples know not to make music when Christ comes to teach.
Ex. 18:21 Moreover thou shalt provide
        out of all the people able men, [Apt to teach that which has been taught]
        such as fear God,
        men of truth, [Thy Word is truth: scholars cannot produce this]
        hating covetousness; [Don't use your bread money to pay for the free Word Isaiah 55]
and place such over them, to be
        rulers of thousands,
        and rulers of hundreds,
        rulers of fifties, and 
        rulers of tens:

See why no one should be seduced into an instrumental church: the Mount Sinai Event missed in universities. Sorry if you missed Acts 7 and the rest of the prophets.

Christ in the Prophets affirmed that it was Musical Idolatry which invited God to abandon them to the worship of the starry host and to be carried beyond Babylon.  God gave them kings in His anger to carry out this sentence.

The Jacob-Cursed tribe of Levi was given the burden of their own sins and the burden of the Tabernacle and later Temple. They were not commanded to be Musical Worship Ministers (the Pattern of the Stone-Campbell Movement).  Because they had executed 3000 of the brethren because of musical idolatry God commanded that they STAND IN RANKS and make a loud noise to warn any godly civilian that if they came near or into any holy place they would be executed.  If you missed that you cannot be a historian.


The inclusive and exclusive pattern for the only assembly God ever called for the godly people. The Synagogue

Those out of Presbyterian roots continued to do what they had always done or NOT done.  For the Stone Campbell scholars who missed it, John Calvin defined the synagogue in Numbers 10.  The Latin is more direct in its definition.

John Calvin Numbers 10 the Synagogue.

The best literature against instruments are from the Reformed groups contemporaneous with Thomas and Alexander Campbell.  None of the denominations used instruments although the Black Free Methodists found it to be a good fund raiser.  Therefore, what you define as the Instrumental Disciples or Christian Churches did not exist until THEIR congregations were confiscated to introduce instruments.  This was in response to the huge debt from the building wars which were no longer funded from Carpet Baggs.
Instrumental Music in Worship Wrong R. L. Dabney Presbyterian
My Index of Religious Music from Clay Tablets onward.
Every so slowly as we will note up to what you call the "split" none of the Disciples approved of instruments.  That means that those who added instruments became the INSTRUMENTAL SECT.


After Israel fell from Grace because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai, God gave them The Book of The Law and sentenced them to captivity and death beyond Babylon.

Isaiah 57:19 I create the fruit of the lips

Peace, peace to him that is far off, and to him that is near, saith the LORD;
        and I will heal him.
Isaiah 57:20 But the wicked are like the troubled sea,
        when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt.

Isaiah 57:20] impii autem quasi mare fervens quod quiescere non potest et redundant fluctus eius in conculcationem et lutum
Quĭesco ,
quiērunt Aequora,the waves are at rest, do not rise, standing waters,
2.  Act., to cause to cease, render quiet, stop, etc.: “laudes,Sen. Herc. Oet. 1584.—Hence, quĭētus , a, um, P. a., at rest, calm, quiet
4. To make a pause in speaking: quiescere, id est, hēsukhazein, ludendi est quidem modus
lūdo , B. To play, sport, frisk, frolic: “dum se exornat, nos volo Ludere inter nos,have some fun, dance,
A. go sport, play with any thing, to practise as a pastime, amuse one's self with any thing “carmina pastorum,
B.  to sport, dally, wanton (cf. "amorous play," Milton, P. L. 9, 1045): “scis solere illam aetatem tali ludo ludere,Plaut. Most. 5,
C. Ludere aliquem or aliquid, to play, mock, imitate, mimic a person or thing imitate work, make believe work, 
Mŏdus 2. The measure of tones, measure, rhythm, melody, harmony, time; in poetry, measure, metre, mode: “vocum,Cic. Div. 2, 3, 9: musici, Quint. 1, 10, 14: lyrici,Ov. H. 15, 6: “fidibus Latinis Thebanos aptare modos,Hor. Ep. 1, 3, 12: Bacchico exsultas (i. e. exsultans) modo, Enn. ap. Charis [grace]. p. 214 P. (Trag. v. 152 Vahl.): “flebilibus modis concinere,Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 106: saltare [dance] ad tibicinis modos, to the music or sound of the flute, Liv. 7, 2: “nectere canoris Eloquium vocale modis,Juv. 7, 19.—Fig.: verae 

Isaiah 57:21 There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked.

pax , I.  peace, concluded between parties at variance, esp. between belligerents; a treaty of peace; tranquillity, the absence of war, amity, reconciliation after a quarrel, public or private
1. Grace, favor, pardon, assistance of the gods: “pacem ab Aesculapio petas,
Pax, as an interj., peace! silence! enough! pax,

They DO it because they ARE impious
impĭus without reverence or respect for God, one's parents, or one's country; irreverent, ungodly, undutiful, unpatriotic; abandoned, wicked, impious
Sāturnus As the sun-god of the Phœnicians, = Baal, Curt. 4, 3, 15: “Saturni sacra dies,” i. e. Saturday, Tib. 1, 3, 18: “Saturni Stella,the planet Saturn, Cic. N. D. 2, 20, 52; 2, 46, 119; id. Div. 1, 39, 85.—As subst.: Sāturnus ,  “also pater (sc. Superum),Verg. A. 4, 372; Ov. M. 1, 163:
versus, the Saturnian verse, the oldest kind of metre among the Romans, “carmen, metrum,
2. Subst.: Sāturnālĭa also Bacchanalia, Compitalia, Vinalia, and the like), a general festival in honor of Saturn, beginning on the 17th of December and lasting several days; the Saturnalia,verba,Tib. 1, 3, 52: “tumultus,Hor. C. 4, 4, 46: “clamor,
Isaiah 58:1 Cry aloud, spare not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and shew my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins.


Isaiah 58:2 Yet they seek me daily,
        and delight to know my ways,
                as a nation that did righteousness,
                 and [AS]  forsook not the ordinance of their God:
        They ask of me the ordinances of justice;
                they take delight in approaching to God.

Isaiah 58:3 Wherefore have we fasted, say they, and thou seest not? wherefore have we afflicted our soul, and thou takest no knowledge?
        Behold, in the day of your fast ye find pleasure,
        and exact all your labours.
Isaiah 58:4 Behold, ye fast for strife and debate, and to smite with the fist of wickedness: ye shall not fast as ye do this day,
        to make your voice to be heard on high.

HISTORY: The role of the Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ never changed: the Lord's Supper was to show forth or preach the Death of Jesus.

I am afraid that your historians quoting historians quoting historians with a hidden agenda just didn't get the point. For instance, you don't know a "scholar" or preacher who can tell you the Purpose of a Christ Driven Church of Christ. Christ, the Rock, defined the Qahal, synagogue, ekklesia or Church of Christ in the wilderness both inclusively and exclusively. Of course, the Church of Christ has no Roles and no Doles as the Jerusalem Council showed the past, present and future role of the assembly which Paul calls "synagogue."
Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time
        hath in every city them that preach him,
        being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

2Corinthians 3:13 And not as Moses, which put a vail over his face, t
        hat the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished:
2Corinthians 3:14 But their minds were blinded:
        for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away
        in the reading of the old testament;
        which vail is done away in Christ.
2Corinthians 3:15 But even unto this day, when Moses is read, the vail is upon their heart.
2Corinthians 3:16 Nevertheless when it shall turn to the Lord,
        the vail shall be taken away.

Jesus used the example of being CONVERTED and BORN AGAIN like a child
Luke recorded the example of BAPTISM to be SAVED and CONVERTED meaning the same thing.

Until you are CONVERTED you will not be able to read WHOLE THOUGHT PATTERNS written in BLACK INK on WHITE paper.
Epi-strephô , pf.
c. Philos., cause to return to the source of Being, tinas eis ta enantia kai ta prôta
       Proteros and prôtos    II. of Time, former, earlier, children by the first or a former marriage,
       Prosthhen in front, before, formerly, of place and of time;
                            to gennêthen phusei pros to gennêsan
Genn-aô beget, bring forth, engender, call into existence
Phuo 1 Act.:--bring forth, produce, put forth, 2. beget, engender, get understanding,
Pros in the direction of
Genn-aô beget, bring forth, engender, call into existence
Deut XXX WEB. It shall happen, when all these things are come on you, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before you, and you shall call them to mind among all the nations, where Yahweh your God has driven you,

[2]  and shall RETURN to Yahweh your God, and shall OBEY his voice according to all that I command you this day, you and your children, with all your heart, and with all your soul;

[3]  that then Yahweh your God will turn your captivity, and have compassion on you, and will return and gather you from all the peoples, where Yahweh your God has scattered you.
HISTORY The Church always rejected the Boles version of the Trinity

2Corinthians 3:17 Now the Lord is that Spirit:
        and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty.
2Corinthians 3:18 But we all, with open face beholding
        as in a glass the glory of the Lord,
        are changed into the same image from glory to glory,
         even as by the Spirit of the Lord.


Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and God shall be with thee: Be thou for the people to God-ward, that thou mayest bring the causes unto God: Exod 18:19

And thou shalt teach them ordinances and laws, and shalt show them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do. Exod 18:20

Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens: Exod 18:21


Specially the day that thou stoodest before the Lord thy God in Horeb, when the Lord said unto me, Gather me the people together, and I will make them hear my words, that they may learn to fear me all the days that they shall live upon the earth, and that they may teach their children. Deut 4:10

Qahal (h6950) kaw-hal'; a prim. root; to convoke: - assemble (selves) (together), gather (selves) together).

Gather the people together, men, and women, and children, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the Lord your God, and observe to do all the words of this law: De.31:12

This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us: Ac.7:38

Ekklesia (g1577) ek-klay-see'-ah; from a comp. of 1537 and a der. of 2564; a calling out, i.e. (concr.) a popular meeting, espec. a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Chr. community of members on earth or saints in heaven or both): - assembly, church.

Thomas Campbell got His views of assembly: ekklesia--synagogue from the Spirit of Christ: Stone contributed nothing.

Of the Yarn Spinners (revisionists) who, at the same time are ignorant of, and even averse to, the religion it inculcates; and whilst others profess to embrace it as a system of religion,

without imbibing the spirit, realizing the truth, and experiencing the power of its religious institutions; but merely superstruct to themselves, rest in, and are satisfied with, a form (acts) of godliness; and that, very often, a deficient, imperfect form, or such as their own imagination has devised;

See Why Thomas Paine was a Deist.

"let us, with an open bible before us, distinguish and contemplate that religion which it enjoins and exhibits--I mean the religion of christianity, for it also exhibits the religion of Judaism;
...but with this, in the mean time,
...we christians have nothing directly to do--
...we derive our religion immediately from the New Testament. TC

After Baptism:

"But that this may be the case, the next immediate ordinance of the christian religion, namely,

the reading, I mean the musing upon, or studying the Holy Scriptures;
taking them up in their connexion, and
meditating upon the subjects they propose to our consideration, with a fixed contemplation of the various and important objects which they present.

This dutiful and religious use of the bible, (that most precious, sacred record of the wonderful works of God,

the only authentic source of all religious information,) is inseparably connected with, and indispensably necessary to, the blissful and all-important exercises of prayer and praise.

"And again, 'Be you filled with the Spirit; speaking to yourselves, in psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; giving thanks always to God and the Father, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Eph. v. 18-20.

"Hence it is evident, that if we would be spiritually minded, spiritually exercised in this delightful and heavenly employment,

we must be filled with the Spirit;
and if we would be filled with the Spirit,
we must be filled with the word;
the word of Christ must dwell in us richly;
for we have no access to the Spirit but in and by the word.


Isaiah 50 has Christ clearly defining the Pluckers and Smiters restored by the Disciples/Christians.

Isaiah 55 clearly defines both inclusively and exclusively of His Words which provide spirit and life.  Peter uses many of the same concepts to dare anyone to teach beyond the written memory of the Apostles who were eye and ear witnesses. This is a quick study for today. If that awas not enough authority He defines the true Rest for the future church to exclude personal pleasure or even speaking your own words.  "Teach that which has been taught" should be warning enough.

Isaiah 58 has Christ urging a restoration and, as in the church in the wilderness, and Paul for the assembly forbidding seeking our own pleasure or even speaking our own words.

Therefore, the ekklesia or synagogue is the same as Qahal because both relate to the same event. The Holy Convocation which began each each First and Seventh day of festivals (for draft age males) was extended to each Sabbath or REST day. This quarantined the godly people from the Jacob-Curst tribe of Levi whom God turned over to worship the starry host.  The Disciples--Christian churches follow the "patternism" of the not-commanded monarchy and the not commanded sacrificial system. The Levites were Soothsayers with instrumental noise to warn any godly person that if they came near they would execute them as they had at Mount Sinai because of musical idolatry.


God only authorized the two silver trumpets: these were reserved for sending important signals.  However, many people had their own flutes or shofars, tambourines and sistrums: Miriam had here sistrum as a priestess or prophetess in Egypt.  The women especially were prone to parade around singing, clapping, dancing and beating on instruments.  Therefore, the command:

Num. 10:5 When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward.
Num. 10:6 When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys.
Numbers 10:7 But when the congregation is to be gathered together,
        ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm.

The "alarm" is reserved in Psalm 41 to identify the "familiar friend" or Judas whose Judas Bag was for carrying the mouthpieces of wind instruments.

Miqra (h4744) mik-raw'; from 7121; something called out, i. e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal: - assembly, calling, convocation, reading.

So they read in the book in the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading. Ne.8:8

Isaiah 4: 4 When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

And the Lord will create upon every dwelling place of mount Zion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: for upon all the glory shall be a defence. Is.4:5

Dwelling: 168. ohel, o´-hel; from 166; a tent (as clearly conspicuous from a distance):—covering, (dwelling)(place), home, tabernacle, tent.

Assembly: 4744. miqra, mik-raw´; from 7121; something called out, i.e. a public meeting (the act, the persons, or the place); also a rehearsal:  assembly, calling, convocation, reading.


"Despite the differences between the Mosaic and the Egyptian cults, it can hardly be denied that Egyptian influence on Jewish musical practices were quite significant. They would stand to reason because of the high quality of egyptian cultic music.

The tambourine or timbrel, a hoop of bells over which a white skin was stretched, came from Egypt. Miriam used this instrument to accompany the singing and dancing on the shores of the Red Sea (Ex. 15).

The trumpet blown for decampment, at the gathering of the people and on different cultic occasions, especially during sacrifices (2 Chron. 30:21; 35:15; Num 10:2), was the signaling instrument of the Egyptian army.

The sistrum, according to 2 Sam 6:5, was used by the Israelites and bore the name mena'aneim. It was the same as the Egyptian kemkem which was employed in the cult of Isis.

The solemnity celebrated on the occasion of the transferring of the Ark to Sion, as well as the dances of the daughters of Israel at the annual feast of the Lord of Shiloh (Judg 21:21), were similar in thier musical embellishments to Egyptian customs in the liturgy and at parades. As Herodotus reports,

women sang the praises of Osiris [APIS at Sinai] while likenesses of the gods were born about and, during the festival of Diana at Bubastis, choirs of men and women sang and danced to the beating of drums and the playing of flutes." (Quasten, Johannes, Music and Worship in Pagan and Christian Antiquity, p. 65)

Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female, Deut 4:16

And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the Lord thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven. Deut 4:19

Jesus identified the Scribes and Pharisees as hypocrites: He refers to Isaiah 29 and Ezekiel 33 which marks speakers, singers and instrument players as PROOFS that the people had no intention of listening to God.


Numbers 10.[7]  [7] quando autem congregandus est populus simplex tubarum clangor erit et non concise ululabunt

Academia congregation. Collect into a flock,  where plato taught, scholars are called Academici, and his doctrine Philosophia Philosophia Academica,
in distinction from Stoica, Cynica, etc., Cic. de Or. 1, 21, 98; id. Or. 3, 12; id. Fin. 5, 1, 1 al.— ..
Cic. de Orat. 1.  [21] Neque vero ego hoc tantum oneris imponam nostris praesertim oratoribus in hactanta occupatione urbis ac vitae, nihil ut eis putem licere nescire, quamquam vis oratoris professioqueipsa bene dicendi hoc suscipere ac polliceri videtur, ut omni de re, quaecumque sit proposita, ornate abeo copioseque dicatur.
ē-lŏquor  I. v. dep. a., to speak out, speak plainly, to utter; to pronounce, declare, state, express: Rhetorical, Eloquent, 
When the Disciples or others such as Tom Burgess collects all of the PSALLO words they fail to read the context. When an older male (Alexander the Great) plucks a lyre he is intending to seduce a young man whose hairs have been plucked. Paul EXCLUDES them as Dogs and  Concision.
The philosophy of the Acadamy, A. For The philosophy of the Academy: “instaret academia, quae quidquid dixisses,
Dixisses: to say, speak, utter, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state, assert
Matthew 26.30 When they had 'hymned" they went out to the Mount of Olives.
Matthew 26.30  et hymno dicto exierunt in montem Oliveti
Hymnus , i, m., = humnos, I. a song of praise, a hymn: “hymnus cantus est cum laude Dei,Aug. Enarr. in Psa. 148, 17; Ambros. Expos. Psa. 118, prol. § 3; Lucil. ap. Non. 330, 9; Prud. Cath. 37 praef.; 4, 75: “divinorum scriptor hymnorum, Lact. 4, 8, 14; Vulg. Psa. 60 tit.; id. Matt. 26, 30.

Psalm 60 A teaching poem by David, when he fought with Aram Naharaim and with Aram Zobah, and Joab returned, and killed twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt.

There is no SINGING TUNEFULLY involved in hymning:
Dīcoto say, tell, mention, relate, affirm, declare, state; to mean, intend (for syn. cf.: for, loquor stands for the Gr. eipein pros tina,
Ontōs , Adv. part. of eimi A. (sum), really, actually, verily, with Verb
Alēth-ēs a^, Dor. ala_thēs , es, (lēthō,
I. Hom., Opposite. pseudēs, in phrases alēthea muthēsasthai, eipein, agoreuein, alēthes enispein
3. of oracles, true, unerring, “alathea mantiōn thōkonPi. P.11.6, cf. S.Ph.993, E.Ion1537; of dreams, A.Th.710. “alēthei logō khrasthaiHdt. 1.14
        Opposite Epos
1. song or lay accompanied by music, 8.91,17.519. b. generally, poetry, even lyrics 5. celebrate, of poets, “Aiantos bian
1Peter 4:11 If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.


Cyrenaica pleasure is the only good. Good in a pleasing agitation of the mind or in active enjoyment. hedone. Nothing is just or unjust by nature, but by custom and law. 
Cynics Diogenes, in particular, was referred to as the Dog.. a distinction he seems to have revelled in, stating that "other dogs bite their enemies, I bite my friends to save them."  Later Cynics also sought to turn the word to their advantage, as a later commentator explained:
        There are four reasons why the Cynics are so named. First because of the indifference of their way of life, for they make a cult of indifference and, like dogs, eat and make love in public, go barefoot, and sleep in tubs and at crossroads. The second reason is that the dog is a shameless animal, and they make a cult of shamelessness, not as being beneath modesty, but as superior to it. The third reason is that the dog is a good guard, and they guard the tenets of their philosophy. The fourth reason is that the dog is a discriminating animal which can distinguish between its friends and enemies. So do they recognize as friends those who are suited to philosophy, and receive them kindly, while those unfitted they drive away, like dogs, by barking at them.

He once masturbated in the Agora; when rebuked for doing so, he replied, "If only it was as easy to soothe my hunger by rubbing my belly."

stating that they had, "in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs." De Civitate Dei 14.20.

From the city of God
Human nature, then, is without doubt ashamed of this lust; and justly so, for the insubordination of these members, and their defiance of the will, are the clear testimony of the punishment of man’s first sin. And it was fitting that this should appear specially in those parts by which is generated that nature which has been altered for the worse by that first and great sin,—that sin from whose evil connection no one can escape, unless God’s grace expiate in him individually that which was perpetrated to the destruction of all in common, when all were in one man, and which was avenged by God’s justice.

Phil. 3:2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.
Phil. 3:3 For we are the circumcision,
        which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus,
        and have no confidence in the flesh.
Argumentum I. A..The means by which an assertion or assumption may be made clear, proved, an argument, evidence, proof

Presented to the Infirmus to those less nourishing, weak in mind in character, superstitious, pusillanimous, inconstant, light-minded. no weight or consequence

Romans XV. 1 debemus autem nos firmiores imbecillitates infirmorum sustinere et non nobis placere

Sustinere A. In gen., to uphold, sustain, maintain, preserve with dignity.
Imbecillitas Caes. B. G. 7, 77, 9 (and in particular, that which rests upon facts, while ratio is that which depends upon reasoning


The Necessity of Reforming the Church (1543) John Calvin 1
  1. The Stoneites wanted "union" under one grand organization; the doctrine (the teachings of Christ) could just be ignored in the interest of organization.
  2. The Campbells understood the goal and ways to RESTORE the church: Just stop doing what is not commanded and make church A School (only) of Christ (only).
Calvin's Proposal for the Restoration of The Church of Christ

Congregational singing began after the Reformation when the Psalms were recomposed to meter.  Instruments were removed primarily because they were most often used for secular purposes and not playing an "accompanying" role under the Catholics.

At the request of Bucer Calvin utilized the occasion of the fourth Diet of Speyer assembled by Charles V in February, 1544, to address to the Emperor a "Supplicatory Remonstrance" in reference to a General Council of the Church after the manner of the Early Church. It was also a powerful justification of the Reformation, and it met with considerable success in its impact upon the Diet and in confirming the Emperor in his tolerance toward the movement for reform.



For where can I exert myself to better purpose or more honestly, where, too, in a matter at this time more necessary, than in attempting, according to my ability, to aid the Church of Christ, whose claims it is unlawful in any instance to deny, and which is now in grievous distress, and in extreme danger?

But there is no occasion for a long preface concerning myself. Receive what I say as you would do if it were pronounced by the united voice

of all those who either have already taken care to restore the Church,
or are desirous that it
should be restored to true order.

I come now to ceremonies, which, while they ought to be grave attestations of divine worship, are rather a mere mockery of God. A new Judaism, as a substitute for that which God had distinctly abrogated, has again been reared up by means of numerous puerile extravagancies, collected from different quarters; and with these have been mixed up certain impious rites, partly borrowed from the heathen, and more adapted to some theatrical show than to the dignity of our religion.

The first evil here is, that an immense number of ceremonies, which God had by his authority abrogated, once for all have been again revived.

The next evil is, that while ceremonies ought to be living exercises of piety, men are vainly occupied with numbers of them that are both frivolous and useless.

But by far the most deadly evil of all is, that after men have thus mocked God with ceremonies of one kind or other, they think they have fulfilled their duty as admirably as if these ceremonies included in them the whole essence of piety and divine worship.

Having observed that the Word of God is the test which discriminates between his true worship and that which is false and vitiated, we thence readily infer that the whole form of divine worship in general use in the present day is nothing but mere corruption.

For men pay no regard to what God has commanded, or to what he approved, in order that they may serve him in a becoming manner,

but assume to themselves a licence of devising modes of worship,
afterwards obtruding them upon him as a substitute for obedience.

By this self-abasement we are trained to obedience and devotedness to his will, so that his fear reigns in our hearts, and regulates all the actions of our lives.

That in these things consists the true and sincere worship which alone God approves, and in which alone He delights,

is both taught by the Holy Spirit throughout the Scriptures, and is also, antecedent to discussion, the obvious dictate of piety.

Nor from the beginning was there any other method of worshipping God, the only difference being, that this spiritual truth, which with us is naked and simple, was under the former dispensation wrapt up in figures.

See our review of the common view that God commanded instrumental music as worship under the Monarchy.  If we miss the fact that God had abandoned them BECAUSE of musical idolatry we will fall for those imposing instruments.

The Restoration Movement well under way in England and Scotland was a result of instruments being added to the Church of Scotland.   As a NATIONAL worship they needed the same pomp as had Queen Elizabeth when she rejected the vote to remove instruments.  The Campbells were influenced by John Calvin and not James O'kelly of the Christian church which devolved from the chain of Methodists-Church of England-Roman Catholic church. No surprise that the radical rewriters of Reformation history are PAID by the Disciples of Christ which has moved much closer to the Catholic Church. 


Campbell repudiated what when on.

There was never "fellowship" which means I endorse you, I assemble with you and I support you. The 1832 few handshake where John Smith recorded the "agreement" which would permit agreement on an intellectual level. The "contract" the few preachers with no denominational authority signed was a statement which was in perfectly in agreement with what became Churches of Christ. The ink was not dry before the Disciples began violating it.

This arrogance by a few preachers was divisive for the masses of preachers who resented the claim--as Campbell resented-- of Stone's boasting that "the Reformers have come over to us."

Those who became The Church of Christ repudiated the agreement and by 1837 Alexander Campbell ridiculed any kind of unity based on a handshake when the Stoneites had absolutely nothing in common with the Campbellites: Stone repudiated the Atonement, and did not believe that baptism was necessary at that time. He also said that there could be no unity with people who insisted that Baptism was a condition for salvation. 


See Martin Luther (if the Bible is not clear enough)

No one ever said "baptism does not save" who did not quickly add "without faith." This was ONLY to refute infant baptism
Alexander Campbell, on the other hand pointed to John Calvin's view of RESTORATION on baptism.  Campbell derived the demand for BAPTISM when he was convinced that no unity could prevail outside of "teaching that which is written for our learning."  Both Calvin and Luther defined baptism for ADULTS old enough to believe. See the Whole Institutes on Baptism
Alexander Campbell John Calvin on Baptism.

MY attention was this morning called to the 15th chapter and 4th book of Calvin's Institutes. From this section I may have given some extracts on baptism in my former numbers; but I think the following remarks of this great reformer have not been presented in this work. To those who think that we are extravagantly fanatical, enthusiastic, or egregiously astray on this subject, we would recommend the perusal of the whole of this 15th chapter of book 4; not, indeed, as [543] altogether orthodox in our view,
        but as containing so much clear and unequivocal testimony in favor of the true intent and meaning of Peter's opening speech in Jerusalem some 1800 years ago. I say testimony, for John Calvin's opinions are of the force of semi-apostolic testimony with many very worthy citizens who may happen to see the following excerpts.

He uses the same argument in another place--that we are circumcised, putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, after we have been buried with Christ in baptism; and in this sense, in the passage already quoted, he calls it the washing of regeneration and renewing.
 Thus we are promised, first,
        the gratuitous remission of sins and imputation of righteousness;
         and, secondly, the grace of the Holy Spirit to reform us to newness of life."

  Now let me ask the candid reader of this essay from the pen of John Calvin himself, how much more orthodox than ourselves was this celebrated reformer? We have heard him explain himself fully on these great items, and may we not say that the chief difference between him and us, is, that we practise what we teach. "There is," says the reformer Calvin, "one other advantage received from baptism--this is the certain testimony it affords us that we are not only [546] engrafted into the life and death of Christ, but are so united as to be partakers of all his benefits"--"All the gifts of God which are presented in baptism, are found in Christ alone."

      We leave it to the good sense of the reader, whether John Calvin ought not to be called a Campbellite as well as the Apostle Peter.

1811  "Barton W. Stone preached first in the fifth civil district of Sumner County, in 1811, on the farm of H. P. Jones. From there he went immediately to a place near where the little village of Roganna now stands, and preached on Bledsoe's Creek, at the mouth of Dry Fork Creek.

in Maury County. J. K. Speer was born in 1794, in the month of May, and in early life he was a Baptist preacher. He probably began preaching "the faith" (called by others heresy), as early as early (sic) as 1825, and was independent of both Stone and Campbell. "

But it was no holiday job to preach then. Besides going mainly at his own expense, the preacher suffered losses at home, persecution both at home and abroad, and was often traduced personally; besides having to bear the odium attached to the cause itself. "You are Schismatics"; "You deny the Divinity of Christ"; You deny the operations of the Holy Ghost"; "You deny heart-felt religion," etc. , etc. , were some of the charges hurled at them. But in process of time A. Campbell took the same ground that brethren of Middle and East Tennessee had held for some years before they ever heard of him, and now it is Campbellite, Campbellite, Campbellite!

This Stoneite fanaticism is said to have hindered many baptists from "reforming."


John Mark Hicks Notes
The Campbell-Walker Debate[10] In the fall of 1819 Mr. John Birch, a Baptist minister, became rather successful in baptizing a number of people near the town of Mt. Pleasant.  The debate began on June 19, 1820 and ended the next day. The immediate result of the debate was the promotion of Campbell's reputation. The debate affords us an importance reference point in the development of Campbell's baptismal theology
John Mark Hicks: b. The Design of Baptism in the Debate. It is important to note that while, according to Campbell,
baptism promises spiritual blessings to its recipients,
it does so only "figuratively" or as a symbol (pp. 136-137).
For instance, the phrase from Titus 3:5 ("the renewing of the Holy Ghost")
is used "figuratively" with respect to baptism and not in reality (p. 137).

Again, the figure or type is something which must be obeyed BEFORE we are free from sin.

Holy Spirit." The Millennial Harbinger Extra 4 (August 1833): 356.
  "He has saved us," says the Apostle Paul,
"by the bath of regeneration AND  the renewing of the Holy Spirit, which he poured on us richly through Jesus Christ our Saviour;
that, being justified by his favor, [in the bath of regeneration,]
we might be made heirs according [459] the new life as the atmosphere is to our animal life in the kingdom of nature. But on this topic we have said so much in our "Extra Defended," that to it we must refer our readers who are still inquisitive on the subject.
All that is done in us before regeneration, God our Father effects by the word, or the gospel as dictated and confirmed by his Holy Spirit.

But after we are thus begotten and born by the Spirit of God--after our new birth, the Holy Spirit is shed on us richly through Jesus Christ our Saviour; of which the peace of mind, the love, the joy, and the hope of the regenerate is full proof; for these are amongst the fruits of that Holy Spirit of promise of which we speak. Thus commences [ THE NEW LIFE.]

He then quotes in proof, Acts 22:16 "Arise, and be immersed, and wash thee from thy sins."--Paul. He supports this view also from Ephesians 5:26, and John 3:5. "The bath of regeneration," is then according to this learned Paidobaptist, Christian immersion.
Our modern "great divines," even in America, have taught the same. Timothy Dwight, the greatest Rabbi of Presbyterians the New World has produced, says, vol. iv. pp. 300, 301, "to be born again, is precisely the same thing as to be born of water and the Spirit."--"To be born of water is to be baptized." And how uncharitable!--He adds,

  "He who understanding the nature and authority of this institution,
        refuses to be baptized,
                    Vol. iv. p. 302.
        So preached the President of Yale/

The outward rite is a "representation" of the thing itself which has already been accomplished by the work of the Spirit.

Hicks means that a person is JUSTIFIED by a direct work of the Holy Spirit.  Only then are they baptized to REPRESENT what the Holy Spirit did by a direct operation.  However, baptism is LIKE the death, burial and resurrect of Jesus.

        The blessing of justification is given to the sinner before his baptism.

We next remark, that the unconverted sinner is dark in his understanding; and (suitable to such a condition) the spirit of grace is a spirit of illumination. Conscious of this, David prays, "Open thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of thy law;"--and Paul, for the Ephesians, that God might give them the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him;--the eyes of their understanding being enlightened, &c By virtue of this illuminating influence, the mind is given to discover, through the word of truth, the insufficiency of man, and of man's righteousness--"the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus," as "the way, the truth, and the life"--the necessity and beauty of that religion which is held out in the sacred volume.

Upon the whole (let me add) the effect of Divine influence on the soul, is, a correspondence of views, disposition, and desire, with the dictates of the word of truth--a responding of the heart to the voice of God in his word; and this too may be considered as (in general,) the most abiding and substantial evidence of the work of God within us. April, 1828

Dr. James Macknight, formerly prolocutor or moderator of the Presbyterian church of Scotland, and translator of the Apostolic Epistles. One of his notes upon Titus 3:5, is in the following words:--"

1823  Preaching for pay? "Give money to make poor pious youths learned clergy, or vain pretenders to erudition; and they pray that they may preach to you; yes, and pay them too.

Was there ever such a craft as priestcraft? No, it is the craftiest of all crafts. It is so crafty that it obtains by its craft the means to make craftsmen, and then it makes the deluded support them!" (Campbell, Alexander, Christian Baptist, Dec. 1, 1823, Vol. 1, p. 91).

Wonder why the Stone-Campbell Sectarians never use that?
Paul proved that those who make a PROFESSION out of the Word of Christ corrupt the Word: they are, he says, prostitutes.

Later we will note that God HIDES Himself from the WISE: these are the Sophists who work as rhetoricians, singers, instrument players or sorcerers.

A godly elders as the Pastor-Teacher or preacher teaches that which HAS been taught: he gets no personal opinions nor does he engage in Spiritual Formation (witchcraft) hallucinating that what comes out of his mind has any value whatsover.  Paul outlwas such "doubtful disputations" in Romans 14 and includes everything which does not edify or educate in Romans 15.  He defines that as "that which is written" and calls it "Scripture." You may or may not believe it but Spurgeon couldn't find a word to define the depravity of one who would teach in a congregation (college) when he cannot be loyal to those who feed him.

1825  A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things--by Alexander Campbell

False Review by John Mark Hicks
Subsequent participants in the “Restoration Movement” turned the “ancient order” into a test of fellowship as the fundamental identity of the New Testament church, the distinguishing mark between the true church and apostate churches.  That was never Campbell’s intention and he would have regarded it as a subversion of the gospel itself–substituting the “ancient order” for the confession of Jesus as the Messiah as the true test of faith.
There is not a remote hint that Alexander Campbell would "fellowship" the sects in the pattern of the later day spirit-guided scholars.  There is no hint that Alexander Campbell or most early disciples who would fellowship in the sense of attending, affirming and thereby endorsing the sects: especially the instrumental sect.
The Christian System

Preface VII

The object of this volume is to place before the community in a plain, definite, and perspicuous style, the capital principles which have been elicited, argued out, developed, and sustained in a controversy of twenty-five years, by the tongues and pens of those who rallied under the banners of the Bible alone.

The principle which was inscribed upon our banners when we withdrew from the ranks of the sects, was, '   
        Faith in Jesus as the true Messiah,
        and obedience to him as our Lawgiver and King,
        the ONLY TEST of Christian character,
        and the ONLY BOND of Christian union, communion, and co-operation,
        irrespective of all creeds, opinions, commandments, and traditions of men.'

No. III I have no idea of seeing, nor one wish to see, the sects unite in one grand army.
This would be dangerous to our liberties and laws.
For this the Saviour did not pray.
        It is only the disciples of Christ dispersed among them,
        that reason and benevolence would call out of them.
Let them unite who love the Lord, and
then we shall soon see the hireling priesthood
and their worldly establishments prostrate in the dust.
Campbell was discussing unbelievers to participate in a Church of Christ.

No. XXI. Besides, where any number attend there generally are some disciples of Christ not connected with the church, and who consequently can, and do join in prayer and praise; and we know no reason why any man should forbid them. We know it has been said we might as well admit unbelievers to the Lord's supper as suffer them to stand up along with the church in prayer or praise.

But by receiving them to break bread, we acknowledge them to be disciples, members of the body of Christ; whereas their placing themselves in the same posture with the church, implies no acknowledgment of them, on our part, as believers.
        On the whole, we think any attempt to prevent the hearers from assuming the same posture as the church, in any part of their worship, is unscriptural. It gives a false view of the encouragement given by Jesus to sinners, and while it has a show of faithfulness, it is calculated to foster a temper towards those who are without very different from what Christ has enjoined on his people. We do not know that your sentiments, beloved, differ from our own on this subject. If they do, we trust you will take our observations in good part, as we have known much evil result from the practice to which we have referred
The Spirit OF Christ marked for avoidance those who would smite and pluck him with instruments. Being a student of Isaiah 50 Campbell could confess Christ by NOT doing what He denounced in the prophets.
But as none but the Lord can prescribe or regulate the worship due to himself and profitable to us;
        so, if he have done it, human regulations are as vain  and useless as attempts to prevent the ebbing of the sea or the waxing and waning of the moon

But to proceed: Another society meets for worship, and they sing all day; another shouts all day; another runs as in a race all day; another lies prostrate on the ground all day; another reads all day; another hears one man speak all day; another sits silent all day; another waves palm branches all day;
        another cries in the forenoon and listens to the organ in the afternoon;
        and it is all equally right, lawful, orderly, and acceptable;
        for there is no divinely authorized order of Christian worship.

We are then, on the principles of reason,
        constrained to abandon this side of the dilemma,  and give up the hypothesis that there is no divinely authorized order of Christian worship.
Now as one of the only two supposable cases must be abandoned,
        it follows by undeniable consequence,
        that there is a divinely authorized order of Christian worship in Christian assemblies.

1826 neither Stone nor Campbell taught the Stone-Campbell Sect's view of the  trinity.
A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things--by Alexander Campbell

But we shall go on to specify a sample of those Babylonish terms and phrases which must be purified from the christian vocabulary, before the saints can understand the religion they profess, or one another as fellow disciples. I select these from the approved standards of the most popular establishments; for from these they have become current and sacred style. Such are the following: "Trinity. First, second, and third person in the adorable Trinity: God the Son; and God the Holy Ghost. Eternal Son. The Son is eternally begotten by the Father; the Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son. The divinity of Jesus Christ; the humanity of Jesus Christ; the incarnation of Jesus Christ. This he said as man; and that as God. The common operations, and the special operations of the Spirit of God. Original sin, and original righteousness. Spiritual death; spiritual life. Covenant of works, covenant of grace, and covenant of redemption; a dispensation of the covenant of grace, and administration of the covenant. Effectual calling. Free will. Free grace. Total depravity. Eternal justification. Eternal sleep. Elect world. Elect infants. Light of nature. Natural religion. General and particular atonement. Legal and evangelical repentance. Moral, ceremonial, and judicial law. Under the law as a covenant of works, and as a rule of life. Christian sabbath. Holy sacrament. Administration of the sacrament. Different kinds of faith and grace. Divine service; the public worship of God," &c. &c.

These are but a mere sample, and all of one species. It will be said that men cannot speak of Bible truths without adopting other terms than those found in the written word. This will be granted, and yet there will be found no excuse for the above species of unauthorized and Babylonish phraseology. It is one thing to speak of divine truths in our own language, and another to adopt a fixed style of expressing revealed truths to the exclusion of, or in preference to, that fixed by the Spirit, and sometimes, too, at variance with it. For instance, the terms Trinity, first and second person of--Eternal Son, and the eternal procession of the Spirit, are now the fixed style in speaking of God, his Son Jesus Christ, and of the Spirit, in reference to their "personal character." Now this is not the style of the oracles of God. It is all human, and may be as freely criticised as one of the numbers of the Spectator.

Barton W. Stone Christian Messenger 1826. 1. We shall begin with the Trinity, and inquire whether this doctrine is fundamental, or whether the notions formed of it ought to be terms of communion among Christians. The orthodox notion of Trinity seems to be this: that there are three persons in the same one Being, substance, or nature, which Being is God.

Some, thinking it humility to discard reason from religion, content themselves with believing in three persons in the one Godhead, without attaching any ideas to the doctrine, calling it an incomprehensible mystery.
Others contend that there are three intelligent persons, or conscious agents, in the one divine essence, or Being, God.

Others reject this as tritheism, and contend that these three, the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, are three distinctions, or three modes, or three relations, or three perfections, or three somewhats, existing in the one God;
        which distinctions they do not profess to understand, but which must be so defined
        to exclude the idea of three distinct Gods,
        or three distinct spirits, or three distinct minds.

However jarring and discordant their notions may be, and whatever ideas their language may communicate;

Yet it is believed, that none have affirmed or contended, that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, are three distinct, intelligent Spirits; but all affirm that God is one intelligent Spirit--
        none have contended that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are three distinct, intelligent minds, [before Hicks]
but all agree that God is one infinite, intelligent mind.
        Why then this endless controversy about unintelligible language and notions?

Alexander Campbell Atonement: "A. C.'s Reply to B. W. Stone." MH (June 1840): 246-250

In your kind epistle of November 11th, you asked me for my definition of a Unitarian, and assured me that you denied the name, though often applied to yourself, and urged me to say whether I "designed to co-operate with Trinitarians against Unitarians," &c. I felt it my duty to make the proposition alluded to in your letter of March 30th. I have done so in the full persuasion that the contemplated discussion is not only expedient, but necessary, and that it can be so managed as to disabuse the public mind of injurious prejudices both against you and myself.

You have long disavowed Unitarianism, and I have also disavowed Trinitarianism and every other sectarianism in the land; and therefore that morbid state of feeling elicited by these partizan wars about the polemical abstrusities of metaphysical abstractions, which, in its excessive irritability, forbids the scriptural investigation of the great points which have been so often distorted and mangled on the racks and wheels of party discord and proscription, should have no abiding in our minds, much less prohibit a scriptural examination of the facts, and precepts, and promises, on which these unhallowed theories have been reared.  and I most sincerely supplicate the F
ATHER OF LIGHTS to subdue our spirits and to imbue them with the holy spirit of the gospel of [247]  Christ
The Holy Spirit and Unity John Mark Hicks Stone-Campbell Dialogue November 2011 The Holy Spirit and Unity John Mark Hicks Stone-Campbell Dialogue November 2011,

Later, however, the second and third waves of the Holy Spirit—as they are commonly called—renewed an ecumenical life within Pentecostalism as the life of the Spirit reached across denominational and traditional boundaries. From the Full Gospel Business Men’s Fellowship to the Vineyard Movement, the experience of the Spirit has united believers from various traditions in such a way that their denominational heritages recede into the background. The Spirit-filled life trumped those boundaries even though many remained in their traditions.

I have been tasked with reflecting on the role the Holy Spirit in the unity of the church with a particular focus on what resources exist in our common tradition for communal reflection on this topic. Is there anything that might parallel what we find in Pentecostalism’s heritage?

At the origins of the Stone-Campbell Movement are at least two themes that resonate for many in the Stone-Campbell tradition and create an ecumenical trajectory. One is clearly more associated with Stone while the other is strongly present in both.

1. Revivalism. If Cane Ridge is America’s Pentecost,
        then the resources for reflection
        may parallel what happened at the beginning of the twentieth century
        in the birth of Pentecostalism.

* In Faith and Creed, Augustine notes the passages which connect the Father to the Son consistent with the clear teachings of the Bible.  The revised Nicene Creed reads:
1. I Believe in God the Father Almighty. Chs. 2 and 3.
                [Acts 2:36a Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly 
                that God
2. (And) In Jesus Christ, the Son of God,
                  [Acts 2:36b hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified,
                   both Lord and Christ.]

        the Only-Begotten of the Father,

        or, His Only Son, Our Lord. Ch. 3

                    [Romans 1:4 And declared to be the Son of God with power,
                    according to the spirit OF [preposition] holiness,
                    by the resurrection from the dead]
3. Who Was Born Through the Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary. Ch. 4 (§ 8.)
                    [Romans 1:3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord,
                    which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;]
4. Who Under Pontius Pilate Was Crucified and Buried. Ch. 5 (§ 11.)
5. On the Third Day He Rose Again from the Dead. Ch. 5 (§ 12.)

                    [Luke 24:39 Behold my hands and my feet,
                    that it is I myself: handle me, and see;
                    for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. ]
6. He Ascended into Heaven. Ch. 6 (§ 13.)
                    [Acts 2:33 Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted,
                    and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost,
                    he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear.]
                    Promise is:  epagg-elia  proffession or summons to attend
                            a dokimasia tōn rhētorōn
                            doki^m-a^sia right of a man to speak in the ekklēsia
                            the rights of manhood, D.44.41, v. l. in 57.62. [rights of priesthood]
                            “tōn hiereōnI. filled with or manifesting divine power, supernatural,
                            dosis the gift of God,
They saw FIRE and heard WIND (spirit) but not a personal spirit.
he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear.]
Ekkheō [the only fit] 2.  of words, pour forth, utter, Ar. Th.554; “molpasE.Supp.773; “pollēn glōssan ekkheas matēnS.Fr.929, cf. A.Ag.1029 (lyr.).

Hebrews 2:11 For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,
Hebrews 2:12 Saying,
        I will declare thy name unto my brethren,
        in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.

humn-eō 2. descant upon, in song or speech
Laudo  II. Transf., to adduce, name, quote, cite a person as any thing
7. He Sitteth at the Right Hand of the Father. Ch. 7 (§ 14.)
8. From Thence He Will Come and Judge the Living and the Dead. Ch. 8 (§ 15.)
* 9. (and I Believe) in the Holy Spirit. Ch. 9 (§ 16-19.)
10. I Believe the Holy Church (Catholic). Ch. 10 (§ 21.)
11. The Forgiveness of Sin. Ch. 10 (§ 23.)
12. The Resurrection of the Body. Ch. 10 (§ 23, 24.)
13. The Life Everlasting. Ch. 10 (§ 24.)]

Hebrews 2:9 But we see Jesus,
        who was made a little lower than the angels f
        or the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour;
        that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.
Hebrews 2:10 For it became him, for whom are all things,
        and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory,
        to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
Hebrews 2:11 For both he that sanctifieth
        and they who are sanctified are all of one:
        for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,
Neither Campbell nor the masses of "Christian" church preachers who defected to Campbell believed that this was anything more than a deliberately induced mental disturbance.

C.S. Lewis used the term “a great cataract of nonsense” to describe how people use a modern idea to construe Bible theology. Resource


"In about 1826 my father and uncle William Jones moved to McMinn County and located a wool-carding machine on Spring Creek. Here they heard of a man, perhaps from Kentucky, preaching a strange doctrine in a county or two east of McMinn. My father, being the principal carder, requested Uncle William to go and learn what the new doctrine was. On his return he showed how the man had used Acts 2:38 to prove that baptism is for the remission of past sins. The reasoning was so clear, and in such harmony with what they had tried to teach, viz: "Salvation of some sort is connected in some way with baptism, or Christ would not have said (Mark 16:16) 'He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved,"' that they at once went to preaching it, strange as it sounded to others.

Many were the hard-fought battles necessary to get the brethren to see the simple teachings of God's word, and to break loose from the doctrine of abstract operations of the Spirit in converting the sinner; and to see that shoutings, swoonings, laughing, barking like dogs, the jerks, etc., etc., were not miraculous influences of the Spirit, but the wonderful magnetic influences of some men, aided by the surroundings... [These were the Stonites]

And as he had joined "The Reformation" seven to ten years before he had ever even heard of A. Campbell, and at least seven years before A. Campbell himself, in 1827 or 1828, became a reformer holding the platform heretofore mentioned, it is evident that neither I nor those described in Middle and East Tennessee are entitled to the name Campbellite. In fact, this movement occurred while Bro. Campbell was yet with the Presbyterians and Baptists.

But it was no holiday job to preach then. Besides going mainly at his own expense, the preacher suffered losses at home, persecution both at home and abroad, and was often traduced personally; besides having to bear the odium attached to the cause itself. "You are Schismatics"; "You deny the Divinity of Christ"; You deny the operations of the Holy Ghost"; "You deny heart-felt religion," etc. , etc. , were some of the charges hurled at them. But in process of time A. Campbell took the same ground that brethren of Middle and East Tennessee had held for some years before they ever heard of him, and now it is Campbellite, Campbellite, Campbellite! "You are following Campbell," was hurled at them, although many of them were in the "Reformation" years before Bro. Campbell joined the movement in 1827 or 8! This reminds me of a great divine who said of John the Baptist, "And he was a Christian," as though the fore-runner could be a follower.



This is the "pre fabled union" in 1831: the denial of any kind of "union" in the Lunenburg quote was in 1837. Without passing judgment one way or another, the Reformers saw the Disciples as just another denomination, and saw Barton W. Stone bent on forming a NEW INCLUSIVE denomination. Garrison proposed to include ALL OF CHRISTENDOM. That is why the Disciples have reached a dead end.
For our part, we might be honored much by a union formal and public, with a society so large and so respectable as the Christian denomination;
        but if our union with them, though so advantageous to us,
        would merge "the ancient gospel and ancient order of things"
        in the long vexed question of simple anti-trinitarianism, anti-creedism, or anti-sectarianism,
        I should be ashamed of myself in the presence of him whose "well done, good and faithful servant,"
        is worth the universe to me.
                We all could have had honorable alliances with honorable sectaries,
                many years since, had this been our object.
Does he mean a formal confederation of all preachers and people called "Christians," with all those whom he calls Reformed Baptists? (rather reforming, than reformed;) or (as he represents them as prefering for a sectarianwhat shall be the articles of confederation, and in what form shall they be ministered or adopted? Shall it be in one general convention of messengers from all the societies of "christians" and "disciples," or one general assembly of the whole aggregate of both people? Shall the articles of agreement be drawn up in writing like the articles of the "General Union" amongst the different sects of Baptists in Kentucky? purpose the name) disciples. If so,

We discover, or think we discover, a squinting at some sort of precedency or priority in the claims of the writer of the above article, which are perhaps only in appearance, and not in reality; but if in appearance only, he will prevent us or any reader from concluding unfavorably by explaining himself more in detail than he has done.
        He says, "The reformed Baptists have received the doctrine taught by us many years ago." "For nearly thirty years ago we taught," &c. &c. From what source or principle these sayings proceeded, we do not pronounce sentence; but if they are mere words of course, and he intended to plead nothing from them, we would suggest the propriety of qualifying them in such a way as to prevent mistake.

I am, as at present advised, far from thinking that the present advocates of reformation are only pleading, or at all pleading, for what was plead in Kentucky thirty years ago, after the dissolution of the Springfield Presbytery. If such be the conceptions of brother Stone, I am greatly mistaken. That he, with others, did at that time oppose authoritative creeds, and some articles in them as terms of communion, and some other abuses, we are not uninformed; but so did some others who set out with him.

Our eagle-eyed opponents plainly see the difference between the radical and differential attributes of this reformation, which they ignorantly call a deformation, and any other cause, however unpopular, plead in the land. 

"The Christians" in some places, nay, in many places, are quite respectable in the eyes of those who contemn "the disciples" as unfit for good society. And I think the amiable editor of the Christian Messenger himself told me last winter,
        that even he and some of his brethren were considered by the orthodox as degrading themselves because they associated with us most "unworthy disciples?' 

Indeed, it was no mean proof of his christian spirit to see him so condescending to persons of such low degree in the estimation of the noble christians of the land. His willingness to fraternize with us in despite of the odium theologicum attached to our ancient gospel, I must ever regard as an additional proof of his unfeigned regard to the authority of Jesus as Lord, and his love to all them who esteem the reproach of the Messiah greater riches than all the treasures of Egypt.

Historians should understand the difference between Mythological History and True History.
Among the Greeks it was widely taught that rhetoricians, poets and music must not be permitted to write about true history. It was ok to lie about history when entertaining (only) but never in the schools or called assemblies (ekklesia).

THE 1832 UNITY MEETING J.F.BURNETT Stone and the Disciples of Christ (Reformers then)

Morrill, in "History of the Christian Denomination," says: [6]

"The 'union' itself was consummated on New Year's day, 1832, in Hill Street Christian Church, at Lexington, Kentucky, where representatives of both parties pledged themselves 'to one another before God, to abandon all speculation, especially on the Trinity, and kindred subjects, and to be content with the plain declaration of Scripture on those subjects on which there had been so much worse than useless controversy.'

The plain meaning is that they found common ground to occupy, threw away their divisive teachings and opinions, and acted as one. The men who at Lexington pledged themselves there and then gave one another the hand of fellowship,

speaking for themselves, and the churches they came from,
but not for all the churches or the denominations in Kentucky or the United States.

There was no voting, and no attempt at formal union, but merely a 'flowing together' of those like-minded. In token of that union Elder John Smith, of the Disciples of Christ, and Elder John Rogers, of the Christians, 'were appointed evangelists by the churches' to promote that simple unsectarian Christian work, which was adhered to by thousands; and Stone took Elder J. T. Johnson, a Disciple, as co-editor of The Christian Messenger.

"This 'union' did not change the status of any name or church or minister or piece of property.
At a later time Campbell made some public invidious remarks
about the Christians, and it began to be claimed that they had joined or united with the Disciples. John [7]  Rogers says on this point:

'No one ever thought (at the first) that the Reformers, so-called, had come over to us, or that we had gone over to them; that they were required to relinquish their opinions, or we ours.

We found ourselves contending for the same great principles, and we resolved to unite our energies to harmonize the church and save the world. Such are the simple facts in the case."

The Christian Messenger (1832) says:

"It is common for the Christians to say, the Reformers have joined us--and no less common is it for the Reformers to say, the Christians have joined us.

One will say, the Christians have given up all their former opinions of many doctrines, and have received ours;  another will say, the Reformers have relinquished their views on many points, and embraced ours. 

These things are doing mischief to the cause of Christian union, and well calculated to excite jealousy, and to give offense. They can do no good--in fact they are not true. We have met together on the Bible, being drawn together there by the cords of truth--we agreed to walk together according to this rule, and to be united by the spirit of truth.

Neither the Christians nor Reformers professed to give up any sentiments or opinions previous to our union, nor were any required to be given up in order to effect it. We all determined to learn of Jesus, and to speak and do whatsoever He says to us in His Word. We all profess to be [8]  called Christians, being the followers and disciples of Jesus."

The Campbells and most people at that time defined church as a Society for study of the Word:

  1. Church as defined by Christ in the wilderness and as Ekklesia or Synagogue was A School of Christ.
  2. Worship was reading and musing the Word as is clearly defined by Paul, Peter and the pre-Constantine periood were singing as an ACT was imposed in c 373 and split the west church from the east.
Any additions would, as definitons demand, mark the imposers as heretics or sectarians.

1834  In The Christian Messenger for November, 1834, is quoted an article from the Millennial Harbinger (Campbell's paper) as follows:

"Or does he (Stone) think that one or two individuals, of and for themselves, should propose and effect a formal union among the hundred of congregations scattered over this continent, called Christians or Disciples, without calling upon the different congregations to express an opinion or a wish upon the subject?

We discover, or think we discover, a squinting at [14]  some sort of precedency or priority in the claims of the writer of the above article," etc.

It is well known that Mr. Campbell insisted upon immersion before believers were received into fellowship, to which Stone answered:

"We cannot, with our present views, unite on the opinions that unimmersed persons cannot receive remission of sins."

And though later on he came to believe in immersion in water for the remission of sins, there is no evidence that he ever made it a test of fellowship, without which he could not
have been a member of the Disciples of Christ.

1837 Jenning, Walter W., Origin and Early History of the Disciples of Christ, p. 196, Standard

Although union was not so easily brought about elsewhere as in Kentucky, thousands of ''Christians" did join the Reformers. After referring to the union effected by Stone in Jacksonville, M. T. Morrill, the leading historian of the Christian Connection, made the following admission:

"Then followed a wave of ' Campbellism ' that swept the Christians off their feet, and aggregated about eight thousand accessions to the Disciples. No Christian churches long survived in Tennessee, their cause was ruined in Kentucky and never has regained its former strength or prestige. Of the Southern Ohio Christians a majority of the preachers embraced Campbeism prior to 1837, and only about one thousand church members remained. A man named C. A. Eastman, traveling through Indiana about 1846, reported that, 'In many places they [the Christians] have amalgamated with the Disciples, and are known only as the same people.' Several years later it was reported that on Stone's account conferences of the Christians had been dissolved and churches disbanded, and the people had become amalgamated with the Disciples."

1833 to 1841 and beyond Stoneites denied the Atonement

Barton W. Stone dened the Atonement and Campbell debated him from 1833 onward: why would there be UNITY between such important "fundamentals>? The Millennial Harbinger 1840-41 the debate still raged.
So be it, say I. And what have I said, more than this? I have only said, in the conclusion of my letter, "that, believing as I do, that it was not possible, that any one of our race could be saved without the sacrifice of the Lamb of God, I must hold every attempt to explain it away into a mere moral example, or display of love without regard to justice, as tending to subvert the basis of the divine government, and to rob the gospel of all that glorifies the wisdom and power, the justice and mercy of God in putting away sin, and in saving the sinner." It is not, then, the degree of importance that my opinion attaches to the death of Christ, either as it respects the glory of God, or the salvation of man, in which we differ; but about the express scriptural reasons of its vast importance. And here, dear brother, permit me to express, in my turn, my sincere regret, that having lifted up your voice for a pure scriptural reformation, predicated upon the Bible alone, you should ever have been led off that divine platform into the arena of sectarian controversies. MH.NumberVII.VIv.Aug.1833



It is reasonable to say that all of the so-called Stone-Campbell Movement are liars about this issue: especially about the Lunenburg letters.  the lady from Lunenburg to write the editor of the Harbinger is in an article entitled "Letters to England-No. 1," which was published in the June, 1837.  We use the word liars because people pick what they want to write their own history and the goal most often is to driven non-instrumental churches into a guilt complex for NOT beginning to do what they had NEVER done.

They have never read the Lunenburg correspondence. To Campbell a "c"hristian was one who lived according to Christian principles. We speak of a "c"hristian nation. However, a "C"hristian is ONLY one who has obeyed the gospel.
I. With all despatch, then, I hasten to show that I have neither conceded nor surrendered any thing for which I ever contended; but that on the contrary, the opinion now expressed, whether true or false, is one that I have always avowed.

(Footnote in original reads: It is with us as old as baptism for the remission of sins,
and this is at least as old as the "Christian Baptist." Read the first two numbers of that work.)

1. Let me ask, in the first place, what could mean all that we have written upon the union of Christians on apostolic grounds,
        had we taught that all Christians in the world
        were already united in our own community?

2. And in the second place, why should we so often have quoted and applied to apostate Christendom what the Spirit saith to saints in
        Babylon--"Come out of her, my people, that you partake not of her sins,
        and that you receive not of her plagues"--
        had we imagined that the Lord had no people beyond the pale of our communion!

3. But let him that yet doubts, read the following passages from the Christian Baptist, April, 1825:--

"I have no idea of seeing, nor wish to see, the sects unite in one grand army.
This would be dangerous to our liberties and laws. For this the Saviour did not pray.
        It is only the disciples dispersed among them
        that reason and benevolence would call out of them,
            "&c. &c. This looks very like our present opinion of Christians
            among the sects!!!
2d ed. Bethany, p. 85.

4. Again, speaking of purity of speech in order to the union of Christians, we say,

"None of you [Christians] have ever yet attempted to show
how Christians can be united on your principles.

You have often showed how they may be divided, and how each party may hold its own,
        but while you pray for the visible unity of the Disciples,
        and advocate their visible disunity, we cannot understand you." March, 1837, vol. 4.

1839 IT appears from the "Union Herald" of the 9th instant, that the Christian Union Convention, out of the proceedings of which we made large extracts in the two preceding numbers of the Harbinger, held its second meeting, according to the appointment of its standing committee, at Cazenovia, on the 30th of January; at which time and place, the Business Committee reported the following resolutions:- MILLENNIAL HARBINGER, VOLUME III.-----NUMBER III. BETHANY, VA. MARCH, 1839

In 1839, from the "old brother, came an article on "The Divine Order for Evangelizing the World, and for Teaching the Evangelized How to Conduct Themselves." He started with the Great Commission in Matthew, and urged the necessity of teaching and preaching.

"Let the church then take up its Book and read and study it. The proper character of the church is the school of [175]  Christ, disciples, Christians. . . .

It must not shame its Master by its stupid, wilful, shameful ignorance of his Book."

He proposed for the Lord's Day a meeting of four hours, beginning at ten o'clock and a half-hour intermission between each two hours. An order of service is really suggested which provides at the close for assignments of study for the week and "a contribution of something to the common stock for religious purposes, as God has prospered him.

Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying,
       All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore,
        and teach all nations,
        baptizing them in the name
        of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: [Jesus Christ]
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever
        I have commanded you:
        and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.


Jesus followed the pattern as our example.

Luke 4:16 And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up:
        and, as his custom was,
        he went into the synagogue on the sabbath day,
        and stood up for to read.

Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time hath in every city
        them that preach him,
        being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

1Timothy 4:11 These things command and teach.
1Timothy 4:12 Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou an example of the believers,
        in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity.
1Timothy 4:13 Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine.
1Timothy 4:14 Neglect not the gift that is in thee,
        which was given thee by prophecy, [teaching]
        with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.
1Timothy 4:15 Meditate upon these things; [speaking and meditating IN THE HEART]
        give thyself wholly to them;
        that thy profiting may appear to all.
1Timothy 4:16 Take heed unto thyself,
        and unto the doctrine; continue in them:
        for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself,
        and them that hear thee

Thomas Campbell: "Some thirty years ago, when we addressed a portion of our fellow Christians in western Pennsylvania upon this all-important subject, we met with universal opposition from the leaders of the people and were considered as the disturbers of religious society; but now, blessed be God, it is not only our privilege to bear of some hundreds of thousands in the United States and elsewhere that have been awakened, by means of our humble commencement, to advocate this blessed cause, upon pure scriptural principles of primitive, apostolic Christianity; but that also now, at length, there is a voluntary movement in different parts of the camp, beyond the bounds of our co-operative agency in favor of this blessed cause, the cause of union in truth amongst all the friends of truth and peace throughout all the churches, for this was the sacred design and motto of our commencement."

"Second, as to the propositions adopted by the convention, they, appear too indefinite, and, of course, have a tendency to produce difficulties,
Thomas Campbell defined union thusly: [The Millennial Harbinger (March 1839): 134-144.]
5. That with respect to the commands and ordinances of our Lord Jesus Christ,
where the scriptures are silent as to the express time or manner of performance, if any such there be;  no human authority has power to interfere, in order to supply the supposed deficiency, by making laws for the church;

nor can any thing more be required of Christians in such cases, but only that they so observe these commands and ordinances, as will evidently answer the declared and obvious end of their institution.

Much less has any human authority power to impose new commands or ordinances upon the church, which our Lord Jesus Christ has not enjoined.

Nothing ought to be received into the faith or worship of the church, or be made a term of communion amongst Christians, that is not as old as the New Testament.

"13. Lastly, that if any circumstantials
        indispensably necessary to the observance of divine ordinances
        be not found upon the page of express revelation,
        such, and such only as are absolutely necessary for this purpose,
        should be adopted, under the title of human expedients,
        without any pretence to a more sacred origin--
        so that any subsequent alteration or difference
        in the observance of these things might produce no contention nor division in the church."

That, of course, appears throughout the Church historians and is common decency since Restoration meant removing anything not required to be A School of Christ. Neither Campbell would have "unioned" with any group which ignored the purpose of the assembly and who IMPOSED something in order to SUPPLY the supposed deficiency. That has nothing to do with the "law of silence" or "traditions" or decisions of church councils which are owned by what became the Disciples-Christian churches.

1843 THE MILLERITE CONNECTION: The Society was  to make it POSSIBLE for Jesus to return!
William J. Nottingham Global Ministries.

"My point here is that the first missionary society was the product of a long and intense process which generated considerable soul-searching. There were shared biblical principles and at the same time fundamental differences in theological opinion. Disagreement grew
      concerning congregational ecclesiology,
      commonality in mission with other Christians,
      and also perhaps communion of the Holy Spirit.

This tension would eventuate in separate bodies and institutions of the 20th and 21st centuries.  [Disciples and NACC] A full appreciation is probably hidden from us in the distance from ante-bellum times. But the nature of the Bible's authority,
      the relatively new idea of the autonomy of the local congregation,
      and the centrality of millennialist eschatology for these men and women,

with men doing most of the writing which is left to us, seem to me to be mysteries that can only be observed from different angles and rarely entered into existentially by later generations like our own.

This is evidenced in the decisions concerning missionaries growing out of this fervor leading up to the Cincinnati convention: Dr. and Mrs. James T. Barclay were the first. It was in their parlor in Washington, D.C., 1843, that the congregation had been organized which became the Vermont Avenue Church and in 1930 the National City Christian Church.

They went to Jerusalem, not because of Acts 1:8 "beginning with Jerusalem" as a popular Disciples legend has it, but because it was taken for granted by Alexander Campbell and his followers that the Jews were to be converted before the return of Christ.


That was a false assumption: the Millenial Harbinger's major thrust was not to SUPPORT Millerism but to defeat it.  Campbell denies that Jesus will return to Canaan.  Because the Church of Christ did not believe in William E. Miller [Ellen G. White].  You will notice that it was the Disciples who were tilted by Miller.

The title of Campbell's journal proclaimed clearly the eschatology of the pre-Civil War spirituality, so neglected in our denominational memory by scholars and theologians since then.

Notice that Campbell spoke of THE PROTESTANT THEORY: not his because he speaks where the Bible speaks and insists on a NEW HEAVEN and a NEW EARTH and that you could not convert people after the literal earth was burned up.

In the Millennial Harbinger of 1841,
       we read in what is called The Protestant Theory:
      "The Millennium, so far as the triumphs of Christianity is concerned, will be a state of greatly enlarged and continuous prosperity, in which the Lord will be exalted and his divine spirit enjoyed in an unprecedented measure. All the conditions of society will be vastly improved; wars shall cease, and peace and good will among men will generally abound. The Jews will be converted, and the fullness of the Gentiles will be brought into the kingdom of the Messiah."


The founding of the American Christian Missionary Society cannot be separated from the millennialist eschatology of the period

See Alexander Campbell on the Second Coming to prove that you never believe "the doctors of the Law."  This takes careful reading to grasp that Campbell REPUDIATES any speculation.

The Disciples followed the Millerites: not Campbell.

nor from the pragmatism which required a foreign dimension to keep pace with other denominations or to outgrow them! D.S. Burnet's book The Jerusalem Mission and Dr. Barclay's book The City of the Great King make this clear, along with speeches and articles by various leaders like Isaac Errett. Barclay wrote in a journal The Christian Age:

"The ACMS...resolved...
     to make the first offer of salvation to Israel. . .
     for the salvation of the Jews...
     for upon the conversion and resumption of Israel



In 1849, the first major departure was made. David S. Burnet was the father of the Missionary Society; it was organized in 1849. David S. Burnet was a convert from the Baptist Church and he brought the idea of the Missionary Society with him from the Baptist Church. "He was brought up as a Presbyterian but at sixteen years of age, after careful study of the New Testament, was baptized into the Baptist Church." ("The Story of the Churches." by Errett Gates, p. 190.) He said, "I was born into the missionary spirit, and did not relinquish it when I associated myself with my present brethren." (Christian Magazine, Vol. 3, p. 173.

Notice Nottingham's reason why these groups were never "unioned" because you cannot "union" congregational churches. This also shows that Foster twisted the "apocylptic" claim for Alexander Campbell. That is because he did not care enough to read the original documents. Historians daisy chain and quoting A BOOK is never scholarship. Of course they are all defined by John as ANTICHRIST by their neo-trinity dogma.

Church "scholars" are really a laughing stock and they write only for other "scholars" totally missing Jesus who said that "doctors of the law take away the key to knowledge."

I don't write history: I post the actual documents the RECONSTRUCTIONISTS lie about seing godliness as a means of financial gain--occupation. Don't be a cultist: never trust anyone who quotes Mark 1.1 and does not post the text in context.

ALL religious groups rejected musical instruments because of the persona of musicians and the fact that a disciple fully understands that instruments always mark those who refuse to hear the Words of God.

John Calvin on Instruments clearly understood and observed by presbyterians.

Does any one object, that music is very useful for awakening the minds of men and moving their hearts? I own it;

but we should always take care that no corruption creep in, which might both defile the pure worship of God and involve men in superstition. Moreover, since the Holy Spirit expressly warns us of this danger by the mouth of Paul,

to proceed beyond what we are there warranted by him is not only, I must say, unadvised zeal, but wicked and perverse obstinacy.

Again, Calvin notes that: "We know that our Lord Jesus Christ has appeared, and by His advent has abolished these legal shadows.

Instrumental music, we therefore maintain, was only tolerated on account of the times and the people, because they were as boys, as the sacred Scripture speaketh, whose condition required these puerile rudiments.

But in gospel times we must not have recourse to these unless we wish to destroy the evangelical perfection and to obscure the meridian light which we enjoy in Christ our Lord." (Calvin's Commentary on the Thirty-third Psalm, and on 1 Sam. 18:1-9).

"Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled" (Tit. 1: 15.)

For why is a woe pronounced upon the rich who have received their consolation? (Luke 6: 24,) who are full, who laugh now, who "lie upon beds of ivory and stretch themselves upon their couches;" "join house to house," and "lay field to field;" "and the harp and the viol, the tabret and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts," (Amos 6: 6; Isa. 5: 8, 10.)

Certainly ivory and gold, and riches, are the good creatures of God, permitted, nay destined, by divine providence for the use of man; nor was it ever forbidden to laugh, or to be full, or to add new to old and hereditary possessions, or to be delighted with music, or to drink wine.

This is true, but when the means are supplied to roll and wallow in luxury, to intoxicate the mind and soul with present and be always hunting after new pleasures,

The Necessity of Reforming the Church (1543) Calvin wrote

For, if we would not throw everything into confusion,
we must never lose sight of the distinction between the old and the new dispensations, and of the fact that ceremonies, the observance of which was useful under the law,

are now not only superfluous, but vicious and absurd.

But in regard to the former, it is plain that

they are destitute of authority from the scriptures,
as well as of any
approved example of such intercession; while, as to the latter,

Paul declares that none can invoke God, save those who have been taught by his word to pray. On this depends the confidence with which it becomes pious minds to be actuated and imbued when they engage in prayer.

The instruments were tolerated because God had already turned them over to worship the starry host and sentenced them back to captivity and death.

WEST: "Apostasy in music among 19th century churches that had endeavored to restore New Testament authority in worship and work

began, in the main, following the American Civil War'
1868, Ben Franklin guessed that there were ten thousand congregations
and not over
fifty had used an instrument in worship." (Earl West, Search for the Ancient Order, Vol. 2, pp. 80, 81)

Following the American Civil War "Staunch supporters of the missionary society and instrumental music, the new look in styles of work and worship, had been predicting for years the early demise of the Advocate. It was unthinkable, as these men viewed the problem,

that even the people in the South would not want to keep up with the times.
simple ways might have been condoned in the hills of Franklin County before the war,

but the times were passing him by. It was only a question of time until the Advocate would fold up, and when it did, as these men gleefully envisioned, it would be a happy day." (Earl West, Life and Times of David Lipscomb, p. 166)

At the end of Alexander Campbell's life the missionary society had grasped rights to Campbell's song book. Campbell believed that he was putting the ownership into the hands of a committee of brethren.

"Isaac Errett who influenced Campbell to sign over (extorted?) his copyright, had argued that it

was absolutely necessary to the unity of the church to have unity of worship,
and the latter could not be maintained
unless the brethren all used one hymn book--Campbell's.

Accordingly, the Standard and the Society opposed vigorously the publication of any other hymn book. Lipscomb by selling a hymn book printed in Canada had been visited by some of the ire of these men." (West, p. 171)

1860 The Organ: The Christian Repository. Hickman Creek

To accuse non-instrumental churches for being sectarians ignores the recorded history of contemporaneous battles among ALL religious groups.

They were men of sincere piety and fervent zeal, but governed in manners and in preaching by laws of their own. Unlike the gowned clergy of our day these primitive preachers of the wilderness were accustomed, on a hot summer's day, to take off their coats and preach in the shirt sleeves  a very convenient habit for those who toiled coatless all the week. Unlike the drilled theatrical disclaimers of the modern pulpit, who read their sermons, these earnest, unsophisticated heralds of the gospel, with no teacher of elocution but the promptings of their own pathetic voices, sung their sermons. Like their illustrious ancestor with the leathern girdle, their voice was heard "crying in the wilderness."

Vulgar and ludicrous as the habit may seem to the eyes of learned criticism, this sing song preaching had its attractions. Congregations would set [sic] from three to five hours, on backless benches, and listen to sermon after sermon sung off in this way, without complaining. But the congregation of this refined age, who sit on cushioned seats, with cushioned backs, and cushioned foot-stools, and listen to sermons enriched by the best creations of intellect and genius, set off with all the improved arts of voice and gesture, and all the witchery of rhetoric, complain dreadfully if they are kept more than forty-five minutes. There must be a difference somewhere, either in the essence and manner of preaching, or in the taste and instincts of the hearers. After all it is a question whether singing the gospel is not as apostolic and efficient as reading it; whether the one did not make as many converts in that day, as the other makes in this age.

It was at this meeting-house, and under this preaching, when a small boy, I got my first ideas of divine worship, and of Jesus Christ as a Saviour for sinners. And this fact may account for some notions that cling to me at the present time. The first pastor I remember to have met and heard at Hickman Creek was a tall, gray-headed gentleman by the name of Durham. It was under the ministry of this aged servant of God I first witnessed the exhibition of instrumental church music. It was very simple and primitive in its order. The instrument was not an organ, nor melodeon, nor violin, nor flute, nor drum, nor horn. It was a cheap and portable concern, that the pastor carried in his pocket, which at the proper tune he played himself, thereby saving the expense of a salaried performer.

When the hymn was announced Father Durham drew from his pocket a lady's tucking comb, to one side of which a piece of brown paper had been adjusted. While the congregation struck the air of the tune, he sung the same notes through the comb, which being reflected by the paper, and broken into diverging and crossing volumes by the intervening teeth, produced a monstrous jingle of sounds, that supplied the place of bass, treble, alto, and all the imaginary notes. Whether scientific or not, the primitive church instrument sent out a novel clatter of sounds, which to my uneducated ear seemed wonderfully melodious.

Little did I dream at that time of living to be a grown-up man; of being transported from those native hills and dropped down among cities; to tread the threshold of majestic Gothic temples, and see the tucking comb transferred from the preacher's pocket to a spacious room in the gallery, and expanded into the beauty and grandeur of the church organ, with its thundering sounds.

I will not undertake to give an opinion as to the comparative merits of the various instruments of church music. Let those who believe in instruments do this, if they choose. After some years of experience I decidedly prefer congregational singing to all the instruments in the world. Some might attribute this to erroneous education, or the lack of education. Be this as it may, I would rather listen, especially on the Sabbath, to some forty or fifty clear toned human voices

1866 Moses Lard Lard's Quarterly [Volume III: April, 1866]

Until after the UNcivil war the concensus of all of the people who flowed into either the Christian Churches or Reformers, no one believed in nor would tolerate the use of instruments in what Christ and the Campbells called A School of Christ. Alexander Campbell was quite happy as a Reformed Baptists because they did not divide over instruments until around the turn of the decade.  However, it was the Baptists who proposed to excommunicate Campbell because he taught that "baptism for the remission of sins" meant "baptism for the remission of sins..

While there was never any organic "union" it was possible for people of most groups to join with others in what they called "worship."  Unity of heart and soul was created by Jesus Christ before a clergy system usurped the role of elders and deacons as the Pastor-Teachers of the flock pledged to teach that which had been taught.
But the Church of Christ in halves, or a divided body of Christ, is impossible. The moment the church is so divided
the one part becomes an apostasy,
the other remains the church.
Suppose the division to have its origin in some doctrinal question. In what light, then, should it be viewed, and how disposed of? Of course, in that case the first question raised would be:
Is the doctrine clearly taught in the word of God. If clearly taught in the word of God,
        the case admits of a very simple solution.

The party rejecting the doctrine would stand, on that ground, and for that reason alone, condemned;
        while the party accepting, would have to be held as no party, but as the church.
But suppose the doctrine not to be clearly taught, or suppose it to admit of a reasonable doubt whether it is taught or not, how, then, should we proceed?
In that case the difference should be regarded as a difference of opinion, and hence should be made no test of soundness in the faith, or of fellowship.
Here, if brethren were possessed of even the most ordinary share of love, the difference would either permanently rest or permanently end.
But if one of the differing parties should
persist in an effort to force its opinion on the other,
or should dogmatically require subscription thereto,
or should make it any such test as has just been named,
then such party would have to be regarded as having become heretical, and would have to be repudiated.
The other party would have to be held as the church.


7. "Well, the churches generally are going into it, and it is 'a foregone conclusion that they will have and use the organ,' and it is useless to stand against it."
        No "the churches generally" are not gone into it, nor are they going that way.
        We do not know the number of churches in the United States;
        but doubt not that six thousand would be a low enough estimate.

How many of them use the organ in worship? We do not know this with certainty, but probably not more than from [431]  one hundred and fifty to two hundred, and certainly not five hundred. [1877]

The organ party is yet small, and would amount to but little, had it not found way into a few places of note and prominence. There are still whole States that have not an organ in the Church.

We think there is not one in use in Canada, not one in Virginia, Tennessee, nor Texas, that we have heard of; scarcely any in Kentucky, West Virginia, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and many other States. The organ is still the exception, not the rule; and the party is small. The main body are true to the great principles of reformation--to the divine purpose of returning to and maintaining, the original practice in all things.

1883 Nashville

Choate/Woodson note that like David Lipscomb, E. G. Sewell worked for the Gospel Advocate to earn a living

and preached for the Woodland Street Church in Nashville. He received little for his preaching. A new building was constructed in 1880 and Sewell was asked to preach there longer and devote more time.

As well funded by the Standard

"From the North, where the Society system was deeply imbedded in the churches, people moved into Nashville and many filled the Woodland Street church. By the end of 1882, a woman from Kentucky asked Sewell about forming an auxiliary society to the Christian Woman's Board of Missions. Sewel objected, and gave his reasons.

But as always, when a group in a congregation wants something, and the preacher stands in their way, there is only one thing to do: dismiss the preacher. Sewell was ousted and at the beginning of 1883, W. J. Loos, son of C. L. Loos, president of the Foreign Society, was hired. In the fall of that year young Loos attended the annual convention at Cincinatti, telling them with some embarassment that he was ashamed to admit he was from Tennessee for the churches of his state were doing nothing."

When he returned, Sewell refuted the false charges about Tennessee churches. Loos was check-mated and was replaced later by R. M. Giddens who "fanned the flames of Societyism." 

"The women were soon busily at work to form an auxiliary society. Sewell's pleas to Giddens went unheeded. During the following summer,

the women wrote letters to the churches of the state
asking funds be
sent to them
they could hire a State Evangelist. Before long, plans were laid
        to secure the services of A. I. Myhr.

"Lipscomb had agreed to publish information in the Advocate after being assured that evangelism was the goal. However, Giddens failed to get the work under the Woodland Street elders. J. C. McQuiddy who had helped raise the money and Sewell who was an elder were not consulted about Myhr.

Myhr made his goals clear about promoting the Society and Instrumental music
even though it would divide the churches. Myhr's goal, Lipscome believed, was to
"ostracize, boycott, and starve every preacher that does not APPROVE the society."


There is nothing about Daniel Sommer's claimed bad attitude which can divert people from the facts abot imposing instruments as the "laded burden" straw which broke the backs of people who had been lulled into the Cult of Unity. The only lovely and honorable "evangelist" who understood the CENI of the Great Commission was labeled a Sommerite. But, then so was Carl Ketcherside and Leroy Garret in attitude: we might say that the Stone-Campbell Movement derived from Daniel Sommer

There was never any organizational union between the Church of Christ and the Disciples (Christian Churches).  However, at one time there would have been nothing in the public assembly which would offend the Bible knowledge and sensibilities of most people.  If and when it is apparent that one group in "fellowship" is purpose driven to "infiltrate and divert" your congregation, and when that attacking church is organized and financed, the honorable thing to do is to try to cut off contact with that group.  Several "unity lovers" have discovered since the origin of the Stone-Campbell Movement that they will not, have not hesitated to twist all recorded history of the "instrument cult" to take you captive.

Rick Atchley: The era of the progressive Church of Christ is over.

Back in the 80’s you could go to any major city, especially in the South, and you could find a progressive Church of Christ — and if they would preach grace, and if they would put words on a screen, and if they would let divorced people place membership, they would grow.

The generation of Boomers has enough denominational loyalty that they’re going to find the least legalistic

Well, we discipled the children of those progressive churches
        for a whole generation to grow past us Boomers.
        They never heard the sermons we heard.
        They never heard the rationale for a cappella music.

We sent them to youth rallies and Church of Christ events
        with some of the finest Christian bands in the world.

        We discipled our children to leave our Movement!

The church at Sand Creek was without any of the innovations.  When a group attempted to impose instrumental music there was objection.  To their credit they left rather than steal the property.  A Supreme Court decision declared that the property belonged to the non-instrumental group which had founded the congregation

People do not let minimal ethics stop them when they use the law and lying to take over a church as a defacto Christian Church.  People of the Stone-Campbell Cult love to point to Sand Creek to denounce them for refusing to be TAKEN CAPTIVE.  People who use virtual violence against Daniel Sommer over the instrument issue are the same ones who get violent when Churches of Christ will not submit to what Scripture and recorded history calls sin: "making the Lamb dumb before the slaughter."

Whatever the few dupes of the NACC claim about "everone wants instruments" the lust usually begins with one misleader. As confessed, they "cut out" a small herd and instill the idea into their heads. Rick Atckley took over a decade of being "intentional" as they say before a spirit told him that it was time to preach that sermon enforced by David Faust and the NACC.

Dainel Sommer Addresses Sand Creek.  About 20 decided to force instrumental music and 100Christian Church and filed a lawsuit to take over the new brick church house.  opposed.  The 20 discorders took the name The Illinois Supreme court decided that the group founded by the principles of Alexander Campbell and existing since 1834 owned the propert.  In his very godly address Daniel Sommer concludes:

"When they determined to have their devices if they had only left the established congregations in peace and had gone out into new fields and built up churches, they would have acted with some honor.

But instead of so doing they have thrust their devices upon congregations established upon primitive simplicity, and thus have become usurpers of other men's labors. We were once a happy and a peaceful and a prosperous people and for peace we pled.

We entreated them for God's sake and for the love of heaven not to thrust their devices upon us, but they would not hearken. WHAT THEN MUST BE DONE? In the language of the Apostle Peter I answer: "THE TIME IS COME THAT JUDGEMENT MUST BEGIN AT THE HOUSE OF GOD."

It is not an honorable thing to denounce Churches of Christ as sectarian by attempting to force them to approve of that which has divided since singing as an ACT was first introduced in the year 373.

The Britannica Notes that: Or Click Here

The introduction of musical instruments (reed organs) into Christian worship led to many local disputes. Other innovations added occasion for controversy--the infringement of the "one-man pastoral system" on the local ministry of elders, introduction of selected choirs, use of the title Reverend, and lesser issues.

In 1889 several rural churches in Illinois issued the Sand Creek Declaration, withdrawing fellowship from those practicing "innovations and corruptions."

Foster etal loves to use the "rural" word to describe how churches of Christ had such an appeal in Tenneessee.  However, it was the Bible Reading Moms who forced the Stoneites to preach baptism in North Alabama where the appeal to raw emotion (called sorcery or witchcraft) failed to produce the falling down mad conversions.

R. L. Dabney Presbyterian
It has always been common among the advocates of this Popish mode of worship,

to meet the objections of simple minded Protestants to the organ,
with the retort that their scruples were the relics of fanatical prejudice,
and rustic ignorance.

It is not strange that men, such as the present advocates of the organ in Presbyterian churches in America, should bring such a charge against such men; many of them educated amidst the richest specimens of the fine arts in the old world, their youth imbued with the spirit of a gorgeous and poetic age?

According to Philo, the gods of the pagans exploit this weakness of men. For the sake of a better effect, and with the intention of more easily cheating their devotes, that they have set their lies to melodies, rhythms and meters.." Click for more.

"Philodemos considered it paradoxical that music should be regarded as veneration of the gods while musicians were paid for performing this so-called veneration. Again, Philodemus held as self-deceptive the view that music mediated religious ecstasy. He saw the entire condition induced by the noise of cymbals and tambourines as a disturbance of the spirit. (Paul called it mad or insane)

He found it significant that, on the whole, only women and effeminate men fell into this folly."

"According to Philo, the gods of the pagans exploit this weakness of men. For the sake of a better effect, and with the intention of more easily cheating their devotes, that they have set their lies to melodies, rhythms and meters.." (Father Johannes Quasten, p. 52)

Contrary to the instrumental group who got in debt and needed entertainment to dig them out, Alexander Campbell derived his views of a professional clergy from John Calvin.

"A preacher, like any other man who gets in debt and fails to pay, soon becomes demoralized, and indifferent about paying--becomes, indeed, dishonest.

"We have never been willing, when not actively engaged in preaching to sit around on our professional dignity, but have labored at whatever work presented itself to make a living." (West, p. 167)


Without denying support for Evangelists Campbell warned about the mercinary clergy, the dominant pastor was and is divisive and the only way that the NACC has helped any churches of Christ impose instruments.

"The pastor is not a necessity. He is a FUNGUS GROWTH upon the church, the body of Christians, DWARFING its growth, PREVENTING its development of its members; and until the church GETS RID of him it will NEVER prosper as it should. In the Bible we can find all the necessities.

"I can testify from my own observation that a good eldership will lose its efficiency, and its members become both UNABLE and UNWILLING to do the work of elders, in a very few years after the employment of a pastor. And if under the pastor system a good eldership has ever developed, I have never seen or heard of the case. I don't believe that has or ever will be done." --James A. Harding, Gospel Advocate, May 20, 1885

Preaching for pay? "Give money to make poor pious youths learned clergy, or vain pretenders to erudition; and they pray that they may preach to you; yes, and pay them too.

Was there ever such a craft as priestcraft? No, it is the craftiest of all crafts. It is so crafty that it obtains by its craft the means to make craftsmen, and then it makes the deluded support them!" (Campbell, Alexander, Christian Baptist, Dec. 1, 1823, Vol. 1, p. 91).

Wonder why the Stone-Campbell Sectarians never use that?

"Those who lord it over the people will soon begin to destroy Them. The word Balaam means 'the destroyer of the people.' If we turn back to the history of this strange figure as recorded in the book of Numbers we find that which clarifies three passages in the New Testament where 'the error of Balaam' (Jude 11), 'the way of Balaam' (II Pet. 2:15) and 'the doctrine of Balaam' are discussed." (Barnhouse, D.G., Revelation, Zondervan, p. 54

 See John Calvin on the need for a Restoration Movement excluding professional preachers.

These are Paul's words. Let them, then, show us that they are ministers of the gospel, and I will have no difficulty in conceding their right to stipend.

The ox must not be muzzled that treadeth out the corn [1 Cor. 9:9]. But is it not altogether at variance with reason that the ploughing oxen should starve, and the lazy asses be fed?

They will say, however, that they serve at the altar. I answer, that the priests under the law deserved maintenance, by ministering at an altar;

but that, as Paul declares, the case under the New Testament is different. And what are those altar services, for which they allege that maintenance is due to them?

Forsooth, that they may perform their masses and chant in churches, for example, partly labor to no purpose, and partly perpetrate sacrilege, thereby provoking the anger of God. See for what it is that they are alimented at the public expense!

Aeschines Against Ctesiphon

3.[220] And you blame me if I come before the people, not constantly, but only at intervals. And you imagine that your bearers fail to detect you in thus making a demand which is no outgrowth of democracy, but borrowed from another form of government. For in oligarchies it is not he who wishes, but he who is in authority, that addresses the people;
        whereas in democracies he speaks who chooses,
        and whenever it seems to him good.
And the fact that a man speaks only at intervals marks him as a man who takes part in politics because of the call of the hour, and for the common good;
        whereas to leave no day without its speech,
        is the mark of a man who is making a trade of it, and talking for pay.

2 A quiet citizen, as distinguished from the professional political blackmailer, su_kophant-ēs

Pl. Cur. 2.3 And then those Grecians with their cloaks, who walk about with covered heads, who go loaded beneath their cloaks with books, and with baskets6, they loiter together, and engage in gossipping among themselves, the gad-abouts

6 With baskets: In the "sportule," or "baskets," the poor, and the parasitical dependants on the rich, carried away the scraps that were given to them after an entertainment was concluded.

Amos 8:1 Thus hath the Lord GOD shewed unto me: and behold a basket of summer fruit.
Amos 8:2 And he said, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, A basket of summer fruit. Then said the LORD unto me, The end is come upon my people of Israel; I will not again pass by them any more.
basket from H3611 keleb keh'-leb From an unused root meaning to yelp, or else to attack; a dog; hence (by euphemism) a male prostitute:—dog.

Revelation 22:13 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.
Revelation 22:14 Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.
Revelation 22:15 For without are dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie.
Revelation 22.15 exō hoi kunes kai hoi pharmakoi kai hoi pornoi kai hoi phoneis kai hoi eidōlolatrai kai pas philōn kai poiōn pseudos.
Revelation 22:16 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

, ho, A. catamite, Ar.Pl.155, X.Mem.1.6.13, D.22.73
2.  sodomite, D.Ep.4.11, Phalar.Ep.4.
3.  in LXX and NT, fornicator, LXXSi.23.16, 1 Ep.Cor.5.9, al.
II. Idolater, Suid.

Xen. Mem. 1.6.13 So is it with wisdom. Those who offer it to all comers for money are known as sophists, prostitutors of wisdom,
        but we think that he who makes a friend of one whom he knows to be gifted by nature, and teaches him all the good he can, fulfils the duty of a citizen and a gentleman.
Sophis-tēs , master of one's craft, experts, poets, musicians, harpists, "making melody in holy places."  a Sophist, i.e. one who gave lessons in grammar, rhetoric, politics, mathematics, for money, 3. later of the rhētores, Professors of Rhetoric, and prose writersApollōnidē sophistē
2Corinthians 2:17 For we are not as many, which corrupt the word of God: but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ.

G2585 kapēleuō kap-ale-yoo'-o From κάπηλος kapēlos (a huckster); to retail, that is, (by implication) to adulterate (figuratively):—corrupt.

ka^pēl-euō ,
1) to be a retailer, to peddle
2) to make money by selling anything
a) to get sordid gain by dealing in anything, to do a thing for base gain
b) to trade in the word of God
1) to try to get base gain by teaching divine truth
c) to corrupt, to adulterate
1) peddlers were in the habit of adulterating their commodities for the sake of gain
k. tēs hōras anthos or tēn hōran, of prostitutes

Instead of killing all of the people of Lydians, croesus advised:

Hdt. 1.155 [3] “O King, what you say is reasonable. But do not ever yield to anger, or destroy an ancient city that is innocent both of the former and of the present offense. For the former I am responsible, and bear the punishment on my head; while Pactyes, in whose charge you left Sardis, does this present wrong; let him, then, pay the penalty.
Grant, then, forgiveness to the Lydians, and to make sure of their never rebelling against thee, or alarming thee more,
send and
forbid them to keep any weapons of war, command them to wear tunics under their cloaks, and to put buskins upon their legs,
..........and make them bring up their sons to cithern-playing (Kitharizein), singing (psallein), and shop-keeping (Hucksterism). 
So wilt thou soon see them become women instead of men,
and there will be no more fear of their revolting from thee."

-[4] Ludoisi de sungnômên echôn tade autoisi epitaxon, hôs mête aposteôsi mête deinoi toi eôsi: apeipe men sphi pempsas hopla arêia mê ektêsthai, keleue de spheas kithônas -[khiton  David's garment] te hupodunein toisi heimasi kai kothornous hupodeesthai, proeipe d' autoisi -kitharizein te kai psallein kai kapêleuein [prostitutes, petty trade, playing tricks, corrupting] paideuein tous paidas. kai tacheôs spheas ô basileu gunaikas ant' andrôn opseai gegonotas, hôste ouden deinoi toi esontai mê aposteôsi."

The word kitharizo means to PLAY THE CITHARA and does not include singing.

-Kitharizô 1 [kitharis] to play the cithara, phormingi [Apollo] kitharize Il., Hes.; lurêi eraton kitharizôn Hhymn. (so that there can have been no great difference between the kithara, lura, and phorminx ); kitharizein ouk epistatai, of an uneducated person,

-Kithar-isis , eôs, hê, playing on the cithara, Pl.Prt.325e; k. psilê, i.e. without the voice, Id.Lg.669e, cf. Pae.Delph.15; aulêsis kai k. Phld.Mus.p.23 K.

-Arassô ,of any violent impact, with collat. notion of rattling, clanging, as of horses, hoplais, pound in a mortar, strike with a shower of stones.
a). kitharēn strike the lyre, Orph.A.382; humnon, melos, etc., Nonn.D.1.15,440, etc.
2. c. dat. modi, arassein tina oneidesi, kakois, assail with reproaches or threats,
II. Pass., to be dashed against, dash one against the other
Pound in a mortar, “holmō a.Nic. Th.508

Used by O.E.Payne to justify PSALLO as a command [p.106

7 The gad-abouts: Drapetæ. From the Greek dremō, "to run." He probably alludes to the propensities of the Athenians for gossipping and running about from place to place. Probably, at the time of Plautus, they had begun in considerable numbers to resort to Rome. By his reference to the books, he is, perhaps, more particularly alluding to their Philosophers. The Romans considered it effeminate in civil life to go with the head covered.

su_kophant-ēs became notorious as pettifoggers, blackmailers, professional swindler or confidential agent,

kolax , a^kos, ho,
A. flatterer, fawner, Ar.Pax756, Lys.28.4, Pl.Phdr. 240b, etc.; “tukhēs kolakesAntipho Soph.65; “pantes hoi k. thētikoi kai hoi tapeinoi k.Arist.EN1125a1, cf. 1108a29, Thphr.Char.2.1; parasite, Eup.159.1, Antisth. ap. D.L.6.4.
2. in later Gr., = Att. goēs, Moer. p.113 P.

Clement of Alexandria, Stromata I

But he that speaks through books, consecrates himself before God, crying in writing thus:

Not for gain, not for vainglory, not to be vanquished by partiality, nor enslaved by fear nor elated by pleasure;
but only to
reap the salvation of those who read, which he does,

not at present participate in, but awaiting in expectation the recompense which will certainly be rendered by Him, who has promised to bestow on the labourers the reward that is meet.

But he who is enrolled in the number of men [Ps. li. 7-12.] ought not to desire recompense.

For he that vaunts his good services, receives glory as his reward.
And he who does any
duty for the sake of recompense, is he not held fast in the custom of the world, either as one who has done well, hastening to receive a reward, or as an evil-doer avoiding retribution?

We must, as far as we can, imitate the Lord. I And he will do so, who complies with the will of God,

receiving freely, giving freely, and receiving as a worthy reward the citizenship itself.

"The hire of an harlot shall not come into the sanctuary," it is said: accordingly it was forbidden to bring to the altar the price of a dog. (male prostitute)

And in whomsoever the eye of the soul has been blinded by ill-nurture and teaching, let him advance to the true light, to the truth,

which shows by writing the things that are unwritten. "Ye that thirst, go to the waters," [Isa. lv. 1] says Esaias, And "drink water from thine own vessels," [Prov. v. 15] Solomon exhorts. Accordingly in "The Laws," the philosopher who learned from the Hebrews, Plato, commands husbandmen

not to irrigate or take water from others, until they have first dug down in their own ground to what is called the virgin soil, and found it dry.

For it is right to supply want, but it is not well to support laziness.

For Pythagoras said that,
"although it be agreeable to reason to take a share of a burden, it is not a duty to take it away."

In 1890 the first convention was called at Chattanooga to organize the state society. The only churches in the state of Tennessee were those who had already adopted the organ in their worship. The Christian Standard pumped up the news and "it is reported that the brethren in Nashville, Tennessee are desirous of entertaining our National Convention next year."

This of course was just two congregations. A survey showed that out of 2500 members in Nashville, less than one hundred wanted the society.
Lipscomb noted that among the Society people "the Bible is as popular as last year's almanac."

"The supporters of the missionary society organized the Tennessee State Missionary Convention on October 6, 1890, with one purpose in mind, as stated by J. H. Garrison. He said at that time:

"We will take Tennessee for organized mission work...within five years."

A. I. Myhr was dispatched to Tennessee to head the new state society despite the protestation of David Lipscomb that Tennessee was not a destitute mission territory. Myhr and his supporters moved resolutely ahead to accomplish their mission.

"Their efforts met with some success and the intent was clear. Myhr was aggressive and abrasive in his operations. His actions were of such a nature, in promoting the missionary society, that he came under the direct attack of E. G. Sewel and David Lipscomb. And as later event proved, Myhr was no match for Lipscomb and the Gospel Advocate.
1890 The Plan:   Again "We will take Tennessee for organized mission work...within five years."
  1. Why would anyone ENDORSE and accept pay from those always on a hostile path?

    Myhr made his goals clear about promoting the Society and Instrumental music
    even though it would divide the churches. Myhr's goal, Lipscome believed, was to
    "ostracize, boycott, and starve every preacher that does not APPROVE the society."

  2. How could any godly person REBUKE and use all of the RACA words on a people who simply refused to be TAKEN?

Notice that the use of the organ affected only a few Christian Churches.  That did not prevent the Disciples leadership , prompted by the Standard, to IMPOSE instruments into the Christian churches. This is proof that Churches of Christ had no organs.

"As early as 1882, Sewell and Harding were urging that a separation be brought about to identify that part of the Christian Church fellowship which supported the organ and the society. Lipscomb, at the time, rebuffed his brethren who called for such division. He sought no compromise, but hoped that the church would not suffer division."

That, of Course, proves that they saw the Christian Church Fellowship as not the same as The Church of Christ.

Not until 1878 did anyone in history MISuse psallo to justify the massive discord they had already sown by using the ORGAN and Life Members of even children of the Missionary Society. This has a foundation beginning in heaven where Lucifer began to TRAFFICK in some spiritual world we do not understand. Being CAST AS PROFANE (a musical term) out of heaven he or most often showed up in the garden of Eden as the serpent meaning a MUSICAL ENCHANTER.

"By 1897, Lipscomb was reconciled to the fact that division had already occurred and the supporters of the innovations would be satisfied with nothing less than a complete take-over of the churches... (Adron Doran, J.E.Choate, The Christian Scholar, p. 59

1901  Instruments of Music in the Service of God By David Lipscomb

Instruments had been added into the Disciples of Christ--Chrisitian Churches. In time the determination was to "take Tenneessee for the organ and society party within five years."  That is proof that churches of Christ in Tennessee did not belong to the Stone-Campbell and God wants people to stop lying to "take Tennessee a hundred years later."

When the church determines to introduce a service not required by God,
        he who believes it wrong is compelled to refuse in any way
        to countenance or affiliate with the wrong.

         Sometimes when a part of a church insists on and adopts the wrong,
had I not better yield than to create division in the church? 

A church that requires disobedience to God to maintain peace in it is already an apostate church; it has rejected God as it only Ruler. 

While forbearance and love should be exercised in seeking to show them the right and persuading them to do it, it is sinful to so affiliate with them as to encourage and build up a church that is going wrong. 
In the case where the Society and Organ party goes to law to seek control of the property they have stolen, Lipscomb urged people not to go to law over property.


In 1902 the church at Newbern was taken over by society and organ people. The church, against Lipscomb's advice, sued to retain the property. Of course the society could muster a majority and won the lawsuit. The decision was handed down in 1905 that the trouble did not warrant the intrusion of the courts:

"The pro-organ party had said during the trial that
        when the organ was used as a part of the worship, it was sinful;
        but they defended it on the ground that it was an AID to worship.

Lipscomb, on the other hand, had insisted that it was a distinct service,
and when persisted in always supersedes and destroys congregational singing.

"The court, passing on this phase of the question,
        said that the claim that the organ was not a part of the worship was untenable
        and it could not be considered as merely an aid to worship."

There is no command, example or remote inference that any of God's people assembled for congregational singing with instruments.  Of course it comes as no surprise that Doctors of the Law who take away the key to knowledge do not care enough to grasp that SPEAK is the direct command for teaching the written LOGOS of the Living Word.  Bringing in an organ as an AID was grasped by Churches of Christ as a weapon of violent invasion.

The the Logos.Mythos or Word.Music proof that when people move away from the Logos.Word of Jesus Christ they have fallen into an effeminate or perverse trap and will never get out.
Logos, Opposite. kata pathos, Arist.EN1169a5 or personal experiences
Logos, verbal noun of lego
        Opposite kata pathos
        Opposite music, poetry or rhetoric
        Opposite human reasoning
        Opposite Epagoge bringint in to one's aid, introduction
                Alurement, enticement, incantation, spell

Epagōg-ē , , 2. bringing in to one's aid, introduction, 3. invasion, attack,
5. process of reasoning, Aristox.Harm.pp.4,53M.
b. esp. in the Logic of Aristotle, argument by induction (cf. “epagō
7. leading away into captivity, captivity, LXX Is.14.17: generally, distress, misery, ib.Si.23.14 

1903 J.W.McGarvey What Shall we do with the Organ

Before this it had bred similar evils among Methodist societies and Baptist and Presbyterian churches; for all these bodies in their early days knowing that the practice originated in the Roman Catholic Church, regarded it as a Romish corruption and refused to tolerate it until it was forced upon them by the spirit of innovation which characterized the present century.

Now it is obvious that these evils, the baleful effects of which will never be fully revealed until the day of judgment,
> must be charged either against those who have introduced the instrument
> or against those who have opposed its introduction.
I begin by arguing that the practice belongs to a class of things expressly condemned in the New Testament.
Jesus said in reference to certain additions which the Pharisees had made to the ritual of the law: "In vain do they worship me, teaching as their doctrines the precepts of men." In these words he propounds the doctrine that all worship is vain which originates in human authority; or, to put it negatively, that no worship is acceptable to God which he himself has not authorized.
Paul echoes this teaching when he condemns as "will worship" the observance of, ordinances "after the precepts and doctrines of men." (Col. 2: 20-23, R. V.) The Greek word here rendered "will worship" means
worship self-imposed, as distinguished from worship imposed by God; and the practices referred to in the context are condemned on this ground, thus showing that all self-imposed worship is wrong in the sight of God.
To deny, then, that the present use of instrumental music in the church is a part of the worship,
is a subterfuge and an afterthought ingeniously got up to obscure the fact that it comes under the condemnation pronounced against vain worship and will worship.

DEAR BROTHER: Your second question is this: "

> Should we fail to convince the brethren that the use of the organ is wrong,
> what else can we do to keep them from forcing it upon us?"

Did I not know that organs have often been forced into churches by the act of a few individuals without asking formal consent, and

that majorities have often put them in without regard to the protests of minorities, I would be surprised at the form in which you put your question;

but I hope that the brethren to whom you refer are too conscientious to do such a thing.

If conscience does not deter them, they ought to be restrained by fear of bringing into contempt the practice which they advocate; for nothing can sooner bring the use of the organ into contempt

than to see its advocates force it upon churches in an unchristian manner.

To act wickedly in order to worship God more to your taste is to imitate Rachel, who stole her father's gods in the hope that the stolen property would help her religiously (And give her the deed to her father's property!)


Christian Union: Chapter 5 - Period Of Reunion 1906
By J.H. Garrison

Speaking of a National Organization by others, he notes:

"These fragmentary movements, while of value in preparing the way for something better, were not satisfactory. It was believed that something better was practicable, and the great Inter-Church Conference in New York City in November, 1905 was called, in this conviction. It was believed that the time had come when the evangelical Protestant bodies of Christendom.

J. H. Garrison defines the instrument as "matters of opinion" but if you don't share his opinion then you are disloyal to the "progressive" movement and to Christ. Furthermore, to allow Paul's instructions about singing in church to govern one's worship practices is equivalent to falling back under the Law of Moses. With that in mind it is easy to see how division was necessary.

    "The same erroneous method of reasoning has been applied to the Sunday-school, to missionary organizations. "We come now to the consideration of the very latest of these efforts to give visible and tangible expression to the growing unity of the Church, for the double purpose of
        utilizing this unity in the service of our common Master, and of
        promoting a still closer unification of the religious forces of Christendom.

    "We are bound, therefore, by every consideration of loyalty to Jesus Christ, and by every regard for our future growth and development, to co-operate to the fullest extent possible,--which would be in different degrees, no doubt, in different places--
       with all who love and serve our Lord Jesus Christ for the advancement of his kingdom among men.

This is what the federation movement means, and as such, it is the next logical step--the next inevitable step--toward the complete unity of Christians.

      But there are other ways in which some have been disloyal to this high ideal. This ideal implies that Christianity consists, as it does, of faith in and devotion to Christ, and is pre-eminently a spiritual religion; that it is a life, rather than a system of doctrine, although it involves sound doctrine. And yet it has often happened that in their preaching and teaching the chief emphasis has been laid by these men on things that are external, rather than on things which are internal and vital. Obedience to an externalcommand, like baptism or the Lord's Supper,

    In some instances local churches have been rent asunder over the organ question, and sister congregations have been alienated from each other because of the different ways of doing missionary work. It is easy to see, of course, how utterly inconsistent with any claim of catholicity of position or spirit, for the movement,

The fact that they had almost no success in their hostile takeover of Churches of Christ, the Disciples of Christ-Christian churches tried to COUNT the Churches of Christ as their members--all of them.

The Churches of Christ did absolutely nothing sectarian: by definition the Sectarians or Heretics are those who IMPOSE something not required over the views held entoto.  En toto included almost 100% of the churches in Tennessee in 1906.  Therefore, the Disciples/ Christian churches financed by their denominatal money extorted from the congregations were not even COUNTABLE in the state and the Society could not tolerate such a census.

The 1906 Census which was, I believe, the first, saw the Disciples / Christian Churches attempting to do a body count including the Churches of Christ in Nashville. The Census taker knew this was utterly false and consulted Lipscomb who just said NO to the body snatchers.

The Disciples-Christian churches already had a Denominational Movement underway and needed the body count to send them vast sums of money.

As far as the PRESENT CLAIM by the Christian Churches you have to grasp that they did not begin to hold separate denominational meetings until 1927 and were still counted as Disciples unto THEY were removed from the census as late as 1971. That was the time when Garrett etal began to "cut out" Churches of Christ where "unity" meant you AFFIRM instruments or you CONFORM and then we can have unity.

Now why would people fall for the NACC effort at "unity" and claiming that Churches of Christ were legalistic sectarians when the Christian Church did not BEGIN to SECT out of the Disciples until 1927?

When Churches of Christ denied that they had ever been "joined" even fraternally since the introduction of instruments among the Disciples which split that group. At that time the Disciples/Christian Churches issued a Centennial edition of the Declaration and Address which should prove to anyone that Churches of Christ could not be counted on.


[linked image]
While Churches of Christ were NEVER joined to this institution intended to include 'ALL OF CHRISTENCOM', the Christian Churches (NACC) began their defection in 1927 and were not DISCOUNTED in the Disciples census. The only ones who ever SECTED out of an organized SECT is the NACC and it is not honest by convince people that the Church of Christ sected out of the Christian Churches which would not be formalized for decades.

While churches attacked by the society and organ party were split and families and friends were forced apart, in Tennessee there was virtually not vicroy from the attack.

Only when individual Christian churches were "infiltrated and diverted" was fellowship impossible. It borders on insanity to make a living telling everyone that Churches of Christ were even when they refused to continue fraternal fellowship when to do so would be to turn the flock over to the Purpose Driven Cult.

1911 James A. Harding
John Mark Hicks and others at Lipscomb University--once a Bible College--claims that the church should be built on the Harding -- Lipscomb.   Hicks makes Harding out to object to instruments on some kind of unclear LAW of of worship. The implication is that Harding and others never had any Biblical foundation.  However, Harding writes

J. W. McGarvey And A Very Dark Spot, Christian Leader and The Way Vol. 25, No. 49 (December 5, 1911), 8.

For fifty years I have been deeply, personally interested in the Church, and an eager reader of its literature; and I know that more congregations have been divided among us by pressing instrumental music into them than by all other causes. Next to the organ, the missionary societies have been our greatest causes of division and strife.

He faults McGarvey because he even preached in churches he considered beyond the pale.  Like Campbell, McGarvey would take his message into hell if it would help.  However, Harding debunks Hicks, Valentine and the other "scholars" by saying.

If Lard, McGarvey, Graham, Grubbs, and men of like faith, had resolutely marked and turned away from them that were causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling contrary to the doctrine they learned; if they had resolutely turned away from them, if they had marked them as they really are—as men who do not serve the Lord Christ, as men who serve their own bellies, as men who are enemies to God and his Church, who by their smooth and fair speech beguile the hearts of the innocent—if the brethren I have mentioned had resolutely refused to have any fellowship whatever with these dividers of churches, these lovers of their own bellies, we would have had a very different story to tell now.  What they ought to have done then, we ought to do now. 

We ought to have no fellowship whatever, religiously, with those who have divided, or are dividing churches.  Unless they repent, confess their sins, and turn resolutely form them, all Christians must mark and avoid them—or bring upon themselves the curse of an outraged God.  – Potter Bible College, Bowling Green, Ky., November 28, 1911.

Undoubtedly James A Harding understood ALL of the reasons that McGarvey fought against instruments. The vilest of all in these men's minds would be someone who would deliberately sow discord in the interest of a making more money.

1920 At the very beginning of this debate some churches defended the instrument by saying it was used “only in the Sunday School” and not “in the worship”.  At Newbern, Tenneesee, defending the right of the instrumentalists to take over the church, the Disciples declared that the organ (only) would not be used as worship but as an AID.  They declared that if the organ (only) were used as worship it would be a sin. From the sunday school classes the organ inched its way into the regular "worship service."

In 1920 The Christian Standard published O.E. Payne's "Instrumental Music Is Scriptural." Isn't it amazing that it took that many years before this authority was discovered: “instrumental music unavoidably inheres in psallo, and that therefore to employ it is mandatory

This Stone-Campbell History:
Payne, p. 106-107 433 B.C. Heredotus I, 155 state:
"This noted traveler an scholar, known as the "father of history," and who was, as well, "the father of georgaphy," chronicles the conqueror's decree for keeping the people of vallal state in subjection--a method in vogue to this day

"And bid them train their sons to play the cithara and to play the lyre [psallein'] and to keep shop."

That is, forbid them the use of arms or weapons of war, lest tey rise in rebellion."

Isn't that an amazing confession: Music derived from mystery means "to make the lambs dumb before the slaughter."

The universal "rest of the story" as also listed by Tom Burgess who did not know the trick God was pulling on he and Payne.
See Heredotus 1 here.
Grant, then, forgiveness to the Lydians, and to
make sure of their never rebelling against thee, or alarming thee more, send and forbid them to keep any weapons of war, command them to wear tunics under their cloaks, and to put buskins upon their legs,
..........and make them bring up their sons to cithern-playing (Kitharizein), singing (psallein),
..........and shop-keeping (Hucksterism). 
So wilt thou soon see them become women instead of men,
and there will be no more fear of their revolting from thee."

-[4] Ludoisi de sungnômên echôn tade autoisi epitaxon, hôs mête aposteôsi mête deinoi toi eôsi: apeipe men sphi pempsas hopla arêia mê ektêsthai, keleue de spheas kithônas -[khiton  David's naked dance garment] te hupodunein toisi heimasi kai kothornous hupodeesthai, proeipe d' autoisi
kitharizein [play the Cithera phormiggi Especially theinstrument of Apollo, Apollyon, Abaddon]
        te kai
psallein [singing]
kapêleuein [corrupting the Word: selling learning at retail]

paideuein [chastise like animals] tous paidas [children]. kai tacheôs spheas ô basileu gunaikas ant' andrôn opseai gegonotas, hôste ouden deinoi toi esontai mê aposteôsi."

The word kitharizo means to PLAY THE CITHARA and does not include singing.  psallein means SINGING

-Kitharizô 1 [kitharis] to play the cithara, phormingi [Apollo] kitharize Il., Hes.; lurêi eraton kitharizôn Hhymn. (so that there can have been no great difference between the kithara, lura, and phorminx ); kitharizein ouk epistatai, of an uneducated person,

-Kithar-isis , eôs, hê, playing on the cithara, Pl.Prt.325e; k. psilê, i.e. without the voice, Id.Lg.669e, cf. Pae.Delph.15; aulêsis kai k. Phld.Mus.p.23 K.

-Arassô, of any violent impact, with collat. notion of rattling, clanging, as of horses, hoplais, pound in a mortar, strike with a shower of stones.
a). kitharēn strike the lyre, Orph.A.382; humnon, melos, etc., Nonn.D.1.15,440, etc.
2. c. dat. modi, arassein tina oneidesi, kakois, assail with reproaches or threats,
II. Pass., to be dashed against, dash one against the other
Pound in a mortar, “holmō a.Nic. Th.508

Don't accues the Spirit of Christ of being an idiot: He knew that if He wanted to hint at playing a harp He had lots of words:

kata-psallô A.play stringed instruments to, [sumposion] kat-auleinkai k. Plu.2.713e :--usu. in Pass., have music played to one, enjoy music, ib.785e; of places, resound with music, Id.Ant.56. 2. Pass., to be buried to the sound of music, Procop.Pers.2.23. 3. metaph., katapsalletai . . hodêmiourgos is drummed out, Porph.Chr.34. 

kat-auleô ,A. charm by flute-playing, tinos Pl.Lg.790e, cf. R.411a; tina Alciphr.2.1: metaph., se . . -êsô phobôi I will flute to you on a ghastly flute, E.HF871 (troch.):--Pass., of persons, methuôn kai katauloumenos drinking wine to the strains of the flute, Pl.R.561c; k. pros chelônidos psophon to be played to on the flute with lyre accompaniment, II. in Pass., [ton monochordon kanona] parechein tais aisthêsesi . . katauloumenon subdued by a flute accompaniment, Ptol.Harm.2.12: metaph., to be piped down, ridiculed, gelômenoi kai -oumenoi Anon. ap. Suid., cf. Porph.Chr.34. III. c. acc. rei, play on the flute, ta mêtrôia Duris 16 J.:--Pass., to have played to one as an accompaniment on the flute, -oumenoi pros tôn hepomenôn ta mêtrôia melê D.H.2.19 .

O. E. Payne 423 B.C. Euripides Ion p. 174
"The boy's fierse twanging (Psalmoi) shall keep the off."

The Real Ion

The lyre of Phoebus [Apollo, Abaddon, Apollyon] to thy notes attuned [sunoidos]
Will not protect thee; farther stretch thy wings;
Go, wanton, skim along the Delian lake,
Or wilt thou steep thy melody in blood. [kalli-phthoggos , on, A. beautiful-sounding, “ōdaiE.Ion169]

P.S. Psallo is NEVER defined as musicial melody at any time or place.

P. Vergilius Maro, Aeneid Verg. A. 11.836

She said, and from her quiver chose with speed
The winged shaft, predestin'd for the deed;
Then to the stubborn yew her strength applied,
Till the
far distant horns approach'd on either side.
bowstring touch'd her breast, so strong she drew;
Whizzing in air the fatal arrow flew.

At once the twanging bow and sounding dart
The traitor heard, and felt the point within his heart.
beating with his heels in pangs of death,
flying friends to foreign fields bequeath.

The conqu'ring damsel, with expanded wings,
The welcome message to her mistress brings.

Look, what strange bird comes onwards; wouldst thou fix
Beneath the battlements thy straw-built nest?
singing [psalmos] bow shall drive thee hence; begone,
Or to the banks of Alpheus, gulfy stream,
Or to the Isthmian grove; there hatch thy young;

The Christian Church formed an "organization" called "The Commission on Unity." Not only had the instrumentalists been correct, they now insisted that instrumental music was COMMANDED.  That is a teaching still circulated among the NACC's agents.  This is a pasted in note in my copy which was handed out to "key" preachers they thought they could "cut out" of the herd.  Stone-Campbell or the unity ploy ALWAYS means "We are still trying to force you to accept instruments" so WE can accept you.

Of course, this was just a long list of historical quotations where "psallo" was used in classical literature. The Commission was cock sure that they could force unity-by-instruments that they sent a copy to F.B.Srygley.  After being prodded, Srygley suggested adebate:  The Commission quickly agreed and picked Ira M. Boswell for their side.

1923 boswell-Hardeman Discussion.

The discussion on instrumental music was also held at the Ryman Auditorium in , Nashville, TN from May 31 – June 5, 1923. Boswell’s primary “trump card” was the Greek word psallo. The psallo argument is still being parroted by those among us clamoring for instrumental music even though it has been answered and defeated even before Hardeman’s discussion of the matter.
Now, the question between us is this, and can be reduced to a matter of the utmost simplicity: Brother Boswell, is the instrument the hair?…Is the instrument the bowstring? Is the instrument the strings of the heart? Let us allow the Bible to forever settle that. Paul, what do you say about that? It is not the plucking or the psalloing of the hair; it is not the twitching of a cord or the plucking of the carpenter’s line; it is not the twanging or the twitching of an instrument of artificial mechanism; but it is the touching or the twanging or psalloing of the heart, and that is the thing upon which the psalloing is done. But may I submit to you this idea: In the five times used in the New Testament, the word psallo not one single, solitary time, is ever translated by the King James or by the Revised Version “to play”. These translators, about one hundred and fifty in number, represented the scholarship of the world. They were selected and appointed because of their scholarship; and when they came to the rendition of the word psallo and to the translation thereof, without exception, without dissenting voice, they rendered it “to sing, to make melody”. Where? In the human heart. (pp. 44-45).
The Christian Church and the Stone-Campbell Movement used the same argumenta against giving up the instrument: Daniel Sommer and The Firm Foundation. "This was really the reason behind M.C. Kurfees monumental work on "Instrumental Music." He so completely devastated Payne's contention that most scholars in the Christian Church abandoned Payne, and reverted to their former plea: "It doesn't make any difference; it is a matter of unconcern to God.""

1927 the NACC found founded as the beginning of secting out of the Disciples of Christ.


I knew people who attended Christian Churches who changed the name to The Church of Christ because they rejected instruments proving that not even Christian Churches (with OKelly input) were not UNIONED with the Society-Christian church.
The increase from about 150,000 members in 1906: Ten years later in 1916 the number of members of churches of Christ would rise to about 317,000. That, of course, is an increase of more that 100%. By 1926, a decade beyond that, the numbers in churches of Christ had grown to over 433,000. This represents an additional 50% growth over the previous census.

... Well, by the 1960s, total membership had grown to possibly as high as 2 ½ million.
This shows that the masses of people rejected instruments and undoubtedly defected from the Society-Organ "party" as they called themselves. 

You should grasp that what became the NACC was on its way to secting out of the Disciples for some of the same reasons that Churches of Christ were never "unioned" with the Disciples of Christ other than fraternally prior to the move toward becoming another denomitation (culr).

I have posted the REAL writings between Stone and Campbell.

I showed you that Campbell showed in 1831 there there was nothing in common to unite. He held Stone in some disdain as a "denomination" builder.

A few men shook hands in 1832 and the agreement went no further than the people who met with no authority. The document they all signed would NOT PERMIT what the Disciples of Christ (Methodist-Anglican-Catholic derived) did because they got spooked by Miller and thus are carriers of SDA dogma.

I showed you that in 1837 that Campbell ridiculed the notion of unity among those with nothing in common

In 1843 or so the name MILLENNIAL HARBINGER was adopted to REPUDIATED the Foster-claimed apocalyptic views of the Disciples.

William J. Nottingham Global Ministries.

"My point here is that the first missionary society was the product of a long and intense process which generated considerable soul-searching. There were shared biblical principles and at the same time fundamental differences in theological opinion. Disagreement grew
      concerning congregational ecclesiology,
      commonality in mission with other Christians,
      and also perhaps communion of the Holy Spirit.

This tension would eventuate in separate bodies and institutions of the 20th and 21st centuries.  [Disciples and NACC] A full appreciation is probably hidden from us in the distance from ante-bellum times.
      But the nature of the Bible's authority,

      the relatively new idea of the autonomy of the local congregation,
      and the centrality of millennialist eschatology for these men and women,

with men doing most of the writing which is left to us, seem to me to be mysteries that can only be observed from different angles and rarely entered into existentially by later generations like our own.

This is evidenced in the decisions concerning missionaries growing out of this fervor leading up to the Cincinnati convention: Dr. and Mrs. James T. Barclay were the first. It was in their parlor in Washington, D.C., 1843, that the congregation had been organized which became the Vermont Avenue Church and in 1930 the National City Christian Church.

They went to Jerusalem, not because of Acts 1:8 "beginning with Jerusalem" as a popular Disciples legend has it, but because it was taken for granted by Alexander Campbell and his followers that the Jews were to be converted before the return of Christ.

That was a false assumption: the Millenial Harbinger's major thrust was not to SUPPORT Millerism but to defeat it.  Campbell denies that Jesus will return to Canaan.  Because the Church of Christ did not believe in William E. Miller [Ellen G. White].  You will notice that it was the Disciples who were tilted by Miller.

The title of Campbell's journal proclaimed clearly the eschatology of the pre-Civil War spirituality, so neglected in our denominational memory by scholars and theologians since then.

Notice that Campbell spoke of THE PROTESTANT THEORY: not his because he speaks where the Bible speaks and insists on a NEW HEAVEN and a NEW EARTH and that you could not convert people after the literal earth was burned up.

In the Millennial Harbinger of 1841,
       we read in what is called The Protestant Theory: [NOT that of Campbell]
      "The Millennium, so far as the triumphs of Christianity is concerned, will be a state of greatly enlarged and continuous prosperity, in which the Lord will be exalted and his divine spirit enjoyed in an unprecedented measure. All the conditions of society will be vastly improved; wars shall cease, and peace and good will among men will generally abound. The Jews will be converted, and the fullness of the Gentiles will be brought into the kingdom of the Messiah."

The Second Coming IV. In the Scriptures the reigning of the saints with Christ, is not referred to merely as a state of future prosperity which the church in the latter days was to expect, 

but as the comfort and encouragement of the people of Christ in every age; as something in which they were personally interested, and as intimately connected with the;' resurrection from the dead. 

The truth is, this is the glory to which the suffering church (a character which exclusively belongs to it under the dispensation previous to the Millennium) is elected, being predestinated not only to be partakers of Christ's mercies, but to be partakers of the throne of his glory. 

The converted nation of the Jews, and the remaining inhabitants of the world, will enjoy a state [66] of eminent blessedness; but it will fall far short of that glorious height of dignity to which the once suffering church will be elevated. As kings and priests, it is implied that there are others over whom they are to reign, and for whom they are to interpose.
The founding of the American Christian Missionary Society cannot be separated from the millennialist eschatology of the period

The Disciples followed the Millerites: not Campbell.

nor from the pragmatism which required a foreign dimension to keep pace with other denominations or to outgrow them! D.S. Burnet's book The Jerusalem Mission and Dr. Barclay's book The City of the Great King make this clear, along with speeches and articles by various leaders like Isaac Errett. Barclay wrote in a journal The Christian Age:

"The ACMS...resolved...
     to make the first offer of salvation to Israel. . .
     for the salvation of the Jews...
     for upon the conversion and resumption of Israel
           is unquestionably suspended the destruction of Antichrist
           and the salvation of the world."

The rise of this heresy which insists that Jesus utterly failed in His First Advent but with a little help from His friends (unity meetings, Tulsa, Jubilee etal) they PLANNED to be ecumenical and following the Pope's call for Jubilee 2000 to MAKE IT POSSIBLE for Jesus to have His SECOND ADVENT without failing AGAIN.

Joel's Army was part of this and people enlisted to hand out rewards and destroy the non-converts. The Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to one priest and said that she would return and KILL all of the Masons and Pagans.

Campbell denied that there could be a millenium fitted in between Miller's prophecy (and the Disciples belief), the conversion of the Jews and the DATE SET by Miller.

But, bless their heart they tried to do Jesus' work for Him. Guess it was worth SECTING OFF the real Campbell
The Christian Church gradually secting out of the Disciples always promoted "unity" by twisting all of the instrumental passages. H. Leo. Boles attended one of them in 1939 and in no uncertain terms the Disciples/Christian churches had destroyed any "fraternal" fellowship by introducing music and the society which all Bible students know is radically outlawed for the Qahal, Synagogue or Church of Christ in the wilderness.

And I believe that is especially true about those tasked to REwrite the history of groups always known as The Church of Christ in every period. The Catholics thought of them as universal (the one true church) but they called themselves The Church of Christ because Jesus of Nazareth "whom God made to be both Lord and Christ" purchased it and is the head of His own kingdom. That kingdom has no other task but to "use one mind and one mouth" to teach "that which is written for our learning." The Laded Burden outlaws all "spiritual anxiety created by religious ceremonialism." Paul used the Greek ARESKOS or Self-pleasure or Latin Placeo which outlaws the same thing clearly defined in the literature as "rhetoric, singing, instruments or drama." Jesus would call them hypocritic arts by pointing to Isaial 6 and Ezekiel 33.

The modern writers of Encyclopedias (smile) and text books have never read the original resources but as in ALL scholarly settings rest on the textbooks YOU must follow if YOU intend to get a passing grade. We will show yoou that Foster has led many simpletons down the path by false teaching about Alexander Campbell and the "apocalyptic tradition." The name MH in fact was to repudiate ALL millennial speculations and to refute the Disciples organization to "save all of the Jews to make it possible for Jesus to return." They fell for the Millerite (SDA) predictions: the Jews didn't want to get saved--thank you very much--and Jesus didn't return. However, it proved the radical separation of the Disciples and Reformers whose churches called themselves churches of Christ. At one time the Stone people called themselves CHRISTIANS and the Campbell disciples called themselves DISCIPLES. Of course a baptized believer is a DISCIPLE and is called a CHRISTIAN but the body bears the name of Christ. Disciples don't DO worship services: they go to BIBLE CLASS.

I have made it my way-past-retirement task to make these ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS from Clay Tablets onward available for anyone wanting to get TRUE HISTORY from the writers mouth--and not get fleeced so you can get a still-bleeding sheep skin. I don't DO dogma and don't join the ANTICHRISTS in their trinitarian worship.

Funding for this project has been provided principally by Disciples of Christ Historical Society and Chalice Press.
I am sorry that you don't completely understand how history works. Here is a link to a website about the most recent work of the history of the Stone Campbell movement. It involves scholars from all traditions of the Stone Campbell movement. I hope you look into this work with an open mind. Read carefully, order the book, read some more, then repost your findings. I will do the same with your posts and websites. I will also pass these along to the authors of this World History of the Stone Campbell Movement.


Blessings in your journey!
THIS EFFORT IS FUNDED BY THE DISCIPLES OF CHRIST.  Of course, not even the NACC could agree with the total departure of the Disciples from the need for Biblical authority.

THE FINAL DEPARTURE being promoted while being paid by Churches of Christ. Of authority: it is a fact that the Disciples-Christian churches INVENTED the Law of Silence and "traditionalism."

Richard L. Hamm: The first is Scripture, which for Christians means, of course, the Holy Bible (which is to say the whole Bible: the Hebrew and Christian testaments).

The second is reason and the third is experience. We Disciples are quite appreciative of these sources. Our movement was born within the philosophical context of

John Locke who said that truth can be known through reason tempered with experience.
In this
secular age in which we live, I'm afraid that many of us have increasingly depended on these two sources alone, but reason and experience are two valuable sources for understanding God.

No, John Locke never said that. What he said was that Christianity was reasonable once it was revealed but the best of human reasoning could never discover or aid the discover of truth.

John Locke denied that REASON had ever contributed anything to spiritual religion. However, when God reveals, then it seems reasonable to the mind which God created. Locke speaks of HUMAN REASON and concluded that:

1. In this state of darkness and error, in reference to the "true God" Our Saviour found the world.

But the clear revelation he brought with him, dissipated this darkness;
made the
one invisible true God known to the world:
and that with such
evidence and energy,
that polytheism [trinity] and idolatry hath
no where been able to withstand it.

But wherever the preaching of the truth he delivered, and the light of the gospel hath come, those mists have been dispelled.

Sense and lust blinded their minds in some, and a careless inadvertency in others, and fearful apprehensions in most

(who either believed there were, or could not but suspect there might be, superior unknown beings) gave them up into the hands of their priests to fill their heads with false notions of the deity, and their worship with foolish rites, as they pleased; and what dread or craft once began, devotion soon made sacred, and religion immutable.
Perhaps both Locke and the Thomas and Alexander Campbell are hated with a purple passion and slandered because Alexander Campbell wrote:

"Give money to make poor pious youths learned clergy, or vain pretenders to erudition; and they pray that they may preach to you; yes, and pay them too. Was there ever such a craft as priestcraft? No, it is the craftiest of all crafts. It is so crafty that it obtains by its craft the means to make craftsmen, and then it makes the deluded support them!" (Campbell, Alexander, Christian Baptist, Dec. 1, 1823, Vol. 1, p. 91).

"Money is of vital consequence in the kingdom of the clergy. Without it a clergyman could not be made, nor a congregation supplied with a 'faithful pastor.' O Mammon, thou wonder-working god!" (Ibid., p. 124).

In The Reasonableness of Christianity, John Locke put the focus on revealed truth and not on any other thing. Anything which we can EXPERIENCE or our HUMAN REASON are the products of a fallible human which is USUALLY WRONG. If human reason suggests something like the trinity or pagan music as worship do we trust the Bible or do we trust our own feelings.

Richard L. Hamm: The fourth is tradition. The Church has learned some things in the past two thousand years (that's right, the Church learned some things even before Alexander Campbell!). By looking to the Church's tradition (its history, its declarations, its collective wisdom) one can learn much about the nature of God and the nature of humankind. As the sage has said, one who does not learn history is doomed to repeat it. Studying the church's tradition is a way for us to learn some things the easy way!

The Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the Living God, uses these four sources of revelation to teach us who God is and who we are.


John 14:15 If ye love me, keep my commandments.
1John 2:1 My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not.
John 14:16 And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter [parakletos], that he may abide with you for ever; And if any man sin, we havean advocate [parakletos] with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous
John 14:17 Even the Spirit OF truth; whom the worldfor he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; 1John 2:2 And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.
John 14:20 At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you 1John 2:3 And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments.
John 14:21 He that hath my commandments, and keepeth
them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of
my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him.
1John 2:4 He that saith, I know him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a liar 
John 14:22 Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? and the truth is not in him.  
John 14:23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words  1John 2:5 But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby  we that we are inhim.
and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. 1John 4:8 He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love.
1John 4:16 And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him.

John 14:24 He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Fathers which sent me. 1John 2:6 He that saith he abideth in him ought himself also so to walk, even as he walked.
John 14:25 These things have I spoken unto you,
1John 2:7 Brethren, I write no new commandment unto you, but an old
commandment which ye had from the beginning.  
being yet present with you. The old commandment is the
word which ye have heard from the beginning.
John 14:26 But the Comforter, which is the HolyGhost , whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.
1John 2:8 Again, a new commandment I write unto you, which thing is
true in him and in you: because the darkness is past, and the true
light now shineth
The Spirit's Name will be Jesus Christ 1John 2:10 He that loveth his brother abideth in the light, and there is none occasion of stumbling in him. [trap or snare laid for an enemy]
John 14:17 Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be IN you.
1John 2:20 But ye have an unction from the Holy One,

khrisma spiritual grace, Isous khristos
and ye know all things
holy spirit or
A good conscience, consiousness.

John 14:9 Jesus
saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and
yet hast thou not known me, Philip?
1John 2:22 Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ?
Which is the same as: Which
is the same as
he that
hath seen me hath seen the

and HOW sayest thou then, Shew us the Father?
He is antichrist, that denieth the
      the Son.
14:10 Believest thou not that I am IN the Father, and the Father
IN me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but
the Father that dwelleth
IN me, he doeth the works.
1 John
2:23 Whosoever denieth the Son

that acknowledgeth the Son 
the same
hath not the Father:

hath the Father also

 Notice that as the Disciples and the REWRITERS of history move closer to the Catholic Church that they have adopted the CUP.
[linked image]

Babylonian background to the huge cup of wine. It is true that a few dupes being led by agents of the NACC have confessed that it takes about a decade to slowly condition the "frogs" to accept instruments.  Even so, among those facilitated by the REwriters of history have caused up to 1/2 of the owners to cast themselves out of their own synagogue.  No matter! you can make up the difference quickly.

Now, as the Babylon of the Apocalypse is characterised by the name of "MYSTERY," so the grand distinguishing feature of the ancient Babylonian system was the Chaldean "MYSTERIES," that formed so essential a part of that system. And to these mysteries, the very language of the Hebrew prophet, symbolical though of course it is, distinctly alludes, when he speaks of Babylon as a "golden CUP." To drink of "mysterious beverages," says Salverte, was indispensable on the part of all who sought initiation in these Mysteries.

From the ingredients avowedly used, and from the nature of others not avowed, but certainly used, there can be no doubt that they were of an intoxicating nature;

and till the aspirants had come under their power,
till their understandings had been dimmed,
and their passions excited by the medicated draught,
they were not duly prepared for what they were either to hear or to see.

If it be inquired what was the object and design of these ancient "Mysteries," it will be found that there was a wonderful analogy between them and that "Mystery of iniquity" which is embodied in the Church of Rome.

Their primary object was to introduce privately, by little and little, under the seal of secrecy and the sanction of an oath, what it would not have been safe all at once and openly to propound.

The time at which they were instituted proved that this must have been the case. The Chaldean Mysteries can be traced up to the days of Semiramis, who lived only a few centuries after the flood, and who is known to have impressed upon them the image of her own depraved and polluted mind. *
* AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS compared with JUSTINUS, Historia and EUSEBIUS' Chronicle. Eusebius says that Ninus and Semiramis reigned in the time of Abraham.
That beautiful but abandoned queen of Babylon was not only herself a paragon of unbridled lust and licentiousness, but in the Mysteries which she had a chief hand in forming,

Thus was this Chaldean queen a fit and remarkable prototype of the "Woman" in the Apocalypse, with the golden cup in her hand, and the name on her forehead, "Mystery, Babylon the Great, the MOTHER of harlots and abominations of the earth."
In Revelation 18 John speaks of the "lusted after fruits" (same as the baskets of summer fruits in Amos) would be destroyed.

Rev 18:14 And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.

Tillô , 2. with acc. of that from which the hair or feathers are plucked, so of the cuckoo, ib.618a29 (Pass.); as a description of an idle fellow Ar.Pax 546, as a punishment of adulterers, Id.Nu.1083; v. paratillô, tephra.

also, pluck live sheep, instead of shearing, toistillousintahupodiphthera
4. t. melê pluck the harp-strings, play harp-tunes, Cratin.256 (lyr.). II. since tearing the hair was a usual expression of sorrow, tillesthai tina tear one's hair in sorrow for any one
III. metaph., pluck, vex, annoy,
Ar.Pax 546 Aristophanes, Peace

[520] Ah! venerated goddess, who givest us our grapes, where am I to find the ten-thousand-gallon words wherewith to greet thee? I have none such at home. Oh! hail to thee, Opora, and thee, Theoria! How beautiful is thy face! [525] How sweet thy breath! What gentle fragrance comes from thy bosom, gentle as freedom from military duty, as the most dainty perfumes!


Is it then a smell like a soldier's knapsack?

Oh! hateful soldier! your hideous satchel makes me sick! it stinks like the belching of onions, [530] whereas this lovable deity has the odor of sweet fruits, of festivals, of the Dionysia, of the harmony of flutes, of the tragic poets, of the verses of Sophocles, of the phrases of Euripides--
[545] Do you see that poor crest-maker, tearing at his hair?
Revelation 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters,
        shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be,
        shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
Revelation 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee;
        and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride [heiro gamos-sacred sex] shall be heard no more at all in thee:
        for thy merchants were the great men of the earth;
         for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.
Revelation 18:24 And in her was found the blood of prophets,
        and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.
Revelation 18.22 et vox citharoedorum et musicorum et tibia canentium et tuba non audietur in teamplius et omnis artifex omnis artis non invenietur in te amplius et vox molae non audietur in teamplius

Revelation 18:23] et lux lucernae non lucebit tibi amplius et vox sponsi et sponsae non audieturadhuc in te quia mercatores tui erant principes terrae quia in veneficiis tuis erraverunt omnes genteset lux lucernae non lucebit tibi amplius et vox sponsi et sponsae non audietur adhuc in te quiamercatores tui erant principes terrae quia in veneficiis tuis erraverunt omnes gentes
lūcĕo , xi, 2, v. n. Sanscr. ruk, to be bright; Gr. lukhnos, leukos, amphilukē; Lat. lux, lumen, lucidus, luna; O. H.-Germ. liŏht; Germ. Licht; cf. also illustris, I. to be light or clear, to shine, beam, glitter (syn.: splendeo, fulgeo)
I. Trop., to shine forth, to be conspicuous, apparent, clear, evident: “nunc imperii nostri splendor illis gentibus lucet,Cic. Imp. Pomp. 14, 41: “mea officia et studia, quae parum antea luxerunt,id. Att. 3, 15, 4: “cum res ipsa tot, tam claris argumentis luceat,id. Mil. 23, 61: “virtus lucet in tenebris,id. Sest. 28, 60: tota oratio lucet,Quint. 8, 5, 29; 9, 1, 19.—Hence, lūcens , entis, P. a., shining, bright, conspicuous: lucentior usus, Mall. Theod. de Metr. 9, 7. “sedebat In solio Phoebus claris lucente smaragdis,
Phoebus , i, m., = Phoibos (the radiant), I. a poetical appellation of Apollo as the god of light:
B. Phoe-bēus , a, um, adj., Phœbean, Apollinean: carmina,Lucr. 2, 504: “lampas,the sun, Verg. A. 4, 6: “virgo,Daphne, Ov. P. 2, 2, 82: “laurus,id. Tr. 4, 2, 51: “Rhodos,where the worship of Apollo prevailed, id. M. 7, 365: “lyra,id. H. 16, 180: “sortes,oracle, id. M. 3, 130: “tripodes,id. A. A. 3, 789: “Phoebeā morbos pellere arte,id. F. 3, 827.—
C. Phoebas , ădis, f., a priestess of Apollo; hence the inspired one, the prophetess, Ov. Am. 2, 8, 12; id. Tr. 2, 400; Luc. 5, 128; 165.

Revelation 9:11 And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.
David's PRAISE word is the Hebrew Halal:  logical since God turned them over to worship the starry host.

Halal h1984 [Praise was under the KING and COMMANDERS of the Army and NEVER under the priests.

cHalal h2490 [the same basic word] The "c" may indicate an Aramic root where Halal means KOSHER MEAT. You are paying TOO MUCH with all of the strange boys around.

  1. to shine
    1. (Qal) to shine [seeking God's favor]
    2. (Hiphil) to flash forth light
  2. to praise, boast, be boastful
    1. (Qal)
      1. to be boastful
      2. boastful ones, boasters (participle)
    2. (Piel)
      1. to praise
      2. to boast, make a boast
    3. (Pual)
      1. to be praised, be made praiseworthy, be commended, be worthy of praise
    4. (Hithpael) to boast, glory, make one's boast
    5. (Poel) to make a fool of, make into a fool
    6. (Hithpoel) to act madly, act like a madman

Used for: NAS (165) - acted insanely, 1; arrogant, 1; boast, 9; boasted, 1; boastful, 3; boasts, 3; boasts boast, 1; deride, 1; drive madly, 1; flash forth, 2; give praise, 1; giving praise, 1; glory, 8; go mad, 1; going mad, 1; mad, 1; madness, 1; make its boast, 1; makes a mad, 1; makes fools, 1; making fools, 1; offers praises, 1; praise, 90; praised, 20; praises, 1; praising, 5; race madly, 1; renowned, 1; sang praises, 1; shone, 2; sing praises, 1; wedding songs, 1;

  1. to profane, defile, pollute, desecrate, begin
  2. (Niphal)
    1. to profane oneself, defile oneself, pollute oneself 1a
  3. ritually 1a
  4. sexually
    1. to be polluted, be defiled
  5. (Piel)
    1. to profane, make common, defile, pollute
    2. to violate the honour of, dishonour
    3. to violate (a covenant)
    4. to treat as common
  6. (Pual) to profane (name of God)
  7. (Hiphil)
    1. to let be profaned
    2. to begin
  8. (Hophal) to be begun
  9. to wound (fatally), bore through, pierce, bore
  10. (Qal) to pierce
  11. (Pual) to be slain
  12. (Poel) to wound, pierce
  13. (Poal) to be wounded
  14. (Piel) to play the flute or pipe

God abandoned Israel's Musical Idolatry sect to worship the STARRY HOST.

He ordained the assembly or "church in the wildernes" to REST, READ or REHEARSE. Loud singing was excluded. This was the synagogue or EKKLESIA for SPIRITUAL PEOPLE.

Later, God granted the KINGS to MAKE MERCHANDISE of the people and use the BOYS to make musical instruments and run before the ORIENTIAL POTENTATE'S CHARIOTS.

"The ritual observances at the Hebrew and at the a Canaanite sanctuary were so similar that to the mass of the people Jehovah worship and Baal worship were not separated by any well-marked line... A sacrifice was a public ceremony of a township or clan... Then the crowds streamed into the sanctuary from all sides, dressed in their gayest attire, marching joyfully to the sound of music, and bearing with them not only the victims appointed for sacrifice, but store of bread and wine set forth the feast...Universal hilarity prevailed." (Gurney, O.R., Some Aspects of Hittite Religion, Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 37).

Heylel (h1966) hay-lale'; from h1984 (in the sense of brightness); the morning-star: - lucifer.

Lucifer is identical to ZOE in many respects and SHE is engaged in trafficing and merchandising: the Temples were "houses of merchandise, den of thieves." Go thou and do likewise.

Merchandise is:

Rekullah (h7404) rek-ool-law'; fem. pass. part. of 7402; trade (as peddled): - merchandise, traffic.

Nophek (h5306) no'-fek; from an unused root mean. to glisten; shining; a gem, prob. the garnet: - emerald.

Thou hast BEEN in EDEN the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy TABRETS and of thy PIPES was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Ezekiel 28:13

By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane [cHalal] out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. Eze.28:16

As the king/queen of Babylon she was cast into Sheol with her harps and still breathing harpists. In Revelation 18, the PRESENT musicators work for the same HARLOT and perform SORCERY to decieve and MARKET your flesh. Hee Haw. "War is Hell: so help me I LOVE IT."

The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament, by Spiros Zodhiates, gives us a start:
“Strong’s #5331, pharmakeia, from pharmakon, a drug, which in the Gr. writers is used both for a curative or medicinal drug, and also as a poisonous one. Pharmakeia means the occult, sorcery, witchcraft, illicit pharmaceuticals, trance, magical incantation with drugs (Gal. 5:20; Rev. 9:21; 18:23; Sept.: Ex. 7:22; Is. 47:9, 12). (pp. 1437, 1438)

“Strong’s #5332, pharmakeus; gen. pharmakeos, from pharmakeuo, to administer a drug. An enchanter with drugs, a sorcerer ([i]Rev. 21:8 [TR]) (Ibid., p. 1438)

“Strong’s #5333, pharmakos, gen. pharmakou. A magician, sorcerer, enchanter (Rev. 21:8 [UBS]; 22:15; Sept.: Ex. 7:11; 9:11; Deut. 18:10; Dan. 2:2). The same as pharmakeus (5332). The noun pharmakeia (5331) means the preparing and giving of medicine, and in the NT, sorcery, enchantment.” (Ibid.)
Dem. 25 79  No; I am wrong. He has a brother, who is present here in court and who brought that precious action against him. What need to say anything about him? He is own brother to the defendant, born of the same father and mother, and, to add to his misfortunes, he is his twin. It was this brother—I pass over the other facts—who got possession of the drugs and charms from the servant of Theoris of Lemnos, the filthy sorceress whom you put to death on that account with all her family.
Theōr-is , idos, , II. pl.,= Bakkhai, Id., cf. Plb.30.25.12; of attendants of Apollo, Nonn.D.9.261.

pharma^k-is , idos, fem. of pharmakeus,
A. sorceress, witch, D.25.79, Arist.HA577a13, A. R.4.53:— as Adj., “gunē ph.Ar.Nu.749; irreg. Sup., “pharmakistotatai gunaikōnJ.AJ17.4.1, cf. Suid. s.v. Mēdeia.
II. fem. Adj., poisonous, venomous,sauraNic.Al.538.
“The word translated in the AV ‘witchcraft’ in Gal 5:20 (pharmakeia) is the ordinary Greek one for ‘sorcery,’ and is so rendered in the RV, though it means literally the act of administering drugs and then of magical potions. It naturally comes then to stand for the magician’s art, as in the present passage and also in . . . the LXX of Isa 47:9 . . . translated ‘sorceries’.” (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, James Orr, Ed., Vol. 5, p. 3097.)

Therefore hear now this, thou that art given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children: Isa 47:8

But these two things shall come to thee in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood: they shall come upon thee in their perfection for the multitude of thy sorceries, and for the great abundance of thine enchantments. Isa 47:9

In-canto , āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. and n. *
I.  To sing in, To consecrate with charms or spells: “incantata vincula,

mălĕfĭcĭum , ĭi, n. maleficus,
I. an evil deed, misdeed, wickedness, offence, crime.
2. Enchantment, sorcery, Tac. A. 2, 69 Orell. N. cr.; App. M. 9, p. 230, 24; 231, 28; cf. “magica,id. Mag. p. 278, 21; Schol. Juv. 6, 595.—
Tac. Ann. 2.69 The terrible intensity of the malady was increased by the belief that he had been poisoned by Piso. And certainly there were found hidden in the floor and in the walls disinterred remains of human bodies, incantations and spells, and the name of Germanicus inscribed on leaden tablets, half-burnt cinders smeared with blood, and other horrors by which in popular belief souls are devoted so the infernal deities.
dēvōtĭo  III. Sorcery, enchantment; and concr., a magical formula, incantation, spell, Suet. Calig. 3: “carmina et devotiones,

carmen , ĭnis, n. (old form cas-men , Varr. L. L. p. 86 Bip.) [Sanscr. çasto declaim, praise; cf.: camilla, censeo], I. a tune, song; poem, verse; an oracular response, a prophecy; a form of incantation
II. Esp., a composition in verse, a poem; poetry, verse, song, whether in a broader sense, of every kind of poetic production, epic, dramatic, lyric (opp. to prose and to cantus, the melody),

For thou hast trusted in thy wickedness: thou hast said, None seeth me. Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it hath perverted thee; and thou hast said in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me. Isa 47:10

Stand now with thine enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth; if so be thou shalt be able to profit, if so be thou mayest prevail. Isa 47:12

With regard to pharmakeiaBAGD 2nd Edition says, that in Rev 18:23 the meaning is “sorcery, magic”, and in Rev 9:21, “magic arts”. It also gives usages in many other classical and LXX readings, but for brevity I’ll limit it to the NT usage, and will in the following citations also.
Eph. 4:22 That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man,
        which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;
Phtheirō 3. corrupt, bribe, tina D.S.4.73; lure, entice, trap,kēmoisi plektois porphuras phtheirei genosS.Fr.504 (s. v. l.); “phtheirei gar pronoia tēn aboulianentices to its ruin, entraps   akouō se lurōdou gunaikos
b. seduce a woman, “hupo tēs thugatros adikoumenon kai Dionusiou tou phtheirantos autēn kinaidou” (Dog, Cynic, Catamite)pharmakōn
II b. with a Prep., phtheiresthai pros tous plousious, of hangers-on and flatterers, D.21.139, cf. Plu.Phoc.21, Eum. 14, Ant.24; “eis hēdonas apo . . ponōn” “phthora8), “poson khronon pontou 'pi nōtois halion ephtheirou planon;E.Hel.774;
planos 1. Act., leading astray, deceiving, p. kateseion edōdan the bait, Theoc.21.43, cf. AP7.702 (Apollonid.); p. dōra, agra, Mosch.1.29, Fr.1.10; “pneumata1 Ep.Ti.4.1.
III. of persons, planos, ho, vagabond, impostor, Nicostr.Com.24, Dionys.Com. 4, D.S.34/5.2.14, Ev.Matt.27.63.
1 Timothy 4.1 But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons,
CORRUPT includes Listening to a female Lyre Player
Lur-aoidos (or rather luraoidos Hdn.Gr.1.229), o(, h(, A. one who sings to the lyre, AP7.612 (Agath.), APl.4.279:—contr. lurōdos , AP6.118 (Antip.), Plu.Sull.33: Adj. -“ōdos harmoniaCallistr.Stat.7.
Surely speaking of those both/and churches who have lied, cheated and stolen the church house of widows planning to sow discord as he "unites" with the instrumentals---
Plut. Sull. 33 [2] He conducted the sales of confiscated estates in such arrogant and imperious fashion, from the tribunal where he sat,
        that his gifts excited more odium than his robberies.
        He bestowed on handsome women, musicians, comic actors,
        and the lowest of freedmen, the territories of nations
        and the revenues of cities, and women were married against their will
        to some of his favourites
Aōdos , o( (and in Paus.10.5.12, h(), contr. for aoidos,
A. singer,khrēsmōn” (A. oracular response, oracle) E.Heracl.488, meta Lesbion ōdon, prov. of a second-rate musician, Cratin.243, cf. Arist.Fr.545; “hoi tou Dionusou ō.Pl.Lg.812b; khorous tinas . . ōdous ib.800e; of cicadae,[Locust] “hoi huper kephalēs ō.Id.Phdr.262d, cf. AP6.54 (Paul.Sil.); “ton alektruona ton ōdon apopnixasa mouPl.Com.14D.; hupo ton ōdon ornitha about cockcrow,  
II. the cup passed round when a scolion was sung,
[the crooked generation]
Plat. Phaedrus 262d the two discourses contain an example of the way in which one who knows the truth may lead his hearers on with  words; and I, Phaedrus, think the divinities of the place are the cause thereof; and perhaps too, the prophets of the Muses, who are singing above our heads, may have granted this boon to us by inspiration; at any rate, I possess no art of speaking.

Mousa , ēs, , Aeol. Moisa
Mouso-ō , A. furnish with power of song, hosa phusis memousōke,
2. to be set to music, “ta di' ōdēs . . mousōthenta kroumataD.H.Dem.40, cf. Cat.Cod.Astr.8(3).188; to be filled with melody, “memousōtai ta peri tēn thalattan hup' ōdēs tōn petrōnPhilostr.Her.10.7.

A.  one who speaks for a god and interprets his will to man, Dios p. interpreter, expounder of the will of Zeus, of Tiresias, Pi.N.1.60; Bakkhou p., perh. of Orpheus, E.Rh.972; [Dionusou p., of the Bacchae, Id.Ba.551 (lyr.); Nēreōs p., of Glaucus, Id.Or.364; esp. of the Delphic Apollo, “Dios p. esti Loxias patrosA.Eu.19; of the minister and interpreter at Delphi, Hdt.8.36,37;
3.   interpreter, expounder of the utterances of the mantis (q.v.), Pl.Ti.72a: hence, of Poets, “Pieridōn p.Pi.Pae.6.6; “Mousan p.B.8.3, cf. Pl.Phdr.262d.
b. metaph., proclaimer, harbinger, kōmou prophatas, of the wine-bowl, Pi.N.9.50; “deipnou p. limosAntiph.217.23; “phthoēs p.Pl.Com.184.4; “tettix . . thereos glukus p.Anacreont.32.11.

The LOCUSTS in Revelation is the Musical Worship Team of Apollo, Abaddon, Apollyon

Tettix Plato calls them hoi Mousōn prophētai, Phdr.262d; but they also became a prov. for garrulity, “lalein tettixAristopho10.7: “t. polloi ginomenoi nosōdes to etos sēmainousiThphr.Sign.54. They were thought to sing continually without food or drink, Ar.Nu. 1360, Pl.Phdr.259c; or on a diet of air and dew,

sēmainō , Il.10.58, etc.; sa_mainō
3. of the Delphic oracle, “oute legei oute kruptei alla sēmaineiHeraclit.93; so of omens, X.Mem.1.1.2,
2. in war or battle, give the signal of attack, etc., Th.2.84, etc.; in full, “s. salpiggiAnd.1.45, X.An. 4.2.1,
II. provide with a sign or mark, seal, sēmainesthai bublō (sc. boun), i.e. by sealing a strip of byblus round his horn, Hdt.2.38, cf. Pl.Lg.954c, X.Cyr.8.2.17, Is. 7.1,2, Hyp.Ath.8:



The Eucharistic Presence from a BIBLICAL PERSPECTIVE  
                                    Fr. Abbot Denis

John 6:58 This is that bread which came down from heaven:
         not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever.

Deut. 8:1 All the commandments which I command thee this day
            shall ye observe to do, that ye may live, and multiply,
        and go in and possess the land which the LORD sware unto your fathers.

Deut. 8:2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness,
        to humble thee, and to prove thee, to know what was in thine heart,
        whether thou wouldest keep his commandments, or no.

And he humbled thee, and suffered thee to hunger,
fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know;
        that he might make thee know that
man doth not live by bread only,
        but by every
word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the Lord doth man live. Deut 8:3

John 6:62 What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?
John 6:63 It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing:
        the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.
SCRIPTURE CALLS IT THE LORD'S SUPPER: We Preach the Death of Jesus Christ. That means that we consider our flesh dead so that we can can do RATIONAL worship which is ONLY in the human spirit giving heed to the Words of Christ.

Kenneth Sublett
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